Scholarly article on topic 'Radical-scavenging activity, ACE-inhibiting capability and identification of rapeseed albumin hydrolysate'

Radical-scavenging activity, ACE-inhibiting capability and identification of rapeseed albumin hydrolysate Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

Share paper
Academic journal
Food Science and Human Wellness
OECD Field of science
{"Radical-scavenging activity" / "ACE-inhibiting capability" / "Rapeseed albumin hydrolysate (RAH)" / "Rapeseed peptide (RSP)" / "Mass spectrometry"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical sciences, author of scientific article — Wancong Yu, Jie Gao, Zhaohui Xue, Xiaohong Kou, Yifan Wang, et al.

Abstract Albumin derived from rapeseed was hydrolyzed sequentially using alcalase and flavorzyme to produce antioxidant peptides. To identify antioxidant peptides, rapeseed albumin hydrolysate (RAH) was fractionated using size exclusion chromatography (G-25). The antioxidant activity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity of rapeseed peptides (RSP) purified from RAH were evaluated. The results revealed that RSP-4 had the highest ABTS radical-scavenging activity (TEAC value=0.24) and ACE-inhibiting capacity (IC50 =0.19mg/mL) compared to other fractions. Moreover, RSP-4 was identified as PFDSYFVC (977 D) by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

Academic research paper on topic "Radical-scavenging activity, ACE-inhibiting capability and identification of rapeseed albumin hydrolysate"

Available online at

SciVerse ScienceDirect

Food Science and Human Wellness 2 (2013) 93-98

Radical-scavenging activity, ACE-inhibiting capability and identification of

rapeseed albumin hydrolysate

Wancong Yu a, Jie Gaob, Zhaohui Xueb'*, Xiaohong Koub, Yifan Wangb, Lijuan Zhaib

a Tianjin Research Center of Agricultural Biotechnology, Tianjin 300384, China b School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

Received 20 March 2013; received in revised form 25 April 2013; accepted 22 May 2013


Albumin derived from rapeseed was hydrolyzed sequentially using alcalase and flavorzyme to produce antioxidant peptides. To identify antioxidant peptides, rapeseed albumin hydrolysate (RAH) was fractionated using size exclusion chromatography (G-25). The antioxidant activity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity of rapeseed peptides (RSP) purified from RAH were evaluated. The results revealed that RSP-4 had the highest ABTS radical-scavenging activity (TEAC value = 0.24) and ACE-inhibiting capacity (IC50 = 0.19mg/mL) compared to other fractions. Moreover, RSP-4 was identified as PFDSYFVC (977 D) by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

© 2013 Beijing Academy of Food Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Radical-scavenging activity; ACE-inhibiting capability; Rapeseed albumin hydrolysate (RAH); Rapeseed peptide (RSP); Mass spectrometry

1. Introduction

The quality of food products can be affected by lipid peroxidation, which can result in alterations in flavor, texture, color, or nutritive value, or cause potentially toxic reactions in the food during processing and storage. Antioxidant peptides, a class of safe and widely distributed natural antioxidants, have been derived from different protein resources such as porcine plasma [1], jellyfish [2], rice endosperm [3] and algae [4], and can be used to prevent or delay food deterioration and extend the halflife time of foods. In addition to inhibiting lipid peroxidation and the formation of free radicals, antioxidant peptides also exhibit typical characteristics of natural antioxidants compared with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which have potential side effects. The antioxidant properties of these hydrolysates, such

* Corresponding author at: School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, China. Tel.: +86 22 27400291; fax: +86 22 83727262.

E-mail address: (Z. Xue). Peer review under responsibility of Beijing Academy of Food Sciences.

2213-4530 © 2013 Beijing Academy of Food Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

as free radical-scavenging activity and metal ion chelation, have been ascribed to the cooperative effects of multiple properties [5].

Another important application of these natural polypeptides is antihypertensive treatment. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting up to 30% of the adult population around the world [6]. It is known that the balance between the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the Kallikrein-Kinin system (KKS) plays a significant role in the regulation of water, electrolytes and blood in organisms [7], as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) can participate in the regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Currently, different ACE inhibitors such as enalapril and captopril for antihypertensive therapy have been synthesized. However, these synthesized inhibitors could result in a number of undesirable side effects, such as cough, loss of taste, renal impairment, and angioneurotic edema [8]. Therefore, natural ACE inhibitors have gained more and more attention, and antihypertensive activities of natural ACE inhibitors from several protein hydrolysates such as casein [9], whey [10], fish [11,12] and algae [13] have already been identified.

As one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, rapeseed is increasingly becoming a major crop worldwide. According to FAO requirements, rapeseed not only has well-balanced compositions of amino acids, but also is rich in lysine, which is correspondingly limited in legumes and cereals. Therefore, it can be considered an excellent source of protein for humans [14]. Meanwhile, rapeseed protein hydrolysates (RPH) as a source of bioactive peptides as well as. The solubility,

oil-holding capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsifying capacity, and emulsion stability of rapeseed peptides (RSP) have been systematically explored [15,16]. Moreover, RSP has also been reported to have the bioactive functions such as HIV inhibition [17], insulin resistance inhibition [18] and antioxidant activity [19]. Since the functional properties of peptides are highly associated with amino acid sequences and spatial structures, the identification of molecular structure and mass weight using mass spectrometry is extremely desired [20].

In order to uncover the potential bioactivities of RSP, ABTS radical-scavenging activity and ACE inhibitory capacity of RSP have been evaluated in the present study. Moreover, the molecular mass and amino acid sequence of RSP-4 (the forth rapeseed peptide fraction) were measured using electrospray ioniza-tion (ESI) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). They might provide a reasonable explanation for the structure-activity relationship of RSP-4, and a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of bioactive peptides.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Materials

Rapeseed was kindly provided as the gift from Huazhong Agricultural University. Sephadex G-25, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ACE and Hip-His-Leu (HHL) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., USA. Alcalase and flavorzyme were purchased from Novo Co., Denmark. Lotensin was purchased from Novartis Co., China. All other reagents used for the experiments were of analytical grade.

2.2. Preparation of RAH

RAH was produced according to the method described previously [21]. Rapeseed flour 100 g was stirred for 1 h at room temperature in 1000 mL distilled water. The resultant slurry was centrifuged at 2200 x g for 10 min and the supernatant was collected. The residue was extracted with 500 mL of distilled water for 1 h and separated as mentioned previously. Supernatants were pooled, and the pH was adjusted by 1.0 mol/L HCl to pH 4, where most of the proteins were precipitated. The precipitate was rapeseed albumin, and removed by centrifugation at 4000 x g for 15 min and then lyophilized and stored at -30 °C. Rapeseed albumin was then resuspended in distilled water as 4.87g/100mL and the alcalase-substrate ratio was adjusted to 0.38 AU enzyme/g under optimal conditions of 50 °C, 1 h, and pH 8.0. Proteins were withdrawn at 1 h of hydrolysis, and the pH was adjusted to 7.0 followed by the addition of flavorzyme at 50LAPU/g ([E]/[S]). The sample was hydrolyzed for 2h at pH 7.0, which was adjusted with 1 mol/L NaOH. The hydrolysate was subsequently transferred to a water bath at 80 °C for 10 min to inactivate the enzyme. After cooling, the supernatant was harvested by centrifugation at 2200 x g for 10 min. The supernatant was then lyophilized and used as the RAH.

2.3. Preparation of RSP

RAH was purified on a Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (1.6 cm x 50 cm) and eluted with distilled water at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The eluted fractions were pooled after spectro-photometric measurement at 280 nm. The respective fractions were named as RSP-separation, pooled and lyophilized.

2.4. ABTS radical-scavenging activity

The free radical-scavenging activity was measured according to the method described previously [22]. The reaction mixtures were reacted for 6 min by mixing 1 mL of sample and 2 mL of ABTS free radical solution diluted with PBS, and the initial absorbance at 734 nm was almost 0.7. The absorbance of the resultant solution was recorded at 734 nm. A lower absorbance indicated a higher ABTS radical-scavenging activity.

The scavenging activity was expressed as the following Eq. (1):

A. control A sample

Scavenging activity (%) =-— x 100 (1)


Where Acontrol is the absorbance of the ABTS radical without any protein hydrolysates.

The antioxidant ability of the sample to scavenge ABTS free radicals was then expressed as a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value using the formula (2):

= ICs°- lidox (2)

IC50, sample

2.5. ACE inhibitory activity

The ACE inhibitory activity was measured according to the method from Cushman and Cheung [23] with minor modifications. Totally 100 ^L of each sample was mixed with 100 ^L of 5 mmol/L HHL dissolved in 0.5 mol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 8.3, containing 0.3 mol/L NaCl). After pre-incubating at 37 °C for 4 min, the mixture was incubated with 10 ^L of 10mg/mL ACE solution for 30 min at the same temperature. The reaction was terminated by adding 200 ^L of 1 mol/L HCl. The hippuric acid liberated by ACE was extracted by ethyl acetate and determined directly at 228 nm. The IC50 value represents the concentration of ACE inhibitor at the reduction of 50%. Lotensin, a commonly used antihypertensive drug, was also tested as the positive control.

The inhibitory rate of ACE activity was calculated as the following Eq. (3):

A0 - Ac

The inhibitory rate of ACE activity (%) =-x 100

where A0 represents the absorbance of the sample and Ac represents the absorbance of the control.

Fig. 1. Elution profile of RSP fractions separated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 column. The column (1.6 cm x 50 cm) was equilibrated and eluted with distilled water at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min at the wavelength of 280 nm. 4 peptide fractions (RSP-1, RSP-2, RSP-3 and RSP-4) were harvested according to molecular sizes.

Fig. 2. ABTS radical-scavenging activity of RSP and its fractions. RSP-1, RSP-2, RSP-3 and RSP-4 were four major fractions that was obtained and lyophilized from RSP by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 column.

2.6. Identification of peptide

The molecular weight of RSP-4 was determined by electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with a positive ion detection mode (Finnigan LCQ Advantage Max, USA). The molecular sequencing was analyzed with tandem mass spec-trometry (MS/MS).

2.7. Database analysis

All MS/MS spectra were initially subjected to analysis with the SALSA algorithm (Bioworks 3.3 version, Thermo Finnigan), a tool for identifying MS/MS spectra with user-defined parameters. Afterwards, a rapeseed database was used to search and identify the sequences of the peptides (Bioworks 3.3 version, Thermo Finnigan).

2.8. Statistical analysis

All tests were performed in triplicate and the data were expressed as M±SD. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple-range post hoc test, and a significant difference was considered at P < 0.05.

3. Results

3.1. RSP fractionation

The final RAH obtained by sequential enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and flavorzyme was injected into a G-25 gel filtration column (Fig. 1). RSP was characterized by a profile with separated peaks, suggesting the present peptides were quite heterogeneous in size. Four major fractions named as RSP-1, RSP-2, RSP-3, and RSP-4 were obtained and lyophilized for further studies.

3.2. ABTS radical-scavenging activity

ABTS is a stable organic free radical, which can directly reflect the scavenging ability of a sample by measuring the changes in absorbance [24]. Fig. 2 shows the ABTS radical-scavenging activity of RSP and each fraction. The scavenging rate of ABTS was enhanced at the improved concentration of RSP. The TEAC values of RSP and each fraction (RSP-1, RSP-2, RSP-3, or RSP-4) were 0.168, 0.186, 0.140,0.120 and 0.240, respectively. Among these fractions, RSP-4 exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity, suggesting that RSP-4 has a high antioxidant capacity and could be used as an important resource during the development of functional foods.

3.3. ACE inhibitory activity

ACE catalyze the cleavage of the C-terminal dipeptide from the vasodilator bradykinin, to promote angio-activity and consequently increase blood pressure [25]. ACE inhibitory peptides are considered to be useful for preventing hypertension. Fig. 3 revealed that the ACE inhibitory activity of RSP (66.59%) was

120 " 100 "

¥ 80 -p

& 60 -o

r2 40 " * 20 " 0 L


Fig. 3. Inhibition of ACE activity by the RSP and its fractions. RSP-1, RSP-2, RSP-3 and RSP-4 at the concentration of 1 mg/mL were four major fractions that were obtained and lyophilized from RSP by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25.

lower than that of RSP-4 (97.05%) at 1 mg/mL, suggesting that bioactive components were extracted during the separation process of RSP. The inhibitory efficiency of 60 ng/mL lotensin was 91.15%. The ACE inhibitory capability of RSP-4 at various concentrations was also investigated in the present study. When the concentration of RSP-4 was increased to 1.00 mg/mL, the ACE inhibitory activity was 97.05% (Fig. 4), indicating that RSP-4 was a strong ACE inhibitor (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL).

Fig. 4. Inhibition of ACE activity by RSP-4.

Fig. 5. Identification of amino acid sequence of RSP-4. (a) RPLC-PDA chromatogram of RSP-4. The resultant chromatograms had a major peak with retention time of 21.99 min as consistent with the target peptide and several small peaks from unidentified substances. (b) The ESI/MS and MS/MS spectrum of RSP-4 separated from ultra performance liquid chromatography.

3.4. Identification ofRSP-4

To elucidate the relationship between the bioactivity and structure of RSP-4, the molecular mass and sequence of RSP-4 were determined. Most food protein-derived peptides with bioactivities have relatively low molecular mass, generally less than 1500 D. The ESI/MS spectrum of a single positively charged ion with an m/z of 978 was shown in Fig. 5(b), indicating the molecular mass of 977 D. Based on this molecular mass and MS/MS database search, the amino acid sequence of RSP-4 was deduced to be PFDSYFVC. According to our previous studies (data not shown), RSP-4 was rich in Asp, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Pro, which are consistent with the results from mass spectrometric analysis.

4. Discussion

The radical-scavenging capability of RSP is associated with the substrate as the electron donor that can react with free radicals to generate more stable products and terminate the radical chain reaction [26]. Aromatic amino acids including Tyr and Phe can be regarded as the direct radical scavenger. Tyr at the C-terminus of tripeptides reveals the highest antioxidant activity, but very weak peroxynitrite-scavenging activity [27]. Phe plays an important role in the radical-scavenging activity due to its proton donation and stability in a resonance structure [28-30]. Phe has been reported to have strong peroxidation inhibition by increasing the solubility of peptides in lipids [31,32]. Leu is especially effective for inhibiting the oxidation of fatty acids tested in a linoleic acid model system [33]. Asp has reported to interact with metal ions due to the negatively charged properties, thus inactivating the pro-oxidant activity of metal ions [34].

The polypeptide structure also reveals the limitation to the activity of these amino acid residues [35]. Pro-His-His has been identified as the active center [36] and antioxidant pep-tides derived from marine fish, bovine skin and Hoki fish skin contain Gly-Pro [37], which may contribute to the activity. Our hypothesis is that higher hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity may be due to these structures.

ACE is a metal-peptide enzyme containing two binding sites of Zn2+. A common method used for a variety of antihyper-tensive peptides (including ACE inhibitors) is the incubation between Zn2+ and ACE for the inactivation of ACE. The functions of an ACE inhibitory peptide are also correlated with its own spatial structure and amino acid compositions. The structure-activity relationship of naturally occurring ACE inhibitory peptides have indicated that the bioactivity of these ACE inhibitory peptides are resulted from Pro or aromatic amino acid residues [38]. The presence of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or proline at the C-terminus offers tripeptides or dipeptides a higher potency of inhibitory activity [39]. N-terminal amino acids with long-chain or hydrophobic can provide peptides strong inhibitory activity [40,41], while Phe, Asn, Ser, or Gly at the N-terminus can mitigate the activity. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic property of the peptide is also a critical factor affecting its inhibitory activity [42]. Hydrophobic amino acids in ACE

inhibitory peptides are proficient at the entrance of the active center sites so that hydrophilic amino acids can reduce the activity. The molecular electrostatic potentials of ACE inhibitory pep-tides are significantly different from those of inactive peptides, although a similar positive potential is existed in the same region at the C-terminal end [43].

5. Conclusion

RSP can be obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed protein, and can be fractionated into four fractions with various molecular masses by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-25 column. Fraction RSP-4 revealed the highest ABTS radical-scavenging activity and ACE-inhibiting capacity. Meanwhile, the amino acid sequence of RSP-4 was identified as PFDSYFVC, with a molecular mass of 977 D. Based on these studies, RSP has high potential to develop as a valuable antiox-idant peptide for food additives. However, further structural analysis of RAH still needs to be conducted.


This work was finically supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 30800767 and 31271979), and the Opening Foundation of Large-scale Equipment in Tian-jin University.


[1] X. Xu, R. Cao, L. He, et al., Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates derived from porcine plasma, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89 (11) (2009) 1897-1903.

[2] Y. Zhuang, X. Zhao, B. Li, Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysate of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen, Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B 10 (8) (2009) 572-579.

[3] J. Zhang, H. Zhang, L. Wang, et al., Antioxidant activities of the rice endosperm protein hydrolysate: identification of the active peptide, European Food Research and Technology 229 (4) (2009) 709-719.

[4] I. Sheih, T. Wu, T. Fang, Antioxidant properties of a new antioxidative peptide from algae protein waste hydrolysate in different oxidation systems, Bioresource Technology 100 (13) (2009) 3419-3425.

[5] A. Moure, H. Dominguez, J. Parajo, Antioxidant properties of ultrafiltration-recovered soy protein fractions from industrial effluents and their hydrolysates, Process Biochemistry 41 (2) (2006) 447-456.

[6] Z.Y. Chen, C. Peng, R. Jiao, et al., Anti-hypertensive nutraceuticals and functional foods, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (10) (2009) 4485-4499.

[7] J. Rosenthal, Role of renal and extrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the mechanism of arterial-hypertension and its sequelae, Steroids 58 (12) (1993) 566-572.

[8] T. Antonios, G. Macgregor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors in hypertension-potential problems, Journal of Hypertension 13 (1) (1995) 11-16.

[9] X. Zhao, Y. Li, An approach to improve ACE-inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysates with plastein reaction catalyzed by alcalase, European Food Research and Technology 229 (5) (2009) 795-805.

[10] J.E. Ahn, S.Y. Park, A. Atwal, et al., Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from whey fermented by lactobacillus species, Journal of Food Biochemistry 33 (4) (2009) 587-602.

[11] S. Raghavan, H. Kristinsson, ACE-inhibitory activity of tilapia protein hydrolysates, Food Chemistry 117 (4) (2009) 582-588.

[12] F. Zhang, Z. Wang, S. Xu, Macroporous resin purification of grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idella) scale peptides with in vitro angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory ability, Food Chemistry 117 (3) (2009) 387-392.

[13] I. Sheih, T. Fang, T. Wu, Isolation and characterisation of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from the algae protein waste, Food Chemistry 115 (1) (2009) 279-284.

[14] J. Vioque, R. Sanchez-Vioque, A. Clemente, et al., Production and characterization of an extensive rapeseed protein hydrolysate, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 76 (7) (1999) 819-823.

[15] Y. Yoshie-Stark, Y. Wada, A. Wasche, Chemical composition, functional properties, and bioactivitie of rapeseed protein isolates, Food Chemistry 107 (1) (2008) 32-39.

[16] G. Chabanon, I. Chevalot, X. Framboisier, et al., Hydrolysis of rape-seed protein isolates: kinetics, characterization and functional properties of hydrolysates, Process Biochemistry 42 (10) (2007) 1419-1428.

[17] M. Yust, J. Pedroche, C. Megiias, et al., Rapeseed protein hydrolysates: a source of HIV protease peptide inhibitors, Food Chemistry 87 (3) (2004) 387-392.

[18] F. Mariotti, D. Hermier, C. Sarrat, et al., Rapeseed protein inhibits the initiation of insulin resistance by a high-saturated fat, high-sucrose diet in rats, British Journal of Nutrition 100 (5) (2008) 984-991.

[19] H. Salminen, M. Estevez, R. Kivikari, et al., Inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation by rapeseed, camelin and soy meal in cooked pork meat patties, European Food Research and Technology 223 (4) (2006) 461-468.

[20] B. Li, F. Chen, X. Wang, et al., Isolation and identification of antioxidative peptides from porcine collagen hydrolysate by consecutive chromatogra-phy and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, Food Chemistry 102 (4) (2007) 1135-1143.

[21] Z. Xue, W. Yu, Z. Liu, et al., Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed (Brassica napus) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (12) (2009) 5287-5293.

[22] I. Lee, B. Yun, Highly oxygenated and unsaturated metabolites providing a diversity of hispidin class antioxidants in the medicina mushrooms Inonotus and Phellinus, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 15(10) (2007) 3309-3314.

[23] D. Cushman, H. Cheung, Spectrophotometric assay and properties of angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung, Biochemical Pharmacology 20 (7) (1971) 1637-1648.

[24] B.W. Lee, J.H. Lee, S.W. Gal, et al., Selective ABTS radical-scavenging activity of prenylated flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata, Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 70 (2) (2006) 427-432.

[25] R. Gansevoort, D. Dezeeuw, P. Dejong, The antiproteinuric effect of ACE-inhibition mediated by interference in the renin-angiotensin system, Kidney International 45 (3) (1994) 861-867.

[26] I. Amadou, G. Le, Y. Shi, et al., Reducing, radical scavenging, and chelation properties of fermented soy protein meal hydrolysate by Lactobacillus plantarum LP6, International Journal of Food Properties 14 (3) (2011) 654-665.

[27] K. Saito, D.H. Jin, T. Ogawa, et al., Antioxidative properties of tripeptide libraries prepared by the combinatorial chemistry, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (12) (2003) 3668-3674.

[28] N. Rajapakse, E. Mendis, W.K. Jung, et al., Purification of a radical scavenging peptide from fermented mussel sauce and its antioxidant properties, Food Research International 38 (2) (2005) 175-182.

[29] A. Dávalos, M. Miquel, B. Bartolomé, et al., Antioxidant activity of peptides derived from egg white proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis, Journal of Food Protection 67 (9) (2004) 1939-1944.

[30] B. Hernández-Ledesma, A. Dávalos, B. Bartolomé, et al., Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Identification of active peptides by HPLC-MS/MS, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (3) (2005) 588-593.

[31] W.G. Kim, J.P. Kim, C.J. Kim, et al., Benzastatins A, B, C, and D: new free radical scavengers from Streptomyces nitrosporeus 30643.1. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities, Journal of Antibiotics 49 (1) (1996) 20-25.

[32] H. Zhang, F. Chen, X. Wang, et al., Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents, Food Research International 39 (8) (2006) 833-839.

[33] R. Marcuse, The effect of some amino acids on the oxidation of linoleic acid and its methyl ester, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 39 (2) (1962) 97-103.

[34] C. Lu, R. Baker, Characteristics of egg-yolk phoscitin as an antioxidant for inhibiting metal-catalyzed phospholipid oxidations, Poultry Science 65 (11) (1986) 2065-2070.

[35] R. Elias, S. Kellerby, E. Decker, Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48 (5) (2008) 430-441.

[36] H. Chen, K. Muramoto, F. Yamauchi, et al., Antioxidant activity of designed peptides based on the antioxidative peptide isolated from digests of a soybean protein, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 44 (9) (1996) 2619-2623.

[37] S. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Byun, et al., Purification and characterization of antiox-idative peptides from bovine skin, Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (3) (2001) 219-224.

[38] K. Suetsuna, T. Nakano, Identification of an antihypertensive peptide from peptic digest of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11 (9) (2000) 450-454.

[39] M. Ondetti, D. Cushman, Enzymes of the renin-angiotensin system and their inhibitors, Annual Review of Biochemistry 51 (2) (1982) 283-308.

[40] H. Byun, S. Kim, Structure and activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from Alaskan pollack skin, Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 35 (2) (2002) 239-243.

[41] H. Cheung, F. Wang, M.A. Ondetti, et al., Binding of peptide substrate and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme: importance of the COOH-terminal dipeptides sequence, Journal of Biological Chemistry 255 (2) (1980) 401-407.

[42] M. Kohmura, N. Nio, Y. Ariyoshi, Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme by synthetic peptides of human ^-casein, Agricultural Biology and Chemistry 53 (8) (1989) 2107-2114.

[43] H. Meisel, Biochemical properties of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins: potential nutraceuticals for food and pharmaceutical applications, Livestock Production Science 50 (1/2) (1999) 125-138.