Scholarly article on topic 'Training Court Interpreting Issues'

Training Court Interpreting Issues Academic research paper on "Law"

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Abstract of research paper on Law, author of scientific article — Kamo Chilingaryan, Olga Gorbatenko

Abstract The issue is dedicated to training court interpreting issues. Nowadays court interpreting has become a necessity. It is a significant element in many court procedures. Court interpreting is of great current interest nowadays. The topicality of court interpreting is substantiated by the fact that a rather large number of court participants from many countries with different foreign languages are involved in the judicial process. Particular emphasis is laid on types of court interpreting. Much attention is drawn to documents translation issues. The proposed idea is to supply the interpreter with documents before initiating the translation process with the aim of reconsidering the contents in adequate time. When applying sight translation, an interpreter must have a good stock of vocabulary and knowledge of specific kind of submitted document. Significant weight is attached to analyzing the role of the court interpreter. Court interpreters should comply with strict requirements in the court process. Interpreting studies are commonly classified into two distinctive fields: conference interpreting and community interpreting. Whereas conference interpreting is performed in the form of monologue, community interpreting is carried out in the form of dialogue (normally two initial lecturers are involved in the interpretation process). In conference interpreting, the interpreters have their own pre-scheduled utterances which are often written from source material, whereas in community interpreting, the interpreters experience impetuous speeches which may be pre-scheduled. Thus, relevant training court interpreting may contribute a lot to the court process to be organized.

Academic research paper on topic "Training Court Interpreting Issues"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 237 (2017) 1081 - 1086

7th International Conference on Intercultural Education "Education, Health and ICT for a Transcultural World", EDUHEM 2016, 15-17 June 2016, Almena, Spain

Training Court Interpreting Issues

Kamo Chilingaryan* & Olga Gorbatenko

Peoples' Friendship University, 125368, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

The issue is dedicated to training court interpreting issues. Nowadays court interpreting has become a necessity. It is a significant element in many court procedures. Court interpreting is of great current interest nowadays. The topicality of court interpreting is substantiated by the fact that a rather large number of court participants from many countries with different foreign languages are involved in the judicial process. Particular emphasis is laid on types of court interpreting. Much attention is drawn to documents translation issues. The proposed idea is to supply the interpreter with documents before initiating the translation process with the aim of reconsidering the contents in adequate time. When applying sight translation, an interpreter must have a good stock of vocabulary and knowledge of specific kind of submitted document. Significant weight is attached to analyzing the role of the court interpreter. Court interpreters should comply with strict requirements in the court process.

Interpreting studies are commonly classified into two distinctive fields: conference interpreting and community interpreting. Whereas conference interpreting is performed in the form of monologue, community interpreting is carried out in the form of dialogue (normally two initial lecturers are involved in the interpretation process). In conference interpreting, the interpreters have their own pre-scheduled utterances which are often written from source material, whereas in community interpreting, the interpreters experience impetuous speeches which may be pre-scheduled.

Thus, relevant training court interpreting may contribute a lot to the court process to be organized. © 2017 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016. Keywords: court interpreting; court participants; translation;sight translation

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: chili1@yandex.ru

1877-0428 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.159

1. Introduction: how interpretation is understood

Al-Zahran states that from Weber's point of view interpreting of written texts is performed as a real process in conference interpreting. He considers that sight translation is a perfect preparatory act for consecutive and simultaneous interpreting. In consecutive interpreting, it is practicable for students to read their notes which would help them to avoid any sort of hesitations or unpleasant pauses. In simultaneous interpreting when reading a written text at a remarkably fast speed the interpreter should rely on the written text/ script plus on the speaker's oral signals to maintain the style of work according to speaker's tempo. The latter also shows the importance of training for sight translation. Another advantage for training through this mode of translation is when interpreters are requested to submit an oral translation of documents or press. (Al-Zahran 2007; Coughlin, 1989)Here introduce the paper, and put a nomenclature if necessary, in a box with the same font size as the rest of the paper. The paragraphs continue from here and are only separated by headings, subheadings, images and formulae. The section headings are arranged by numbers, bold and 10 pt. Here follows further instructions for authors.

This mode of translation is applicable when official documents such as birth certificates, personal letters and identification documents are translated into a foreign language in the court of law. In these cases, the proposed idea is to supply the interpreter with documents before initiating the translation process with the aim of reconsidering the contents in adequate time. When applying a sight translation, an interpreter must have a good stock of vocabulary and knowledge of specific kind of submitted document. Moreover, the interpreter should be capable to look through the documents quickly and understand the main points while thinking of the equivalent meaning and rendering the document into the target language. (Erickson 2006, 2)

There are various definitions in scholar's works concerning this definite activity. For example, we can refer to Lambert's definition for this mode of translation: "Sight translation involves the transposition of a text written in one language into a text performed orally in another language. Since both oral and visual information processes are required, sight translation could be defined as a specific type of written translation as well as a variant of oral interpretation". (Visintin & Portillo-Campos 2009, 611)

This is an outstanding description in which the author highlights the "double character" of sight translation activity. In this mode, the students should use visual linguistic aids and then convert or reconstruct this definite element into oral linguistic aids immediately, triggering unusual brain processes. Seleskovitch (1986) affirms that in circumstances where the interpreter is obliged to convey a written text the process involved is more akin to translation than to interpretation (Visintin & Portillo-Campos 2009, p. 612)

As regards Pratt (1991), sight interpretation finds its way between translation and interpretation. This definition is based upon the similarity of the form of the original message with written translation (Visintin & Portillo-Campos 2009, p. 612)

1.1. Interpreting Modes

Furthermore, according to Visintin & Portillo-Campos (2009) personal experiences as interpreter, translator and language teacher, the possible comprehensive acceptable definition of this activity in "sight translation is the oral reformulation in the target language of a text written in the source language.

Sight translation is commonly scrutinized much less than more common modes of conference interpreting such as consecutive and simultaneous interpreting modes. After analyzing the restrictions, obstacles, efforts and failures, Agrifoligo (2004) made comparisons between these three modes and eventually distinguished a remarkable difference between meaning and demonstration problems by professional interpreters. The problems explained in sight translation are contrary to consecutive (CI) and simultaneous interpreting (SI). Sight translation (ST) seems apparently as an easier duty to accomplish because of the lower memory immersion which is needed. However the consistent presence of the source text is also considered as an obstacle for manifesting the material in the target language. The reason is that the interpreter has to oppress the hindrances of source or first language. The coordination effort is proposed to concentrate on silent reading and expressing the ideas and meanings (Chemiel & Mazur 2013, p.3)

Agrifoglio believes that "visual interference seems to be stronger than audio interference and the sight translator may have to devote more effort to resisting this influence in ST than in SI, sometimes at the expense of fluency" which

leads to a higher number of expression mistakes in sight translation (75% of all failures) than in simultaneous interpretation (37%) and consecutive interpreting (24%) according to author's report. (Chemiel & Mazur 2013, p. 3)

1.2. Interpreting types

Interpreting types under this criterion have been categorized in community interpreting, conference interpreting, court interpreting, escort interpreting, media interpreting and remote interpreting. (Al-Zahran, 2007, p.18)

Community interpreting takes place in the public service domains such as medicine, law, education or welfare services. Wadensjo (2001) points out "involvement in face - to - face interaction emphasizes the community interpreter's role as both a language and social mediator.. .community interpreters have to handle real - time dialogue - more or less spontaneous and unpredictable exchanges of talk between individuals speaking different languages -and they also have to interpret in both directions". (Opara 201, 179)

Mickelson in Canada and "community based interpreting and public service interpreting" were defined by Pochhacker and Schlesinger in the United Kingdom. According to Mickelson (1996) as the name of this type of interpreting implies, community interpreting is oriented towards inhabitants of specific community contrary to conference representatives such as politicians, diplomats or scientists who are partaking in international conferences. Community interpreters commonly perform their tasks in two directions "into and out of both languages" according to consecutive mode principles. For this reason, it is also referred to as "liaison interpreting" or "dialogue interpreting". (Al-Zahran 2007; Wadensjo 2001). Zahran points out that conference interpreting is disputably the most esteemed and highly lucrative form of interpreting. Due to the increasing advancements in international interactions and since this type of interpreting is featured by high - quality accomplishment, it was actually considered as the most demanding type of interpreting. Pochhacker believes that multilateral diplomatic interpreting used to be defined as the best domain of performing the conference interpreting; however, the linguistic equivalence concept which is supported by the European Union (EU) facilitated expanding and spreading conference interpreting mode to almost all domains of interlingual and intercultural communication. Therefore, conference interpreting is not only applicable and efficient in political and diplomatic, but also in medical, technical and agricultural conferences. (Al-Zahran 2007, p. 19) Furthermore, according to Munday's definition "conference interpreting is generally understood as the most prestigious and highly professionalized form of interpreting, usually in the simultaneous mode, as represented globally by AIIC, valued most highly by NAATI, and practiced at international UN and EU institutions". It developed due to the sudden promotion at international meetings after Second World War. One particularity which was distinguished in this type of interpreting is specific form of communication and interaction which occurs at conferences. (Opara 2011, p. 179)

2. Interpreting studies

Interpreting studies are commonly classified into two distinctive fields: conference interpreting and community interpreting. Whereas conference interpreting is performed in the form of monologue, community interpreting is carried out in the form of dialogue (normally two initial lecturers are involved in the interpretation process). In conference interpreting, the interpreters have their own pre-scheduled utterances which are often written from source material, whereas in community interpreting, the interpreters experience impetuous speeches which may be pre-scheduled. As another essential characteristics of conference interpreting, is that it comprises free burning turns whereas community interpreting includes relatively quick turns. It is worthwhile to mention that community interpreting is "bi - directional" interpreting whereas conference interpreting is "uni - directional" interpreting. (Jacobsen 2009, 155-156) Conference interpreting is conducted either through consecutive conference interpreting (CCI) or in most cases through simultaneous interpreting (SI). Therefore conference interpreters have to carry out the interpretation process effectively in both above - mentioned modes. (Al-Zahran 2007)

From strict professional point of view, court interpreting is not specialized just for courtrooms but can be performed in various other institutions for example in law offices, enforcement departments, prisons, police offices, barrister's inns or any other institutions which deal with the judiciary systems. (Jacobsen 2009; Al-Zahran 2007) Pragmatic

Meaning in Court Interpreting: An Empirical Study of Additions in Consecutively Interpreted Question-Answer Dialogues 2002; Gamal, 2001,Mickelson, 2000)

Moreover, Bente Jacobsen believes that court interpreting is referred to as legal interpreting, judiciary interpreting or forensic interpreting. It is sometimes considered as more extensive notion of what is usually termed community interpreting. (Jacobsen, 2002; Roberts 1997)

3. What requirements are there

According to Translatum Journal, there should be strict requirements for courtroom interpreting and court interpreters should fulfill a variety of tasks for achieving mutual linguistic and cultural equivalences. Professionally speaking, the main mission of court interpreter as a language and cultural representative specifies the conclusions of legal proceedings and judicial procedures. These outcomes may either create successful communication process or ruin the interaction process completely (Keratsa 2005). As Shuttleworth and Cowie mentioned, court interpreting is an interpreting mode which applies to all kinds of legal and judicial interpreting. This type of interpreting occurs in courtrooms or in other legislative settings such as police departments, prisons, immigration authorities etc. As the primary purpose, court interpreter has to give the opportunity and authorize the clients to take part in court proceedings actively and to make arrangements to communicate and bridge the gap between claimants and judicial staff. These claimants usually come from different countries. The ultimate and main objective in court interpreting process is to guarantee an effective and efficient exchange of messages between claimants, adjudicating individuals and eventually to obtain the successful legal processes. (Keratsa 2005, p. 1-2)

Gamal considers the most unique characteristics of legal interpreting is its prominent and conspicuous adherence to ethical criteria. In this mode of interpreting, "human being's life and liberty" are considered as being at risk emphatically. (See more in Ethics of interpreters) The main argument is that since any interpreter should be truthful to the professional ethical codes, these theories are not unfamiliar or strange to conference interpreting or any other interpreting types. In some cases of interpreting meetings which involve high - status individuals, "human being's life or liberty" of an individual is not at risk and should not be regarded as the first priority at the conference and the destiny of the whole nation is specified as the fundamental objective at such meetings. A brilliant example in this case is UN Security Council debates or high - level summit meetings. Meanwhile, Mickelson believes that sticking to the professional ethical codes is not defined only for conference interpreters. (Al-Zahran 2007, p. 20)

3.1. Escorting

Chen Gang in his study on different norms of escort interpretation mode states that escort interpretation/interpreting is a special type of interpretation which has been performed so far only by a constricted number of Chinese and other scholars. There is not any serious and widespread research and investigation on different norms and criteria of this kind of interpreting. The reason is that these scholars who paid attention to escort interpretation mode have had usually restricted experiences in both practice - based interpretation and tour guide.

According to Translation Studies, escort interpretation characterizes its outstanding standards and criteria in order to appraise the quality of this mode of interpreting and also its extraordinary strategies in mutual cultural interpretation/interaction. (Gang 2010, p. 367) Escort interpreters have specific duties, tasks and responsibilities in their profession or occupation which are perfectly distinctive from defined routine duties and responsibilities for pure conference interpreters, court interpreters and so on. On the whole, the escort interpreter performs double or coupled functions. It means that the escort interpreter works not only as an interpreter but also as a guide. The fact is that these interpreters have to serve as professional interpreters as well as guides; they have to perform a lot of extra functions which are totally beyond the interpretation job in the traditional meaning. (Gang 2010, p. 371)

According to Stancati (2011), in a simple definition, escort interpreters perform their duties in the form of active consecutive interpreting. They are able to accompany their clients wherever necessary. In other words, they escort foreigners to their residence, work etc. Chen Gang (2004) stated that the escort interpretation depicts "tourist - oriented service" which mainly involves escort interpretation and some other services. The former description of this type of interpreting denotes "on - the - way escort interpretation" and immediate and direct interpretation as well as interpretation which is conducted at conventions, seminars, forums, business talks, interviews, visits including

entertainment and shopping. The latter description refers to some occasions such as meeting and seeing people off, luggage delivery, inter-city communication, security guarantee, and even local transportation service. (Gang 2010, p. 371)

Professionally speaking, the success of escort interpretation depends on two different elements. From subjective perspective (internally), the success of this mode of interpretation depends on professionalism of the escort interpreter and from objective perspective (externally), the successful process relies on some explained elements regarding tourist services in the country of destination. Escort interpretation involves a great area of specialized services that should be professional, standardized, humanistic, attractive and ultimately acceptable. (Gang 2010, p. 371)

According to Mickelson (1999), escort interpreting relates to one type of interpretation that is performed during "on - site visits" figured by official characters, business administrators, investors, etc., and directs escort interpreters to different formal or informal positions and locations for interpreting. In most cases, consecutive interpreting is applied in this type of interpreting and is commonly restricted to several sentences at one time. (Al-Zahran 2007; Gonzalez, 1991)

The term media interpreting is applied to describe the type of interpreting process which is accomplished in and for various broadcast media of mass communication such as television, satellite or radio. This type of interpretation is also referred to as "broadcast interpreting" and "TV interpreting". (Al-Zahran 2007; Pochhocker, 2004)

Within the interpreting studies' field, the subject of media interpreting has always been under study. Initial efforts in this filed were traced by Austrian media interpreter Ingrid Kurz in the 1980s. He strived mainly to describe particular challenges, tensions and restrictions which are recognized as the main interpreters' concerns in media settings. At the next stage, the amount of work in these settings increased and became more diverse. According to Kurz (1990), media interpreting encountered challenges and stresses of various kinds in addition to all recognized constraints and limitations which were imposed on conference interpreting. (Pochhacker 2011; Al-Zahran 2007

4. Conclusion and discussion

The reasons are as follows: first of all, in media interpreting, smooth style is more emphasized. Indeed, the media audiences preferred purified and pleasurable style as well as fluent delivery of information by TV newsreaders. Secondly, interpreter's information should be delivered very quickly. This quickness and high - speed of conveyance is required because it takes longer time in comparison with the speaker who could make the audiences keep apart from the interpreting process and cause the audiences' distraction from the affect of the interpreted phenomenon. Thirdly, media interpreters have to count on monitors rather than on sight interpreting. Fourthly, media interpreters usually do not know any exact information about their audiences whose number may come to millions. In such circumstance, media interpreters are afraid of making mistakes that cause failure in interpretation process. Fifthly, media interpreters might work nights with less concentration ability. Sixthly, sometimes media interpreters work in newsrooms or studios instead of soundproof booths. If so, they might face visual and acoustic disorders and several various interruptions. Furthermore, they may encounter unpredicted technical problems. (Al-Zahran 2007; Tsuruta, 2003)

References

Al-Zahran, Aladdin (2007) The Consecutive Conference Interpreter as Intercultural Mediator: A Cognitive- Pragmatic Approach to the Interpreter's

Role. Salford, UK: University of Salford, Salford, UK,. Chemiel, Agnieszka, and Iwona Mazur. (2013) "Eye Tracking Sight Translation Performed by Trainee Interpreters. Tracks and Treks in Translation Studies, 189-205.

Erickson, A. (2006) Modes of Interpreting: Simultaneous, Consecutive & Sight Translation. National Association of Judiciary Interpreers & Translator.

Gang, Chen (2010) On Different Norms of Escort Interpretation. Translation Studies, 366-381.

Gonzalez, R.D., Vásquez, V.F & Mikkelson, H. (1991) Fundamentals of Court Interpretation: Theory, Policy and practice. Durham, North Carolina US: Carolina, Academic Press.

Jacobsen, Bente (2009) The Community Interpreter: A Question of Role. Hermes — Journal of Language and Communication Studies 42, 155-166. Jacobsen, Bente (2002) Pragmatic Meaning in Court Interpreting: An Empirical Study of Additions in Consecutively Interpreted Question-Answer

Dialogues. Faculty of Modern Languages, the Aarhus School of Business. Keratsa, A. (2005) Court Interpreting: Features, Conflicts and the Future.Translatum Journal. Kelson, H (1999). Court interpreting at a crossroads. Paper presented at NAJIT Conference in May

Mikkelson, H. (1996) The professionalization of community interpreting. In Global Vision, ed. M. Jerome-O'Keefee. Alexandria, VA: American Translators Association, 77-89

Opara, A. (2011) Interpreting Services in the European Union's Institutions. eLingUp [Centro de Lingüística da Universidade do Porto], 3(1), 175193.

Pochhacker, Fr. (2011) Researching TV Interpreting: Selected Studies of US Presidential Material. Translation Studies, 21-36. Stancati, L. A. Internation." http://www.internationinc.com. 2011. (accessed January 13, 2016).

Visintin, M.C. Alessio Zanier, and M.C. Vilma Portillo Campos. (2009),Sight Translation as a Cognitive Tool in Language Learning. Universidad de Quintana Roo- Departamento de Lengua y Educación: Memorias del v foro de estudios en lenguas internacional ISBN 978-607-9015-05-3.