Scholarly article on topic 'Removal of lead, cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions by using ion exchange resin C 160'

Removal of lead, cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions by using ion exchange resin C 160 Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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Academic research paper on topic "Removal of lead, cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions by using ion exchange resin C 160"

DE gruyter GOSPODARKA SUROWCAMI MINERALNYMI - MINERAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

2016 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 129-140

DOI 10.1515/gospo-2016-0033

AGNIESZKA BOZ^CKA*, MONIKA ORLOF-NATURALNA*, STANISLAWA SANAK-RYDLEWSKA**

Removal of lead, cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions by using ion exchange resin C 160

At the present time, the pollution of the environment by toxic metals is a major environmental problem. Among the metals, lead, cadmium, mercury and copper are particularly dangerous for living organisms. Frequently, these metal ions get into natural waters with wastes from metallurgical, chemical and electronic industries, as well as leachates from industrial and municipal wastes. The sewage from the metallurgical industry constitutes a special type of waste. This is due to its toxicity. Apart from lead, cadmium and copper also contain such elements as cobalt, nickel, zinc, chromium, silver, gold, as well as com-plexing agents and cyanides. Therefore, their purification is extremely difficult and costly (Kolodynska 2009).

The ion exchange process plays a significant role in modern technologies concerning the removal of metal ions from waste water. It involves replacing ions included in ion exchange resin with an equal amount of other ions of the same sign, located in the purified aqueous solution (Winnicki 1978; Granops and Kaleta 2004; Bozecka 2013).

Synthetic ion exchangers (ion exchange resins) (Winnicki 1978) play a great practical role among the wide group of ion exchangers. This is due to their unique structure which allows for the selective exchange of ions present in their backbone to the ionic form in solu-

* PhD, ** Professor, AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering,

Krakow, Poland; e-mail: gala@agh.edu.pl

Introduction

tion. An important advantage of ion exchangers is also the possibility of regeneration and recovery of the removed metals. The technological usefulness of synthetic ion exchangers is identified by a number of factors, among them: particle size, bulk density, chemical resistance, selectivity, water content, exchange capacity (Bozecka et al. 2013).

Table 1. Comparison of ion exchange capabilities of synthetic resins (Bozecka 2013) Tabela 1. Porownanie zdolnosci jonowymiennych syntetycznych jonitow (Bozecka 2013)

Metal ion Ion exchange resin characteristics of the ion exchange resin Dose [g/L] The initial concentration of metal [mg/L] pH The maximum sorption capacity [mg/g] Degree of purification [%] Literature

Pb2+ Purolite C100 Functional groups - sulfonic Ion form - H+ 25.0 2.7-265.0 n.d. 9.6 75.5 (for concentration 2.7 mg/L) Abo-Farha et al. 2009

Amberlite IR 120 5.0 5.0-100 5.0 9.8 98.6 (for concentration 20 mg/L) Kocaoba 2007

Duolite ES 467 Functional groups - 10.0 70.0-350.0 4.9 13.8 n.d. Srinivasa et al. 2010

Cd2+ Amberlite IR 120 aminophosphonic Ion form - Na+ 2.0 20.0 5.5 n.d. 90.8 Kocaoba

Amberlite IR 120 Functional groups - sulfonic Ion form - H+ 2.0 20.0 5.5 n.d. 81.1 and Akcin 2005

chelex 100 Amberlite IRC748 Macroporous chelating ion exchange resins containing iminodiacetic acid (IDA) 1.0 190-571 2-6.5 n.d. n.d. Lin and Juang 2007

Cu2+ Lewatit TP207 Lewatit TP208 chelating ion exchangers with the iminodiacetate functional groups (IDA) 20.0 6.35 1-7 n.d. 44.8 - pH = 1 99.0 - pH = 7 Rudnicki et al. 2014

2.4-DHBEDF Chelating copolymer resin 1.0 n.d. 4.5 n.d. n.d. Gurnule and Dhote 2012

Lewatit TP207 Chelating ion exchanger resin with the iminodiacetate functional groups (IDA) n.d. 0.5-14 7.3-7.6 n.d. 99 Korngold et al. 1996

n.d. - no data.

The use of ion exchange resins for the removal of toxic metals such as: lead, cadmium and copper from water and waste water is the subject of many scientific studies (Korngold et al. 1996; Rengaraj et al. 2001; Sanak-Rydlewska and Zi^ba 2001; Kocaoba and Akcin 2005; Kocaoba 2007; Lin and Juang 2007; Abo-Farha et al. 2009; Srinivasa et al. 2010; Gurnule and Dhote 2012; Rudnicki et al. 2014). The results of the studies of these teams are summarized in Table 1.

The aim of this study was to determine and compare the sorption properties of synthetic resin C 160 towards Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions. The results obtained for Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions were compared with results obtained for Pb2+ ions which were published before (Bozecka et al. 2013; Bozecka et al. 2014).

1. Experimental methods

The subject of the research was C 160 ion-exchange resin produced by Purolite. It is a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin with sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H). The applied synthetic ion exchange resin worked in a sodium cycle. A crucial step in the preparation of the resin for this research was swelling in deionized water for 24 hours.

For the purpose of the research test, a 0.5 g sample of the ion exchange resin was used. The range of the studied initial concentration of the Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions in solutions was from 6.25 mg/L to 109.39 mg/L. The metal ions were introduced into the solution in the form of nitrates(V). All experiments were performed at a fixed pH value and at an ionic strength equal to 0.02 mol/L. Its value was adjusted using a KNO3 solution at the concentration of 0.04 mol/L. The pH of the solution was equal to 4.0 (± 0.1). For pH adjustment 0.02 M HNO3 was used. The applied experimental conditions were established according to the previous studies (Bozecka 2013).

The ion exchange processes were performed using a mechanical stirrer. For this purpose, 100 L of solutions with ion exchange resin were placed in a beaker which was then placed in a thermostatic bath at a constant temperature of 298 ± 0.5 K for 15 minutes. The contents of the beakers were continuously stirred for 60 minutes with the speed of 120 rpm. Samples used for analysis were collected after one hour of reaction, because after that time the system reached equilibrium. This was based on the experiments that were developed for natural sorbents (Bozecka 2013).

The final concentration of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in the solutions after the ion exchange process was determined by the flow-through coulometry using an EcaFlow 150 GLP device manufactured by POL-EKO. Before measurements, the solutions were filtered using filter paper to remove solid particles. Three measurements were performed for each sample. Equilibrium concentration values indicated in this paper are the arithmetic averages of three measurements.

In the case of Cu2+ ions, the final concentration in the solutions was determined using the kuprizon's method with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Assays were carried out in an ammonia-

-citrate medium at pH 8.0-9.5. The absorbance of the solution was measured at a wavelength of 600 nm.

The degree of purification of the solutions for Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions, X (%), were calculated using formula (1):

co - cea (!)

X = _o-eeL _100%

^ co and ceq - are the initial and equilibrium concentrations of the studied ions in solutions [mg/L].

The sorption capacity, Q [mg/g], was determined as the amount of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions contained in the dry weight of ion-exchange resin according to the concentration in the aqueous solution, according to formula (2):

q = V(co - ceq ) (2)

^ V - is the volume of the solution [L],

co and ceq - are the initial and equilibrium concentrations of studied ions

in the solution [mg/L], m - is the quantity of dry mass of the ion-exchange resin [g].

2. Discussion of the results

2.1. Influence of the concentration of studied ions on their removal using ion-exchange resin C 160

The determined degree of purification of the solutions for Pb2+, Cd 2+ and Cu 2+ ions using ion exchanger resin C 160 as a function of the initial concentration are shown graphically in Figs. 1-3 and summarized in Table 2.

The obtained results show that at the studied concentrations, the C 160 ion exchange resin effectively removes Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The greatest degree of purification of the solutions was achieved for lead. They amounted to, respectively, 99.8% and 99.9% (Table 2).In the entire range of the studied concentrations of lead ions, the efficiency of the process is practically constant. For other solutions, the ion exchange process occurs with lower efficiency but also reaches more than 90%.

Fig. 1. Influence of the initial concentration of solutions on ion exchange of Pb2+ ions using ion exchange resin C 160 (weight of ion exchange resin 0.5 g; ionic strength 0.02 mol/L; pH 4.0±0.1; temperature (298±0.5) K; time of adsorption 1 h; mixing speed 120 rpm.)

Rys. 1. Wplyw stçzenia wyjsciowego roztworôw na proces wymiany jonowej jonôw Pb2+ na jonicie C 160 (masa jonitu 0,5 g; sila jonowa 0,02 mol/dm3; pH 4.0±0.1; temp. (298±0,5) K; czas 1 h; szybkosc mieszania 120 obrotôw/min.)

Fig. 2. Influence of the initial concentration of solutions on ion exchange of Cd2+ ions for ion exchange resin C 160 (weight of ion exchange resin 0.5 g; ionic strength of 0.02 mol/L; pH 4.0±0.1; temperature (298±0.5) K; time of adsorption 1 h; mixing speed 120 rpm.)

Rys. 2. Wplyw stçzenia wyjsciowego roztworôw na proces wymiany jonowej jonôw Cd2+ na jonicie C 160 (masa jonitu 0,5 g; sila jonowa 0,02 mol/dm3; pH 4,0±0,1; temp. (298±0,5) K; czas 1 h; szybkosc mieszania 120 obrotôw/min.)

Fig. 3. Influence of the initial concentration of solutions on ion exchange of Cu2+ ions for ion exchange resin C 160 (weight of ion exchange resin 0.5 g; ionic strength of 0.02 mol/L; pH 4.0±0.1; temperature (298±0.5) K; time of adsorption 1 h; mixing speed 120 rpm.)

Rys. 3. Wplyw stçzenia wyjsciowego roztworôw na proces wymiany jonowej jonôw Cu2+ na jonicie C 160 (masa jonitu 0,5 g; sila jonowa 0,02 mol/dm3; pH 4,0±0,1; temp. (298±0,5) K; czas 1 h; szybkosc mieszania 120 obrotôw/min.)

Table 2. Dependence of the degree of purification of the solutions as a function of the initial concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions in the solution for studied ion exchange resin C 160

Tabela 2. Zaleznosc stopnia oczyszczenia roztworôw w funkcji stçzenia wyjsciowego jonôw Pb2+, Cd2+ i Cu2+ dla badanego jonitu C 160

Initial concentrations of metal co [rng/L] Degree of purification [%]

Pb2+ Cd2+ Cu2+

6.25 99.87 92.43 92.45

15.65 99.80 96.74 94.58

31.30 99.85 97.70 94.07

46.95 99.89 95.29 93.31

62.60 99.88 93.81 95.46

78.25 99.87 95.24 92.57

93.90 99.84 93.60 93.91

109.55 99.82 95.24 94.53

It was observed that with the increasing concentration of Cd2+ ions in the solution, the efficiency of the investigated process decreases. The Cu2+ ions behave similarly.

Interpretation of the results of sorption of studied ions based on the Langmuir adsorption model

The removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions using ion exchange resin C 160 was described using the Langmuir isotherm. The characteristics of this model are given in Table 3.

The results of the study approximated with the Langmuir equations were shown in Fig. 4.

Table 3. Characteristics of the Langmuir model (Bozecka 2013) Tabela 3. Charakterystyka modelu Langmuira (Bozecka 2013)

The Langmuir isotherm

Assumptions ♦ there is a specified number of adsorption centers on the adsorbent surface and each of them is able to adsorb only one molecule ♦ energy state of each of the adsorbed individual is the same in all places on the surface of the adsorbent. ♦ localized adsorption takes place which means that particles cannot move freely on the surface. Lateral interactions between the adsorbed molecules are irrelevant.

Equation q qmaxb * ceq (1 + b * ceq ) (3)

The linear form, where 1 1 Q 9maxb Q - amount of the metal ions adsorbed per w ceq - the final concentrations of metal ions in qmax [mg/g] and b [L/mg] are Langmuir consta -+b 1 I ceq J eight unit of the ion exchanger [mg/g]; solution [mg/L]; nts (4)

Table 4. The Langmuir isotherms coefficients with their uncertainty and correlation coefficient for Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions adsorbed on ion exchange resin C 160

Tabela 4. Wspôlczynniki izoterm Langmuira wraz z niepewnosciami i wspôlczynniki korelacji otrzymane dla jonôw Pb2+, Cd2+ i Cu2+ na jonicie C 160

Studied ion qmax [mg/g] Aqmax [mg/g] b [L/mg] Ab [L/mg] R

Pb2+ 112.17 2.19 1.4370 0.00200 0.9878

Cd2+ 31.76 0.69 0.2348 0.00020 0.8282

Cu2+ 468.42 9.35 0.0071 0.00001 0.9856

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0

Ceq [mg/L]

Fig. 4. A comparison of the Langmuir isotherms of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions for ion exchange resin C 160 (weight of ion exchange resin 0.5 g; ionic strength of 0.02 mol/L; pH 4.0±0.1; time of adsorption 1 h;

mixing speed 120 rpm.)

Rys. 4. Porownanie izoterm Langmuira jonow Pb2+ Cd2+ i Cu2+ na jonicie C 160 (masa jonitu 0,5 g; sila jonowa 0,02 mol/dm3; pH 4,0±0,1; czas 1 h; szybkosc mieszania 120 obrotow/minut^)

The values of coefficient qmax and b in the Langmuir isotherms were determined on the basis of the linear form (Table 3). The values of these coefficients with uncertainties and the correlation coefficient R are presented in Table 4.

According to the data presented on Figure 4, for each of studied ions, sorption capacity increases until the saturation and equilibrium state is reached. The highest value of constant qmax was obtained in the case of Cu2+ ions. It was 468.42 mg/g. For other ions, respectively, the qmax parameter reached: Pb2+ 112.17 mg/g and Cd2+ 31.76 mg/g values (Table 4). Ion exchange resin C 160 shows the highest affinity for the Pb2+ ions. In this case, the value of coefficient b was 1.437 L/mg. For other ions, the obtained value were equal 0.2348 L/mg (for Cd2+ ions) and 0.0071 L/mg (for Cu2+ ions) (Table 4).

Conclusion

On the basis of this study the following conclusions can be drawn:

♦ C 160 is an effective ion exchange resin for the studied divalent metal ions such as: Cu, Pb and Cd;

♦ for the studied concentration range, the highest degree of purification of the solutions from the above-mentioned ions ranged from approximately 92% to over 99% (Table 2);

♦ the greatest degree of separation was observed for the lead ions, reaching over 99% in the range of the studied concentrations (Table 2 and Figure 1);

♦ based on the interpretation of the Langmuir equation coefficients, an indication can be made that the studied ion exchange resin has a major sorption capacities toward copper ions (qmax constant value was approximately 468.42 mg/g) (Table 4);

♦ the highest affinity (value of parameter b) ion exchange resin C 160 reached was for lead ions and it was approximately 1.44 L/mg (Table 4).

The study was carried out as part of the AGH research programme number 11.11.100.196.

LITERATURE

Abo-Farha et al. 2009 - Abo-Farha, S.A., Abdel-Aal, A.Y., Ashour, I.A. and Garamon, S.E. 2009. Removal of some heavy metal cations by synthetic resin purolite C100. Journal of Hazardous Materials 169, pp. 190-194.

Bozçcka, A. 2013. Usuwanie jonow metali toksycznych z roztworow wodnych za pomocq odpadow organicznych. Doctoral Dissertation AGH (in Polish).

Bozçcka et al. 2013 - Bozçcka, A., Bozçcki, P., Kasprzyk, P. and Sanak-Rydlewska, S. 2013. Usuwanie jonôw olowiu(II) z modelowych roztworôw wodnych metod^ wymiany jonowej. Inzynieria i Aparatura Chemiczna 52/3, pp. 152-154 (in Polish).

Bozçcka et al. 2014 - Bozçcka, A., Bozçcki, P., Kasprzyk, P. and Sanak-Rydlewska, S. 2014. Usuwanie jonôw olowiu z roztworôw wodnych za pomoc^ sorbentôw naturalnych i zywic jonowymiennych [W:] Klich, A., Ko-ziel, A. red. Innowacyjne i przyjazne dla srodowiska techniki i technologie przerobki surowcow mineralnych: bezpieczenstwo — jakosc — efektywnosc. Instytut Techniki Gôrniczej, pp. 353-368 (inPolish).

Granops, M. and Kaleta, J. 2004. Technologia wody. Laboratorium. Rzeszôw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej (in Polish).

Gurnule, W.B. and Dhote, S.S. 2012. Preparation, Characterization and Chelating Ion-exchange Properties of copolymer Resin Derived from 2,4-Dihydroxy Benzoic acid, Ethylene Diamine and Formaldehyde. Der Pharma Chemica 4, pp. 791-799.

Kocaoba, S. and Akcin, G. 2005. Removal of chromium(III) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions. Desalination 180, pp. 151-156.

Kocaoba, S. 2007. Comparison of Amberlite IR 120 and dolomite's performances for removal of heavy metals. Journal of Hazardous Materials 147, pp. 488-496.

Kolodynska, D. 2009. Zywice chelatuj^ce w procesie usuwania jonôw metali ciçzkich w obecnosci czynnika kom-pleksuj^cego z wôd i sciekôw, Przemysi Chemiczny 88/2, pp. 182-189 (in Polish).

Korngold et al. 1996 - Korngold, E., Belfer, S. and Urtizberea, C., 1996. Removal of heavy metals from tap water by a cation Exchange, Desalination 104, pp. 197-201.

Lin, L.-Ch. and Juang, R.-S. 2007. Ion-exchange kinetics of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions with two chelating resins. Chemical Engineering Journal 132, pp. 205-213.

Rengaraj et al. 2001 - Rengaraj, S., Yeon, K.H. and Moon, S.H. 2001. Removal of chromium from water and wastewater by ion exchange resins. Journal of Hazardous Materials B87, pp. 273-287.

Rudnicki et al. 2014 - Rudnicki, P., Hubicki, Z., Kolodynska, D. 2014. Evaluation of heavy metal ions removal from acidic waste water streams. Chemical Engineering Journal 252, pp. 362-373.

Sanak-Rydlewska, S. and Ziçba, D. 2001. Badania nad zastosowaniem wymieniaczy jonowych do usuwania Cu i Pb z potrawiennych roztworôw odpadowych. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi — Mineral Recourses Management t. 17, pp. 229-239 (in Polish).

Srinivasa et al. 2010 - Srinivasa Rao, K., Roy Chaudhury, G. and Mishra, B.K. 2010. Kinetics and equilibrium studies for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions using Duolite ES 467 resin. International Journal of Mineral Processing 97, pp. 68-73.

Winnicki, T. 1978. Polimery czynne w inzynierii ochrony srodowiska. Warszawa: Wyd. Arkady (in Polish).

USUWANIE JONÔW OLOWIU, KADMU I MIEDZI Z ROZTWORÔW WODNYCH ZA POMOC4 ZYWICY JONOWYMIENNEJ C 160

Slowa kluczowe jonity, wymiana jonowa, jony olowiu, kadmu, miedzi Streszczenie

Roztwory odpadowe zawierajqce m.in. jony metali Pb, Cu, Cd i inne powstajq w przemysle elek-trochemicznej obrôbki metali, w przemysle przerôbki rud metali niezelaznych, a takze mogq byc skladnikiem odciekôw ze skladowisk odpadôw tych rud. Toksycznosc jonowych form tych metali jest znaczna, stqd w pracy podano wyniki badan jednego ze sposobôw obnizenia ich koncentracji w roztworach wodnych.

W artykule podano wyniki badan dotyczqcych usuwania jonôw Pb2+, Cd2+ i Cu2+ z modelo-wych roztworôw wodnych za pomocq syntetycznej zywicy jonowymiennej C 160 firmy Purolite. Badany jonit zawiera w swojej strukturze grupy sulfonowe (-SO3H) i nalezy do silnie kwasnych kationitôw. Zakres badanych stçzen poczqtkowych jonôw Pb2+, Cd2+ i Cu2+ w roztworach wynosil od 6,25 mg/dm3 do 109,38 mg/dm3. Otrzymane wyniki potwierdzily, ze wykorzystana zywica jono-wymienna C160 skutecznie usuwa wymienione jony z badanych roztworôw. Dla przyjçtego zakresu stçzen i warunkôw procesu wymiany jonowej, najwiçkszy stopien oczyszczenia roztworôw osiqgniç-to dla olowiu. Wynosil on 99,9%. W przypadku pozostalych roztworôw wymiana jonowa zachodzi z wydajnosciq nizszq, ale wysokq i wynosi dla wszystkich jonôw ponad 90%. Wyniki badan zin-terpretowano opierajqc siç na modelu adsorpcji Langmuira. Dla kazdego badanego jonu pojemnosc sorpcyjna jonitu wzrasta, az do osiqgniçcia wysycenia i stanu rôwnowagi. Z interpretacji wspôlczyn-nikôw rôwnania Langmuira wynika, ze badany jonit charakteryzuje siç najwiçkszymi zdolnosciami sorpcyjnymi w stosunku do jonôw miedzi. W ich przypadku otrzymano najwiçkszy wartosc stalej qmax izotermy Langmuira. Dla jonôw Cu2+ wyniosla ona 468,42 mg/g. Dla jonôw Pb2+ i Cd2+ pa-rametr ten przyjql odpowiednio wartosci 112,17 mg/g i 31,76 mg/g. Jonit C160 wykazuje najwiçksze powinowactwo w stosunku do jonôw Pb2+. W tym przypadku otrzymana wartosc wspôlczynnika b jest najwiçksza i rôwna 1,437 dm3/mg.

REMOVAL OF LEAD, CADMIUM AND COPPER IONS FROM AQUEOUS SoLUTIoNS BY USING Ion ExCHANGE RESIN C 160

Keywords

ion exchange resins, ion exchange, lead, cadmium, copper ions Abstract

Industrial waste solutions may contain toxic Pb, Cu, Cd and other metal ions. These ions may also be components of leachates in landfills of ores. The toxicity of the ionic forms of these metals is high.

For this reason the paper presents the results of studies on one of the methods to reduce their concentration in aqueous solutions. The article presents the results of studies on the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions from model aqueous solutions with synthetic ion exchange resin C 160 produced by Purolite. The investigated ion exchanger contains sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H) in its structure and is a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin. The range of the studied initial concentrations of the Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions in the solutions was from 6.25 mg/L to 109.39 mg/L. The results confirmed that the used ion exchange resin C160 efficiently removes the above-mentioned ions from the studied solutions. The highest degree of purification was achieved in lead solutions for the assumed range of concentrations and conditions of the ion exchange process. It reached 99.9%. In the case of other solutions, the ion exchange process occurs with lower efficiency, however it remains high and amounts to over 90% for all the ions. The results of research were interpreted on the basis of the Langmuir adsorption model. For each studied ion, sorption capacity of the ion exchange resin increases until the saturation and equilibrium state is reached. Based on the interpretation of the Langmuir equation coefficients, an indication can be made that the studied ion exchange resin has a major sorption capacity towards the copper ions. In their case, the highest value of constant qmax was obtained in the Langmuir isotherm. For Cu2+ ions it was 468.42 mg/g. For Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions, this parameter reached the values of 112.17 mg/g and 31.76 mg/g, respectively. Ion exchange resin C 160 shows the highest affinity for the Pb2+ ions. In this case, the achieved value of coefficient b is highest and equals 1.437 L/mg.