Scholarly article on topic 'Analysis on clinically drug-used law for lung-intestine related diseases'

Analysis on clinically drug-used law for lung-intestine related diseases Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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{"Lung being connected with large intestine" / "Lung-intestine related diseases" / "Drug-used law"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical sciences, author of scientific article — Luan Gao, Jian Wang, Fenggang Li, Sihua Gao, Yong Deng

Abstract Objective To analyze the application laws of clinical drugs by descriptive statistical method with the clinical literatures guided by “lung being connected with large intestine” used as the object. Methods Retrieve publicly published clinical literatures about “lung being connected with large intestine” in recent 30 years, establish the database of clinical literature, and study on the clinically drug-used laws by descriptive statistical analytic method. Results The common high frequent drugs used for the lung-intestine related diseases were Gualou (Ructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). For the different clinical syndrome types, in the commonly used drugs there were different characteristics, reflecting the principle of TCM syndrome differentiation treatment. Conclusion The common high frequent drugs used for the lung-intestine related diseases are Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), which are commonly-used drugs for the lung-intestine related diseases, with differences for different syndrome types.

Academic research paper on topic "Analysis on clinically drug-used law for lung-intestine related diseases"

JTCM

Online Submissions:http://www.journaltcm.com info@journaltcm.com

J Tradit Chin Med 2012 December 15; 32(4): 523-528

ISSN 0255-2922 © 2012 JTCM. All rights reserved.

EVIDENCE-BASED STUDY

Analysis on clinically drug-used law for lung-intestine related diseases

Luan Gao, Jian Wang, Fenggang Li, Sihua Gao,YongDeng

Luan Gao, Jian Wang, Yong Deng, TCM Clinic School, An-hui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui 230038, China

Fenggang Li, School of management, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China Supported by National Key Basic Research Development Plan (N0.2009CB522701), and Anhui Natural Science foundation (N0.090416246)

Correspondence to: Prof. Jian Wang, TCM Clinic School, Anhui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui 230038, China. wangjian6301@163.com Telephone: +86-551-5169179 Accepted: June 28, 2012

CONCLUSION: The common high frequent drugs used for the lung-intestine related diseases are Gua-lou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhi-zoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Mag-noliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immatu-rus), which are commonly-used drugs for the lung-intestine related diseases ,with differences for different syndrome types.

© 2012 JTCM. All rights reserved.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the application laws of clinical drugs by descriptive statistical method with the clinical literatures guided by "lung being connected with large intestine" used as the object.

METHODS: Retrieve publicly published clinical literatures about "lung being connected with large intestine" in recent 30years, establish the database of clinical literature, and study on the clinically drug-used laws by descriptive statistical analytic method.

RESULTS: The common high frequent drugs used for the lung-intestine related diseases were Gualou (Ructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). For the different clinical syndrome types, in the commonly used drugs there were different characteristics, reflecting the principle of TCM syndrome differentiation treatment.

Key words: Lung being connected with large intestine; Lung-intestine related diseases; Drug-used law

INTRODUCTION

The theory of "lung being connected with large intestine" is one of important components of TCM viscera-state doctrine. In recent years, people have been deeply understood the theory of "lung being connected with large intestine" and the studies from theory, literature, clinic and experiment have been developed, and it has been widely applied in clinic, particularly, in TCM treatment of the lung-intestine related diseases. Some scholars deeply mining the connotation of this theory, and hold that this theory is used for describing the lung-large intestine correlation and explaining the relation of physiology and pathology between the lung and the large intestine the lung based on Zang- and Fu-or-gans, functional activity of Qi and channels.1 In order to better reveal clinically application value of the this theory, and reveal the clinically drug-used law for the lung-intestinal related diseases, this study selected clinical literatures about the lung-intestinal related diseases publicly published in recent 30 years as re-

search objects, and probed into the clinically drug-used laws by using descriptive statistical analysis method.

PREPARATION AND PREPROCESSING OF DATA

Clinical research literatures about the lung and intestine related diseases publicly published in recent 30 years.

The clinical research literatures related with the theory of "lung being connected with large intestine", including clinically randomized controlled trails, clinically controlled trails , series researches of cases without control, scholar experiences, cases report, etc. were selected. The literatures about repetition, theoretical approach, animal experiment, review, etc, were excluded

Methods

The literatures were retrieved by computer retrieval combined with manual retrieval between January 1979 and December 2009. For the database of computer retrieval, the China Biomedical literature database, TCM literature databank, China periodical network verbatim databank, etc. were selected. For the subject pathways and keywords pathways, retrieved words were: lung and large intestine; lung and large intestine interior-exterior relation; the lung disease being treated based on the intestine; pneumonia and promoting bowel movement; bronchitis and promoting bowel movement; asthma and promoting bowel movement; pulmonary heart disease and promoting bowel movement; pulmonary emphysema and promoting bowel movement; COPD and promoting bowel movement; cough and promoting bowel movement; constipation and lung; loose bowels and lung; enteritis and lung; diarrhea and lung; lifting a pot and opening the cover; treatment of intestinal disease based on the lung, etc. For subject word pathway, retrieved words were lung and large intestine interior-exterior relation.

The retrieved literatures adopted EXCEL as the recorded data and management and the process was composed by the personnel in the specific field, and a clinical literature database about "the lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related" was established. All data were standardized according to available national TCM clinical diagnostic and therapeutic terms. Altogether 373 literatures were recorded, Then they were transferred as number table by using the sql server 2005 data importing and exporting functions , and wrote process to make statistical analysis of times and frequency, and the drugs were analyzed and processed.

THE DRUGS-USED LAW FORTHE LUNG-INTESTINE RELATED DISEASES

Statistical analysis indicated that in diseases of the lung

system, altogether 160 drugs were involved with a total time of 2429. In diseases of the intestinal system , 148 drugs were involved with a total time of 1035. Among them, the 6 drugs all have over 20 used frequencies: Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang(Radix et Rhi-zoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gan-cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). Pharmacological studies of both traditional medicine and modern medicine indicated these drugs could act on both the lung and intestine systems. Discussion is made as follows:

Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis)

Gualou(Fructus Trichsanthis),cold in nature, sweet and little bitter in taste, with channel tropism of the Lung, Stomach and Large Channels, has functions of clearing heat and dissipating phlegm, relieving chest stuffiness and resolving mass, moisturizing dryness and laxation. It is used for treatment of cough due to lung-heat, stagnation of yellow-thick phlegm, precordial pain due to obstruction of Qi in the chest, acute mastitis, pulmonary abscess, acute appendicitis and swelling-pain, constipation. In Bencao Gangmu Vol.18 recorded: Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) had functions of "moisturizing lung-dryness, removing fire, treating cough, dissipating phlegm, treating diabetes, promoting bowel movement, relieving carbuncle". Fried Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) seed may be used for:"relieving deficiency syndrome, moisturizing the heart and lung, treating he-matemesis, intestinal wind syndrome with hematoche-zia, dysentery, creases of hand and face". Modern pharmacological studies indicate that Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) has better therapeutic effects on digestive and respiratory systems, and extract of Gua-lou (Fructus Trichsanthis) has obvious dilative action on acetylcholine-induced ileocolic contraction of the mouse, and the lipids and oil contained in the seed of Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) have a strong action inducing diarrhea; Gualou Ren Shuang has a more milder action, and can be used as a mild cathartic. In experiment of animal it is proved that the total amino acid isolated from skin of Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) has a good effect of removing phlegm, after intragastrical administration, decoction of Gualou (Fructus Trichsan-this) can inhibit the ammonia water-induced cough and increase secretion of phenolsulfonphthalein in the respiratory tract of the mouse, indicating that Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis) has the function of relieving cough and removing phlegm.2

Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma)

Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), bitter in taste, cold in nature, with channel tropism of the Spleen, the Stomach, the Large Intestine, the Pericardium, the Liver Channels, has functions of purging heat, promoting bowel movement, cooling blood and removing toxic substance, removing stasis and dredging channels. It is

used for treatment of constipation with excessive heat, abdominal pain due to retention of food, dysentery, damp-heat jaundice, hematemesis due to blood heat, bloodshot eyes, swollen pharynx, acute appendicitis and abdominal pain, carbuncle and furuncle, blood stasis and amenorrhea, traumatic injury, external treatment of water and fire scald; hemorrhage of upper-digestive tract. In Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, it is recoded that:"It mainly treats blood stasis, arthralgia of blood origin, cold-heat, removing accumulation of mass in the abdomen, retention of foots, clearing the stomach and intestine, promoting digestion of foods, regulating the five-Zangorgans."

Modern pharmacological studies show that Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma) has wide pharmacologic effects of purgation, promoting bile secretion, protecting liver, anti-gastric and duodenal ulcer, hemostasis, anti-pathogenic microorganisms, anti-inflammation, relieving fever, involved in digestive, respiratory, hemic, immune systems. Available studies prove that rheum emodin has better antibacterial action on Bacillus pyocyaneus, Stuphylococcus aureus, methicillin-dependent Stuphy-lococcus aureus, etc. At present, researchers try to further reveal the molecular mechanism.3 While clinical observation indicates that Dahuang (Radix et Rhi-zoma) can treat digestive ulcer with positive Helico-bacter pylori, and rheum emodin in intestinal mucosa can promote secretion of motilin, so as to reduce re-uptake of glucose, amino acid and Na+, increasing internal pressure of the intestine and strengthening peristal-sis.4,5 Other study indicates that rheum emodin has effect of stimulating secretion of chloride ion in epithelial cells of colon.6

Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum)

Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), bitter in taste, mild warm in nature, with little toxicity, channel tropism: the Lung Channel and the Large Intestine Channel, functions relieving cough and asthma, loosening the bowel to relieve constipation. It is used for treatment of cough and asthma, feeling of fullness in chest and more phlegm, blood deficiency and less body fluid, intestinal dry and constipation. In Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing it is recoded that:"Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum) indicates cough, reversed flow of Qi, asthma, inflammation of the throat, trauma , etc." In Ben Cao Qiu Zhen it is stated:"Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum) has functions of dispersing wind and cold, and relieving asthma, removing pathogenic factors, Qi flowing downward , loosening the bowel to relieve constipation, removing the stagnation and phlegm."

Modern pharmacology indicates that amygdalin is an effective component of Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum). After oral administration, in the body it can decompose as hydrocyanic acid and benzaldehyde. Hydrocyanic acid can produce a certain inhibitory action on the respiratory center, making respiratory motion

tend to resting, hence relieving cough and asthma. Kuxingren Liquid (Semen Armeniacae Amarum) can decrease sensitivity of the trachea to stimulation of ammonia water, and the excitatory action of anti-histamine, acetylcholine and barium chloride on smooth muscle of the trachea and the intestine, have obvious actions of relieving cough and strengthening the peristalsis of large intestine.7

Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae)

Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), sweet in taste, plain in nature; channel tropism: the Heart, Spleen, Lung, Stomach Channels, has functions of reinforcing the spleen and invigorating Qi, moistening lung for arresting cough, clearing heat and removing toxicity, relieving pain, alleviating nature of drug. In Ben Jing it is stated:"removing cold and heat pathogenic factors in five-Zang and six-Fu organs, strengthening tendons and muscle and bones, growing muscle, removing toxicity , prolonging life". In Be Lu it recorded:"Gan-cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) functions warming the mid-dle-jiao and descending Qi, treating shortness of breath, cough due to injury of Zang-organs, quenching thirst, dredging channels, promoting flow of Qi and blood, removing toxicity of many drugs". Dongheng Li said:"Crude Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) has functions of purging fire and heat, prepared Gancao functions relieving superficies syndrome, relieving pharyn-galgia, removing pathogenic heat, reviving genuine Qi, nourishing Kn-blood, reinforcing the spleen and stomach, moistening the lung ".

Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) is a commonly-used Chinese drug with wide pharmacologic actions. Modern studies discover that Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) and its extract have functions of relieving cough, removing phlegm, relieving asthma, protecting the lung and anti-pathogen in the respiratory tract, etc. and glycyrrhi-zic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and flavonoids are active components of pharmacological action of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) on the respiratory system. Also, Gan-cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) is commonly used for treatment of diseases of the digestive system, deficiency and weakness of the spleen and stomach, poor appetite , abdominal pain loose stool, digestive ulcer and hepatitis, etc.

An experiment indicates that Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhi-zae) has biphasic regulative action on gastrointestinal motion function, the concentration of the effective components determining the final effect, and its effective components play the role through the central nerve system, intestinal nerve system or the gastrointestinal system.8

Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis)

Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), bitter, pungent in taste , warm in nature; Channel tropism: the Spleen, Stomach, Lung and Large Intestine Channels; Functions: eliminating dampness, promoting flow of Qi, re-

lieving dyspepsia, relieving asthma. Indications: retention of foods and stagnation of Qi; abdominal disten-tion and constipation; stagnation of dampness in mid-dle-jiao, fullness in the stomach and vomiting and diarrhea; adverse rising of Qi due to phlegm accumulation; fullness sensation in chest and cough. Ben Jing recorded that Houpu(Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) indicated wind-stroke syndrome and exogenous febrile disease, headache, palpiation due to terror, Bi-syndrome due to stagnation of Qi and blood, and Bei Lu stated "it had functions of warming middle-jiao and supplementing Qi, removing phlegm, treating cholera and abdominal pain and distention, cold in stomach, vomiting, dysentery". Shizhen held "it could strengthen the spleen, treat regurgitation of foot from stomach, and Qi- deficiency of five-Zang organs" The main components of Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) are phenols of magnolol and others, volatile oil and alkaloid, and a research finds that a main component of the volatile oil of Houpu (Cortex Mag-noliae Officinalis) bark is eudesmol and its isomer, accounting for about 40%-55% of total amount of the volatile oils.9 Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) has a stronger antibacterial action, and its decoction has wider antimicrobial spectrum with stable antibacterial action which is uneasily destroyed by heat, acid and alkali, and it has a stronger inhibitory action on Staphylococcus aureus, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus dysenteriae, Bacillus typhosus, Baccillus paraty-phosus, Bacillus coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus termo, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Bacillus anthracis, etc.10 An experiment indicates that Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) has function of promoting the digestive system and considers that this is a basis of Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) for treatment of retention of food and indigestion, cold-damp dysentery, and warming middle-jiao to relieve pain.11

Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus)

Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), bitter, pungent, soreness in taste, warmness in nature. Channel tro-pism: the Spleen, Stomach, Large Intestine Channels. Functions: relieving the stagnation of Qi and removing mass in the stomach, removing phlegm and relieving dyspepsia. It is used for treatment of indigestion, poor appetite, eructation with fetid odor, abdominal disten-tion. In Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing it is stated that"it has functions of removing cold-heat, relieving dysentery, beneficial to five-Zang organs, supplementing Qi. In Ben Cao Gang Mu:" Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immatu-rus) has functions of promoting flow of Qi, reliving asthma, removing phlegm, relieving pain, and treating dysentery".

Modern pharmacologic studies indicate that main chemical components of Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Im-maturus) are volatile oil, flavone glycoside (mainly including cirmtim, new cirmtim, naringoside, rhoifolin

and lonicerin, etc.), N-methyltyramine, synephrine, norepinephrine, and lipids, protein, carbohydrate, carotene, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. A study proves that Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus) can obviously increase the phenolsulfonphthalein excretion rate in the mouse with food retention, improve the state of weakened gastrointestinal motion function in the mouse,12 holding that Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus) can strength the intensity and lasting time of smooth muscle contraction.13 Another study indicates that Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus) has a certain excitatory action on smooth muscle of the respi-

ratory tract.

ANALYSIS ON THE DRUG-USED LAW FOR COMMONLY-SEEN SYNDROME TYPES OF THE LUNG-INTESTINE RELATED DISEASES

The commonly-seen TCM syndrome types in the lung system and the intestine system are discussed,15 and the first 20 drugs with the high used frequency are selected according to the decreasing sequence of the used frequency for each drug used for treatment of each syndrome, to probe into the drug-used law for the syndromes.

Analysis on drug-used laws for commonly-seen syndromes of the lung diseases

In the diseases of the lung system, for the type of accumulation of phlegm and heat in the lung, the pathogenesis is conjugation of phlegm and heat, accumulating in the lung, obstruction and failure of lung- Qi in descending. Clearing heat, removing phlegm and promoting flow of lung- Qi should be used in treatment. Therefore the most commonly-used drugs for this type are Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoli-ae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Mahuang (Herba Ephe-drae), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Tinglizi (Semen Lepiddi seu Descurainiae). For the type of stagnation of phlegm in lung, the pathogenesis of phlegm mingled with blood stasis, stagnating in the lung, which should be treated by both removing phlegm and blood stasis. The commonly-used drugs are Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Taoren (Semen Persicae), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Dansh-en (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Xingren (Semen Ar-meniacae Amarum), Tinglizi (Semen Lepiddi seu Desc-urainiae), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis),etc. For the type of wind-cold affecting the lung, impairment of descending function of the lung-Qi induced by wind-cold pathogens affecting de-

fensive function of the lung , which should be treated by dispersing lung-Qi, relieving exterior syndrome and dispelling cold. The commonly-used drugs are Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae), Jiegeng (Radix Platycodo-nis), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Chen-pi (Pericarpium citri Reticulatae), Banxia(Rhizoma Pi-nelliae), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Zisuzi (Fructus Perillae), Ziyuan (Radix Asteris). For type of lung-heat transferring to the intestine, exuberance of lung heat transfers to the intestine along the channel, it should be treated by treating both lung and intestine at same time, clearing heat in the lung and the intestine. The commonly-used drugs are Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Gancao (Radix Glyc-yrrhizae), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Jiegeng (Radix Platycodo-nis), Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae), Lianqiao(Fructus Forsythiae), Jingjie (Herba Schizonepetae), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), etc. For the type of wind-heat invading the lung, impairment of purifYing and descending function of lung- Qi due to wind-heat pathogenic factor invading defensive function of lung, so dispersing lung-Qi, relieving exterior syndrome and clearing heat method should be used for treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Gancao(Radix Glycyrrhizae), Lianqiao (Fructus Forsythiae),Jiegeng (Radix Platycodonis), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Jinyinhua (Flos Lonicerae), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Sangye (Folium Mori), etc. For type of stagnation of phlegm in the lung is a syndrome induced by obstruction of the air tract due to stagnation of phlegm in the lung. Resolving phlegm and dispersing lung-Qi method should be used for its treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Da-huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei), Gancao (Radix Glyc-yrrhizae), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Banxia (Rhi-zoma Pinelliae), Chenpi (Pericarpium citri Reticula-tae), Fuling (Poria), Taoren (Semen Persicae), Tinglizi (Semen Lepiddi seu Descurainiae), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), etc. Syndrome of deficiency of both lung and Qi has such clinical manifestations as deficiency of pectoral Qi , weakness of superficial-Qi, abnormal rising of lung-Qi induced by insufficiency of lung-Qi, consumption of body fluid, failure in dispersing and descending function. Supplementing Qi and nourishing Yin method is used for its treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Maidong (Radix Ophiopog-onis), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Renshen (Ginseng), Zhuye, Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Zhebeimu (Bulbus Fritillariae), Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae), Baihe (Bulbus Lilii), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macro-cephalae), Beishashen (Radix Glehniae). Syndrome of Yin-deficiency of lung and kidney is a syndrome in-

duced by deficiency of Yin-liquid of the lung and the kidney, most due to external pathogenic factor going into the interior and changing into heat invading Yin, or lung-Yin consumption of lung-Yin due to disease in the lung, involving in the kidney, or consumption of kidney-Yin affecting the lung. Both the lung and the kidney are treated at the same time, mutual promotion of the lung and the kidney. The commonly-used drugs are Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis), Ejiao (Colla Corri Asini), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Sangye (Folium Mori), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Jiegeng (Radix Platycodonis), Laifuzi (Semen Raphani), Huomaren (Fructus Cannabis), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Roudoukou (Semen Myristicae).

Analysis on drug-used laws for commonly-seen syndromes of the intestinal diseases

In the intestinal diseases, the lung-Qi deficiency syndrome is insufficiency of lung-Qi, manifested as impairment of purifying and descending function of the lung, failure in descending of Qi, retention of waste matter or weakness of governing in intestinal diseases. Therefore, tonifying therapy should be mainly used. The commonly-used drugs are Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Huomaren (Fructus Cannabis), Dangsh-en (Radix Codonopsis), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Si-nensis), Chenpi (Pericarpeum citri Reticulatae), Gua-lou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Jiegeng (Radix Platycodo-nis). Syndrome of stagnation of Qi is a syndrome of dysfunction in some parts or viscera induced by unhappy, improper diet, over easy, etc. The large intestine belongs to ^и-organs, stagnation of Qi may induce disturbance of intestinal movement and descending function of the lung, causing distention, pain etc. So, promoting movement of the intestine and flow of Qi should be mainly used for its treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Jiegeng (Radix Platycodonis), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Houpu (Cortex Magnoli-ae Officinalis), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Imma-turus), Zisuzi (Fructus Perillae), Ziwan (Radix Asteris), Pipaye (Folium Eriobotryae), Fuling (Poria). For lung-heat going down to the large intestine, dysfunction of the large intestine in transduction is commonly seen, so the commonly-used drugs are Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Jinyinhua (Flos Lonicer-ae), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Yuxingcao (Herba Houttuyniae), Jingjie (Herba Schizonepetae), Lianqiao (Fructus Forsythiae), Sangbaipi (Cortex Mori Radicis), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae). For the syndrome of Yin-deficiency and intestine dry, constipation, dryness of mouth, nose, throat and skin, reddish tongue with less liquid, rapid, fine and unsmooth pulse are commonly-seen syndromes due to insufficiency of

Yin-liquid, failure of the intestine in moisture. Nourishing Y'n-liquid, lubricating bowel to relieve constipation should be used for the treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehman-niae), Sangye (Folium Mori), Qianhu (Radix Peuceda-ni), Zisuzi (Fructus Perillae), Xuanshen (Radix Scroph-ulariae), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Huomaren (Fructus Cannabis). Syndrome of Qi-deficiency of the spleen and the lung is referred to Qi-deficiency of both the spleen and the lung, mainly marked by the syndromes of deficiency and weakness, such as cough, asthma, appetite, abdominal distention, loose stool, etc. Both the spleen and the lung should be treated at same time, strengthening lung (metal by reinforcing spleen (earth). The commonly-used drugs are Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Fuling (Poria), Shengma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chi-nensis), Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Chi Shao (Radix Paeoniae Rubrs), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atrac-tylodis Macrocephalae), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae). Syndrome of lung dryness due to Yin deficiency is referred to insufficiency of Yin-liquid, lung dryness without moisture, and symptoms mainly are reflected in the lung system, such as dry pharynx and mouth, dry cough with less phlegm, itch of throat, dry nose, less fur and body liquid, floating, fine and rapid pulse, etc. Because the lung and the large intestine are interior-ex-teriorly related, the methods of nourishing Yin and moistening the lung, and lubricating bowelto relieve constipation should be used for the treatment. The commonly-used drugs are Kuxingren (Semen Armenia-cae Amarum), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis),Ejiao (Colla Corri Asini), Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis), Pipaye (Folium Eriobotryae), Sangye (Folium Mori), Taizishen (Radix Pseu dostellariae), Shigao (Gypsum Fi-brosum), Ziwan (Radix Asteris), Baishao (Radix Pae-oniae). For the type of stagnation of phlegm-heat in the lung, constipation and other symptoms are induced by conjoint phlegm and heat stagnating in the lung, failure of lung- Qi in dispelling and descending to moisten the intestinal tract. Clearing heat, dissipating phlegm and promoting bowel movement should be used for the treatment. The most commonly-used drugs are Mangxiao (Natrii Sulfas), Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Sangbaipi (Cortex Mori Radicis), Zhizi (Fructus Grdeniae), Zhuli (Succus Bambusae), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Taoren (Semen Persicae), etc. From above analysis, it is not difficult to find that clinically the commonly-used drugs for the lung-intestine related diseases have Gualou (Fructus Trichsanthis), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma), Kuxingren (Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). However, for clinically different syndrome types the coomonly-used drus have different

characteristics. In addition, even for a same syndrome type, when they belong to the lung system and the intestinal system respectively, there are differences in used drugs, fully reflecting the principle of syndrome differentiation treatment ofTCM.

REFFERENCES

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