Scholarly article on topic 'Comparative dictation mistakes and academic achievement of bilingual (Arabic-Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students'

Comparative dictation mistakes and academic achievement of bilingual (Arabic-Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Dictation mistakes" / "Academic achievement" / "Bilingual (Arabic – Persian) students" / "Monolingual (Persian) students"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Kosar Bereyhi, Mahnaz Estaki, Hassan Ashayeri

Abstract The present research was conducted with the purpose of comparing academic achievement with classification of dictation mistakes of bilingual (Arabic – Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students and frequency distribution of their mistakes and comparing these groups with each other. For this purpose, using multiple cluster random sampling method, a sample including 200 students in the city of Ahvaz, 100 monolinguals (50 girls – 50 boys) and 100 bilinguals (50 girls – 50 boys), was selected. In order to collect data, a 40-word dictation was prepared by the researcher with the cooperation of experienced teachers of the schools and total grades of each student in the courses: dictation, sciences, mathematics and Persian, were calculated. Descriptive statistic methods (table and diagram) and inferential statistic methods (chi-square test, t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)) were used to analyze collected data. The results indicate that academic achievement of bilingual students is lower than monolingual students and in grand total frequencies, dictation of bilingual students has the most mistakes, and the most mistakes of bilingual students is relevant to the accuracy, educational errors and audio sensitivity, and the least mistakes are relevant to dyslexia and visual successive memory. For monolingual students, the most mistakes are visual memory and accuracy and the least mistakes are dysgraphia.

Academic research paper on topic "Comparative dictation mistakes and academic achievement of bilingual (Arabic-Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 1652 - 1656 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

WCPCG - 2011

Comparative dictation mistakes and academic achievement of bilingual (Arabic-Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students

Kosar Bereyhia, Mahnaz Estakib, Hassan Ashayeric *

a,b Azad university of Tehran Central Branch,c University well-being of Science & Rehabilitation ,a'b'c Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The present research was conducted with the purpose of comparing academic achievement with classification of dictation mistakes of bilingual (Arabic - Persian) and monolingual (Persian) students and frequency distribution of their mistakes and comparing these groups with each other. For this purpose, using multiple cluster random sampling method, a sample including 200 students in the city of Ahvaz, 100 monolinguals (50 girls - 50 boys) and 100 bilinguals (50 girls - 50 boys), was selected. In order to collect data, a 40-word dictation was prepared by the researcher with the cooperation of experienced teachers of the schools and total grades of each student in the courses: dictation, sciences, mathematics and Persian, were calculated. Descriptive statistic methods (table and diagram) and inferential statistic methods (chi-square test, t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)) were used to analyze collected data. The results indicate that academic achievement of bilingual students is lower than monolingual students and in grand total frequencies, dictation of bilingual students has the most mistakes, and the most mistakes of bilingual students is relevant to the accuracy, educational errors and audio sensitivity, and the least mistakes are relevant to dyslexia and visual successive memory. For monolingual students, the most mistakes are visual memory and accuracy and the least mistakes are dysgraphia.

Keywords: dictation mistakes; academic achievement; bilingual (Arabic - Persian) students; monolingual (Persian) students

1. Introduction

Nowadays, there are some countries in the world in which there are tow or more popular languages but only one of those languages is accepted as common or official language and education is only based on that official language.Iran is one of the countries in which there a bilingual phenomenon. Bilingual children contact with others according to the patterns of their mother tongue. (Nilipoor 2010, Angaji and Torkaman 1999)

Bilingualism has been defined from different aspects which fluctuates from absolute, synchronic, alternative and professional application of two languages to a little knowledge of the second language.(Angji 1999, Nilipoor 1990, Khanzadeh 1991)

Methods of being a bilingualism

1. Natural method: In this situation a person lives in a bilingual family or society from the birth or during his growth and makes use of two languages without any official training.

* Kosar Bereyhi

E-mail address: kosar.bereyhi@gmail.com;kbereyhi@yahoo.com

ELSEVIER

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology,

Counselling and Guidance.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.320

KosarBsaeyBe rt aL / Procedia - Social cmdBehavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 1652 - 1656

2. Training method: Official training of a second of foreign language leads to bilingualism.

3. Automatic Acquiring: Automatic acquiring of a second language after childhood.

4. Academic learning: Academic learning in one's own country. This is the most popular way of learning a foreign language. (Fatemeh Islamieh 2008)

But childhood bilingualism in Iran is commonly of home and school bilingualism in which Persian (Farsi) language plays an important educational and cultural role. (Khanzadie 1992)

One of the most important aspect of learning written language is the ability of writing letter chains correctly and in other word spelling of a language word which is specially important in first stage of learning language written system. Making correct spelling of the words also seems important in language psychology like a part of producing written language. (Ceristal 2003, Very and Modvel 1995)

Identifying errors and special system of which errors follow, we can understand the way of learning spelling skill and its development in a child which this is very important in cognitive science. In one hand we can differenciate between children's errors and errors come from learning problems with elaborating spelling errors of bilingual children in each stage of education.

Researches about educational development and spelling errors are divided in two categories:

1. Theoretical researches: Most theoretical, General outcome of these researches is that there is not a one to one correspondence between written form and language phones (either in Arabic and Persian)

2. Descriptive field researches: Researches that have been done in Iran are of this kind .

Current research is of descriptive field researches in which we try to investigate educational development and the effect of language and sex interaction on educational development and also frequency distribution of spelling errors in both of bilingual and monolingual groups and identifying that which factor (language overlap , inter-language error, intra-language error , vague error) leads to the most error in bilingual children.

Based on that, the main hypothesis of the research : There is a statistical meaningful difference between spelling error and educational development in bilingual Arabic-Persian students and Persian language monolingual students of third grade in Ahwaz city .

Minor hypothesizes include following: There is a meaningful difference between...

1. The amount of spelling error in female monolingual and bilingual students .

2. The amount of spelling error in male monolingual and bilingual students .

3. The amount of spelling error in monolingual and bilingual students .

4. Male monolingual and bilingual in main score of educational development .

5. Female monolingual and bilingual in main score of educational development .

6. Monolingual and bilingual students in main score of educational development

2. Method

Studied society of this research includes bilingual Arabic-Persian language students and Persian language students between the age of 8-9 years, third grade of Ahwaz city , zone 3 , and there were 200 subjects. Selecting the samples was via multistage cluster random method from different educational zone of Ahwaz city regarding following measures:

a. Intelligence: According to the results of children's Rayven test , they all have normal IQ .

b. Mother tongue: Bilingual students, their mother tongue was Arabic and their second language was Persian.

c. Age: They all were 8-9 years .

d. Sex: There were the same number of both sex in each group.

Researcher prepared the text of spelling , referring to the books of third grade in elementary school and using of the book of curing disorders in spelling compiled by Tabrizie , and the spelling text included 40 words. In preparing context it has been tried to make use of words and sentences that are able identify existed errors in spellings . Types

KosarBcrcyhi et al / Procedia - Social andBehavioralSciences30(2011) 1652 - 1656

of errors which have been investigated by these spelling included: errors related to visual memory, hearing sensitivity, accuracy, educational, hearing memory. Errors related to reverse writing and identical writing have not been investigated , because these errors are for first grade of elementary school and is very rare in higher grades .

Average score of students in both groups of monolingual and bilingual were collected from their schools and were used in educational development comparing. This average score was collected by adding up the scores of each student in mathematics , science , spelling and Persian language(including grammar and reading) and has been used .

Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics in such a way that for determining the amount of errors , a frequency table was used and for comparing the groups a chart was used .Also it was analyzed inferential statistics which was via X2 test , t test and two way variance analysis (ANOUA) methods , which was analyzed by spss software .

3. Results

It made use of tables to describe errors frequency and comparing groups.

Table ) . spelling error main frequency of bilingual and monolingual students

Types of spelling errors Monolingual Students percent Bilingual Students Percent Total

Visual Memory 11 % 47.8 12 % 52.2 23~~

Hearing Sensitivity 12 % 44 17 % 55 29

Training Error 17 % 42.5 23 % 57.5 40

Accuracy 18 % 40 27 % 60 45

Hearing Memory 6 % 44 8 % 55 14

Successive Visual Memory 5 % 50 5 %50 10

Inaccurate Writing 2 % 15 13 % 84 15

Table 2 . Spelling error frequency in monolingual and bilingual male student

Types of spelling errors Monolingual Students Percent Bilingual Students Percent Total

Visual Memory 5 % 71.4 2 % 28.6 7

Hearing Sensitivity 8 % 44.4 10 % 55.6 18

Training Error 9 % 40.9 13 % 59.1 22

Accuracy 5 % 25 15 %75 20

Hearing Memory 4 % 57.1 3 % 42.9 7

Successive Visual Memory 3 % 42.9 4 % 57.1 7

Inaccurate Writing 2 % 20 8 % 80 10

Toblc 3 . dpcllicg caaea facqucccy ic mecelicguol ocP bilicguol molc stuPacts

Types of spelling errors Monolingual Studets Percent Bilingual Students Percent Total

Visual Memory 6 % 37.5 10 % 62.5 16

Hearing Sensitivity 4 % 36.4 7 % 63.6 11

Training Error 8 % 44.4 10 % 55.6 18

Accuracy 13 % 52 12 % 48 25

Hearing Memory 2 % 28.6 5 % 71.4 7

Successive Visual Memory 2 % 66.7 1 % 33.3 3

Inaccurate Writing_0_%_0_5_% 10_5_

According to tables we see that most of bilingual children were related to

Male: accuracy and training error and the least spelling errors were related to visual memory.

Female: visual memory, accuracy and training error and the least spelling errors are related to successive visual memory.

KosarBereyhi et al. / Procedia - Social cmdBehavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 1652 - 1656

All children-, hearing sensitivity, accuracy and training error and the least spelling errors were related to successive visual memory.

Investigating of Minor hypothesises:

Hypothesis number ): X2 was used. By considering the obtained frequency ,calculated X2 is 1.98. Which is less than X2 of table (3.84) with freedom degree 1 and meaningful level 0.05 . So there is not a meaningful difference in spelling errors between monolingual and bilingual female students .

Hypothesis number2: X2 test was used. By considering the obtained frequency, calculated X2 equals 3.96. Which is more than X2 of table (3.84) with freedom degree 1 and meaningful level 0.05 . In other word there is a meaningful difference in spelling errors between monolingual and bilingual male students .

Hypothesis number 3: X2 test was used. By considering the obtained frequency, calculated X2 equals 5.8.Which is more than X2 of table (3.84) with freedom degree 1 and meaningful level 0.05 . It means that there is a meaningful difference in spelling errors between monolingual and bilingual students .

Hypothesis number 4: t test was used. By considering the obtained frequency, calculated t is equal to 4.09 which is more than t in table , equal to 2.36 , with freedom degree of 98 and meaningful level of 0.01 . So educational development of monolingual male students is higher than educational development of bilingual male students .

Hypothesis number 5: t test was used. By considering the obtained frequency, calculated t is equal to 3.79 which is more than t in table , equal to 2.36 , with freedom degree of 98 and meaningful level of 0.01 . So educational development of monolingual female students is higher than educational development of bilingual female students

.Hypothesis number 6: tow way variance (ANOVA) was used . that bilingualism and monolingualism factor has an effect on educational development.

Also calculated variance about sex - sex factor can't be an effective factor on educational score. Also about interaction of sex and language , calculated variance - Therefore interaction of sex and language does not have any effect on educational development.

4. Discussion

Results summery shows that monolingual students have higher educational development than bilingual students and spelling errors have lower frequency in monolingual students comparing to bilingual ones , which may caused by this factor that Arabic-Persian bilingual students have started their first official training at first grade of elementary school and before starting official training of Persian language , they speak their mother tongue all the time . There is another important point that these students use their mother tongue in all the times except in school and in the classroom which take a little time in a day . There is also more important point that spelling errors are caused by interference of the first language . It is true that all the errors of Arabic-Persian bilingual students can't be just the interference of first language but this factor is so important that affects all other errors . Also most of spelling errors of these bilingual students caused by excessive generalization of ordering rules of mother tongue to second language which causes even changing the form of a word , but the meaning of the word confirms to second language. Another point which one must notice is Persian teaching method to Arabic-Persian bilingual children . At most of the time using improper methods training aid stuff and improper method caused that these bilingual students specially those who have not passed pre-school course , have some problems until upper grades in school and it has some effects on learning other lessons in these students , which it can be a reason for this kind of difference in educational development between monolingual and bilingual students . Another point is Arabic language which is a difficult language and has difficult rules in grammar and many phones which is the same to Persian in some phones . Sometimes we notice some points in spelling which may be the outcome of incorrect hearing or caused by Arabic language phones and probably is the result of acoustic differences between two languages .

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