Scholarly article on topic 'Tourist Evaluation of Religious Buildings in Montenegro'

Tourist Evaluation of Religious Buildings in Montenegro Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Academic research paper on topic "Tourist Evaluation of Religious Buildings in Montenegro"

DE GRUYTER

ECONOMICS

Vol. 5, No 1, 2017 ISSN 2303-5005

TURISTICKA VALORIZACIJA SAKRALNIH OBJEKATA U CRNOJ GORI TOURIST EVALUATION OF RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS IN MONTENEGRO

Maria Popovic

Fakultet poslovne ekonomije, Bar, Crna Gora Faculty of business economy, Bar, Montenegro

Pregledni clanak

DOI 10.1515/eoik-2017-0014 , UDK 338.48:725.94(497.16)

Review paper

APSTRAKT

ABSTRACT

U radu se apostrofira vrijednost sakralnih objekata kao resursa za razvoj kulturnog i vjerskog turizma. Opisano je postojece stanje sakralnih spomenika, njihova spremnost da u postojecim uslovima budu funkcionalni cinioci turisticke ponude. Za istrazivanje se koristi kvalitativno-kvantitativna metoda, kojom se opisuju priznati elemente turisticke valorizacije: turisticko-geografski polozaj, ambijent, atraktivnost i prepoznatljivost, uredenost i opremljenost prostora i uklopljenost u turisticko bogatstvo. Potom se kvantifikuju svi segmenti valorizacije kroz ocjenu najreprezentativnijih sakralnih spomenika u Crnoj Gori. Radom se zeli ukazati na vrijednost ovog nasljeda i njegove mogucnosti da relativno lako postane prepoznatljiv resurs kulturnog i vjerskog turizma. Zeli se istraziti koji segmenti turisticke valorizacije mogu biti unaprijedeni, pa na temelju toga i inkorporirani u sistem turisticke ponude.

Kljucne rijeci: valorizacija, sakralni objekat, resurs, vjerski turizam

In this article value of sacred objects like a resourcefor development of cultural andreligious tourism is being emphased It ia being described the current state of religious monuments, their wilingness that in existing conditions be functional factors of tourist offer. For research it is being used: qualitative and quantitative methods with which are being described recognized elements of tourist valorization: tourism-geographical location,ambiance, attractiveness and identity, decoration and equipment of the space in tourist wealth. Then, the segmenta of valorisation are being quantified through evaluation of the most representative religious monuments in Montenegro. With this work, we want to draw attention to the value of this heritage and its ability to relatively easy be recognized as a resource of cultural and religious tourism. It is being wanted to explore which segments of tourist valorization can be improved, so on the base of it and incorporated in a system of a tourist offer.

Keywords: valorization, sacral objects, resource, religious touriam

Crna Gora svojim geografskim polozajem, te rijetkim sklopom prirodnih i antropogenih vrijednosti na relativno malom prostoru, atraktivna je za turisticke dolaske i boravak. Elementi turistickog proizvoda: atraktivnost, aktivnost, prijatnost, dostupnost i ljudski resursi (Collier,2007:22) opredjeljuju buducnost Crne Gore na turistickom trzistu. U tom smislu proizvodni, opsti, infrastrukturni i turisticki faktori daju joj prednost u odnosu na njenu konkurenciju. Za kreiranje jedinstvenog turistickog proizvoda Crne Gore poseban znacaj ima sirok opseg kulturnih resursa na teritoriji cijele drzave. Svojim se mjestom, misijom, znacenjem i ljepotom izdvajaju sakralni objekti, pa je pitanje njihove valorizacije od posebne vaznosti za razvoj kulturnog i vjerskog turizma.

Na prostoru Crne Gore nalaze se sakralni objekti koji predstavljaju reprezentativni dio kulturne bastine nacionalnog, regionalnog i univerzalnog znacaja. Spomenici su velike graditeljske vrijednosti i umjetnicke kreacije, te predstavljaju svjedoke minulih epoha iz kulturoloske i istorijske vizure. Predstavljali su jezgra duhovnosti epoha u kojima su nastajali, djelovali i djeluju tokom vremena. Osim toga, aktivno su uticali na sirenje pismenosti i knjizevnog stvaralastva, te afirmisali likovnu i primijenjene umjetnosti. Osim toga, ovo su bila mjesta okupljanja lokalnog stanovnistava, gdje su predstavnici naroda donosili vazne odluke o organizovanju odbrane, politickom djelovanju i aktivnostima koje ce opredijeliti njihovu sudbinu. U socio-kulturoloskoj ravni mozemo govoriti o njihovom znacaju za formiranje identiteta i vrijednosti koje bastini tradicionalna i dijelom savremena Crna Gora. Duhovna vertikala naroda koji zivi na ovim prostorima rezultat je vjekovnog sazimanja autohtonih tvorevina sa uticajima osvajaca kojima je ovo podrucje strateski bilo izuzetno

INTRODUCTION

Geographical position and a rare compound of natural and anthropogenic resources across a relatively small area are the features that make Montenegro attractive for tourist visits. Tourism elements, such as attractiveness, level of activity, pleasantness, availability, and human resources (Collier, 2007: 22) define future of Montenegro on the tourism market. In that respect, its production, general, infrastructure and tourism factors are what provides it an advantage over its competitors. A wide range of cultural resources distributed throughout the country are particularly important for creation of a unique tourism product of Montenegro. Religious buildings tend to stand out in terms of their location, mission, meaning and beauty, so the question of their evaluation is of particular importance for the development of cultural and religious tourism.

Montenegro is a home to religious buildings that represent the cultural heritage of national, regional and universal significance. They pose as artistic creations and monuments of significant architectural value, and are witnesses of the past epochs from the historical and cultural point of view. They represented the spirituality cores of eras in which they were built, operated and have been operating over time. In addition, they actively contributed to the spread of literacy and literary creations, asserting the establishment of the fine and applied arts. Moreover, these were the gathering places of local population, where the representatives of the people would make important decisions about the organization of defence, political actions and activities that would decide their fate. At the socio-cultural level, we can talk about their importance in the formation of identity and values inherited by traditional and to a certain extent - modern state of Montenegro. High level of spirituality of people living in the region is the result of centuries of merging indigenous creations with the impacts of invaders who found this area strategically very interesting.

zanimljivo. Brojnost te teritorijalna izmijesanost sakralnih objekata u Crnoj Gori govori u prilog suzivotu tri konfesije: pravoslavne, katolicke i muslimanske. Ovi objekti sa aspekta turisticke valorizacije razlicitog su znacaja, stanja i ocuvanosti. Jedan dio njih inkorporiran je u turisticku ponudu, a drugi, ne mali broj, objekata bi mogao uz vecu ili manju pripremu biti ravnopravno zastupljen u turistickoj ponudi Crne Gore. Imajuci u vidu cinjenicu da prema projekcijama VTO do 2020.godine 15% ukupnih putovanja bice motivisana vjerom, pitanje valorizacije sakralnih objekata na teritoriji Crne Gore vazno je za analizu.

1. SAKRALNI OBJEKTI NA PODRUCJU CRNE GORE

Ostaci sakralnih objekata na teritoriji cijele Crne Gore svjedoce o razlicitim civilizacijskim uticajima u razlicitim epohama. Iz predslovenskog perioda datiraju ostaci manastira u Doljanima s kraja V vijeka, trikonhosa u Baru iz VI vijeka, te ostaci nekoliko crkava u podgorickom naselju Zlatica iz VI vijeka. Iz perioda preromantike i dolaska Slovena ostaci su nekoliko zdanja: stara crkva Sv.Jovana u Zatonu kod Bijelog Polja, crkva Sv.Petra - centralna benediktinska opatija u Suranju nadomak Kotora, manastir Sv.Arhangela Mihaila na Prevlaci i Manastir Bogorodice Ratacke nadomak Bara. Po misljenju Cilikova najmonumentalnija bazilika preromantike u Crnoj Gori otkrivena je na Martinickoj gradini blizu Danilovgrada (2011:18). Iz perioda mirnijeg srednjeg vijeka pravoslavni manastiri, crkve i utvrdenja izmijestani su na skrovitija i branjena mjesta (Nikolic,2000:227), kako bi bili sacuvani od najezde turskih, mletackih i drugih osvajaca. Ova epoha izuzetno je plodna, pa veliki broj spomenika koji od tada datira izuzetno je interesantan. Sakralne gradevine sa stilskim osobinama preromantike, romantike i gotike svjedoce o snaznom uticaju i prisutnosti evropskog duha toga vremena.

The number and territorial intermingling of religious buildings in Montenegro speaks in favour of coexistence of the three religions: Orthodox, Catholic and Muslim. In terms of tourist evaluation, these facilities are of varying importance, status and preservation level. A part ofthem is incorporated into regular tourist sights, whereas the other, which is by no means a small number, could be equally represented in the list of tourist sights of Montenegro, provided that more or less adaptation is done. Given the fact that, according to World Tourism Organisation (WTO) projections, by 2020 15% of all travel will be motivated by religion, it is important to assess the issue of evaluation of religious buildings in Montenegro.

1. RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS IN MONTENEGRO

The remains of religious buildings across the territory of Montenegro testify about different civilizational influences across different epochs. The remains of the monastery in Doljani from the end of the fifth century, trefoil in Bar from the sixth century, and the remains of several churches in the Podgorica settlement of Zlatica from the sixth century date back to the pre-Slavic period. The remains of several buildings bear witness to the pre-Romance period and the days of arrival of the Slavs: the old church of St. John in Zaton near Bijelo Polje, the Church of St. Peter - a central Benedictine abbey in Suranj near Kotor, Monastery of St. Archangel Michael on Prevlaka and the Monastery of Our Lady of Ratac near Bar. In the opinion of Chilikov, the most monumental basilica from pre-Romance period was discovered in Montenegro in the Gradina Martinicka near Danilovgrad (2011: 18). In the more peaceful period of Middle Ages, Orthodox monasteries, churches and fortifications have been moved to the more hidden and better defended localities (Nikolic, 2000: 227), in order to be saved from the Ottoman, Venetian and other invaders. This epoch is extremely proliferant, as a large number of monuments dating from the time tends to be remarkably interesting. Religious buildings with features of pre-Romance, Romance and Gothic period testify to the strong influence and presence of the European spirit of the times.

Od pocetka XV vijeka evidentan je dvostruki umjetnicki uticaj na podrucje danasnje Crne Gore, posebno kada je rijec o sakralnim objektima duz ove teritorije. Jedan vezujemo za primorski region i barokni stilski krug, kao evidentni uticaj Zapada. Arhitektura, zoografski i ikonografski umjetnicki izraz pravoslavnih hramova u zaledu uticaj je Vizantije.

Najezdom Otomanske imperije i islamska ce kultura ostaviti pecat i trajno nasljede na ovo podrucje. Posebno je zastupljen u gradovima koji su nastajali u eri njihovih osvajanja. Pokretno i nepokretno kulturno blago odise snaznim islamskim uticajem kroz brojne sakralne gradevine: dzamije, medrese i pomocne objekte u njihovoj sluzbi.

Kulturni prostor crnogorske drzave odlikuje se izrazitom multikulturalnoscu, slojevitoscu civilizacijskih krugova i epoha. Kulturno nasljede, pa i sakralni objekti nalaze se, sa vecom ili manjom koncentracijom, na terioriji cijele drzave. U registru zasticenih spomenika kulture nalazi se popis zasticenih urbanih cjelina, strarih gradova, sakralnih i profanih spomenika, arheoloskih nalazista, etnoloskih zaostavstina, te tehnickih i memorijalnih spomenika, njih ukupno 357. Imajuci na umu cinjenicu da od ovog broja najveci procenat pripada sakralnim spomenicima, tacnije 57%, govori o njihovoj zastupljenosti, mjestu i znacaju za crnogorski kulturni identitet. Na prostoru Crne Gore nalazi se 865 sakralnih objekata pravoslavlja, preko 230 katolickih i 105 dzamija (prema Radovic,2010:192). Pod zastitom drzave nalazi se 205 zasticenih sakralnih spomenika koji su u najvecem broju duhovno aktivni. Od toga pravoslavnih zasticenih spomenika ima 155, katolickih 38, 10 islamskih i dva spomenika ostalih vjeroispovjesti. Kada je u pitanju kategorizacija 18 sakralnih spomenika pripada prvoj kategoriji, 78 drugoj i 109 trecoj kategoriji zastite. Na osnovu Izvjestaja o stanju kulturne bastine Ministarstva kulture Crne Gore

A dual artistic impact has been evident in the area of today's Montenegro ever since the beginning of the fifteenth century, especially when it comes to religious buildings within the territory. One is related to the coastal region and Baroque style, as a symbol of evident influence from the West. Architecture, zoographic and iconographic artistic expression of Orthodox churches in the hinterland were influenced by the Byzantine empire.

The invasion of the Ottoman Empire brought the Islamic culture and its lasting legacy to the region. It is particularly distinguished in the towns created in the era of their conquest. Personal and real cultural goods bear a strong Islamic influence through a number of religious buildings: mosques, madrasas and ancillary facilities in their service. The cultural space of the Montenegrin state is characterized by a pronounced multiculturalism, layered civilizational circles and epochs. The cultural heritage and religious buildings are, more or less concentrated across the entire country. In the register of protected cultural monuments there is a list of protected urban areas, ancient cities, religious and secular monuments, archaeological findings, ethnological legacies, as well as 357 technical and memorial monuments. The fact that the highest percentage of the aforementioned number belongs to the religious monuments, 57% to be more precise, speaks for itself of their presence, position and importance for the Montenegrin cultural identity. In Montenegro there are 865 Orthodox religious buildings, over 230 Catholic and 105 mosques (according to Radovic, 2010: 192). 205 religious monuments most of which are spiritually active, are under state protection. Out of that number there are 155 Orthodox protected monument, 38 Catholic, 10 Islamic and two monuments of other religions. When it comes to categorization, 18 religious monuments belongs to the 1st category, 78 to 2nd and 109 to 3rd preservation category. Based on the Report on the State of Cultural Heritage from Ministry of Culture of Montenegro from 2005, the religious buildings are threatened by natural factors, due to

iz 2005.godine, sakralni objekti su ugrozeni uticajem prirodnih faktora, nebrigom i neodrzavanjem, nestrucnim i nelegalnim radovima, te drugim faktorima devastacije. Prema istom izvoru od svih kulturnih spomenika u Crnoj Gori najugrozeniji su upravo sakralni objekti i to u procentu od 71% u odnosu na sve ostale, ili 99 ugrozenih sakralnih objekata u odnosu na 138 devastiranih spomenika na nivou drzave.

Tabela 1:Pregled devastiranih sakralnih objekata na teritoriji Crne Gore

negligence, lack of care and maintenance, improper and illegal works, as well as other factors of devastation. According to the same source, religious buildings, which comprise 71% of all the endangered cultural monuments are the most endangered type of monuments in Montenegro as compared to all other, or 99 endangered religious buildings compared to 138 devastated monuments at the state level. According to the information available to the public, and which may be obtained from the

Table 1: Summary of devastated religious buildings in Montenegro

Pravoslavni objekti / Orthodox facilities 79

Katolicki objekti / Catholic facilities 15

Islamski objekti / Islamic facilities 5

Ukupno / Total 99

Izvor: Izvjestaj o stanju kulturne bastine Ministarstva kulture Crne Gore,2005.

Prema podacima koji su dostupni javnosti, a koje je moguce dobiti u Upravi za zastitu kulturnih dobara, najizrazitiji primjeri devastacije narusili su vizuelni identitet, originalni izgled, ambijentalnu cjelinu, arhitektonsku i estetsku dimenziju prvobitnog zdanja sakralnih objekata, pa su sadrzinska i funkcionalna namjena dovedena u pitanje. Rijec je o sanacionim radovima na budvanskom manastiru Podmaine, Cetinjskom manastiru, manastirskom kompleksu Dobrilovina i Ostroskom manastiru. Na jednom broju sakralnih objekata prvobitni izgled je narusen ugrozavanjem i nestrucnom restauracijom fasada, kupola i zvonika, ikonostasa, podova sakralnih objekata i konacno nastrucnim oslikavanjem i doslikavanjem unutrasnjih fasada.

Kada se svi navedeni cinioci uzmu u obzir, na osnovu podataka Izvjestaja Ministarstva kulture, mozemo izvesti zbirnu ocjenu o nivou ocuvanosti sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore.

Tabela 2: Ocjena stanja sakralnih objekata u

Source: Report on the state of Cultural Heritage from the Ministry of Culture of Montenegro, 2005.

Directorate for the Protection of Cultural Property, the most outstanding examples of deterioration have ruined the visual identity, original appearance, surrounding environment, architectural and aesthetic dimension to the original religious buildings, therefore having substantive and functional purposes brought to Question. It is the rehabilitation works at the Podmaine Monastery in Budva, Cetinje Monastery, the Monastery complex Dobrilovina and Ostrog Monastery. On a number of religious buildings, the original appearance was marred by jeopardizing and inadequate restoration of facades, domes and bell towers, the iconostases, floors of religious buildings and finally, by incompetent painting and decorating of interior facades. When all of the above factors are taken into account, based on data from the Report of the Ministry of Culture, we can perform a summary assessment on the level of preservation of religious buildings in Montenegro.

Table 2: Assessment of condition religious

Stanje/Condition Pravoslavni/Orthodox Katolicki/Catholic Islamski/Islamic Ostali/Others Ukupno/Total

Dobro/Good 37 11 2 2 52

Osrednje/Medium 53 10 7 0 70

Slabo/Poor 37 5 0 0 42

Lose/Bad 27 12 1 0 40

Izgubio svojstva Lost its properties 1 0 0 0 1

Ukupno/Total 155 38 10 2 205

Na osnovu analize ukupnog stanja sakralnih spomenika kulture na podrucju Crne Gore, mozemo zakljuciti da su oni u najvecem procentu osrednje ocijenjeni (34,14%), nesto manje odlicno 25,36 % i lose 19,51%.

1.1. SAKRALNI OBJEKTI U CRNOJ GORI KAO TURISTICKI RESURS

Sakralni spomenici u Crnoj Gori su vrijedna kulturna dobra. Kao takvi, vazni su turisticki re sur si koji nisu u funkciji turizma u pozeljnoj mjeri. Kao takvi dominantno privlace turiste sa visokim interesovanjem za kulturnu ponudu. Ako se tome doda podatak da u svijetu ovih turista ima ukupno 5-10% (Alat za razvoj kulturnog turizma,2008:12), srazmjerno godisnjem broju dolazaka u Crnu Goru, uvidjecemo da je rijec o relativno malom broju turista. Na drugoj strani, turisti prosjecnog interesovanja ne biraju destinaciju na osnovu kulturne ponude. Ona moze biti sekundarna i uz zabavu moze biti komplementarni turisticki sadrzaj. Na osnovu zakljucaka istrazivanja Stavovi i potrosnja turista u Crnoj Gori (Kukalj,Lazovic:2014) ovih turista ima najvise.

Crnogorske manastire posjecuju i spiritualno motivisani turisti. Oni to u najvecem broju rade u okviru poklonickih putovanja kroz Crnu Goru kao „destinaciju autohtonih svetaca kojima se pripisuju cudotvorstva (sveti Vasilije Ostroski, sveti Petar Cetinjski i sveti Leopold Mandic)" (Pasinovic,2006:85).

2. TURISTICKA VALORIZACIJA

Based on the analysis of the overall condition of religious cultural monuments across the territory of Montenegro, we can conclude that they are mainly evaluated as being in medium condition (34.14%), with slightly less number of buildings in excellent condition 25.36% and 19.51% ofthe poor ones.

1.1. RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS IN MONTENEGRO AS A TOURIST RESOURCE

Religious monuments in Montenegro are a valuable cultural asset. As such, they are important tourist resources that are not a function ofthe development of tourism in a preferred extent. Thus, they dominantly attract tourists highly interested in culture. If we add the information that these tourists make a total of 5-10% on a world scale (Alat za razvoj kulturnog turizma (eng.: „Tool for the Development of Cultural Tourism", 2008: 12). Put into proportion to the annual number of visits to Montenegro, we will find that this is a relatively small number of tourists. However, average tourists do not choose a destination based on its cultural sights. The sights can be a completely secondary matter and can, in addition to entertainment, act as a complementary activity for tourists. Based on the conclusions of the research „Attitudes and expenditures of tourists in Montenegro" (orig. Stavovi i potrosnja turista u crnoj gori) (Kukalj, Lazovic: 2014) such tourists are the majority.

Montenegrin monasteries are also visited by spiritually motivated tourists. Their visits are mainly forms of pilgrimages through Montenegro as a "destination of indigenous saints who performed miracles" (St. Basil of Ostrog, St. Peter of Cetinje and St. Leopold Mandic)" (Pasinovic, 2006: 85).

2. TOURIST EVALUATION

"Turisticka valorizacija predstavlja ut-vrdivanje ili procenu vrednosti turistickih atraktivnosti, odnosno procenu turistickih at-raktivnosti svih onih pojava, objekata i prostora koji imaju, pored ostalih karakteristika i svojstvo da su atraktivni (interesantni) za turiste i da kroz njih turisti mogu zadovolji-ti svoju turisticku (kulturnu ili rekreativnu) potrebu"(Ahmetovic-Tomka:1994,156). Po Comicevom misljenju pod turistickom val-

"Tourist evaluation represents the assessment of tourist attractiveness, i.e. evaluation of tourist attractiveness of all those phenomena, facilities and areas that have, inter alia, features and properties making them attractive (popular) for tourists, and that the tourists can meet their own tourist (cultural or recreational) needs." (Ahmetovic-Tomka: 1994.156). Based on Comic's opinion, tourist

orizacijom podrazumijevamo vrjednovanje, tj. kvalitativnu i kvantitativnu procjenu turisticke vrijednosti svih resursa, kao i ostalih konstitutivnih elemenata turistickog potenci-jala (turisticke opreme) (1990:170). Drugim rijecima, turistickom valorizacijom utvrdu-jemo turisticki potencijal date destinacije sa aspekta ocjene mogucnosti za turisticko privredivanje.

Jedinstveni metod turisticke valorizacije nije definitivno utvrden niti prihvacen od strane naucne javnosti. Za tu se svrhu uglavnom koriste metode drugih disciplina prilagodenih zahtjevima i specificnostima turizma. Metoda Hilari du Kros je veoma efikasna kod valorizacija jednog resursa ili kompleksnog resursa na jedinom mjestu (stari gradovi na primjer). Stoga se pribjegava kvalitativno-kvantitativnoj metodi ocjenjivanja kroz numericku i deskriptivnu ocjenu.

Za ocjenu turisticke valorizacije sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore koristi se upravo kvantitativno-kvalitativni metod, a ocjenjivani su oni sakralni objekti za koje je ocijenjeno da su adekvatan resurs kulturnog turizma. Kao osnova za turisticku valorizaciju sljedeci cinioci se smatraju relevantnim:

- Turisticko-geografski polozaj - polozaj u odnosu na saobracajnice, maticno mjesto turista i pristupacnost;

- Ambijent - uredenost, specificnost, ocuvanost prostora;

- Atraktivnost i prepoznatljivost -

privlacnost za turiste;

- Uredenost i opremljenost prostora -

stepen zastupljenosti turistickih objekata u neposrednoj blizini: odmorista, cesme, informativne table;

- Uklopljenost u turisticko bogatsvo

komplementarni sadrzaji u istoj destinaciji.

evaluation implies the evaluation, i.e. qualitative and quantitative assessment of the tourist value of all the resources, as well as other constituent elements of the tourism potential (1990:170). In other words, the tourist evaluation determines tourist potential of a given destination in terms of assessment of opportunities for tourism economy.

Auniqueandunifiedmethodoftouristevaluation has not yet been definitively established, nor accepted by the scientific community. For this purpose, the methods from other disciplines tailored to the requirements and specificities of tourism are generally used. The Hillary du Cros method is a very purposeful, but effective method for the evaluation of a single resource or a complex resource at one place/location (old towns for example). Therefore, the qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluation through numerical and descriptive assessment are used. The aforementioned quantitative and qualitative evaluation method is used for the assessment of tourist evaluation of religious buildings in Montenegro. The buildings that were evaluated were the ones that were deemed as adequate resource of cultural tourism. As a basis for tourist evaluation the following factors are considered as relevant:

- Tourist-geographical position - the position in relation to the roads, the focal location of tourists and its accessibility;

- Ambiance - arrangement, specificity, maintained space;

- Attractiveness and identity -

attractiveness for tourists;

- Decor of the area - the amount of tourist facilities in the vicinity: rest areas, fountains, information panels;

- Incorporation in the tourist assets -complementary facilities within the same destination.

TURISTICKO-GEOGRAFSKI POLOZAJ

Pristupacnost resursa se sagledava na osnovu blizine aerodroma, luka, zeljeznickih pruga i puteva koji do njih vode. Dakle, sto je veci broj saobracajnica i frekvencija saobracaja, veca je ocjena turisticke valorizacije. Saobracajnice do sakralnih spomenika u Crnoj Gori imaju uglavnom dobar kolovoz, sto svakako ima vrlo pozitivne efekte na turisticku valorizaciju. U neposrednoj blizini najveceg broja sakralnih spomenika nalaze se magistralni i regionalni putevi. Prema misljenju jednog broja autora (Blazevic i dr,1988:172) saobracajna izolovanost Crne Gore je prestala izgradnjom Jadranske magistrale. Ova saobracajnica ima neprocjenjiv znacaj za valorizaciju sakralnih objekata na crnogorskom priobalju. Oni su veoma dobro povezani na cijelom podrucju krajnjeg juga i to dominantno doprinosi dostupnosti sakralnih objekata smjestenih u blizini obale.

Za valorizaciju sakralnih spomenika u centralnom dijelu Crne Gore (manastir Ostrog, manastir Piva i dr) najveci znacaj ima saobracajnica Podgorica - Niksic -Pluzine - Foca - Sarajevo, odnosno sve saobracajnice koje povezuju Crnogorsko primorje i Podgoricu. Saobracajnica je veoma frkventna u ljetnjim mjesecima kada turisti koji su u tranzitu u najvecem broju posjecuju manastir Ostrog i nesto manjem broju manastir Pivu. Sjeverni region i sakralni spomenici koji se u njemu nalaze dostupni su za turisticku valorizaciju prije svega zahvaljujuci magistralnom putu Bar -Beograd. Po privrednom znacaju, ovo je najznacajnija i najfrekventnija crnogorska saobracajnica. U ljetnjim mjesecima ogroman broj turista koji su u tranzitu prema Crnogorskom primorju posjecuju sakralne objekte smjestene u ovom dijelu (posebno manastir Moracu). Takode, tokom tranzita u zimskim mjesecima, na putu prema zimskim turistickim mjestima, turisti takode posjecuju ove sakralne objekte. Od velikog su znacaja putevi Bijelo Polje (Ribarevine) - Berane

TOURIST-GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION

Accessibility of resources is perceived based on the proximity of airports, harbours, railways and roads leading to them. Thus, the higher the number of means of access (roads) and traffic frequency, the higher the tourist evaluation score. Roads to religious monuments in Montenegro generally have well maintained driveway, which certainly has a very positive impact on the tourist evaluation. In the near vicinity of the majority of religious monuments are the main and regional roads. In the opinion of a number of authors (Blazevic et al., 1988: 172) traffic isolation of Montenegro came to an end by upon finaliza-tion of construction of the Adriatic Highway. This road is priceless for the evaluation of religious buildings on the Montenegrin coast. They are very well connected throughout the far south and it predominantly contributes to the availability of religious buildings situated near the coast.

For the evaluation of religious monuments in the central part of Montenegro (Ostrog Monastery, Piva Monastery, et al.), the road Podgorica - Niksic - Pluzine - Foca - Sarajevo is of the highest importance, in addition to all the access routes that connect the Montenegrin coast and Podgorica. The route is very frequent in the summer months when transiting tourists predominantly visited monastery Ostrog and to a lesser extent -Piva Monastery.

Northern Region and religious monuments located within are available for tourist evaluation primarily due to the highway Bar - Belgrade. In terms of its economic importance, this is the most important and busiest Montenegrin road. In the summer months a vast number of tourists in transit to the coast of Montenegro visit religious buildings located in this part (in particular manastir Moraca). Likewise, during the transit in winter, on their way to winter resorts / tourist areas, tourists also visit these religious buildings. The roads of great importance are Bijelo Polje (Ribarevine) - Berane and Mojkovac - Durdevica Tara - Pljevlja,

i Mojkovac - Durdevica Tara - Pljevlja, kao i niz manjih saobracajnica i lokalnih puteva koji vode do samih spomenika. Kapitalni projekat izgradnje puta Bar -Boljare zvanicno je zapoceo 2015.godine i kako se planira, zavrsetak je predviden za 2019.godinu. Zavrsetak radova na ovom autoputu doprinijece unaprjedenju ukupne privrede, time svakako i turizma. Zeljeznicki saobracaj na relaciji Bar -Beograd doprinosi unarijedenju turisticke privrede i valorizaciji turistickih resursa. Pored navedenog, u Podgorici i Tivtu se nalaze aerodomi koji su direktnim ili indirektnim letovima povezani sa cijelim svijetom. Trajektna linija Bar-Bari sa manjim prekidom u radu 2016. i polovini 2017.godine realizuje pomorski putnicki saobracaj izmedu dvije zemlje. Veliki broj sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore ima odlican ili veoma dobar turisticko-geografski polozaj. Kako se najveci broj sakralnih spomenika nalazi u primorskom dijelu, gdje je ujedno i najgusca koncentracija turisticko-ugostiteljskih objekata, sakralni objekti u ovom dijelu nalaze se u blizini ili u samim turistickim jezgrima. U centralnom i sjevernom dijelu Crne Gore turisticko-ugostiteljski objekti su relativno blizu sakralnih objekata, a u neposrednoj blizini nekih izgradeni su i grade se manji ugostiteljski objekti: restorani, pansioni, moteli (Ostrog i Moraca). U nekim sakralnim objektima receptivni kapaciteti postoje ali su veoma ograniceni. Po Radovicevom misljenju nedostatak ovakvih kapaciteta i neadekvatan marketing glavna su prepreka razvoju religioznog turizma (2010:192).

AMBIJENT

Jedinstvena osobina svih sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore j e pazljivi odabir lokacije, u skladu sa pejzaznim karakteristikama njihovog mjesta nastanka. „Gledano kroz dugi istorijski hod, prirodne odrednice geografske sredine i strategijski polozaj imali su presudnu ulogu na utvrdivanje lokacije i graditeljsko oblikovanje ovih spomenika"(Nikolic,2000:228).0dabir

as well as a number of minor roads and local roads leading to the monuments themselves.

Capital project for construction of highway Bar - Boljare was officially started in 2015 and according to the plan, completion is scheduled for 2019. The completion of works on the highway will contribute to the improvement of the total economy, and therefore certainly - of tourism. Railway traffic on the route Bar - Belgrade contributes to the improvement of tourism and evaluation of tourism assets. In addition, airports in Podgorica and Tivat are via direct or indirect flights connected to the entire world. Ferry line Bar-Bari with minor operational disruption in 2016 and half of 2017 has contributed to maritime passenger traffic between the two countries. A large number of religious buildings in Montenegro have an excellent or a very good tourist-geographical position. As the largest number of religious monuments is located in the coastal area, which is also the area with the densest concentration of tourist facilities, religious buildings in this region are located in the vicinity or in the very tourist core. In the central and northern part of Montenegro, tourist and accommodation facilities are relatively close to religious buildings and near some of them smaller catering facilities, such as restaurants, hotels, motels (Ostrog and Moraca) have been completed or are still being constructed. Some religious buildings do have accommodation capacities but are very limited. Based on the opinion of Mr.Ra-dovic, lack of such capacity and inadequate marketing are the main obstacle to the development of religious tourism (2010: 192).

AMBIANCE

The unique feature of all religious buildings in Montenegro is a careful site selection, in line with the landscape features of their place of origin. "Perceived through a long historic span, natural determinants of the geographical environment and strategic position had a decisive role in determining the location and architectural design of these monuments." (Nikolic,

mjesta sakralnih lokaliteta koji se ne nalaze u gradskim jezgrima ili gusim naseljima locirani su tako da izuzetno pogoduju meditaciji i duhovnom miru. Gradeni su na zasticenim i skrovitim mjestima, cesto utvrdeni zidinama, u blizini morske obale, na obali jezera ili malim jezerskim ostrvima, dolinama rjecnih tokova Morace, Pive, Lima i Tare. U nekim manastirima prirodni ambijent nije pogodovao odbrani pa se pribjegavalo izgradnji masivnih zidina i kupola (Pododstog, Stanjevici, Starcevo).

Savrseno uklopljeni u prirodno bogatstvo, zavisno od regije gdje se nalaze, okruzeni su vocnjacima, maslinjacima, pasnjacima organizovanim u crkvene ekonomije. Lokacija sakralnih objekata unutar gradskih jezgara pogodovala je duhovnickoj misiji i vjerskim obredima u ovim sredinama. Njihov vizuelni identitet u savrsenom je saglasju sa izgledom starih gradova. Uklopljeni sa objektima profane arhitekture, diskretno se izdvajaju ljepotom i time daju pecat cjelokupnom ambijentu. Ambijentalne cjeline manastirskih kompleksa savremene urbanisticke tendencije su djelimicno derogirale. Izgradnjom modernih saobracajnica kojom se doprinijelo valorizaciji ovih objekata, na drugoj strani, trajno se ugrozilo prvobitno jedinstvo prirodnih i antropogenih elemenata za dozivljaj ambijenta sakralnih objekata. Tako je Jadranskom magistralom odsjecen dio manastirske ekonomije Praskvice, a sumski kompleks Savine je prepolovljen. Jos je jedna tekovina savremenog doba promijenila sudbinu tri crnogorska manastira: Kosijerevo, Piva i Dubocica. Kako navodi autorka Pejovic (2011:30), izmjestanje manastira inicirala je potreba za ustupanjem prostora za vode akumulacionih jezera.

Ambijent crnogorskih manastira znacajno je ugrozene nestrucnom i nasmotrenom izgradnjom objekata u njihovoj neposrednoj blizini. Neki su potpuno, a neki djelimicno izgubili vizuelni identitet i time bitno umanjili dozivljaj zdanja kao duhovnih centara, ustupajuci primat komercijalnoj i lukrativnoj svrsi.

2000: 228). The locations of sacred sites located outside of town centres or densely populated settlements were selected so that they beneficially contribute to meditation and spiritual peace. They were built in protected and hidden places, often with fortified walls, near the sea coast, on the shores of lakes or small lake islands, valleys of rivers Moraca, Piva, Lim and Tara. In some monasteries the natural environment is not favorable for the defense, which is why the settlers resorted to the construction of massive walls and domes (Pododstrog, Stanjevici, Starcevo). Perfectly blended with the natural environment, depending on the region they are located in, surrounded by orchards, olive groves, pastures, all integrated in the church economy. Location of religious buildings within the city core favoured spiritual missions and religious services in these areas. Their visual identity is in perfect harmony with the appearance of old cities. Integrated with facilities of profane architecture they discreetly stand out by their sheer beauty, thus leaving a mark onto the overall environment. Ambient compounds of contemporary urban townscape monastery complexes have been partially derogated. The construction of modern roads, which contributed to the evaluation of these buildings, on the other hand, permanently jeopardized the original unity of natural and anthropogenic elements in terms of the experience of religious buildings. Thus, Adriatic highway has cut off a section of the Praskvica monastery's economy, whereas the forest complex of Savina monastery has been cut in half. Another achievement of the modern age has changed the fate of three Montenegrin monasteries: Kosijere-vo, Piva and Dubocica. According to the author Pejovic (2011: 30), the relocation of the monasteries was initiated by the requirement for ceding space to the water reservoirs. The ambiance of Montenegrin monasteries was significantly affected by unprofessional and careless construction of facilities in their immediate vicinity. Some of them have been completely and some partially devoid of their visual identity, thereby significantly reducing the experience of the buildings as spiritual centres, giving primacy to commercial and lucrative purposes.

ATRAKTIVNOST I PREPOZNATLJIVOST

Atraktivnost sakralnih objekata odgovara stepenu zadovoljenja turistickih potreba turista koji ga posjecuju, odnosno vrijednosti kojom objekti odgovaraju motivima za njihovu posjetu. Sa druge strane, stepen koristenja resursa zavisi od karaktera resursa i potreba turista (Pasinovic,2008:69). Za potrebe valorizacije najoperativniji pojam je pojam atraktivnosti sa elementima: estetske vrijednosti, kuriozitetnosti i znamenitosti. Te vrijednosti ili atributi sakralnih spomenika variraju u zavisnosti od stepena slozenosti atraktivnosti, razudenosti i nivoa (prema:Jovicic,1986). Estetski atributi ogledaju se u arhitektonskoj i likovnoj vrijednosti, umjetnickoj vrijednosti enterijera i eksterijera sakralnog objekta. Kuriozitetna vrijednost odnosi se na rijetkost i neponovljivost objekta, njegovog okruzenja i riznice (mosti svetaca i njihovi djelovi, rijetke ikone i ikonostasi, mobilijer, knjige, krune i ostali vrijedni sadrzaju riznice). Znamenitost se ogleda u odnosu na sakralni objekat i njegov istorijski, kulturni, politicki i drustveni kontekst. Stepen slozenosti navedenih atributa u srazmjeri je sa atraktivnoscu samog objekta, ili sto je stepen ovih atributa veci, objekat je atraktivniji.

Po svojoj atraktivnosti na prostoru Crne Gore izdvajaju se: manastir Ostrog, Cetinjski manastir, manastir Savina, katedrala Svetog Tripuna, manastir Moraca, manastir Piva, manastir Durdevi Stupovi, manastir Svete Trojice i Husein-pasina dzamija. U posljednje vrijeme za turisticke posjete sve su atraktivniji manastiri na Skadarskom jezeru: Starcevo, Beska i Moracnik.

UKLOPLJENOST U TURISTICKO BOGATSTVO

Veliki problem za ovo istrazivanje predstavljala je zatvorenost predstavnika svih konfesija u Crnoj Gori da dijele informacije o broju posjeta sakralnih objekata. Procjene Nacionalne turisticke organizacije Crne Gore te lokalnih organizacija samo su djelimicno otklonili

ATTRACTIVENESS AND IDENTITY

The attractiveness of religious buildings corresponds to the fulilment level of needs of tourists who visit them, i.e. to the level which buildings correspond to the motives for their visit. On the other hand, the level of utilisation of such resources depends on the features of such resources and needs of tourists (Pasinovic, 2008: 69). For the purposes of evaluation, the most operative term would be a term „attractiveness" with the elements of aesthetic value, oddity and notability or relevance. These values or attributes of religious monuments vary depending on the complexity level of their attractiveness, dispersion and category (according to Jovicic, 1986). The aesthetic attributes are reflected in the architectural and visual value, artistic value of the interior and exterior of the religious building. Oddity refers to the rarity and uniqueness of the building, its surroundings and the treasury (the relics of saints and their parts, rare icons and iconostases, equipment and furniture, books, crowns and other valuable content of the treasury). Notability relates to the religious building and its historical, cultural, political and social context. The degree of complexity of those attributes is in proportion to the attractiveness of the building itself, or the higher the level of these attributes, the building is more attractive.

Interms ofattractiveness, notable religious buildings in Montenegro are as follows: the monastery of Ostrog, Cetinje Monastery, Savina Monastery, the Cathedral of St. Tryphon, Moraca Monastery, Piva Monastery, Tracts of St. George Monastery, Holy Trinity Monastery and Husein Pasha Mosque. Recently, the monasteries increasingly interesting for tourist visits are the ones on Skadar Lake: Starcevo, Beska and Moracnik.

INCORPORATION INTO TOURISM ASSETS

A major problem for this research was the lack of cooperation from representatives of any confession in Montenegro to share any information on the number of visits to religious buildings. Estimates of the National Tourism Organization of Montenegro, as well as of local organizations only partially contributed

ovaj nedostatak. U skladu sa njima, manastir Ostrog je posjetilo tokom prosle godine preko milion turista. Najveci procenat turistickih posjeta je u ljetnjim mjesecima, tokom sezone i velikih pravoslavnih praznika. Od kraja maja do kraja avgusta Cetinjski manastir organizovano posjeti vise od dvije hiljade turista dnevno, ne racunajuci individualne posjete. Prema podacima koje smo dobili u Turistickoj organizaciji Kolasin, broj posjeta manastira Morace je nemoguce utvrditi. Naveli su, ukoliko bi sa analizirali motivi za dolazak u Kolasin, da bi procenat posjeta manastiru Moraca, po njihovim pretpostavkama, bio veci od onih motivisanih zimskim sportovima ili planinarenjem. Prizor desetina parkiranih autobusa na obliznjem parkingu uobicajen je u ljetnjim mjesecima, a gotovo da nema organizovane turisticke grupe koja u tranzitu mimoide Moracu. Veoma veliku posjecenost Moraca ima i od individualnih posjeta koje su svakodnevne, nezavisno od turisticke sezone. Na podrucju opstine Pljevlja dva sakralna objekta su najposjecenija: manastri Sv. Trojice i Husein-pasina dzamija, i to posebno u ljetnjim mjesecima. Podrumijske crkve i manastiri na podrucju barske opstine biljeze dobru posjecenost u ljetnjim mjesecima i to, prema podacima lokalne Turisticke organizacije, od oko 6.000 turista u ljetnjoj sezoni. U vrijeme velikih praznika i vjerskih manifestacija manastir Savina biljezi najvecu posjecenost, kao i za vrijeme Praznika mimoze. Od kotorskih sakralnih objekata najvecu posjecenost, prema podacima TO Kotor, ima katedrala Svetog Tripuna.

Duhovno motivisani turisti posjecuju aktivno dio crnogorskih manastira, drzeci ih za centre pravoslavne duhovnosti, posjecuju iz vjerskih razloga. Ovakva putovanja brizljivo su organizovana uz predvidenu pratnju obucenih vodica. Mlada populacija najcesce dolazi dackim i studentskim ekskurzijama, a najveci broj posjetilaca sakralnih objekata cine to u periodu godisnjih odmora.

to resolving this issue. According to them, the monastery of Ostrog was visited over one million tourists in the past year. The highest percentage of tourist visits is in the summer months, during holiday season and on major Orthodox holidays. In the period from late May to late August, Cetinje monastery is visited by more than two thousand tourists a day. According to the data obtained in the Tourist Organization of Kolasin, number of visits to the monastery Moraca is impossible to determine. They noted that if one should analyse the motives for visiting Kolasin, the percentage of visits to the monastery Moraca would, by their assumptions, be higher than the ones motivated by winter sports or hiking. The sight of tens of buses parked on a nearby parking lot is common in the summer months. In addition almost no organized tourist groups faild to visit Moraca on their transit route. Moraca can also boast with a large attendance in terms of daily individual visits, regardless of the tourist season. As for the municipality of Pljevlja, two religious buildings stand out as the most visited ones: Holy Trinity Monastery and Husein Pasha Mosque, particularly during the summer months. Churches and monasteries of Podrumija in the municipality of Bar record a high number of visitors in the summer months and, according to the local Tourist organization, about 6,000 tourists during the summer season. At the time of major holidays and religious events, monastery Savina has the highest attendance, as well as during the Mimosa Festival. As far as the religious buildings of Kotor are concerned, the Cathedral of St.Tryphon is visited the most, according Tourist Organisation of Kotor. Spiritually motivated tourists actively visit a part of the Montenegrin monastery, being considered as the centre of Orthodox spirituality, they are visited for religious reasons. Such trips are carefully organized with the provided accompanying trained guides. Young people mainly visit the locations as a part of their pupil and student group tours, whereas the largest number of visitors to religious buildings do so during the holiday season.

UREDENOST I OPREMLJENOST PROSTORA

Vecina sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore su dobro opremljeni. Putokazne table su postavljene na vidnim mjestima, ispisane na cirilici i latinici, nerijetko na dva strana jezika: engleskom i/ili ruskom.Odmorista i cesme su takode uobicajeni u okolini sakralnih objekata, dok su oni u gradskim jezgrima drugacije organizovani, u skladu sa urbanistickim rjesenjima samih gradova. Kod sakralnih objekata na Crnogorskom primorju i Cetinju nivo komplementatnih sadrzaja turistickog bogatstva je izuzetno visok, dok u kontinentalnom dijelu sakralni spomenici imaju nesto nizi stepen uklopljenosti sa manjim brojem komplementarnih turistickih sadrzaja. Tako je i opremljenost prostora oko sakralnih spomenika na juznom

1 centralnom podrucju Crne Gore nesto veca u odnosu na njen sjeverni region.

Ocjena valorizacije izvedena je na osnovu ocjena dodijeljenih svakoj sakralnoj jedinici i to: ocjena 5 - odlican kvalitet, ocjena 4 - vrlo dobar kvalitet, ocjena 3 - dobar kvalitet, ocjena

2 - zadovoljava i ocjena 1 - ne zadovoljava. Ocijenjeni su oni sakralni spomenici koji se odmah ili sa manjim pripremama mogu staviti u funkciju efektivnog razvoja vjerskog turizma.

Tabela 3: Ocjena valorizacije sakralnih objekata na podrucju Crne Gore

DECOR OF THE AREA

Most religious buildings in Montenegro are well equipped. Direction signs are placed at easily accessible locations, printed in Latin and Cyrillic scripts, often in two foreign languages as well: English and / or Russian. Rest areas and tap water are also common in the vicinity of religious buildings, whereas those in the town centres are organized differently, according to the development plans of the cities themselves. When speaking of religious buildings on the Montenegrin coast and in Cetinje, the level of complementary tourist assets is extremely high, whereas religious monuments in continental region have a slightly lower level ofincorporation with less complementary tourist facilities. Thus, the decor and equipment of the area in the vicinity of religious monuments in the southern and central part of Montenegro is slightly higher in comparison to its northern region. Evaluation rating was derived on the basis of markings assigned to each religious unit as follows: grade 5 - excellent quality, grade 4 -very good quality, grade 3 - good quality, grade 2 - satisfactory, 1 - unsatisfactory. The marking was made for religious monuments which can, immediately or with minor preparations, effectively contribute to development ofreligious tourism.

Table No.3: Evaluation rating of religious buildings in Montenegro

Sakralni objekat Polozaj Umjetnicka vrijednost Ambijen Uredenost Smjestajno-ugostiteljski kapaciteti Turisticke vrijednosti Pristupacnost Ocjena

Manastir Savina Herceg Novi 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4,8

Katedrala Sv. Tripuna Kotor 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5,0

Crkva Sv. Nikole Kotor 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4,8

Bogorodicin hram Prcanj 5 5 4 3 4 3 5 4,1

Crkva Sv. Borda Gospa od Skrpjela 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4,4

Crkva Sv. Ivana - Budva 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4,7

Crkva Sv. Trojice Budva 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 4,7

Manastir Podostrog 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3,8

Manastir Praskvica 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4,3

Manastir Rezevici 5 5 5 5 3 4 5 4,6

Manastir Gradiste 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 4,1

Manastir Beska 3 3 5 4 2 3 3 3,2

Manastir Starcevo 3 3 5 4 2 3 3 3,2

Cetinjski manastir 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5,0

Cipur 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4,8

Manastir Dajbabe 4 5 5 4 3 3 3 3,8

Manastir Ostrog 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4,8

Crkva Sv. Vasilija Ostroskog -Niksic 5 4 5 5 4 3 5 4,4

Manastir Piva 5 5 4 4 3 3 5 4,1

Manastir Moraca 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 4,7

Crkva Sv. Petra - Bijelo Polje 5 4 3 3 5 3 5 4,0

Manastir Burdevi Stupovi 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4,7

Manastir Sv. Trojice 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4,1

Husein Pasina dzamija 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 4,7

Careva dzamija - Plav 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 4,4

Srednja 4,64 4,4 4,68 4,4 4,0 4,16 4,52 4,4

vrijednost

Sakralni objekti u Crnoj Gori su prepoznati sa aspekta turizma kao znacajan resurs za njegov razvoj. Ipak, od ukupnog broj sakralnih objekata (207), samo 25 se uspjesno ili relativno uspjesno turisticki valorizuje. Na Primorju i Cetinju nalazi se 15 sakralnih objekata koji su se pokazali kao turisticki atraktivni i podobni za proces turistickog valorizovanja. Najvise ocjene (5,0) dobili su Cetinjski manastir i katedrala Sv. Tripuna u Kotoru, a veoma visoke ocjene dobili su manastir Savina, crkva sv. Ivana i sv. Trojice u budvanskom starom gradu i Cipur na Cetinju. Takode, visok nivo turisticke valorizacije pokazao je pastrovski manastir Rezevici. U kontinentalnom dijelu kao izuzetan resurs za razvoj kulturnog turizma pokazao se manastir Ostrog i dobio najvisu ocjenu u ovom dijelu Crne Gore (4,8). Slijedi manastir Moraca (4,7), Durdevi stupovi u Beranama (4,7) i Husein Pasina dzamija(4,7).

Religious buildings in Montenegro have been identified as an important resource for development of tourism. However, only 25 religious buildings of the total number of 207 are successfully or relatively successfully valued from the aspect of tourism. The coastal area and the town of Cetinje contain 15 religious buildings which have proved to be attractive for tourists and appropriate for the process of tourist evaluation. Highest marks (5.0) were given to the Cetinje monastery and the Cathedral of St.Tryphon in Kotor, whereas very high grades were given to Savina monastery, Church of St. Ivan and St. Trinity church in Budva's Old Town, as well as Cipur in Cetinje. Likewise, Monastery of Rezevici has been granted a high level of tourist evaluation. As for the continental part, Ostrog Monastery has proven as an excellent resource for the development of cultural tourism, with the highest score in this part of Montenegro (4.8), followed by Moraca Monastery (4.7), Tracts of St.George Monastery in Berane (4.7) and Husein Pasha Mosque (4.7).

ZAKLJUCAK

Sakralni objekti na teritoriji Crne Gore predstavljaju veoma vazne spomenike kulture. Sagledani kao duhovni centri, is-torijska i kulturna jezgra minulih epoha, posjeduju izrazitu evokativnu vrijednost. Osim toga, zbog ljepote i ambijentalne uklopljenosti, isticu se estetskim vrijed-nostima i znacenjem. Edukativnost sakralnih lokaliteta doprinosi njihovoj visokoj vrijednosnoj pozicioniranosti kao resursa kulturnog i vjerskog turizma. Zahvaljujuci kvalitativno-kvantitativnoj analizi utvrdeno je da bi se sakralni objekti u Crnoj Gori mogli relativno lako inkorpo-rirati u turisticki proizvod. S obzirom na zbirnu ocjenu, vrednovani reursi pokazuju da se bez velikih ulaganja mogu odmah staviti u turisticku upotrebu. Srednje vrijednosti elemenata valorizacije ukazuju na nesto nize ocjene neporedne blizine turisticko-ugostiteljskih objekata. Takode, nizu od prosjecne ima zbirna ocjena komplementarnih turistickih sadrzaja u blizini sakralnih objekata. Kako je rijec o generalnoj ocjeni, analiza svakog objekta u pazljivom planiranju razvoja kulturnog i vjerskog turizma, doprinijela bi povecanju navedenog segmenta valorizacije. Visoke zbirne ocjene polozaja sakralnih objekata, ambijenta i pristupacnosti ohrabrujuci su podaci za postavljanje osnove efikasnijeg razvoja ovih selektivnih turistickih grana.

CONCLUSION

Religious buildings in Montenegro act as highly important cultural monuments. Perceived as spiritual centres, historical and cultural cores of bygone eras, they carry distinct evocative value. In addition, due to their beauty and incorporation into the ambience, their aesthetic value and meaning clearly makes them stand out. Educational function of religious sites contributes to their high positioning of as a resource of cultural and religious tourism.

Thanks to the qualitative and quantitative analysis, it was found that the religious buildings in Montenegro could relatively easily be incorporated into assets of tourism. Given their cumulative score, evaluated resources have shown that they can be incorporated into a tourist offer without major investments. Mean values of evaluation elements point to somewhat lower marks regarding their vicinity to tourist establishments. Likewise, lower-than-average cumulative score was noted with respect to complementary tourist facilities near the religious buildings. As this is a general assessment, analysis of each building or facility, as a part of careful planning of the development of cultural and religious tourism would contribute to the increase of the given evaluation segment. High aggregate marks for position of religious buildings, ambient and accessibility represent encouraging data for laying the foundation of efficient development of these selective branches of tourism.

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STUDIJE

1. Alati za razvoj kulturnog turizma, Razvoj potencijala kulturnog turizma u Hrvatskoj 2008.

2. Izvestaj o stanju kulturne bastine Minis-tarstva kulture Crne Gore, 2005.

STUDIES:

1. Tools for Development of Cultural Tourism, Development of Cultural Tourism Potential in Croatia) 2008.

2. Report on the Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture of Montenegro), 2005.