Scholarly article on topic 'Intercultural Upbringing in a Family in the Context of National Traditions'

Intercultural Upbringing in a Family in the Context of National Traditions Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Gulnara F. Biktagirova

Abstract Intercultural upbringing of pupils and students is one of the fundamental and topical issues. Today education is becoming more open to intercultural cooperation and tolerance. Thus, it is necessary to use a potential of an educational process and a family in the cultures dialogue formation. The paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of intercultural upbringing of students through family traditions; it also explains the need of applying educational potential of family traditions in intercultural interaction formation while training of students - future teachers and parents. The study was conducted among the students of the Institute of Psychology and Education at Kazan Federal University.

Academic research paper on topic "Intercultural Upbringing in a Family in the Context of National Traditions"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 237 (2017) 426 - 431

7th International Conference on Intercultural Education "Education, Health and ICT for a Transcultural World", EDUHEM 2016, 15-17 June 2016, Almena, Spain

Intercultural Upbringing in a family in the context of national

traditions

Gulnara F. Biktagirova*

Kazan Federal University, Mezhlauka str. 1, Kazan 420021, Russia

Abstract

Intercultural upbringing of pupils and students is one of the fundamental and topical issues. Today education is becoming more open to intercultural cooperation and tolerance. Thus, it is necessary to use a potential of an educational process and a family in the cultures dialogue formation. The paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of intercultural upbringing of students through family traditions; it also explains the need of applying educational potential of family traditions in intercultural interaction formation while training of students - future teachers and parents. The study was conducted among the students of the Institute of Psychology and Education at Kazan Federal University.

© 2017 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016.

Keywords: family, intercultural upbringing, national traditions, family traditions, multicultural education

1. Introduction

1.1. Structure

In the modern world we can observe broadening and deepening interaction of cultures. This can lead to problems both with different cultures interaction, and erosion and destruction of ethnic boundaries. One of the important issues raised in this context is the question of intercultural upbringing in a family. Education is understood here not only as socialization and 'introduction to culture", but also as a cross-functional process. However, all peoples in all times want to raise their children to be honest, brave, hardworking. The question is precisely what is defined by these human

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: BikGF@mail.ru

1877-0428 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.085

values and what means of folk pedagogy are used to achieve their introduction and implementation (Kon, 1992) Transfer of experience, knowledge and skills from adults to children was carried out mainly in families, so it is mainly based on family traditions, i.e. what and how a young man was taught in the family.

1.2. Exploring the importance of the Problem

Along with the socioeconomic conditions of society and the nature of generational relations in it, upbringing in a family is also being ensured with the system of tradition. The role of traditions in the process of upbringing is determined by a degree of their conservatism, resistance to external influences, capacity for borrowings and inclusions, intensity of innovation processes. International families provide closer cooperation between different nations' representatives, create the atmosphere of tolerance and respect for national identity, positive traditions and customs of other nations, their culture, language, humanize relations within the family, humanize personalities of family members both adults and children

1.3. Status of the problem

Intercultural and ethnic tolerance and the process of its formation are represented adequately in the works of D. Trager & Hall (1954), Sadokhin (2008), Ter-Minasova, (2000) and others. Intercultural upbringing is described in the works of Tarumi (2012) and Lebedeva (1999).

Intercultural interaction is one of the fundamental factors in the development of world and Russian pedagogical community and family. Under the influence of a comprehensive process of internationalization of social life, education is becoming more open to intercultural interaction of two or more cultures. Intercultural interaction is understood today as a contact and influence of teachers and parents, belonging to different cultures, each other in their professional activity and in society. It conduces comprehension of "world view" and multiculturalism of the modern world. On the one hand, the world view is connected with daily activity of everyone; on the other hand, there is a process of creating new images of the world, carried out in reflection. Fundamentals of intercultural communication are: culture of communication; speech culture; information culture; culture of behavior; culture of creation; professional culture; culture of traditions, labor and life; culture of self-actualization; moral culture, etc. Any of these areas deserves special attention. Here we deal with intercultural interaction through upbringing in family traditions.

Despite the fact that the characteristics of ethnic and cultural reality constitute one of the traditional problems of psychological and pedagogical science, its consideration in the context of a family is a quite young area, requiring a more detailed elaboration. Tradition is defined in socio-cultural and pedagogical aspects by Kagan (1996) and Markova (2007), et al., where it is considered to be the transmission and preservation of valuable teaching experience, educational events and issues. The necessity of family traditions adoption for the formation of intercultural upbringing is described in works (Biktagirova &Valeeva, 2015, Akutina, 2009) et al. They are considered to be one of the ways of initiation to the positive attitude of multicultural interaction, family, marriage, interpersonal relationships and parenting. These basic attitudes are love; birth and upbringing of children; ensuring of confident and stable relationships, their arrangement and structuring; accumulation of ancestral experiences of social development; transfer of traditional methods of self-actualization, problem solving, etc.

At the present stage the following areas of concern of ethno-cultural characteristics interference problems can be stressed out:

- impact on relationships of the spouses;

- impact on parents - children interaction;

- impact on development and socialization of child's personality.

Ethnic peculiarities of intra-familiar operation are the basis for the development of ways of social response, which are then used by children. Following national traditions inevitably results in individual's behavior. Traditions themselves are not transferred mechanically from generation to generation. They need to be developed and introduced into the process of family upbringing of children, taking into account changes that occur in the society. Consequently, future teachers and parents need to be trained in this area.

1.4. Research problem and goal of the study

In view of the above, the following problem arises: what are the possibilities of using the upbringing potential of family traditions in intercultural interaction formation while training of students - future teachers and parents.

Therefore, the aim of the study is to reveal capabilities of upbringing potential of family traditions in intercultural interaction of students.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Theoretical and empirical methods

To test the hypothesis there was developed a complex of methods, complementing one another:

- theoretical - analysis of the psychological and pedagogical literature on the research problem; studying and generalization of pedagogical experience.

- empirical - questioning, testing, students' performance results study "Family Traditions" questionnaire; study of students' ethnic tolerance by the test on interethnic tolerance (Sobkin & .Adamchuck, 2006).

2.2. Research facilities

Pedagogical experiment on intercultural upbringing of students took place at the Institute of Psychology and Education at Kazan Federal University in the period from September 2015 to April 2016. The study involved 108 young people aged 18-21, students of 1-3 years. The experimental study was conducted under natural conditions of educational process with the use of capability of the disciplines "Family Pedagogy" and "Multicultural education".

2.3. Stages of the research

At the first stage of the experiment the information on the research problem in philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature and psychological practice was studied, summarized and systematized; personal experience in this area was accumulated and analyzed.

At the second stage the experimental work on intercultural upbringing of students by means of the use of family traditions was carried out.

At the third stage the results were analyzed and interpreted.

2.4. Course and description of the experiment

Initially, the research data, describing students' vision of the concepts of "family", "tradition", "family tradition", "tolerance", "intercultural interaction", "intercultural upbringing", were gathered.

A pilot study of general level of students' tolerance was conducted. As a result, the diagnosis revealed that 57.8% of respondents received basic knowledge of tolerance at school, and 42.2% - while self-studying of literature. At the same time 71.7% of students indicated such manifestations of intolerance as stereotyping, i.e. standard affirmations based on negative examples towards people of other cultures and social groups.

Answers to the question on identifying the conditions for the formation of tolerance were as follows: 32.3% of respondents expressed confidence in the necessity of a friendly, open atmosphere in a group, community, society, and 67.7% of students believe that there is a need for the knowledge of original cultures of different peoples, nations, races.

In addition, we conducted the study of ethnic tolerance of students, the results analysis will be further given. Also, it was particularly important for us to reveal the attitude of students to the concept of "tradition". 57% of respondents do not distinguish the concepts of "tradition" and "family tradition", "national tradition" and narrow them down to celebration of family, national or religious holidays, 23% of respondents have difficulty with the definition of these concepts, and only 20% were able to correctly answer these questions. The most widespread

traditions in the surveyed families are family holidays (87%), family heirlooms (81%), specificities in greeting and farewell rituals (67%): 83% of students believe that the in their families attention to traditions is inadequate, and there is a need to introduce new and revival of old traditions. 4% of respondents have difficulties to answer this question, and 13% believe that there are enough family and national traditions in their families. Most students (58%) of respondents consider it necessary to follow traditions in their future families, 23% refrained from answering, and 19% believe that this is not necessary.

In the formative experiment, while studying the courses "Family Pedagogy" and "Multicultural education", in an interactive way students were introduced to the concepts of tolerance and interethnic interaction, to family traditions of different cultures, to theory and practice of upbringing by means of folk pedagogy. The result of this activity was shown in projects «My family traditions", "Ethnicity: national character and traditions."

3. Results

Comparison results on the test for measurement of interethnic tolerance (Sobkin &Adamchuk, 2006)

Fig. 1. Dynamics of the overall tolerance/intolerance index

Referring to Figure 1 representing the dynamics of the overall tolerance/intolerance index, we can say that the level of intolerance in the group decreased significantly. The number of subjects who showed a high level of tolerance, increased from 0% at initial assessment to 17.7% at summative assessment. Analysis of options for answering a few questions of the test draws attention; those questions characterize tolerant/intolerant positions in international interactions.

Answering the question "What is your attitude to your own nationality" at the initial assessment 76.4% of the subjects answered that they feel proud of belonging to their nationality, at the summative assessment - 64.9%. 17.7% and 29.5% of the sample group showed indifference to their nationality before and after the formative experiment (implementation of the developmental program) respectively. By way of the own answer respondents offered this option: "My nationality supports me in my life" (5.9%). These results, on the one hand, fixed reduction of national pride sense, but on the other hand, showed that a particular ethnic community affiliation helps respondents in life.

While analyzing the responses to the question " Do you consider it possible for you to marry a representative of another nationality?" value of family traditions and principles for the test subjects can clearly be seen: 76.8% of the sample still do not feel the possibility of getting married with representatives of other nationalities (because of fear of

conflicts in families for different traditions, customs, and for the reason of prohibition of breaking family traditions). However, the number of subjects who noted that husband/wife nationality will not matter (41.2% at the initial assessment and 82.6% at the summative assessment) has increased significantly. Willingness to enter into an interethnic marriage was detected in 5.9% of subjects, although they acknowledge that it may cause conflicts in a family.

Analysis of the responses to the question " What do you feel when meeting a person of another nationality?" shows that, in comparison with initial assessment, the number of students who are ready to make contact with others has increased. Fewer students answered that it depends on the nationality (23.6% as compared to initial 41.2%), which also indicates a decrease in the level of negative stereotypes in the group.

Answers to the question "Are you predisposed to explain conflicts by nationality of a companion?" still demonstrate "hidden" intolerant presupposition against people of other nationalities in 5.9% of cases; most subjects of the sample still account the appearance of conflicts for companion's nationality (94.4%). After the program implementation fewer students account the reasons for the negative attitude to people who come to live to Russia for their nationality (17.7% at the initial assessment and 5.9% at the summative assessment), which may indicate a decrease in the level of ethnic intolerance.

While analyzing the responses to the question "Do you think that there should be introduced restrictions on account of ethnic descent in Russia", we see a significant increase in the number of students who consider restrictions on account of ethnic descent unacceptable (29.5% at the initial assessment and 47.2% at the summative assessment) which may indicate the effectiveness of the conducted work.

At the summative stage, it is observed a significant increase in the number of subjects, distinguishing the concepts of "tradition" and "family tradition". In 83% of responses there is clear understanding of the uniqueness and intimacy of family traditions. 7% of respondents do not differentiate the concepts; 10% find it difficult to answer. These results may refer to awareness of importance of these concepts.

Define concepts Difficult to answer Do not distinguish

concepts

Beforethe experiment ■ After the experiment Fig.2. Understanding the concepts of "tradition" and "family tradition"

Changes in attitudes to family traditions are also noted by awareness of the need to keep traditions. 93% of respondents consider it necessary to keep traditions of their future families, 7% could not give an answer to this question. In contrast to the results at the initial assessment of the experiment, there were observed no subjects who answered that there is no need in keeping family traditions.

4. Discussions

Following conclusions were obtained after the experiment conducted:

1. In spite of understanding the need for tolerance in intercultural interaction at the initial assessment of the experiment, 71.7% of the students indicated such manifestations of intolerance as stereotyping, i.e. standard affirmations based on negative examples towards people of other cultures and social groups.

There was also fixed a reduction of national pride sense of some students, and "hidden" intolerant affirmation for members of other ethnic groups from other students. Also, students demonstrated not distinguishing the concepts of "tradition" and "family tradition", "national tradition" and narrow them down to celebration of holidays.

2. During the formative experiment there was conducted and approved the work to educate and implement various family traditions, thereby the attitude to the concepts of "tradition" and "family tradition" has changed. Students differentiate the concept of "tradition" and "family tradition". In 83% of responses there is clear understanding of the uniqueness and intimacy of family traditions.

3. After the formative experiment conducted by the means of the use of family traditions the level of students' intolerance dropped significantly. High level of tolerance increased to 17.7% at the summative assessment. The results indicate a positive dynamics. The suggest hypothesis was confirmed.

5. Conclusion

In the process of intercultural upbringing of students we used a variety of teaching forms and methods by means of using traditions. Formation of ethnic tolerance and multicultural qualities that are necessary for positive interaction with the representatives of different cultures, also multicultural skills had evident practical orientation through the intensive intra-group interpersonal interaction and mutual influence.

During the diagnosis there were determined changes that took place in personal intercultural upbringing of students, and at the same time validation of the decisions taken to ensure the effectiveness of multicultural upbringing of students in the learning process was carried out. The work should be continued, as it showed effectiveness.

Acknowledgments

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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