Scholarly article on topic 'Poster Session Abstracts'

Poster Session Abstracts Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Academic research paper on topic "Poster Session Abstracts"

Poster Session Abstracts


Poster 1-1


Darin R. Brown, & James F. Cavanagh University of New Mexico

Descriptors: emotion, LPP, multimodal

Emotion is thought to be an emergent construct of multiple primitive sub-processes. EEG is particularly sensitive to real-time neural computations, and thus is an excellent tool for the study of the construction of emotion. This series of studies aimed to probe the mechanistic contribution of the Late Positive Potential (LPP) to emotion perception. Experiment 1 (N = 23) revealed statistically significant differences in brain potentials between positive and negative valenced pictures (negative > positive), but not sounds. Interestingly, paired picture-sound conditions had the greatest differentiation. Experiment 2 manipulated this enhanced effect by altering the valence pairings with congruent (i.e. positive audio 1 positive visual) or conflicting emotional pairs (i.e. positive audio 1 negative visual). The results of Experiment 2 replicated the findings from Experiment 1, whereby negative visual stimuli evoked larger LPPs. Time frequency analyses revealed significant mid frontal theta-band power differences between conflicting and congruent stimuli pairs suggesting very early (>500ms) realizations of thematic fidelity violations. Together, these findings suggest that rapid mechanistic processes for affective valence are dependent on visual modalities, but these are enhanced by concurrent affective sounds, paving the way towards an understanding of the construction of multi-modal affective experience.

Poster 1-2


Rebecca Compton, Elizabeth Heaton, & Emily Ozer Haverford College

Descriptors: cognitive control, ERN, error-monitoring

Seemingly trivial changes in task parameters may alter behavior and psychophy-siological measures during task performance, contributing to variability across labs and potential failures of replication. Addressing one such parameter, this study assessed the effect of inter-trial interval (ITI) duration on self-monitoring. In a between-subjects design using a Stroop task, the ITI—the interval between a keypress response and next-stimulus onset—was 768 ms (Short ITI), 1280 ms (Medium ITI), or 1792 ms (Long ITI). All other task procedures were identical across groups. Participants in the Medium ITI group had higher accuracy (F(2,32) = 3.9, p < .05), better correct-error differentiation in the error-related negativity, even once group differences in accuracy were statistically controlled (Group x Accuracy, F(2,31) = 6.5, p = .005), and better error-correct differentiation in post-response alpha power (Group x Accuracy, F(2,32) = 4.0, p < .05), compared to the other two groups. These results imply a "Goldilocks effect" in which performance and self-monitoring are optimal when trial timing is neither too quick nor too slow. Moreover, post-error slowing (PES) decreased linearly with increasing ITI (Group x Previous-Trial Accuracy, F(2, 31) = 5.3, p = .01). The latter result is inconsistent with the notion that PES is an adaptive compensatory process, and better fits the idea that PES reflects arousal or confusion that dissipates during the ITI. Together results indicate that changes in trial timing can alter performance and error-related control processes.

Poster 1-3


Peter E. Clayson University of California, Los Angeles

Descriptors: psychometrics, generalizability theory, ERP measurement Generalizability theory provides an approach for isolating and estimating multiple sources of measurement error, such as diagnostic status and numbers of trials needed for stable event-related brain potential (ERP) measurements. The present study demonstrates the use of an open-source Matlab program, ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, to evaluate reliability using generalizability theory. The purpose of the toolbox is to characterize the reliability of ERP measurements to facilitate the calculation and reporting of these estimates. Present analyses examine the impact of numbers of trials and diagnostic status on the dependability of error-related negativity (ERN) measurements. EEG was recorded from 34 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD), 29 participants with an anxiety disorder (ANX), and 319 health controls while completing a modified Eriksen flanker task. A level of .70 was considered the threshold for acceptable dependability coefficients. The number of trials needed to obtain dependable ERN measurements was 13 for controls, 23 for the MDD group, and 41 for the ANX group. Dependability coefficients for the data including all trials were .90 for controls, .87 for the MDD group, and .78 for the ANX group. Coefficients remain unchanged when samples sizes were matched. This study highlights how the ERA Toolbox characterizes the dependability of a dataset, which may differ by sample, condition, electrode, etc., and explores the impact of numbers of trials on dependability. Such analyses can be beneficial either before or after undertaking a study.

Poster 1-4


Courtney Louis1, Peter Luehring-Jones1, Joshua Schwartz1, Tracy Dennis-Tiwary1'2, & Joel Erblich1'2'3 1Hunter College, The City University of New York, 2The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 3Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Descriptors: attentional bias modification, alcohol, electroencephalography Past research on alcohol consumption shows that drinkers preferentially allocate attention toward alcohol-related stimuli in the environment. In the present study, the collection of scalp-recorded event related potentials (ERPs) during a dot probe task allowed us to examine the N2pc component as a measure of differential allocation of attention toward alcohol versus neutral images. Attentional bias (AB) toward alcohol cues was measured in a group of young adult social drinkers (N=44) before and after they were randomly assigned to complete either the active or sham version of a single-session attentional bias modification (ABM) training program designed to reduce AB to alcohol. We hypothesized that the modification of AB during the ABM training would alter the N2pc component indicating less allocation of attention to alcohol-related stimuli in the active training group. Counter to predictions, the N2pc did not differ between training groups. Instead, the magnitude of the N2pc significantly predicted post-training implicit associations about alcohol (beta = .559, t(20) = 3.016, p = .007) in the active training group but not the sham training group (beta = -.139, t(20)= -.628, p = .537), such that greater N2pc was associated with implicit avoidance of alcohol-related stimuli. While a single session of ABM training did not appear to modify the N2pc as a measure of selective attention, results suggest that the training did bolster an association between AB toward alcohol and implicit responses to alcohol-related stimuli. Treatment implications will be discussed. R21AA020955 from NIAAA.



Derek P. Spangler, Lilian Hummer, Laura Braunstein, Xiao Yang, & Bruce H. Friedman Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Descriptors: anxiety, working memory, autonomic activity Anxiety is marked by impaired inhibition of distraction (Eysenck et al., 2007). It is unclear whether these impairments are reduced or exacerbated when loading working memory (WM) with non-affective information. Cardiac vagal control has been related to emotion regulation and may serve as a proxy for load-related inhibition under anxiety (Thayer & Lane, 2009). The present study examined whether the enhancing and impairing effects of load on inhibition exist together in a nonlinear function, and whether there is a similar association between inhibition and concurrent vagal control. During anxiogenic threat-of-noise, 116 subjects (68 women, mean age = 19.28, S.D. = 2.78) maintained a digit series of varying lengths (0, 2, 4, 6 digits) while completing a visual flanker task. The task was broken into four blocks, with a baseline period preceding each. ECG was acquired throughout to quantify vagal control as high-frequency heart rate variability (HRV; .15-.4 Hz). Task HRV was computed with difference scores. There were significant quadratic relations of WM load to flanker performance (B = -1.31, p = .045) and to HRV (B = -.015, p = .006), but no quadratic association between HRV and performance emerged (B = 3.91, p= .401). Low load was associated with relatively better inhibition and increased HRV. Findings suggest that attentional performance under anxiety depends on the availability of WM resources, which might be reflected by vagal control. These results have implications for treating anxiety disorders, in which emotion regulation can be optimized for attentional focus.

Poster 1-6


Alisa Huskey1, Caleb Lack2, & Kyle Haws2 1Virginia Tech, 2University of Central Oklahoma

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, complex PTSD, affect regulation Distinctions in physiological reactivity between Complex PTSD (CPTSD) and PTSD diagnoses have yet to be examined. Dysregulation in the parasympathetic branch (i.e. vagus nerve) of the autonomic nervous system is implicated in emotion-regulation deficits. Dysregulation of these systems is presumed to be greater with the CPTSD symptom constellation, as these symptoms are characterized by dysregulation of many functional domains—affect, relationships, personalization and memory (dissociation), self-perception, meaning, and physiology (somatization). Vagal regulation was indexed via correlations between Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) and Heart Period (HP) over 3 epochs: baseline, stressor task, and recovery. Hypotheses were confirmed, indicating that vagal brake does not reengage during the recovery period in either the CPTSD (N = 12; r = -.29, ns) or PTSD (N = 24; r = .02, ns) groups; similarly, but unexpectedly, the control group did not demonstrate vagal re-engagement during the recovery period (N = 18; r = .102, ns). Further investigation indicates a main effect of diagnostic group on the RSA change by HP change interaction variable, F(2, 51) = 3.318, p = .044, g2partial = .12, obs. power = .603; specifically, RSA change from baseline was most pronounced in the PTSD group and HP change is most pronounced in the CPTSD group. As anticipated, average RSA is lowest in CPTSD group (M = 5.52, SD = 0.31) followed by the PTSD group (M = 5.66, SD = .27), and the control group had highest RSA (M = 6.1, SD = 0.31). This trend in average RSA was observed across epochs.

Research, Creativity, and Scholarly Activity Award University of Central Oklahoma.


Yasunori Kotani1, Yoshimi Ohgami1, Nobukiyo Yoshida2, Shigeru Kiryu2, & Yusuke Inoue3

1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2The University of Tokyo, 3Kitasato University

Descriptors: stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), insular cortex, reward The right anterior insular cortex is involved in the salience network. The region is also a physiological source of the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). The SPN studies revealed that the SPN shows increased amplitudes before a feedback stimulus that conveys information whether a task response was correct or incorrect. On the other hand, the SPN is not observed before an instruction stimulus that has information about how to perform an experimental task. In the present fMRI study (N = 30), we added monetary reward information to an instruction stimulus to increase saliency of the instruction stimulus, and investigated if the right anterior insular cortex is activated even before an instruction stimulus when reward information is added to the stimulus. Participants were asked to perform a time estimation task where a visual stimulus was presented 3 seconds after the button press, and the content of information of the visual stimulus (instruction or feedback) and reward level (reward or no-reward) were manipulated. The analyses revealed that the right anterior insular cortex was more activated in the instruction/reward condition than in the instruction/no-reward condition. The region was also more activated in the feedback/reward than in the feedback/no-reward condition. These findings indicate that the right anterior insular cortex is activated even before an instruction stimulus when reward information is added to the stimulus, and suggest that the SPN might be observed before an instruction stimulus if reward information is added to the stimulus.

Poster 1-8


Brian A. Coffman, Sarah M. Haigh, Timothy K. Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: schizophrenia, auditory perception, sustained potential Grouping of auditory percepts is necessary for interpretation of patterns. Long-term schizophrenia patients (Sz) have blunted responses to deviance from an established pattern, such as reduced mismatch negativity (MMN). Sz also show impairments segmenting groups of acoustic stimuli into discrete percepts, indexed by reduced N2 and sustained potential amplitudes in response to auditory patterns. Recent meta-analysis suggests that standard MMN is not much affected at first-episode of schizophrenia, but it is unknown whether acoustic segmentation is intact at early stage of illness. Nineteen FESz (within 6 months of first-episode), 20 age-matched healthy controls (FEHC), 20 Sz (minimum 5 years of disease), and 17 age-matched controls (SzHC) ignored tone groups while watching a silent video. Stimuli comprised 300 groups of three identical tones (1 kHz; 80 dB; 50 ms duration; SOA= 330 ms). Groups were separated by 750 ms ITI. Sustained potentials were measured from data filtered between 0.5-1.5Hz, from 300ms to 900 ms after onset of the first tone. Sustained potentials and N2 to initial and final tones were reduced in both Sz and FESz compared to matched controls (p < 0.05), and sustained potentials were correlated with negative symptoms as measured with the PANSS in FESz (r=0.3). Individual item correlations were strongest for emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, and social withdrawal. These results suggest that deficits in auditory pattern segmentation in schizophrenia occur early in the disease course, and may compound deficits in higher-order cognitive functions.

NIH MH094328.


Menton M. Deweese1, Hannah L. Stewart1, Kimberly N. Claiborne1, Jennifer Ng1, Paul M. Cinciripini1, Maurizio Codispoti2, & Francesco Versace3 1University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2University of Bologna, 3Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Descriptors: addiction, late positive potential (LPP), emotion Smokers reliably show higher reactivity to cigarette than neutral stimuli; however, never-smokers also show enhanced brain responses to cigarette cues, albeit less than smokers. Here, we recorded event-related potentials during a repetitive picture-viewing paradigm to assess the effects of stimulus repetition on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) in a sample of 23 smokers (SMO) and 29 never-smokers (NEV). We predicted higher LPP amplitude to cigarette cues in SMO, and habituation of the LPP response to cigarette cues in NEV, as a function of repetition. This pattern of amplitude modulation would suggest that cigarette cues are motivationally relevant stimuli only for SMO. In line with previous work, we observed greater LPP amplitude to pleasant (p < 0.04) and unpleasant (p < 0.002) cues relative to neutral, across repetition blocks for all subjects. Supporting our hypothesis, we observed greater LPP amplitude to cigarette cues relative to neutral in SMO (p < 0.04). Interestingly, NEV did not consistently habituate to the smoking cues. While SMO and NEV reported no difference in self-reported stimulus ratings of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral stimuli (all ps>0.2), NEV rated smoking cues as unpleasant (p < 0.0001). In sum, cigarette cues remained salient for both SMO and NEV following stimulus repetition. These data suggest that SMO and NEV both process cigarette cues as salient stimuli, but for different reasons: for NEV, cigarette cues are perceived as unpleasant, whereas for SMO these cues have acquired significance through repeated pairing with nicotine.

Menton M. Deweese and the research presented here are supported in part, by a cancer prevention educational award (R25T CA057730, Dr. Shine Chang, Ph.D., Principal Investigator), and by the MD Anderson's Cancer Center Support Grant (CA016672, Ron DePinho, M.D., Principal Investigator) funded by the National Cancer Institute.


Erin Hazlett, Nicholas Blair, Nicolas Fernandez, Kathryn Mascitelli, David Banthin, & Marianne Goodman Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and James J. Peters VA Medical Center

Descriptors: startle eyeblink, emotion, depression, suicide Recent studies demonstrate that Veterans exhibit higher suicide risk compared with the general U.S. population. Despite increased attention to clinical risk factors of suicide and efforts to develop psychosocial interventions to reduce suicide risk, the underlying biological factors that confer this risk are not understood. This study examined whether baseline affective startle modulation (ASM), a metric of emotion processing, predicts a future suicide attempt at 12-mo follow-up in a transdiagnostic sample of Veterans at high risk for suicide. Participants were outpatients who underwent ASM just prior to being randomly assigned to the TAU arm of a larger study (6-mo randomized DBT trial). Suicide risk was determined using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (10 ideators, 9 attemp-ters). The ASM paradigm involved intermixed unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures. At follow-up, 4 of 19 Vets had been hospitalized for a suicide attempt in the prior 6-mos. Logistic regression was conducted with suicide attempt (no/yes) as the dependent variable while baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score and mean ASM during unpleasant pictures were covariates. Results showed that the two categories of the target variable were perfectly predicted with no misclas-sification. Partial correlation indicated greater baseline ASM during unpleasant pictures (controlling for BDI) was associated with a future suicide attempt. Although preliminary, these findings suggest ASM during unpleasant pictures is a promising non-verbal, low-cost psychophysiological predictor of suicidal behavior.

This research was supported by a Department of Defense grant (W81XWH0910722) to EAH and MG; MPIs), a VA Merit Award (I01CX00026) to EAH, and the VISN 2 South Mental Illness, Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC) at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center.


Anna J. Finley1, Katie E. Garrison1, Adrienne L. Crowell2, & Brandon J.

Schmeichel1 1Texas A&M University, 2Hendrix College

Descriptors: attention, self-control, event related potentials We examined the after-effects of self-control on attention to acoustic startle probes during emotional images by assessing probe-elicited N1 and P3 ERPs. According to the process model of ego depletion (Inzlicht & Schmeichel, 2012), exercising self-control causes temporary shifts in attention. Prior research by Cuthbert et al. (1998) found startle probes elicit a larger N1 during negative images relative to positive and neutral images (reflecting selective attention to startle probes under threat), whereas the probe P3 is smaller during emotional relative to neutral images (reflecting resource allocation to emotional images). Participants were fitted with an EEG cap, completed either a free (n = 49) or controlled (n = 51) writing task previously used to manipulate self-control, then viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images interspersed with acoustic startle probes. Writing condition interacted with image type on the probe N1, such that N1 amplitudes in the free writing condition were largest during negative images relative to positive (replicating prior research), while in the controlled writing condition the N1 was largest during neutral images but did not differ between positive and negative images. The probe P3 was smaller in amplitude during emotional versus neutral images but was not affected by prior exercise of self-control. The aftereffects of self-control on neural responses to startle probes were thus seen only on the N1, suggesting that prior self-control exertion modulates early attentional capture by startle probes during affective images.

Poster 1-14


Jill Grose-Fifer1, Danielle diFilipo1, & Taylor Valentin2 1John Jay College of Criminal Justice and The Graduate Center, CUNY, 2John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY

Descriptors: adolescents, ERP, social

Adolescents are vulnerable to the dysregulating influences of motivationally-salient stimuli, and in general, are more responsive to appetitive stimuli than adults. Few studies have examined whether social stimuli (photos of people) produce greater neural processing in adolescents than other appetitive stimuli. In this study, we recorded ERPs (N1, N2, and LPP) in response to pleasant photographs from the International Affective Picture System in 30 adolescents (12 to 17 years) and 29 adults (25 to 37 years). Half of the stimuli were complex scenes that fea-

tured pictures of people (mostly adults) and the other half were photos of comparable complexity, luminance, and contrast, but did not feature people. To maintain interest in the stimuli, participants were asked to respond to the infrequent appearance of a novel target. We found that compared to nonsocial images, social scenes elicited enhancements in early ERPs (larger N1 over right hemisphere) in adolescents, but only in later ERPs (LPP) in adults. Although we found no evidence for a female advantage for social information processing, males (regardless of age) had enhanced N2s for nonsocial relative to social stimuli. Our data suggest that adolescents may initially orient toward social information in a scene, perhaps to facilitate social categorization, and then use this information to decide whether further attention is required. In our study, social and nonsocial stimuli produced LPPs that were comparable in size in adolescents, suggesting that both types of stimuli were equally appetitive to them.

Support for this project was provided by a PSC-CUNY Award, jointly funded by The Professional Staff Congress and The City University of New York.

Poster 1-16


Katherine P. Magruder, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin - Madison

Descriptors: alcohol, cognitive control, ERPs

Theory suggests that alcohol impairs cognitive control processes required to inhibit prepotent responses. To test this theory, we examined alcohol's effect on task performance when an incorrect, prepotent response was activated. P3 and Error Related Negativity (ERN) were measured to assess processes related to stimulus evaluation and cognitive control.

Intoxicated (target BAC=.08%) and non-intoxicated participants performed a modified Flanker task. Each trial consisted of a string of 5 letters (H's & S's). Participants responded to indicate the center target letter while ignoring surrounding flanker letters. Flankers were either compatible (e.g., HHHHH) or incompatible (e.g., SSHSS), with compatible/incompatible trials equally probable. A prepotent response was established by manipulating target letter probability with one response more probable (p = .80) than the other (p = .20).

Alcohol did not impair behavioral response or P3 on incompatible flanker trials. Instead, alcohol produced response slowing that increased over time selectively on low probability target trials. Furthermore, alcohol reduced P3 on these low probability trials and ERN when errors occurred. These results suggest alcohol impaired response as conflict increased over trials. The alcohol effect on P3 to low probability targets and ERN combined with a pattern of within group correlations among measures to suggest this impairment resulted from alcohol-induced deficits in the cognitive control system responsible for initiating controlled, attentional processing required in this context.


Nancy B. Lundin1, Giri P. Krishnan2, Lisa A. Bartolomeo1, Patricia D.

Krempely1, William P. Hetrick1, & Brian F. O'Donnell1 1Indiana University Bloomington, 2University of California, Riverside

Descriptors: bipolar disorder, phase-locking factor, spectral power Previous research findings demonstrate prominent electrophysiological deficits in bipolar disorder in the auditory oddball paradigm. However, the majority of clinical electroencephalography (EEG) studies utilizing the paradigm restrict their analyses to the temporal domain by only analyzing event-related potentials (ERPs), such as the P3 wave that is thought to represent context updating. Less is known about EEG-based abnormalities in the frequency domain that could relate to the etiology and symptomatology of bipolar disorder. We analyzed auditory oddball EEG data from subjects with bipolar disorder (n=84) and non-psychiatric controls (n= 106). We measured P3 peak latency and mean amplitude, as well as event-related spectral power (ERSP) and phase-locking factor (PLF) in the theta and alpha frequency bands in the time range of the P3 from the target tones at the Pz electrode site. Our study replicated previous findings of blunted P3 amplitude and prolonged P3 latency to rare stimuli in bipolar disorder compared to controls. Additionally, we found decreased phase-locking in theta and alpha bands during the perception of rare stimuli in the range of the P3 wave in bipolar subjects, as well as decreased ERSP in the theta band. Decreased PLF indicates an increase in the variability of the electrophysiological response, consistent with deficits of timing and neural synchronization in bipolar disorder. Reduced theta ERSP in this group suggests further frequency domain deficits during context updating. Future directions will be to investigate prestimulus activity in this paradigm.

NIMH R01MH074983 (PI: WPH); NIDA 1 R21 DA035493-01A1 (PI: BFO). Poster 1-18


Diana A. Hobbs, Carl A. Armes, Mejdy M. Jabr, Eric Rawls, & Connie Lamm

University of New Orleans

Descriptors: working memory, cognitive control, developmental In a model of prefrontal cortical functioning underlying cognitive control, Braver and colleagues utilized the AX-Continuous Performance Task (CPT) to highlight the relationship between proactive control and working memory. Specifically, working memory performance has been associated with a proactive strategy in cognitive control in young and old adults (Braver, T.S., Gray, J.R., and Burgess, G.C., 2007). We were interested in examining if proactive control also contributes to working memory capacity in children. Our study examined the relationship between proactive control and working memory in children (7-17 years of age) using event-related potentials. Specifically, we examined N2 amplitudes, a mediofrontal component that has been associated with aspects of cognitive control. We further inspected working memory capacity using the WAIS Digit Span, both forward and backwards. Results revealed that better digit span performance was associated with higher task performance (Forward: b = .523, t(14) = 2.30, p = 0.037) and greater (more negative) N2 amplitudes (Forward: b = -0.70, t(14) = -3.07, p = 0.010; Backward: b = -0.78, t(14) = -2.07, p = 0.061). These results indicate that enhanced working memory is associated with the recruitment of more prefrontal cortical resources. These results have implications for the evaluation of targeted working memory training programs in children.


Amri Sabharwal, Eric Petrone, Roman Kotov, & Aprajita Mohanty Stony Brook University

Descriptors: psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI Psychotic disorders are debilitating conditions that involve significant and enduring impairments in cognitive and emotional functioning. Functional dysconnec-tivity models of schizophrenia suggest that cortical and limbic brain regions, associated with cognitive and emotional functions, interact abnormally to generate the schizophrenia phenotype. However, it is unclear if this altered connectivity is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of schizophrenia, and whether is associated with symptoms and real-world functioning. Using a dimensional approach, the present study investigated resting state functional connectivity between amygdala and prefrontal cortex using an epidemiologic, diagnostically heterogeneous cohort of psychotic disorders (N=39) and never-psychotic matched adults (N=25). Preliminary results indicate that individuals with psychosis show greater resting-state connectivity between amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) compared to never-psychotic individuals. Furthermore, greater connectivity between amygdala and IFG was associated with greater negative symptoms and greater impairment in real-world functioning across all psychotic disorders. Overall, these results elucidate the fronto-limbic functional connectivity that is involved in emotion-cognition deficits as well as its alteration in psychotic disorders. Although further research is required, the current findings show promise of a window into the pathophysiology of psychosis that can be translated into more effective transdiagnostic intervention approaches.

Poster 1-20


Ryan J. Hubbard, & Kara D. Federmeier 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: memory, language, prediction

Prior electrophysiological work has shown that sentence context information shapes online word processing, manifesting as facilitation for contextually expected words (e.g., in the form of N400 amplitude reductions), as well as processing consequences for unexpected but plausible (post-N400 frontal positivities) or anomalous (post-N400 posterior positivities) words. In a series of studies, we have examined the downstream consequences for memory of having contextual expectations confirmed or disconfirmed. Here, participants read sentences that ended with expected, plausible unexpected, and anomalous words, followed by a recognition memory test. Behaviorally, unexpected/anomalous words show high levels of recognition; however, participants also tend to false alarm to the words that were highly expected in those contexts but never seen. ERPs at test reveal multifaceted consequences of expectancy, constraint, and plausibility. Anomalous words elicit enhanced N1 responses, suggesting that they were attentionally "tagged". N400 responses are facilitated for old relative to new words, and particularly so for plausible unexpected words in strongly constrained contexts. Finally, only plausible unexpected items led to LPC old/new effects, suggesting greater recollection-based memory for these words. Overall, results reveal that violations of expectancy tend to grab attention and enhance memory, particularly when these words can be plausibly integrated into the context, but that, at the same time, expectations are not fully overridden and continue to have consequences for memory.

NIH James S. McDonnell Foundation.


Hannah I. Volpert, & Bruce D. Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: social perception

Person construal is the process by which perceivers categorize others and interpret their significance. Precisely how this process unfolds during perception remains controversial. Here, ERPs and RTs were measured while participants (Ps) completed two tasks designed to investigate how visual fixation to typical (between the eyes) or atypical (the forehead) facial locations affect racial categorization when faces were either relevant or irrelevant to Ps' explicit task goals. Analysis of ERP amplitudes showed similar effects of race in both the N170 (structural encoding of faces) and the P2 (attention to threat) across tasks, such that Black faces elicited larger amplitudes than White faces (Fs > 5.0, ps < .03). Additionally, in both tasks P2 amplitude was larger when fixating between the eyes compared to the forehead (Fs > 12.0, ps < .001). More interestingly, when faces were task relevant (but not when they weren't) a Race x Fixation interaction emerged (F = 7.0, p = .008), such that Black faces elicited a larger P2 when Ps fixated on the eyes compared to the forehead (p < .001), with effect of fixation for White faces (p = .202). Furthermore, these neural responses had implications for overt categorization, in that variability in the sensitivity of the P2 response to race and fixation location predicted variability in categorization RT. Findings suggest that although some features of race are processed automatically regardless of top-down goals, other features appear to be goal-dependent. Implications of these findings for theories of person construal will be discussed.

Missouri Life Sciences Graduate Fellowship.

Poster 1-22


Matthew W. Miller, Marcos Daou, Caroline C. Meadows, Jence A. Rhoads, & Keith R. Lohse Auburn University

Descriptors: feedback processing, engagement, ERPs

Evidence suggests that making a task more engaging increases task learning. A plausible mechanism for this effect is that increased engagement during task practice may enhance feedback processing and dopaminergic signaling, which are believed to facilitate learning. The present study began to test this theory. Specifically, we attempted to modulate participants' engagement during a task while indexing their feedback processing with ERP components reflective of dopami-nergic signaling: the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback-related negativity (FRN). Specifically, 30 participants were randomly assigned to an engaging or sterile group, and all participants performed a stimulus categorization task. However, the engaging group was told their stimuli were goblins (as opposed to complex stimuli), and their task was to strike the goblins (as opposed to categorize the complex stimuli). Both groups received feedback stimuli identical with respect to physical properties: a checkmark for successfully striking the goblin/ categorizing the stimulus, and an X for failing to strike the goblin/correctly categorize the stimulus. The RewP and FRN were derived from ERPs time-locked to success and failure feedback, respectively. After completing 50 trials of the task, participants completed an engagement scale. The RewP, FRN, and the engagement scale did not differ between groups. Further, neither the RewP nor FRN correlated with the engagement scale. Future research may attempt to better manipulate engagement and provide greater statistical power for correlation analysis.


Amanda McCleery1, Jonathan K. Wynn1, Nora Polon2, Warren Szewczyk2, Brian J. Roach3, Daniel H. Mathalon3, & Michael F. Green1 1University of California, Los Angeles; VA Greater Los Angeles, 2University of California, Los Angeles, 3University of California, San Francisco & San Francisco VA Health Care System

Descriptors: long-term potentiation (LTP), short-term plasticity (STP), event-related potentials

Cortical plasticity includes both short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term poten-tiation (LTP). Abnormalities in cortical plasticity are hypothesized to underlie the widespread cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which plasticity is impacted in the illness is unclear. Here we present data from two electrophysiological paradigms that are thought to assess neural plasticity: 1) a roving standard auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to probe STP, and 2) a visual high frequency stimulation (HFS) paradigm to probe LTP-like plasticity. We assessed 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls. The schizophrenia group exhibited smaller MMN amplitude compared to controls [F=5.99, p = .02, Cohen's d=.80]. Across participants, the MMN amplitude increased linearly as the number of repetitions of the standard tone in the series increased [F= 14.07, p < .001]. Regarding LTP-like plasticity, significant potentiation of the C1 amplitude was observed following HFS in healthy controls [t=3.34, p=.006, Cohen's d=1.07], but not in patients [t=-.07, p=.95, Cohen's d= .02]. The effect size for between-group differences in C1 potentiation was medium in size [Cohen's d=.51]. These data suggest that both short-term and long-term plasticity is diminished in chronic schizophrenia. Further research is needed to understand the implications of impaired plasticity for cognition and functional outcome in patients.

VA Greater Los Angeles VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Pala Grant (PI: McCleery).

Poster 1-24


Russell Clayton1, Rachel Tomko2, Glenn Leshner3, Timothy Trull4, & Thomas Piasecki4

1Florida State University, 2Medical University of South Carolina, 3Uni-versity of Oklahoma, 4University of Missouri

Descriptors: cognition, message processing, tobacco

This experiment examined how nicotine-withdrawn tobacco smokers' process anti-tobacco commercials that vary in depictions of smoking cues and disgusting images. A 2 (smoking cues: present/absent) x 2 (disgust: high/low) x 3 (ads) repeated measures experiment was conducted. Participants were 50 nicotine dependent, adult tobacco smokers (Mage = 30; 54% male) who were instructed to abstain from tobacco for 12 hours prior to participating in the experiment. After measuring for nicotine withdrawal symptoms, participants randomly watched 12, 30-second ads in each message condition. Cardiac activity and skin conductance were collected for a five second baseline prior to each ad and were time-locked during message exposure. Participants reported self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit after each ad. An audio recognition test was given at the end of the study. The results of this experiment showed that the presence of smoking cues was associated with elevated craving reports. The combination of smoking cues and disgust images diminished craving reactivity slightly, but still resulted in craving that was more intense compared to ads containing only disgust. Disgust increased intentions to quit, but this effect was diminished when disgust and smoking cues were presented together. Heart rate acceleration, an indicator of defensive cognitive processing, was more pronounced for ads containing both cues and disgust compared to three other message conditions. Defensive processing was further reflected by poor recognition of message content for ads depicting both cues and disgust.


Lindsey R. Tate1, Nick Woodruff1, Brett Clementz2, & Lauren Ethridge3 1University of Oklahoma, 2University of Georgia, 3University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Descriptors: saccade, MEG, spatial transformation

Preparatory brain activity can provide insight into goal-oriented action and inhibitory processes related to both motor and cognition. In the current study participants performed an interleaved prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) task in which two checkerboards located in the cue/target locations to the left and right of the focal point flickered at different frequencies (12Hz and 15Hz). Participants (n= 16) were cued as to trial type (AS or PS) and direction (left or right, 30 trials each condition), immediately followed by a saccade preparatory period wherein participants fixated on the central point (7500ms). At the end of the preparatory period, participants made a memory-guided saccade to the cue location (PS) or its mirror image location (AS). Neural oscillatory power locked in time to the checkerboard oscillatory frequencies was measured over occipital cortex over the preparatory period in 1750 ms bins to capture covert directional attention shifts related to spatial transformation from cue-to-target in AS, relative to PS in which no spatial transformation is necessary to correctly perform the task. The time-course of the 12/15 Hz power ratio for left and rightward AS suggests that participants were more likely to perform the attentional shift late in the preparatory period (5000 to 7500 ms post-cue) rather than immediately following cue presentation. Given that the attentional shift occurs closely coupled to the actual saccade generation, outliers in trial-wise shift timing may predict failure of inhibitory processes related to subsequent behavioral errors.

Poster 1-26


Lisa De Stefano1, Jun Wang2, Stormi P. White3, Matthew W. Mosconi4, John Sweeney5, & Lauren E. Ethridge1,6 1University of Oklahoma, 2Zhejiang University of Technology, 3Univer-sity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 4University of Kansas, 5Univer-sity of Cincinnati, 6University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Descriptors: autism spectrum disorder

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have hypersensitivity to sounds and abnormalities in auditory cortex function. These abnormalities may be linked to inhibitory interneuron dysfunction. Inhibitory interneurons modulate synchronization of cortical oscillations, which have been found to be abnormal in EEG studies of ASD and rodent models of ASD; however the extent to which these abnormalities are present across a wide range of frequencies is unknown. The present study used a sensory entrainment task with dense array EEG to examine differences in auditory processing in children and adults with ASD and age- and sex- matched controls. Participants listened to 200 trials consisting of a 1000 Hz tone amplitude modulated by a chirp sinusoid linearly increasing in frequency from 0-100 Hz over two seconds. Data were analyzed using spatial PCA to define the auditory scalp topography and single trial time-frequency analyses to capture neural phase-locking across the chirp frequency range. Participants with ASD showed significantly decreased gamma phase-locking compared to controls in the 30-40 Hz range, t(21) = 2.46, p = .02, Hedges's g = 1.02, and in the 80 Hz range, t(21) = 2.49, p = .02, Hedges's g =1.04. These results suggest that the inhibitory network function that determines the ability to phase-lock to an oscillatory stimulus is abnormal across both low and high gamma frequency bands in ASD. Translation of these findings to rodent models of ASD may provide additional insight on neural mechanisms and novel treatment options for auditory hypersensitivity.


Hans S. Schroder, Yanli Lin, & Jason S. Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: anxiety, late positive potential, contrast avoidance The contrast avoidance model posits that individuals with problematic anxiety are sensitive to sudden negative emotional shifts such as going from a relatively neutral or relaxed state to one of turmoil (Newman & Llera, 2011). As a result, these individuals use worry to try to maintain negative emotions in order to avoid experiencing sudden increases in affect. However, the neural underpinnings of this sensitivity to contrasts remain unknown.

We examined trial-to-trial influences on the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that reflects emotion processing, during a picture-viewing task and its relationship to anxiety. Fifty participants viewed negative and neutral IAPS images presented randomly for 5 seconds each. Analysis focused on LPP amplitudes on negative-image trials that followed neutral (high contrast) or negative (low contrast) images.

Trait anxiety scores were positively correlated with LPP amplitudes on high-contrast trials at Fz (r = .47), FCz (r = .44), and Cz (r = .35; ps < .05), but were uncorrelated with LPP amplitudes on low-contrast trials (-.01 > rs > -.16). These data suggest that trait anxiety is associated with more attention allocation to negative imagery immediately preceded by neutral stimuli. Results provide the first neural support for the contrast-avoidance model by demonstrating heightened sensitivity to emotional contrasts among high-anxious individuals. The study also provides a novel technique in assessing emotional contrasts by examining LPP differences among particular trial sequences.

The first author is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (NSF Award No. DGE-0802267). The last author is funded by National Institutes of Health K12 grant (HD065879).

Poster 1-28


Christopher Hunt, Samuel E. Cooper, Melissa P. Hartnell, John S. Gaffney, & Shmuel Lissek University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus

Descriptors: fear generalization, avoidance, anxiety sensitivity Generalized Pavlovian fear and instrumental avoidance are central to etiological accounts of clinical anxiety. Although recent evidence links generalized Pavlov-ian fear to maladaptive avoidance, little is known about individual differences that may moderate this relationship. One potential moderator is anxiety sensitivity (AS), which captures the degree to which a person catastrophically misattributes anxiety-related bodily sensations as harmful and is also a robust risk factor for clinical anxiety. To test this relationship, a healthy college sample (n= 95) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as well as a validated, generalized fear and avoidance paradigm. The paradigm measures both fear-potentiated startle and avoidance responses to previously conditioned danger (CS1: paired with shock) and safety cues (CS-) as well as generalization stimuli (GS) parametrically varying in similarity to CS1. On avoidance trials, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Whereas avoidance during CS1 is considered adaptive, avoidance during GSs is considered maladap-tive because shock is not possible and thus performance is unnecessarily compromised. Results indicate that AS positively moderates the relationship between generalized fear-potentiated startle and maladaptive avoidance, such that greater AS was associated with stronger maladaptive behavioral consequences of Pavlov-ian fear generalization. These results suggest that AS confers risk for clinical anxiety by facilitating transfer of Pavlovian fear to instrumental avoidance.


Bryan D. Fox, Amanda J. Wilkes, Olivia D. Cross, Adriana M. Capraio, Grace M. Smith, Kong Hoang, Zach B. Wrehe, & Diane L. Filion University of Missouri - Kansas City

Descriptors: attention, filtering, fatigue

Prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) is frequently used as an index of sensorimotor gating, a process assumed to underlie efficient attentional function. However, it remains unclear which aspect of attentional processing is most closely related to PPI. The present study investigated whether PPI reflects individual differences in efficient filtering of environmental stimuli. We examined the relationship between PPI and a behavioral test of attention, hypothesizing that efficient discrimination between stimuli would correlate with PPI. Healthy college-aged volunteers (N=26) completed the Conner's Continuous Performance Task (CPT v.2) and a PPI assessment that included lead intervals of 30, 120, and 240ms. An ANOVA revealed that PPI differed across the three lead-interval conditions [F(3,68) = 5.18, p=.006], with the largest PPI occurring at the 120ms lead interval. Detectability (d') was calculated from the CPT as a measure of perceptual sensitivity in discriminating target signals from noise distributions, and correlations between d' and PPI at each lead interval revealed that d' was inversely related to PPI in both the 30ms (r = -.52, p = .004) and the 120ms condition (r = -.67, p = .01), supporting our hypothesis. These results indicate that participants with high PPI scores were faster at discriminating between target and distractor stimuli in the CPT, supporting the view that PPI reflects the efficiency of early attentional filtering. The implications of these findings as well as the relationship of PPI to self-reported fatigue and mood will also be discussed.

Poster 1-31


Amy J. Haufler1, Jaime Arribas Starkey-El1, Maria Davila2, Paul Fernan1,

James Gavrilis1, Joseph Kelleher1, Bradford Lapsansky1, Gregory Lewis2, William McDaniel1, Kelly O'Brien1, Morgan Southern3, & Felipe Westhelle1 1Johns Hopkins University, 2UNC-Chapel Hill, 3The Asymmetric Warfare Group, U.S. Army

Descriptors: decision making, cognition, executive function The increasingly complex, dynamic, and asymmetric nature of modern day warfare requires acute, real-time soldier adaptive decision making in order to meet changing and uncertain operational challenges. The purpose of this proof of concept study was to confirm the metrics of adaptive behavior at the individual level via relevant neuropsychological assessments, performance on controlled, mission-relevant test tasks, and direct measurement of psychophysiological responses during challenge. A positive relationship between adaptability and

executive function was hypothesized. It was also hypothesized that lower scores on the Adaptability task would be associated with higher stress reactivity (less self-regulation) as indicated by lower HRV, faster HR, higher frequency of skin conductance responses and larger neuroendocrine responses. The sample consisted of healthy male (n=14) volunteers (M=34.85 yrs, SD=4.12) with active duty and leadership experience in the U. S. Army Combat Arms military occupational specialty. Higher scores on the Adaptability task were negatively correlated with Eriksen-Flanker RTs and positively correlated with 2-Back RTs. RSA suppression was significantly correlated with higher scores on the adaptability task (rs(7) = -0.56, p = 0.04)). Within subject examination indicated a pattern towards greater RSA suppression during 'best' responses and was observed significantly in the best performers. As an indicator of focused attention, RSA suppression appears to be associated with higher levels of adaptive decision making.

Funding for this project was provided by the Asymmetric Warfare Group, U. S. Army.

Poster 1-32


Maria Ruiz-Blondet, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University

Descriptors: biometrics

Recent work has demonstrated that visually evoked event-related potentials (ERPs) display enough individual variation to be used as highly accurate brain biometrics. That is, individual ERPs are unique enough to serve as identifiers in the same way that fingerprints do. However, it is also well known that the brain is plastic, and that anatomical and functional brain organization changes over time. Therefore, it is unclear whether brain biometrics possess biometric permanence, that is, the characteristic of remaining stable over time. Here, we investigated this question by asking individuals to provide biometric data in the CEREBRE ERP biometric protocol, and then return to the lab to provide biometric data again between 5 and 10 months later. Results indicate that, even with delay of up to 10 months between data acquisition sessions, individuals can still be identified on the basis of their CEREBRE biometric data with 100% accuracy. This result suggests that, though individual brain anatomy does change over time and individual brain states fluctuate due to any number of factors (e.g., mood, wakefulness, stress), the CEREBRE protocol nevertheless displays at least 10 months of bio-metric permanence.

This work was supported by an award to S.L from NSF CAREER-1252975 and by awards to S.L. and Z.J. from NSF TWC SBE-1422417, the Binghamton University Interdisciplinary Collaborative Grants program, and the Binghamton University Health Sciences Transdisciplinary Area of Excellence.



Toshihiko Sato1, Kento Takahashi2, Naohiro Yamamoto3, & Toshiteru Hatayama4

1Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University, 2Tohoku University, 3Yamagata Pre-fectural Police, 4Hachinohe Gakuin University

Descriptors: attentional bias, skin conductance response, a dot-probe task The present study examines the association between individual differences in the magnitude of attentional bias and autonomic reactivity. Sixteen university students engaged in a dot-probe task, which consisted of 16 congruent, 16 incongru-ent, and 16 neutral trials. In congruent and incongruent trials, both angry and neutral expressions of the same face were presented simultaneously, while two neutral expressions were presented in neutral trials. Participants were asked to press one of two buttons to indicate which side of the screen contained a probe stimulus. The magnitude of attentional bias was calculated as the difference in mean reaction times between congruent trials, in which the probe was presented on the same side as the angry face, and incongruent trials, in which it was presented on the opposite side of the angry face. ECG and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded for the duration of the task. Online analysis of the heartbeat interval was used to determine heart rate. Participants were then assigned to either a high or low attentional bias group. Subjects in both groups showed greater mean SCR values during the 10-second period after the onset of stimulus presentation in the congruent and incongruent trials when compared to those observed in neutral trials. In addition, mean SCR values were greater for participants exhibiting lesser degrees of attentional bias. These results suggest that the allocation of more attention to threat stimuli causes significant inhibition of early neural discharge in the sympathetic nervous system.


Eunsam Shin Yonsei University

Descriptors: media multitasking, attentional control, individual differences The current study investigated how the degree of media multitasking (MMing) is related with attentional control abilities using behavior and electrophysiological measures. Abilities to switch task sets and focus on a given task were tested using a number-letter and a book-reading task, respectively. In the number-letter task, classifying odd or even numbers and Korean consonants with or without double sounds was the number and the letter task, respectively. During this number-letter task, participants were presented with a cue "number" or "letter," followed by a target comprising a number and a Korean consonant. The cue category indicated which task to perform upon target appearance and was repeated or switched to the other category. For this task a switch cost (i.e., difference between switched and repeated trials) was calculated for RT and accuracy data. In the reading task, participants were repeatedly presented with a train of five distracting tones while reading a self-selected book. In the ERP, the N1 component reflects auditory attention. Its amplitude elicited by each tone was observed. Finally, each participant completed a media use questionnaire that assesses the degree of MMing. Results showed:(a) the switch cost in RT was larger for higher than for lower MMers; (b) N1 amplitude was similar for the first tone across the participants but was larger for the repeated tones in higher than in lower MMers. These results suggest that high MMing is negatively associated with the ability to switch task sets and to focus on a task while filtering out distracting stimuli.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2014S1A5B5A07042485).


Ajay Nadig1, Narun Pornpattananangkul2, Nicholas J. Kelley1, James Glazer1, & Robin Nusslock1 1Northwestern University, 2National University of Singapore

Descriptors: attention, motivation, reward

Narrowing versus broadening attentional scope enhances motivation-relevant neural reactivity to appetitive stimuli (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2011). It has also been demonstrated that appetitive (pre-goal) and consummatory (post-goal) positive affect engage distinct psychological and neural processes (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010). As such, although narrowing scope enhances the intensity of appetitive stimuli, it is unclear whether the same effect will be observed with consum-matory stimuli. The present study clarifies this issue by investigating how altering cognitive scope differentially affects appetitive and consummatory neural processes in a rewarding task. Twenty-one participants completed an EEG task where each trial contained three stages: a cue that signaled whether winning money is possible, a classic Navon letters stimulus (Navon, 1977) which either narrowed or broadened attentional scope, and feedback that indicated whether the participant had pressed correctly and fast enough to earn money. As expected, in local versus global trials, the possibility of winning money had an enhanced effect on the Cue-N2, taken as an index of appetitive neural reward processes. Surprisingly, in global versus local trials, the valence of the feedback (positive or negative) had an enhanced effect on the Feedback-P3, taken as an index of consummatory neural reward processes. These results suggest that narrowing attentional scope enhances motivational processes only for appetitive stimuli, whereas broadening attentional scope does so for consummatory processes.

Northwestern University Office of Undergraduate Research.

Poster 1-38


Raoul Dieterich1, Anna Weinberg2, & Norbert Kathmann1 1Humboldt-University of Berlin, 2McGill University

Descriptors: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), late positive potential (LPP), attention

The late positive potential (LPP) is frequently used to index attention to motiva-tionally salient stimuli. A broad network of brain regions was identified as a neural correlate of the LPP, but it is unclear which regions are causally involved in modulating it. One potential candidate is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is engaged in attention and emotion regulation. We used anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to temporally excite or inhibit the right DLPFC, respectively. Twenty-four undergrads underwent separate sessions of anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS (20 min, 2mA, double-blind) of the right dlPFC. Thereafter, subjects performed two tasks featuring unpleasant and neutral pictures, in response to which the LPP was recorded: passive picture viewing, requiring active engagement of the pictures, and an emotional interrupt task, where pictures serve to distract a two-choice response. The order of stimulation and tasks was balanced across subjects. We observed broadly distributed increases in LPP amplitudes after anodal tDCS compared to sham. During passive viewing, this effect was sustained and specific to unpleasant pictures. During emotional interrupt, it was limited to the P3 interval but evident for both picture types. These findings suggest that exciting the right DLPFC is associated with facilitated attentional processing and that this region drives modulations of the LPP. However, this effect seems to be governed by context-dependent dynamics, differentially affecting its duration and specificity to stimulus valence.


Patricia L. Davies1, Jewel Crasta1, Michael H. Thaut2, & William J. Gavin1 1Colorado State University, 2University of Toronto

Descriptors: auditory motor entrainment, EEG, music therapy Neurophysiological research has shown that auditory and motor systems interact duringmovement to rhythmic auditory stimuli through a process called entrain-ment. This studyexplores the neural mechanisms underlying auditory-motor entrainment using EEG. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two priming conditions: an auditory-only task or a motor-only task. Participants assigned to the auditory-only task listened to 400 trials of auditory stimuli presented every 800ms, while those in to the motor-only task were asked to press a button rhythmically every 800ms without any external stimuli. After the priming condition, all participants completed an entrainment task requiring pressing a button along with auditory stimuli every 800ms (auditory-motor combined). For the combined task, time-frequency analysis of total power at C3 site indicated that the oscillations in the gamma and beta band were better synchronized with button presses for the group given the auditory-only task first compared to the group given motor-only first, indicating different neural processes based on the priming. T-maps of time-frequency analysis showed that the group given auditory-only first had significantly greater power around 200-300ms before the onset of the auditory stimuli, while the group given motor-only first had significantly greater power around 200ms after the onset of the auditory stimuli (p < .05). Results suggest that even brief periods of rhythmic training of the auditory system leads to shifts in neural synchronization of the motor system during the process of entrainment.


Poster 1-40


Mei-Heng Lin, Patricia L. Davies, & William J. Gavin Colorado State University

Descriptors: theta oscillation, correct-related negativity (CRN), latency variability Correct-related negativity (CRN) is related to response monitoring in correct trials. Yet little is known about developmental trends of CRN theta oscillations. Latency variability of error-related negativity (ERN) has been shown to confound developmental trends of the ERN, which is associated with theta oscillations. We examined developmental trends of theta power in correct and incorrect trials from a Flanker task in 240 participants (7-25yrs). Two time-frequency analyses were performed at the trial level then averaged; before and after applying a Woody filter to adjust for latency variability in a window of 0-180ms after responses. Before latency variability adjustment, no age relationship with theta power was found in correct trials. However, theta power in incorrect trials significantly increased with age [cubic trend, beta = -5.19, t(236) = -2.55, p =.01]. Comparisons of theta power between correct and incorrect trials revealed no significant differences after controlling for age, F(1,238) = 0.81, p =.37. After latency variability adjustment, theta power significantly decreased with age with different trends for correct and incorrect trials [Correct: quadratic trend, beta = 1.1, t(237) = 3.5, p =.001; Incorrect: cubic trend, beta = -5.11, t(237) = -2.48, p = .01]. Comparisons of theta power showed that theta power in incorrect trials was significantly larger than correct trials after controlling for age, F(1,238) = 14.47, p < .001. The different maturational timelines suggest different underlying neural mechanisms of response monitoring for correct and incorrect trials.

NIH/MCMRR K01HD001201.


Talar Simon1, Kyle Berger1, Bruce H. Friedman2, & Jared J. McGinley1 1Towson University, 2Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Descriptors: emotion, autonomic, respiration

Autonomic differentiation of emotions has been highly debated. Few studies, however, have focused on how multiple manipulations differentially contribute to the autonomic profile of the elicited emotions. The present study explored the degree of variation in respiration rate (RR) across emotions elicited by multiple manipulations. The participants were 64 undergraduates (28 female). The emotions of amusement, contentment, fear, and sadness were elicited via personal recall, film viewing, and standardized imagery. Respiration was collected using a thoracic strain gauge from which RR was extracted. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that RR was more effective in differentiating the type of manipulation used to elicit an emotion than it was in differentiating emotions. Notably, the amusement and sadness conditions directionally varied in RR with increases for the film inductions, but reductions during recall (ps < .005). In contrast, none of the emotions were differentiable when analyzed within each manipulation (all ps >.10). In line with previous research presented at this conference (i.e., McGinley, Choi, & Friedman, 2015), there is continued support for univariate autonomic responses varying across manipulations targeting the same emotion. These findings yield continued support for the utility of multivariate-based research in auto-nomic patterning of emotion states. Additionally, these results suggest the importance of the demand characteristics of the method employed to elicit emotions.


Alexandra Stephenson, Eric Watson, & D. Erik Everhart East Carolina University

Descriptors: EEG, sleep

Poor sleep is related to chronic health conditions, neurocognitive dysfunction, and impaired daily function. Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has been employed to investigate individual differences associated with sleep disorders. RST consists of Behavioral Activation (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) Systems. BAS is associated with left frontal activity and approach, while BIS is associated with right frontal activity and withdrawal. In this study 53 college students were utilized to examine the relationships between BIS, BAS, sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), quality of life using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and baseline alpha (8-13 Hz) frontal asymmetry scores (log[right alpha]-log[left alpha]) for five frontal scalp site pairs. Higher asymmetry scores indicate relatively greater left frontal activity. It was hypothesized that greater right than left frontal activity would be related to individual components of the PSQI and SF-12. This was partially supported. Greater right activity was associated with sleep duration for F3-F4, r (52)= -.279, p < .01), while the opposite was observed for sleep latency for F3-F4, r (52) = .333, p < .05), and sleep efficiency for F7-F8, r (52) = .453, p < .01), F3-F4, r (52) = .308, p < .05), and FT7-FT8, r (52) = .354, p < .01). Greater left activity was weakly associated with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-12v2 for FT7-FT8, r (52) = .305, p < .05). These results suggest that frontal asymmetry is related to sleep and life quality. Implications for these findings are discussed.

Poster 1-42


Thomas Ritz1, Ana Trueba2, Pia Vogel1, & David Rosenfield1 1Southern Methodist University, 2University of San Francisco de Quito

Descriptors: immune system, respiration, stress

Prior research has demonstrated that psychosocial stress is associated with respiratory infections. Immunologic, endocrine, and cardiovascular predictors of such infections have been explored with varying success. We therefore sought to study the unexplored role of airway mucosal immunity factors, nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). NO is secreted by airway epithelial cells as part of the first line of defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. VEGF is expressed by mast cells in respiratory infections and recruits immune cells to infected sites, but in excess lead to vulnerability of the airway epithelium. We measured exhaled NO, exhaled breath condensate VEGF, and salivary VEGF in 36 students (6 with asthma) undergoing final academic examinations at three occasions: a low-stress baseline during the term, an early phase of finals, and a late phase of finals. They also reported on cold symptoms at these time points as well as 5 and 10 days after the final exam stress period. Higher baseline levels of NO were associated with fewer cold symptoms after stress, whereas higher baseline levels of EBC and salivary VEGF were associated with more cold symptoms after stress. Changes in these immune markers during final exams did not contribute to the prediction of later cold symptoms. Asthma was associated with more cold symptoms after stress. Thus, habitual levels of NO and VEGF may serve as an indicator of mucosal immunocompetence, and hence can guide preventative treatments against airway infections from periods of stress in daily life.

This study was partly funded by a Southern Methodist University URC (University Research Council) grant (401608) to TR.

Poster 1-44


Matthias J. Wieser, Lea Ahrens, & Paul Pauli University of Wurzburg

Descriptors: anxiety, ssVEP, fear conditioning

Fear generalization is thought to contribute to the etiology of anxiety disorders, but little is known about its underlying brain mechanisms. As aversive learning experiences are reflected in short-term plasticity of the brain's sensory neurons, the present study examines fear generalization by assessment of mass neural activity in visual cortex. Sixty-seven participants were differentially conditioned to two faces flickering at a frequency of 12 Hz. Afterwards, in order to investigate fear generalization, four generalization stimuli (GS) were shown which were created by morphing the two original faces into each other in 20% steps. The conditioned response was measured via steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs), valence, arousal and US expectancy ratings. Analyses revealed significant generalization gradients in all ratings with highest fear responses to the CS1 and a progressive decline of these responses with increasing similarity to the CS-. In contrast, in the ssVEP signal a sharp discrimination between the CS 1 and the GS most similar to the CS1 was observed, which might be interpreted as lateral inhibition in visual cortex. The observed dissociation among explicit and implicit measures points to different functions of behavioral and sensory cortical processes during fear generalization: While the ratings might reflect an individual's consciously increased readiness to react to threat, the lateral inhibition pattern in the occipital cortex might serve to maximize the contrast among stimuli with and without affective value and thereby improve adaptive behavior.


Nicole C. Mechin, Samantha Thomas, Kary Reynolds, & Philip A. Gable University of Alabama

Descriptors: alcohol, motivation, N1

Alcohol is an approach motivating substance. Exposure to alcohol cues can cause a narrowing of attentional scope (virtual alcohol myopia) related to approach motivation. Previous work also suggests that individuals high in approach motivation are at greater risk for hazardous drinking behaviors and demonstrate increased attentional biases toward alcohol related stimuli. However, it is unclear how hazardous drinking behaviors influence rapid appetitive attentional processing of alcohol related stimuli. The current study sought to investigate the relationship between binge drinking behaviors and early neural processing of alcohol and neutral cues. In addition, we investigated the impact of a manipulated attentional scope on this relationship. Attentional scope was manipulated by having participants identify local (or global) targets of hierarchical stimuli prior to cue exposure. A global attentional scope attenuated N1 amplitudes to alcohol cues. However, binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes in response to alcohol cues regardless of attentional scope. These results reveal that past binge drinking enhances rapid alcohol cue reactivity. Moreover, binge drinking enhances motivated attentional processing even when reactivity is attenuated by manipulations of attentional scope.

Poster 1-46


Casey Gilmore1, Jazmin Camchong2, Seth Disner1, Nicholas Davenport3, Kelvin Lim3, & Scott R. Sponheim3 1Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 2University of Minnesota, 3Uni-versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis VA Health Care System

Descriptors: traumatic brain injury, regional homogeneity, PTSD Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly reported in veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), has been associated with (a) post-deployment rates of PTSD, and (b) long-distance resting state brain functional connectivity (FC) dysfunction. Little is known, however, about short-range spontaneous brain activity, or Regional Homogeneity (ReHo), in these veterans. This study used ReHo analysis to identify regional resting state FC associated with blast mTBI severity and PTSD symptoms. Six-minute eyes-closed resting-state fMRI was collected from 127 OEF/OIF veterans. Whole-brain ReHo maps representing local FC were calculated for each subject. Regression of blast mTBI severity scores with the ReHo values revealed a brain region in right parietal cortex, Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL), that was negatively correlated with blast mTBI severity (Spearman's rho=-.19, p = .03). Then, correlations between ReHo in IPL and scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) revealed that higher ReHo in right IPL was correlated with higher current CAPS criterion B (r=.27, p=.01), criterion D (r = .25, p=.02), and Total scores (r=.25, p=.02). Blast mTBI severity was associated with lower magnitude of ReHo in right IPL. Increased ReHo in IPL was associated with greater PTSD symptomatology. IPL is involved in the retrieval of unpleasant experiences and recollection of previously experienced events, crucial aspects of PTSD. These results highlight the detrimental relationship between blast-related brain injury and neural dysfunction underlying PTSD.

This work was supported by grants to Scott R. Sponheim from the Congres-sionally Directed Medical Research Program (W81XWH-08-2-0038), the Minnesota Veterans Research Institute (MVRI), and the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service of the VA Office of Research and Development (Award Number 1I01RX000622).


Ursula Hess1, Christophe Blaison1, & Gun Semin2 1Humboldt University of Berlin, 2Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada

Descriptors: facial mimicry, affective priming

Facial mimicry is the imitation of the emotional facial expressions of others. Mimicry is said to be an embodiment process that is relevant for emotional understanding. Studies aiming to block mimicry to assess the influence on emotional processes use various techniques. Two of these are instructions "don't move your face" and holding a pen in the mouth using the lips. We used these methods to "block" mimicry in an affective priming paradigm with a no block control condition. Facial EMG was recorded throughout at the Corrugator Supercilii (frown) and Zygomaticus Major (smile) sites. In all conditions a significant affective priming effect was found, suggesting that both primes and targets were processed.

EMG results showed consistent significant mimicry effects for Corrugator activity in response to angry versus happy targets, suggesting that the upper face was not affected by the manipulation. Results for Zygomaticus Major suggest inconsistent blocking effects depending on the preceding prime. In sum, the two blocking procedures tested only resulted in incomplete blocking. This incomplete blocking did not affect the emotional processes underlying affective priming.

Poster 1-48


Marta Andreatta, & Paul Pauli University of Wuurzburg

Descriptors: fear conditioning, safety vs. relief, SCR, startle response Predicting threats is crucial for organisms' survival. Stimuli signaling threats elicit fear, while stimuli predicting threats' absence (safety) elicit appetitive responses. Termination of an aversive event is characterized by an appetitive response, called relief. Notably, relief-associated stimuli elicit appetitive response similar to safety signals. However, it is unclear, whether relief-associated stimuli can reduce fear as safety-associated stimuli do. Twenty healthy volunteers participated at the study. During conditioning, one geometrical shape (conditioned stimulus, fearCS) was presented before a painful electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), a geometrical shape (reliefCS) was presented after US, and a third shape (safetyCS) was never associated with US. During summation test, no US was delivered and fearCS was presented in compound with either safetyCS or reliefCS. After conditioning and test, fearCS was rated more negative, arousing, anxiogenic and associated with US compared to both safetyCS and reliefCS. Startle potentiation and larger skin conductance response (SCR) to fearCS compared to both safetyCS and reliefCS indicate successful acquisition of conditioned fear responses. As expected, SCR to fearCS was significantly reduced by the presence of safetyCS and interestingly also be the presence of reliefCS. Together, our results indicate that acquired fear can be inhibited by both safety and relief cues. Thus, relief does not only entail reward-like properties, but also safety-like properties and such safety-like properties seem crucial for reducing fear. CRC TRR 58, DFG.


Wolfgang H.R. Miltner1, Barbara Schmidt1, Holger Hecht1, and Ewald Naumann2 1Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 2University of Trier

Descriptors: hypnosis, P3b, individual differences

We investigated ERP amplitudes/latencies (N1, P3a, P3b) and counting errors in 60 healthy participants with different levels of suggestibility who were exposed to a 3-stimulus visual oddball task. Participants were instructed to count a square that appeared in 10% of the trials. In the hypnosis condition, participants' vision was blocked by the suggestion of a wooden board in front of their eyes. In the non-hypnotic control condition, there was no visual blockade. Sequence of conditions was balanced across participants.

Replicating observations of a similar study with 19 participants presented at the 2015 SPR meeting, our new data reveal a) a significant increase of counting errors and b) significant suppression of late ERP amplitudes, most expressed in response to the counted infrequent stimulus (P3, slow wave) and an extension of ERP latencies in the hypnosis condition as compared to the control condition. These effects were modulated by the degree of suggestibility and most expressed in highly suggestible participants. Furthermore, similar N1 amplitude variations as a function of stimulus type in both experimental conditions indicate that the processing of stimuli was not affected by a modulation of attention to the stimuli during the hypnosis condition as compared to the control condition. Data are discussed within a framework of executive control, suggesting that the effects of hypnosis might be due to activities in frontal brain areas that suppress the activity of neural structures in occipital and parietal areas that are relevant for correct stimulus categorization.

Research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft # MI 265/ 15-1 and NA 482/4-1.

Poster 1-51


Anna Vinkova Moscow State University

Descriptors: attention-deficit disorder

Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is likely to consider as a developmental disorder. However, adults' inattentiveness in computerized work produces crucial mistakes in human professional activity. We conducted 12 subjects aged 24-34 years, 7 of which were males, with ADD symptoms and developed a training technique using EEG biofeedback to form directed attention to special stimuli. The stimuli were real examples of human professions' tasks like searching mistakes in bookkeeper's accountants.

The subjects received EEG biofeedback from two active electrodes Fz and Pz using the 10-20 International System. Each subject participated in about 20 trainings to increase beta activity according to the Othmer's protocol (Othmer & Oth-mer (1992)). Real adult subjects' working tasks were used as stimuli during training session. Before and after the series of trainings the subjects were tested by working task for searching mistakes in accountants. The results were processed statistically using Wilcoxon test.

After the trainings with biofeedback the results of testing the subjects with working tasks showed statistically significant increase in beta against the level before trainings (p < 0.033); increase in beta/alpha ratio (p < 0.034) and improvement in psychological tests for attention (p < 0.034). The subjects learned to increase their functional state activity level when solving working task and to reduce the number of errors to an acceptable minimum (p < 0.014).

The experiment shows the importance of the choice of stimulus material for ADD adults' biofeedback depending on the task.

Poster 1-52


Isabella Palumbo, James R. Yancey, Sarah J. Brislin, Daniel Blonigen, & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: ERP, N170, LPP

Callous-unemotional (CU) tendencies have been linked to impaired recognition of affective (in particular, fearful) faces and reduced fMRI brain (amygdala) reactivity to such stimuli in young participant samples (Marsh & Blair, 2008). Cortical ERPs provide another means for examining responses to affective faces. Components of ERP response to fearful faces show high heritability in adults (Shannon et al., 2013) and appear sensitive to individual differences in CU tendencies (Brislin et al., 2016). The current work evaluated the heritability of three face-related ERP components, N170, P200 and LPP, in a large adult twin sample (N~400) tested in an emotional Stroop task calling for identification of face stimuli as either fearful or happy, with superimposed words either matching or mismatching the expressed emotion. Consistent with data from other tasks, robust N170 and P200 responses were evident over temporal-occipital sites and central-parietal sites, respectively, in relation to affective faces. Twin-concordance analyses provided evidence for genetic contributions to these ERP components. Also consistent with expectation, scores on a measure of CU tendencies predicted reduced N170 and LPP amplitudes for faces of both types, suggesting that variations along this trait dimension are associated with deficits in both early recognition and later elaborative processing of affective face. Taken as whole, results suggest that N170 and LPP responses in an emotional Stroop task operate as heritable brain indicators of affect-processing deficits associated with CU traits.


Meredith P. Johnson1, Chris Loersch2, Tiffany A. Ito2, Elizabeth E.

Stillwell1, Hannah I. Volpert1, & Bruce D. Bartholow1 1University of Missouri, 2University of Colorado

Descriptors: P300, alcohol, advertising

Advertisers frequently leverage the affinity people feel for their ingroups to affiliate their products with those groups, implicitly conveying that those products are safe and trustworthy. This practice can have dangerous consequences when the product itself is inherently risky. Prior work from our lab shows that beer packaged in university colors is perceived to be safer than standard beer, and that strength of identification with the university is positively associated with P3 amplitude elicited by beer shown in a university context. Here, we used an evaluative conditioning procedure to mimic marketing approaches employed by alcohol beverage companies to create university affiliations with their products. Specifically, in a between-subjects design, underage, undergraduate student participants were repeatedly exposed to one of four critical stimuli pairings: a beverage brand (beer or water) paired with school logos (representing their university or a different university), in addition to other stimuli not paired with a university logo. They then completed a visual oddball task while ERPs were recorded, in which the beer and water brands appeared as infrequent targets amid more frequent neutral IAPS images. Findings suggest that the beer brand previously paired with students' university elicited larger P3 amplitude than beer previously paired with a different university, suggesting university affiliation enhances motivated attention to beer brands. Potential implications of university-affiliated beer marketing for underage drinking are discussed.


Kyle W. Eaton, & Thomas M. Ferrari Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine

Descriptors: self-forgiveness, heart rate variability (HRV), internal family systems

We are interested in the physiological correlates of self-forgiveness (SF). First, we collect psychometric data on stress levels, trait anger, and trait and state forgiveness. Participants are then connected to a 3-lead ECG, frontalis EMG, and respiratory belt (ADI PowerLab 26T, LabChart v8) and listen to a 40 min SF audio based on the Internal Family Systems (IFS) model. Afterwards, we re-administer the three forgiveness instruments. Our hypothesis was that ratings of SF, and possibly other-forgiveness, would increase after listening to the IFS-based audio. Scores did increase very significantly for all three forgiveness instruments (p-level = 0.005, 0.00001, and 0.008, n = 15), confirming the effectiveness of the IFS-based imagery. HR did not vary during the recording, but heart rate variability (HRV-SDRR) was significantly different from baselines during a guided relaxation (p = .011) as well as the SF portion (p = 0.02). A similar pattern was observed for HRV total power and the LF/HF ratio, but not the VLF or LF bands. Power in the HF band dropped significantly during the guided relaxation and remained significantly lower for the remainder. A significant decrease in respiration rate (BPM) for most participants also occurred during guided relaxation (p = .001) and was correlated with SF (R = 0.56, p = 0.03). BPM variability, inspiration t, and expiration t were also significantly different during the guided relaxation. The findings indicate the IFS-based SF intervention is effective and may be facilitated by enhancing parasympathetic tone.


Lauren R. Weiss1, Alfonso J. Alfini1, Theresa J. Smith1, & J. Carson Smith2 1University of Maryland, College Park, 2University of Maryland

Descriptors: exercise, affect, fMRI

A single session of exercise is known to decrease negative affect and increase positive affect, but little is known regarding the brain systems underlying exercise-induced changes in affective responsiveness. We aimed to determine differences in brain activation during emotional picture viewing after acute moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest. Healthy young adults (n =8) completed two conditions on different days; a 30-minute session of seated rest or moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Following rest and exercise, fMRI data were acquired while participants viewed 90 pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The fMRI data were analyzed with the Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (ANFI) software package. Whole-brain analysis revealed main effects of Condition and Valence in several regions. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was conducted to examine the BOLD response to pleasant and unpleasant picture viewing in task-activated brain regions. Mean activation statistics were extracted from each ROI and submitted to a 2 (Condition) x 2 (Valence) repeated-measures ANOVA and FDR corrected. Significant main effects of Valence were revealed in four regions, including the middle temporal gyri. A main effect of Condition was revealed in the left lingual gyrus, and a Condition x Valence interaction was revealed in the left superior temporal gyrus, however; none of these effects survived the FDR threshold. The present study suggests a neural basis for changes in affective responsiveness and improved mood after exercise.

Poster 1-58



Kate Holland1, Cristina Blanco1, Alana Rosa1, Michael Doster1, & David Harrison2

1University of South Carolina Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: sex differences, right hemisphere activation, trait anxiety Sex differences in brain morphology indicate that men have a smaller anterior corpus callosum relative to women, resulting in a potential decrease in interhemi-spheric transfer of information conveying affect. High levels of trait anxiety have reliably been associated with increases in cardiovascular reactivity, which is proposed to be especially evident in high trait anxious men upon exposure to affective (right hemisphere) stress. High trait anxious men were predicted to show increased heart rate (HR) when exposed to 3 affective stressors. Men (n=110) completed screening measures including the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAIT), and were asked to identify 7 affective facial expressions. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that scores on the STAIT are a reliable predictor for the number of errors made in identification of facial expression of emotion (F(1, 109) = 5.262, p=.02). Ten high anxious and 10 low anxious men meeting our inclusion criteria were exposed to 3 right hemisphere stressors. A main effect for HR was found (F(1, 18) = 6.47, p=.02), indicating that high anxious men had higher HR across all conditions. Moreover, a Trait x Condition interaction for HR was found (F(3, 54)=4.93, p=.004), indicating that HR for low anxious men remained stable across the experimental conditions relative to high anxious men. These results were not significant when analyzing the same data obtained from women. The results indicate that right hemisphere neural systems are especially compromised in high anxious men upon exposure to multiple affective stressors.


Sarah Babkirk, Jean Quintero, Samantha Birk, Joshua Schwartz, & Tracy Dennis-Tiwary Hunter College, The City University of New York

Descriptors: emotion regulation, the late positive potential, developmental psychophysiology

Emotion regulation (ER), the ability to modulate emotions, predicts adjustment in childhood. This study examined two biosignatures of child ER: the late positive potential (LPP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). While RSA is a well understood index of child ER, the LPP's utility in children is unclear. We examined the LPP during developmentally-relevant social contexts in a directed reappraisal task (DRT), in relation to RSA. Twenty-seven 5- to 8-year-olds (M = 6.89, SD = 1.01) completed a baseline RSA measure and a DRT with EEG in one of three social contexts [parent scaffolding (PS), parent present (PP), or parent absent (PA)]. The LPP was generated for three conditions in the DRT (reappraisal, negative appraisal, neutral). A repeated-measure ANOVA showed a Condition x Group interaction, F(4, 48) = 3.72, p = .01, #p2 = .24. For PS and PP groups, but not the PA group, children showed reduced LPPs via reappraisal versus negative [t(9) = 2.30, p < .05, d = 1.53 vs t(8) = 2.52, p < .05, d = 1.78]. There was no significant correlation between RSA and LPPs (p's > .05). RSA and LPPs were compared to behavioral ER strategy use in an emotionally challenging waiting task (WT). Greater reappraisal-induced reduction of the LPP was related to less withdrawal (r = -.62, p < .05), while greater resting RSA was related to more self-comforting (r = .65, p < .05). Findings substantiate the LPP as a context-sensitive index of child ER, suggesting that children's ER is bolstered by the parent's presence. Also, the LPP may reflect ER processes distinct from those indexed by RSA.

Poster 1-60


Aislinn Sandre, Paige Ethridge, Insub Kim, & Anna Weinberg McGill University

Descriptors: child maltreatment, late positive potential, emotion Maltreatment in childhood can lead to long-lasting difficulties in regulating emotions within social contexts, and thus confer greater risk for anxiety and depression. One explanation for this is that maltreatment may increase attention to interpersonal, threat-related cues. The Late Positive Potential (LPP) is a useful neural marker of attention to threat, as it reflects preferential processing of motivationally-salient information. The present study, therefore, sought to explore the influence of childhood maltreatment on LPP modulation by ambiguous and non-ambiguous facial threat. To that end, we examined modulation of the LPP during the viewing of morphed anger and fear faces in individuals reporting a childhood history of moderate emotional abuse (n = 21), and a control group of individuals reporting no history of emotional abuse (n = 50). Participants viewed 108 blends of angry-neutral or fear-neutral faces (e.g., neutral, 25% angry, 50% angry, 75% angry, 100% angry) presented for 300 ms, and rated faces according to level of affect expressed. Across groups, as emotional intensity increased, both the LPP and ratings of emotional intensity increased in a linear fashion. Additionally, maltreated individuals showed larger LPP amplitude when viewing 100% fearful faces than controls; the two groups were comparable in their ratings of faces and LPP to angry-neutral face morphs. These findings indicate that childhood experiences of maltreatment may have long-lasting effects on allocation of attention and sensitivity to selective, threatening interpersonal signals.


Seung Suk Kang, & Scott R. Sponheim Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: schizophrenia, visual perception, the claustrum Hallucinations and perceptual deficits are hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia, but their precise neural mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Recent findings suggested that hallucinations might be related to abnormalities in the claustrum. The claustrum, a thin grey matter deep brain structure, has uniquely high structural connectivity with almost all cortical regions. The claustrum has been hypothesized to be a neural locus of conscious awareness, enhancing perceptual salience through its neural oscillatory synchronization with sensory cortical regions. To investigate if claustral-cortical functional connectivity is impaired in people with schizophrenia (SZ), we collected magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 12 SZ and 12 healthy controls while they performed a visual perception task. The claustrum volumes were segmented using individual T1-weighted MRI and cortical/claustral source time-series were computed using individual head-models and L-2 norm source localization algorithm with depth-weighting. It was found that early evoked (40-140 ms) and late induced (400-600 ms) gamma frequency (30-120 Hz) neural oscillations increased in interregional phase synchrony between the claustrum and visual cortices during degraded target detection. Notably, the induced gamma synchrony between the right claustrum and visual cortices that were highly predictive of target detection sensitivity (d prime) were largely diminished in SZ, especially in SZ with prominent visual hallucinations, suggesting that deficient claustral-cortical synchrony might lead to hallucinations in SZ.

This work was supported by Grants from the National Institutes of Mental Health (5R24MH069675 and RO1MH77779), and by Grants from the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Research Service to Dr. Scott Sponheim, as well as by the Mental Health Patient Service Line at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Poster 1-62


Seth Disner1, Craig Marquardt2, Bryon Mueller2, Philip Burton2, & Scott R. Sponheim2 1Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 2University of Minnesota

Descriptors: PTSD, resting-state fMRI, meta-analysis

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common focus for neuroimaging research due to widespread prevalence in military and civilian populations. The majority of published functional neuroimaging studies and all known functional meta-analyses of PTSD have examined task performance and/or exposure to affective stimuli. However, spontaneous neural activity at rest (measured using methods such as positron emission tomography and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation) may provide valuable insights about localized abnormalities contributing to the pathophysiology of PTSD. The current study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 15 published resting-state neuroimaging studies (N=314 PTSD cases; 437 controls) to identify regions of divergent spontaneous activity in participants with PTSD. Results suggest individuals with PTSD experience greater spontaneous neural activity in the bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellar tonsil. These areas were used as regions of interest in a resting-state fMRI analysis of an independent sample of combat-exposed US Army veterans (N=248). The analysis aims to validate the ALE findings and determine if spontaneous neural differences are correlated with specific PTSD symptom clusters. Results add to our understanding of the neural underpinnings of PTSD while providing guidance for future rehabilitative interventions.


Christopher Hollowell1, Elle Stahura1, Seth Disner2, & Scott R. Sponheim3 1Minneapolis Veteran Affairs Health System, 2Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 3Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: schizophrenia, ERP, genetics

Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been extensively used to document auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia as well as neural anomalies associated with genetic liability for the disorder. It remains unclear whether such auditory processing abnormalities are evident in other severe mental disorders such as bipolar affective disorder and what specific aspects of genetic liability are most related to the documented ERP abnormalities. The current study used a dichotic listening task to examine abnormalities in the N100 and P300 components in patients with schizophrenia (n = 60). Bipolar disorder patients (n=46) were included to examine the diagnostic specificity of findings and first-degree relatives of the schizophrenia patients (n=48) were examined to additionally explore the possible effect of genetic liability for the disorders on aberrant neural responses. It was found that schizophrenia patients, bipolar patients, and the first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients displayed significantly smaller N100 peak amplitudes and P300 mean amplitudes compared to healthy controls. A preliminary follow-up analysis calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each individual, which was derived from 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously linked to schizophrenia based on a large genome-wide association study. However, the PGRS was not associated with electrophysiological differences observed between groups. Although deviant auditory processing is associated with severe psychopathology relevant aspects of genetic variation remain unknown.

Poster 1-64


Jamie N. Hershaw, & Mark L. Ettenhofer Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Descriptors: pupillometry, attention, mild traumatic brain injury Individuals with a history of mild TBI may have an impaired ability to allocate sufficient neural resources necessary to successfully complete cognitive tasks. Due to this reduced cognitive efficiency, cognitive tasks may impose greater cognitive load on individuals with mild TBI compared to their uninjured counterparts. Using pupillary measures of cognitive load, this study sought to test the effect of mild TBI on multiple attentional processes, including alerting, orienting, and controlled attention. The relationship between cognitive load as indexed by pupillometrics and behavior was also assessed for both the mild TBI group and controls. The mild TBI group (n=25) had faster response time to controlled attention (invalid spatial cues) trials but were similar to controls (n=51) for alerting (temporal cues) and orienting (valid spatial cues) trials. Pupillometry data showed that the clinical sample had smaller baseline pupil diameter, greater baseline pupil diameter variability, and greater cue-locked pupil diameter variability for controlled attention trials than controls. Additionally, larger pupil diameter in response to task-relevant stimuli correlated with faster response time. Consistent with prior literature, the current study indicates that individuals with a history of mild TBI experience greater cognitive load during controlled attention tasks. The data also suggest that those with mild TBI engage in less preparatory activation, but rather employ a reactive cognitive strategy in response to task-relevant stimuli and this strategy is behaviorally beneficial.


Jonas G. Miller, David Weissman, Amanda E. Guyer, & Paul D. Hastings University of California, Davis

Descriptors: empathy, cognitive reappraisal, prosocial behavior When does the motivational salience of reflecting on how adolescents feel in response to the distress of others contribute to empathy/prosociality? This study tested the role of cognitive reappraisal in linking activation of motivation-related neural regions to sad faces with empathy and prosociality. 228 Mexican-origin youth reported on their prosociality and use of reappraisal, and underwent fMRI while viewing sad faces. The fMRI task included two conditions - an affective condition in which youth were asked to rate how sad each face made them feel, and a non-affective condition in which they were asked to rate how wide the nose was for each face. We created a region of interest containing the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area to examine mesolimbic (ML) response to the affective versus non-affective contrast. Boys and girls differed in ML response to affective versus non-affective condition being related to prosociality. Boys who showed a greater ML response to the affective condition were more prosocial when they reported high reappraisal, but were less prosocial when they reported low reappraisal. In addition, prosocial boys who showed a ML response reported feeling more sadness, whereas less prosocial boys who showed a ML response reported feeling less sadness. Conversely, reappraisal predicted prosociality in girls who showed a greater ML response to the non-affective compared to the affective condition. Implications for the roles of emotion regulation and gender in transforming adolescent motivational processing into prosociality will be discussed.

Poster 1-66


Julia A. Marakshina, Natalia S. Buldakova, Alexander V. Vartanov, Julia A. Isakova, Vladimir V. Popov, Aleksandr A. Baev, Andrey A. Kiselnikov, & Stanislav A. Kozlovskiy Lomonosov Moscow State University

Descriptors: cognitive control, response inhibition, fMRI Previous studies of mechanisms of response inhibition revealed that the left brain hemisphere mainly relates to the Go/NoGo task performance while the right hemisphere is activated in the Stop-signal task. We compared fMRI activation in execution of these tasks in the study. We used BOLD-fMRI (GeneralElectric scanner, 1.5 T) and FSL software. 32 subjects of both sexes performed the Go/ NoGo and Stop-signal tasks. The Go/NoGo task: green or red stimuli were presented alternately to the left or right side of the butterfly image which appeared in the center of the monitor. The participants were asked to press different keys depending on the place of appearance of the green stimulus and to ignore the red stimulus. The Stop-signal task: stimuli consisted of vowel and consonant letters in green or red. The participants had to distinguish between green vowels and consonants while red letters had to be ignored. As result, the greatest activation was observed in the cerebellum. The left cerebellum was activated mainly in the Stop-signal task, both cerebellum hemispheres were activated in the Go/NoGo task. It's known that cerebellar hemispheres are partly connected with the contralateral cerebral hemispheres. The large left cerebellum activation in the Stop-signal task may be related to the right hemisphere which associated mainly with cognitive control. The bilateral cerebellum activation in the Go/NoGo task may be related to the involvement of spatial attention. Spatial information processing may be associated with bilateral extension of the brain network of cognitive control.

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 1618-00066).


Mattia Doro1, Pierre Jolicoeur2, & Roberto Dell'Acqua1 1University of Padova, 2Universite de Montreal

Descriptors: visuospatial attention, event-related potentials The deployment of visual attention is usually examined using the visual search (VS) paradigm, in which subjects are required to find a target item embedded among distractors. Many studies that investigate the neuronal mechanisms of visual attention use electroencephalography and the N2pc lateralized event-related potential. The N2pc is a greater negative deflection at contralateral parieto-occipital scalp electrodes compared with the potential at the corresponding ipsi-lateral electrode, and it usually peaks within a time range of 200-300 ms following the onset of the VS array. It has been argued by some researchers that the N2pc is the summation of a wider contralateral negativity that reflects target selection, and an ipsilateral positive shift that reflects distractor suppression. In this set of studies, we investigated the modulation of the electrical activity in parieto-occipital areas for both lateralized and central targets, in order to test whether N2pc may actually be related to the activity of both hemispheres. Results showed that the voltages at posterior lateralized electrodes are the same for lateral and central targets, and the only lateralized effect is a positive shift at ipsilateral sites (when the target is lateralized). The implication of these results will be discussed in the context of the relative importance of target processing versus distractor suppression.

Poster 1-68


Rachel Wallace, Charles Calderwood, Roxann Roberson-Nay, & Scott Vrana Virginia Commonwealth University

Descriptors: co2 challenge, heart rate, multilevel modeling Literature suggests that an individual's self-reported experience during psychological distress is associated with their psychophysiological response. The CO2 challenge reliably elicits changes in physiological responding, self-reported distress/anxiety, and physical symptoms. This study examines the relationship between heart-rate, Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) ratings, and gender within an undergraduate sample (n=164, Mage=20.1, 55.3% female) during CO2 challenge. Participants breathed a steady state 7.5% CO2 gas mixture for 8 minutes, preceded and followed by a 5-minute pre-CO2 phase and a 5-minute recovery phase breathing room air. Average heart rate data and SUDS ratings were collected every 2 minutes and a series of multilevel models were employed to assess whether SUDS and gender predicted HR. An unconditional model revealed that 76% of the criterion variance in heart rate was at the between-participants level. Entry of SUDS ratings and gender in the next step led to an improvement in model fit, difference of -2 log likelihood = -15.38, p < .05. The coefficient relating SUDS ratings to heart rate was positive and statistically significant (gamma = 0.12, p < .001) indicating heart rate was higher when SUDS rating was higher. Women had higher HR than men (gamma = 5.45 p < .001). A cross-level analysis found that, while there was significant between-subject variance in the slope of the HR-SUDS relationship, this variance was not significantly explained by gender.


Constanza de Dios, & Geoffrey Potts University of South Florida

Descriptors: event-related potentials, medial-frontal negativity The study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the influence of expected value on spatial attention. The medial frontal negativity (MFN) indexes expected value, being negative to unexpected punishments and positive to unexpected rewards. The N1 indexes spatial attention, being larger to stimuli in attended locations. This design attached value to locations by making one visual hemifield economically rewarding (greater probability of a rewarding outcome) and the other punishing (greater probability of a punishing outcome). Keypresses to a dot probe following a reward-signifying stimulus were awarded money if correct, and penalized following a punishment-signifying stimulus if incorrect. We predicted that the MFN would be most negative to punishing outcomes in the rewarding hemifield and most positive to rewarding outcomes in the punishing hemifield. We also predicted that the N1 would be larger and keypresses faster to probes appearing on the same side as an outcome that violated expected value, indicating attention allocation to a location where expectation was violated. Consistent with our hypothesis, in a sample of 38 participants, the MFN was most negative to punishments in the rewarding hemifield and most positive to rewards in the punishing hemifield, indicating that value was attached to location. The N1 was larger and keypresses faster to probes on the side opposite an outcome, signifying a potential inhibition of return effect. Although incentive salience can be attached to location, it may not direct spatial attention the same way as perceptual salience.

Poster 1-70


L. Jack Rhodes, & Vladimir Miskovic Binghamton University

Descriptors: aversive conditioning, steady state visual evoked potentials, just noticeable differences

Invasive recordings in experimental animals have demonstrated that aversive conditioning can produce functional neuroplasticity in sensory cortices, often with effects that strengthen over time. We know relatively little about the consolidation of aversive memories in the human brain. We addressed this gap by quantifying conditioning-induced changes in cortical orientation tuning using steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In particular, we examined a non-linear SSVEP distortion product, sensitive to orientation, following aversive conditioning of a target sine-wave grating. The SSVEP recordings were repeated on Day 2, roughly 24 hours later, along with measures of contingency awareness and sleep quantity/quality. Overall, we observed few differences in orientation tuning for the CS1 and CS- orientations when examining within-session cortical responses. However, Day 2 SSVEP results indicated substantial broadening of the cortical orientation tuning function for the aversively conditioned target grating, consistent with fear generalization in visual cortex. These findings suggest that some time is required for generalization effects to manifest at the level of cortical populations, potentially requiring an intervening sleep period for the consolidation of aversive memories. NIMH R03 MH105716.


Elizabeth Sacchi, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University

Descriptors: event-related potentials, visual word recognition, individual differences

N170 expertise effects are observed when individuals elicit larger N170s in response to items of their expertise- for example, car experts elicit larger N170s in response to cars than do non-car-experts. N170 responses to words, in particular, demonstrate clear expertise effects, with the N170 response to words becoming more left-lateralized with reading development. Here, we ask whether the extent to which N170s to words are differentiated from N170s to other visual stimulus types is related to individual reading ability, in very young (grades K-2), developing (grades 2-8) and expert (college student) readers. Results indicate that, generally, individuals who differentiate words from other item types less strongly on the N170 are also poorer readers, though the lateralization of this effect and what measures of reading ability it is observable on varies over the course of reading development, with, for example, phonological awareness being most related to N170 differentiation, bilaterally, in elementary aged readers and exposure to print being most most related to N170 differentiation, especially over the right hemisphere, in adult readers. Results are considered in the context of the question of whether poor cortical differentiation of wordforms from other visual stimuli is a cause of or result of poor reading ability.

This work was supported by awards to SL from NSF CAREER-1252975 and NSF TWC SBE- 1422417. ES was supported by a Binghamton University Provost's Fellowship.

Poster 1-72


Joost Rommers, & Kara D. Federmeier University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: sentence comprehension

Predictable words may be processed more thoroughly than less predictable words, as the ease of processing frees up resources for further processing of the input. On the other hand, predictable words may be processed less thoroughly, as the system can run in a "top-down verification mode", at the expense of processing the input. We manipulated contextual predictability and probed the fate of (un)predictable words in memory by presenting the words again. Thirty participants read sentences that were weakly constraining for the critical final word ("It had been several years since they last cleaned the car"; cloze probability 0.01). The critical word had previously been strongly predictable ("Alfonso has started biking to work instead of driving his car"; cloze 0.86), not predictable ("Jason tried to make space for others by moving his car"; cloze 0.01), or it had not previously been seen. The lag between initial and repeated presentation was 3 sentences. Fillers ensured that over 70% of the final words did not constitute a repetition. Repetition was reflected in N400 decreases, LPC enhancement, and alpha/beta band power decreases. Prior predictability reduced repetition effects on the N400 (suggesting less priming) and on alpha/beta band power (possibly decreased re-activation of memory traces). In addition, prior predictability eliminated the repetition effect on the LPC, suggesting a lack of recollection of prior episodes of seeing the words. These findings converge on a top-down verification account, according to which more predictable input is processed less thoroughly.

This work was supported by a James S. McDonnell Foundation Scholar Award and NIH grant AG026308 to K.D.F.


Brennan R. Payne, & Kara D. Federmeier University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: parafoveal processing, reading, language processing Skilled readers obtain information not only from the currently fixated word, but also from words in parafoveal vision. However, the majority of neurolinguistic research on visual language processing has been conducted using single-word RSVP paradigms that preclude the ability to examine the role of parafoveal influences in reading. Thus, while the nature of parafoveal representations is an oft-investigated topic in the behavioral literature, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms of visual attention allocation during reading. To bridge the gaps between these areas of research, in a series of experiments, we have utilized the RSVP paradigm with visual hemi-field flankers to examine the neural processes underlying parafoveal word processing. These experiments have probed the nature of semantic processing in parafoveal vision and the dynamic relationship between concurrent foveal load and parafoveal word processing. Results have revealed a high degree of interaction between visual attention and higher-order language comprehension systems. For example, we've shown that early aspects of semantic processing can be initiated outside of foveal vision but that other aspects of semantic processing appear to require the kind of attentional resources that may only be available when words are fixated. These experiments have highlighted that ERPs provide a unique tool for investigating real-time visuospatial attentional constraints on parafoveal processing in reading.

This work was supported by a James S. McDonnell Foundation Scholar Award and NIH grant AG026308 to Kara D. Federmeier.

Poster 1-75


Joseph S. Baschnagel1, Elizabeth Jackson Machmer2, Katey Sackett1, Keith Ziegler1, & Marc Marschark2 1Rochester Institute of Technology, 2National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Descriptors: deaf/hard of hearing, listening effort

Listening effort refers to the workload required to hear and understand speech. More difficult listening conditions, as well as an impaired auditory system, are associated with increased listening effort, which may lead to increased stress and fatigue. Emerging evidence suggests that the psychophysiological measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance are sensitive to increased listening effort in normal hearing listeners and those with moderate hearing loss.

This study assessed listening effort among individuals with severe and profound hearing losses who use cochlear implants (n=15) compared to those who use hearing aids (n=15) across three conditions: sentence recognition (SR; auditory sentences presented at 54dB), SR (54dB) with background noise (49dB), and a control sentence reading task. There was a significant increase in self-reported effort across the three conditions, with the reading condition rated the least difficult and the SR task with background noise rated the most difficult. Between the two SR tasks, both groups performed significantly better on the SR task (i.e. less errors verbally repeating the sentence) during the quiet condition compared to the noise condition. There was a marginal increase in skin conductance during the sentence reading task versus the two SR tasks. There was a significant increase in high frequency HRV power in the reading task compared to the two SR tasks. There was no effect of group in any of the analyses. Discussion will address the findings as they relate to listening effort in hearing impaired individuals.

Poster 1-76


Andrew C. Parks, Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Hans S. Schroder, Jason S.

Moser, & Matthew B. Pontifex Michigan State University

Descriptors: attention, ERP, anxiety

Research has indicated that attentional processes may be diminished in individuals with trait anxiety due to increased worry and distractibility. Although a growing body of research in young adults has suggested transient enhancements of neuroelectric indices of attention following a single bout of physical activity, the extent to which physical activity may influence attentional processes in individuals with trait anxiety is not well understood. Accordingly, the current study assessed neuroelectric indices of attention in response to a modified flanker task in young adults immediately prior to and following a single bout of physical activity or seated rest during two separate, counterbalanced sessions. Participants were bifurcated into low- and high-anxious groups based on scores obtained through the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Findings indicated larger P3 amplitude following physical activity relative to following seated rest in the low-anxious group. However, P3 amplitude remained unchanged for both the seated rest and physical activity conditions in the high-anxious group. Such findings indicate a selective influence of physical activity on neuroelectric indices of attention, suggesting that elevated reports of worry may mitigate the effect of physical activity on attentional processes.

Support for our research was provided by Summer Renewable Research Fellowships awarded to A. Parks and A. Delli Paoli through the College of Education and the Graduate School at Michigan State University.


Kathryn L. Gwizdala1, Amanda L. McGowan1, Vladimir Miskovic2, Sarah Laszlo2, & Matthew B. Pontifex1 1Michigan State University, 2Binghamton University

Descriptors: eye blink artifacts, ICA components, EEG

A growing number of investigators are utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) to remove eye blink artifacts from EEG signals. However, the reliance upon subjective human judgments for the identification of eye blink-related components is labor intensive and potentially fallible. Accordingly, the present investigation sought to address the critical question of whether fully automated approaches for selecting eye blink related ICA components (i.e., ADJUST, Eye-Catch, icablinkmetrics) can and should be employed to replace manual selection of the eye artifact. Utilizing a total of 3,072 simulated EEG datasets, we first assessed how robust these automated approaches were to variation in the magnitude of the eye blink artifact amid increasing levels of noise in the signal. We then utilized 92 real EEG datasets collected with varying electrode densities, to assess the generalizability of these automated approaches. For comparison, we also assessed the accuracy of trained observers visually selecting ICA components. Our findings revealed that each of the automated component selection approaches were able to accurately identify eye blink related ICA components at or above the level of trained human observers. EyeCatch appears better suited towards narrowing down potential candidate eye blink components prior to human inspection given the potential for false positive component identification. Whereas, icablinkmetrics avoided falsely identifying components suggesting it may be better suited towards a fully automated implementation.

Poster 1-78


Andero Uusberg1, & Martin Kolnes2 Stanford University and Tartu University, 2Tartu University

Descriptors: motivation, pupil dilation, attention

Illumination-independent pupil dilation has been associated with attention dynamics driven by locus coeruleus norepinephrine. We investigated the sensitivity of this system to three conceptually relevant motivational contrasts that have often been confounded in prior studies - pre- and post-goal stages (phase) of succeeding or failing (outcome) to obtain approach or avoidance goals (direction). Forty four students completed a modified monetary incentive delay (MID) task where the outcome of each trial counted towards an amount of chocolate received (M = 100 g). Each trial began with a pre-goal cue indicating the potential outcome of the trial (may win, may lose, no change). After a binary choice, a postgoal cue announced the realized outcome (won, didn't win, lost, didn't lose, no change). All cues were simple Landot circles broken at different angles. Pupil size dynamics recorded with Eyelink1000 were analyzed in relation to each type of cue. We found that the pupil response to potential as well as realized wins did not differ from responses to neutral cues announcing no change in accumulated chocolate. By contrast, not winning, losing, and also not losing increased pupil diameter by at least 0.5 SD (p < .001). Anticipating to lose remained between the two levels (p < .05). These effects grew stronger throughout the experiment suggesting the pupil response was magnified by automatic associations. These results suggest that pupil dilation is sensitive to the goal-obstructiveness of all outcomes as well as to the motivational direction towards avoidance.

Poster 1-79


Walker Pedersen1, Nicholas Balderston2, Tara A. Miskovich1, Emily L.

Belleau1, Fred Helmstetter1, & Christine L. Larson1 1University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 2National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, novelty The amygdala responds to stimulus novelty, which may correspond to an evaluation of novel stimuli for potential threat (Balderston, Schultz & Helmstetter, 2013). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may also be sensitive to novelty as

it responds to both uncertainty (Somerville et al., 2013) and threat (Alvarez et al., 2011). To test this, we presented participants with novel and repeated negative and neutral images while measuring brain activity via fMRI. Stimulus valence was also manipulated to determine whether valence interacts with novelty. We expected to replicate past findings of hippocampal and amygdalar novelty responses that are independent of valence. We also hypothesized that the BNST would exhibit novelty sensitivity. We found evidence for novelty sensitivity in the hippocampus, amygdala and BNST. This novelty response was dependent on stimulus valence only in the BNST. These findings suggest that the BNST may play a role in the detection of novelty that is distinct from that of the amygdala, in that it responds selectively to stimuli that are both novel and negatively-valenced.

This study was funded by an NIH K01 awarded to Dr. Christine Larson (MH086809).

Poster 1-80


Emily R. Perkins, Sarah J. Brislin, James R. Yancey, Colin B. Bowyer, & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: event-related potential, inhibitory control, dysaffiliative tendencies Infrequent, task-relevant stimuli in a 'rotated-heads' visual oddball paradigm elicit a robust P300 brain response, and this response shows a reliable negative association with inhibitory control deficits (INH-) common across externalizing psychopathology (Patrick et al., 2006). In emotion recognition tasks, fearful faces elicit augmented N170 and P200 brain responses relative to neutral faces, and both face effects correlate negatively with dysaffiliative tendencies (AFF-; Brislin et al., 2016). This study evaluated the utility of a novel visual-processing paradigm, the heads-and-faces oddball task, in eliciting P300, N170, and P200 elec-trocortical responses that were selectively associated with INH- and AFF-. Dispositional tendencies were measured using the Disinhibition and Meanness subscales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Task stimuli included frequent non-targets (ovals), rare targets (stylized heads), and rare novel stimuli (fearful and neutral faces). Analyses of currently available data (N = 41) revealed that fearful faces elicited increased P300 and P200 responses relative to neutral faces, in line with evidence that these components reflect attentional and affective processing, respectively. Contrary to prediction, fear-neutral differentiation was not significant for N170, which is associated with face detection and categorization more so than affective processing. Implications for the heads-and-faces oddball task's use in research on transdiagnostic biobehavioral traits are discussed.

Poster 1-81


Keanan Joyner1, Colin Bowyer1, James R. Yancey1, Greg Hajcak2, & Christopher J. Patrick1 1Florida State University, 2Stony Brook University

Descriptors: error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), behavioral performance effects

The error-related negativity (ERN), a negative deflection in the event-related brain potential peaking approximately 50ms after commission of task-performance errors, has been widely studied as an index of response monitoring. In addition to eliciting an ERN, the commission of errors also evokes an error positivity (Pe) that peaks around 200ms following their occurrence. Extant research has provided evidence that these two ERP components index separable error monitoring processes (Falkenstein et al., 2000). The current study sought to delineate performance correlates of ERN and Pe in a sample of 200 community adults. Analyses revealed that Pe amplitude was associated more strongly than ERN with reaction time and response efficiency (speed versus accuracy trade off) across the task as a whole. By contrast, ERN was found to be more predictive of post-error inefficiency, such that increased inefficiency on task trials following erroneous responses was associated with larger ERN amplitude. Additionally, ERN was associated with post-error slowing, such that larger ERN amplitude predicted slower responding on task trials that followed commission of an error. Taken together, findings from this work support the notion that the ERN and Pe index distinct error monitoring processes with differing impact on behavior. Implications for understanding mechanisms of adaptive performance and individual differences in recognizing and remedying errors will be discussed.


Belel Ait Oumeziane, Jacqueline Schryer-Praga, & Dan Foti Purdue University

Descriptors: ERPs, reward processing, social/monetary reward Emphasis on the neural patterns of anticipatory and consummatory reward processing has been on the rise. However, studies have largely focused on monetary rewards while ignoring the significance of social rewards. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task has been used to investigate monetary reward dynamics using a multitude of anticipatory (cue-p3, contingent negative variation [CNV]) and consummatory (reward positivity [RewP], feedback P3 [fb-P3]) event-related potentials (ERPs). We modified the MID task in order to develop the social incentive delay (SID) task to measure social reward-related processes. In experiment 1 (N = 31), we found effects of condition (e.g., incentive versus neutral; win versus loss) across both anticipatory and consummatory reward ERPs (p's < .05). We also found that ERPs on MID and SID within the same sample were moderately associated across tasks (r's: .22 to .58). In experiment 2 (N = 30), we aimed to enhance the value of social feedback (i.e., experimenter feedback) for participants in order to increase the task's effectiveness in eliciting ERPs. We found similar effects of condition compared to experiment 1 (p's < .05). Correlations across tasks were variable for anticipatory (r's: .36 to .37) and consummatory (r's: -.03 to -.14) ERPs. This study found supporting evidence for the ERP-adapted MID paradigm, and support for a novel method of quantifying social reward chronometry using ERPs. The SID may be a promising laboratory paradigm for comprehensively characterizing reward-related processes across different types of psychopathologies.

Poster 1-83


Kaylin Hill, Takakuni Suzuki, Douglas Samuel, & Dan Foti Purdue University

Descriptors: error related negativity (ERN), personality The error related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform that occurs within 100 ms after the commission of an error on speeded tasks. The ERN is commonly quantified as a difference between the means of all available error and correct trials. The present study aims to assess fluctuations in ERN amplitude over the course of the task (10 blocks of 30 trials each) and explore the additive value of specific intervals by evaluating links with personality traits.

Seventy-six adults completed an arrow flankers task while ERP data was recorded and then completed the Five Factor Model Rating Form. The ERN difference was quantified separately for each of ten blocks. Correlations were used to relate the block-wise ERN difference scores to personality traits. Interestingly, ERN difference scores varied widely in their correlations across blocks (i.e. correlation between ERN in block 1 and block 2, etc.), ranging from r=.08, p=.55 to r= .60, p < .001. This variation seems to be meaningful as results indicated significant fluctuations in ERN-trait relationships over the course of the task. For example, the ERN and Neuroticism shared a moderately sized positive relationship (r=.30, p < .01) in the middle of the task, but smaller, non-significant relationships early (r=.05, p=.70) and late (r=-.07, p=.59) in the task.

This analytic approach offers new opportunities for the exploration of relationships between the ERN and phenomena of interest. Furthermore, this approach may offer suggestions regarding the nature of tasks used to elicit the ERN.


Angus MacDonald1, Andrew Poppe1, Matthew Chafee1, Cameron Carter2, Daniel Ragland2, Steven Silverstein3, & Deanna Barch4 1University of Minnesota, 2University of California, Davis, 3Rutgers, 4Washington University of St. Louis

Descriptors: translational research, cognitive control, executive functioning Two models of executive control have been particularly influential over the past several decades. The first suggests prefrontal reverberating circuits maintain goal representations (Goldman-Rakic, 1995). The second hypothesizes that this proactive control system is complemented by another reactive control system with a separate architecture linking a different set of networks in the brain (Braver, 2013). We examined hypotheses derived from these models using the dot pattern expectancy (DPX) task in i) two macaques providing electrophysiological data and ii) 56 healthy adults undergoing functional MRI across 5 sites. The DPX is a variant of the expectancy AX task: proactive control is tapped when the rare B-cue must be maintained to guide appropriate non-target responses; reactive control is tapped when common A-cues are followed by invalid probes which then also require non-target responses. Monkey electrophysiological data showed a vast majority of cells in the frontoparietal network were preferentially engaged after rarer B-cues. However these cells generally did not remain active during the delay period. Instead the same cells were reactivated by AY probes. Similarly, we found the fMRI activation maps associated with greater B-cue (compared to A-cue) activity closely overlapped the activation maps associated with greater AY-probe (compared to AX-probe) activity. As with monkeys, the fMRI time course did not suggest reverberation. This translational research program sheds new light on a continuing challenge to our understanding of executive control processing.

National Institute of Mental Health.

Poster 1-85


Yoshimi Ohgami1, Yasunori Kotani1, Nobukiyo Yoshida2, Shigeru Kiryu2, & Yusuke Inoue3

1Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2The University of Tokyo, 3Kitasato University

Descriptors: stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), anticipation, perception Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) relates to anticipatory attention for an upcoming stimulus, and it shows a right hemisphere preponderance. Our previous study demonstrated that the right hemisphere preponderance of SPN was affected by the content of visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether auditory stimuli also have the similar effect on the right hemisphere preponderance as visual stimuli showed. Thirty-four participants performed a time estimation task where a feedback stimulus was presented 2 s after a voluntary movement, and the stimulus content (voice, rhythm, and beep) of auditory feedback stimuli were manipulated. There were four experimental conditions: (a) voice sound, (b) beep sound, (c) rhythmic sound, and (d) no feedback conditions where the feedback stimulus was omitted. Except the no feedback condition, participants received feedback information whether their time estimation performance was correct or incorrect via earphones. The statistical analysis on the SPN demonstrated a significant interaction of condition by hemisphere that the right hemisphere preponderance was observed only in the beep condition whereas there was no right hemisphere preponderance in the voice and rhythm conditions. The increased activations at the left hemisphere by higher emotional valence of the voice and rhythm stimuli could be a reason for this result. The present results showed that the content of auditory stimuli affects the right hemisphere preponderance of SPN as visual stimuli did.


Poster 2-1


Vladimir Miskovic, & Karl Kuntzelman Binghamton University

Descriptors: EEG, SSVEP, attention

Delivering a stimulus at a fixed frequency allows recovery of stimulus-evoked cortical activity by examining neuronal oscillations matching the pre-defined frequency of interest or its harmonics. In the visual domain this measure is referred to as the steady-state visual evoked potential, and its amplitude has been used extensively as an index of spatial and feature based attention. This approach has been extended to studies of motivated attention, by flickering complex naturalistic scenes varying in hedonic content and emotional arousal. Here, we delivered aversive and neutral scenes from the IAPS at 12 Hz using ON/OFF flicker. We systematically varied the duty cycle (the percentage of a stimulus cycle spent in the ON vs. OFF states). We replicated previously reported amplitude differences, with negative images evoking greater power at 12 Hz than neutral images - but only at the commonly used 40% active duty cycle. Amplitude reliably discriminates between negative and neutral images at all other duty cycles investigated, but in the opposite direction; there is more 12 Hz power in response to neutral rather than negative images. This finding calls into question the traditional interpretation of SSVEP amplitude in relation to affective processing. We also explore changes in the distribution of stimulus-related activity across different harmonics of the stimulus frequency as a function of duty cycle and observe that changes appear to be driven by differential loading onto onset- and offset-related peaks in the time domain waveforms.

Poster 2-2


Karl Kuntzelman, Vincent Costa, & Vladimir Miskovic National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: decision making, affect, perception

Motivated attention refers to how affective stimuli influence perceptual information gathering. However, the impact of motivated attention on perceptual decision making remains underexplored. Previous studies have focused on identifying biases induced by diffuse affective states without directly quantifying the nature of the evidence base that contributes to such biases. We developed a novel variant of a standard perceptual decision making task that allowed us to examine how affective information biases decision variables relevant to inferring the relative emotionality of a complex visual array. The task required participants to view a conglomerate of emotional images, and as quickly as possible make a two-alternative forced choice as to the predominant hedonic valence of the array. On each trial the evidence base consisted of a dynamic mixture of 64 pictures that formed an array of pleasant/neutral, unpleasant/neutral, or pleasant/unpleasant images. The initial array was generated by randomly choosing the valence of each image location to be one of the two valence categories with probability q, which we defined as the affective bias. As the affective bias decreased towards chance, participants overvalued affective information and incorrectly inferred that arrays with mostly neutral pictures were predominantly pleasant or unpleasant. Ongoing work builds on these psychophysical findings to examine the computational and neural bases of how emotion modulates perceptual decision making.


Sarah J. Brislin, James R. Yancey, Colin B. Bowyer, & Christopher J.

Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, facial expression, callousness

This study examined early components of ERP response to affective faces of different types in an undergraduate sample assessed for callous-unemotionality (CU), a trait construct corresponding to (weak) affiliation/attachment in the NIMH RDoC framework. Prior research on affective-face reactivity has reported behavioral (lower accuracy; Marsh & Blair, 2008) and neural (reduced amygdala response; Jones et al., 2009) effects related to CU tendencies in adolescents. To examine these effects in adults and better understand the time-course of CU-related processing deficits, we modified a face-recognition task from the adolescent literature to include ERP assessment. In this task, faces displaying 6 emotions are presented at varying levels of expressive intensity and participants are asked to identify the affect-category of each. We recorded EEG in the task and examined face-elicited N170 and P200 ERP components for modulatory effects of affect category and intensity of expression. Associations between these early ERPs and CU-trait scores were also examined. Findings indicate that individuals high in CU tendencies show decreased N170 and P200 response to fearful faces. Results from this study provide evidence that deficits seen in child and adolescent expression of callousness extend upwards into adulthood. Work of this type, directed at identifying physiological indicators of key neurobehavioral traits, is consistent with the RDoC initiative's aim of reorienting research on psychopa-thology toward new conceptions of mental disorders that link more closely to biological systems.

Poster 2-4


Elizabeth Smith1, Clay Mash1, Audrey Thurm2, & Marc Bornstein1 1National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: audiovisual, synchrony, children

Perception of speech relies on audition, vision, and combination of these two streams of information via audiovisual integration. Audiovisual integration of speech (when compared to auditory speech) results in speech that sounds louder and leads to increased intelligibility and comprehension. However, the role that audiovisual integration plays in social and linguistic interactions develops over infancy and childhood, and delays or deviance in this developmental process are associated with multiple developmental disabilities. While EEG gamma power has been linked to audiovisual integration, it is unknown how differences in gamma power during audiovisual speech integration change with age in children. In the present study, EEG was measured in children ages 4-10 while they watched audiovisual speech as delivered in segments from a popular children's show. The audiovisual speech was presented as perfectly synchronized or at a range of asynchronies from 500 milliseconds auditory lead (i.e., where the audio track is advanced 500 milliseconds relative to the video) to 500 milliseconds video lead. Preliminary analysis of power in the gamma frequency band showed that participant age moderated effects of condition, such that gamma increased more between the asynchronous and synchronous conditions in older children. Spatial distribution and relation of these patterns to behavioral assessment of audiovisual synchrony detection are discussed.

This work was supported by the Division of Intramural Research, NICHD/ NIH.


Mitchell Sauder, Christine Egan, Kiry Koy, Hannah Scott, & Karina Quevedo University of Minnesota

Descriptors: depression, maltreatment, adolescent

Depression in youth is often linked to past experiences of maltreatment. The research presented evaluates the effects of maltreatment duration on youth brain activity during emotional self-referential processing of their own self face and a stranger's face. METHODS: Fifty two depressed youth with history of maltreatment completed an emotional self-processing task, ESOM (Emotional Self Other Morph), while undergoing magnetic resonance scanning. Participants were asked to identify their own face versus a matched peer face across happy, sad, and neutral expressions. RESULTS: Youth with increased duration of maltreatment showed lessened activity in the Medial Frontal Gyrus (MFG), Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG), and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) while viewing their own happy face vs. a stranger's happy face as compared to participants with shorter experiences of maltreatment. Increased duration of abuse also had a negative effect on activity in Precuneus, Broadman Area (BA10), and the Middle Temporal Gyrus (MTG) to their own neutral face vs. a stranger's face. CONCLUSSION: Sustained experience of maltreatment causes significant alterations in activity level during self-referential processing. Adolescents with increased duration of maltreatment have diminished neurological response to their own happy face in regions dedicated to emotional response (ACC), executive functioning (MFG), and self-awareness (SFG). Increased maltreatment duration causes a decreased activation to the neutral self face across regions dedicated to self-processing (Pre-cuneus) and memory (BA10 & MTG).

1K01MH092601: 2011-2016, QUEVEDOK (PI). The Neurobiology of Self Appraisals and Social Cognition in Depressed Adolescents. NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation: 2012-2015, QUEVEDOK (PI). Identifying Neural and HPA Axis Markers of Chronic Adolescent Depression.

Poster 2-6


Kohei Fuseda, & Jun'ichi Katayama Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: physical attractiveness, irrelevant probe technique, ERP We investigated whether the event-related brain potential (ERP) to irrelevant probe stimuli is a useful index to measure physical attractiveness of the opposite sex. Twelve male (experiment 1) and twelve female (experiment 2) students were presented with two video clips (seven minutes each) in random order. An attractive opposite sex model was shown in one clip (high attractiveness condition), and an unattractive opposite sex model was shown in the other (low attractiveness condition). The electrical stimuli as probe stimuli were presented in an oddball sequence during the video clips: frequent standard stimuli (80%) were presented at the right (or left) wrist and infrequent deviant stimuli (20%) were presented at the left (or right) wrist. After each clip, the participants rated attractiveness, valence, and arousal with a 100 mm visual analog scale. The same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments. All the ratings in high attractiveness condition were significantly higher than those in low attractiveness condition. P2 amplitude to both probe stimuli in high attractiveness condition was significantly smaller than those in low attractiveness condition. Moreover, P2 amplitude to deviant probe stimuli was higher than standard probe stimuli in only the low attractiveness condition. These results indicate that the attentional resource to probe stimuli decreased when the attention is strongly engaged by the attractive opposite sex person. Thus, the P2 response to irrelevant probe stimuli is a useful index in measuring physical attractiveness of the opposite sex.


Christopher J. Brush, Ryan L. Olson, Peter J. Ehmann, & Brandon L.

Alderman Rutgers University

Descriptors: depression, cognition, event-related potentials Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a number of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive impairment is a common residual side effect following antidepressant treatment, regardless of clinical outcome. Thus, there is a need to establish evidence-based alternative or adjunctive treatments for cognitive dysfunction in depression. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (AE) intervention on depressive symptoms and N2 amplitude in individuals with MDD. Forty-eight participants diagnosed with MDD were randomly assigned to either an AE or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Participants in the AE group completed three 45 min sessions/week of moderate-intensity AE while participants in the placebo group completed three sessions/week of light-intensity stretching. Depressive symptoms and N2 event-related potentials were assessed at pre-and-post intervention. Results showed significant reductions in depressive symptoms and increases in N2 amplitudes in the AE group relative to the placebo group. After controlling for demographic variables, changes in N2 amplitude significantly predicted reductions in depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that changes in depressive symptoms may be mediated by exercise-related improvements in N2 amplitude. Future research identifying neural biomarkers for MDD and whether they are modifiable through behavioral interventions is warranted.

Supported by The Charles and Johanna Busch Memorial Fund at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

Poster 2-8


Estate M. Sokhadze1, Manuel F. Casanova1, Allan Tasman2, & Sally Brockett3

1University of South Carolina School of Medicine-Greenville, 2University of Louisville, 3IDEA Training Center

Descriptors: auditory integration training, mismatch negativity in auditory oddball task, autism spectrum disorder

According to recent theories, sensory processing and integration abnormalities may play an important role in impairments of perception, cognition, and behavior in autism. Among these sensory abnormalities auditory perception distortion may contribute to many typical symptoms of autism. The study used Berard's technique of auditory integration training (AIT) to improve sound integration in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It was proposed that exposure to 20 thirty min AIT sessions would result in improved behavioral evaluations and will positively affect N1, mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 components of evoked potentials (EP) in auditory oddball task. Eighteen children with ASD completed the AIT and pre- post-AIT auditory oddball task, while 16 typical children served as a contrast group in the auditory task. Comparison of EP of children with ASD vs. typical children revealed a delayed latency of fronto-central N1 to rare and frequent stimuli, larger mismatch negativity, higher P3a to frequent stimuli, and at the same time delayed latency of P3b to rare stimuli in the autism group. PostAIT changes in evoked potentials could be summarized as a decreased magnitude of N1 to rare stimuli, marginally lower negativity of MMN, and decrease of the P3a to frequent stimuli along with shorter latency of the P3b to rare stimuli. These evoked potential changes following completion of AIT course are in a positive direction, making them less distinct from those recorded in age-matched group of typical children, thus could be considered as changes towards normalization.

The study was supported by pilot research grant from the Autism Research Institute (San Diego, CA)


Masahito Sakakibara Aichi Gakuin University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, cognitive processing, depression Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVBF), the technique used with paced breathing at a rate of 0.1 Hz, is known to have clinical utility in the treatment of depression. This study explored whether HRVBF could modify attentional bias favoring negative stimuli during cognitive processing by depressed people. College students (N = 13) with self-reported depression assessed by BDI-II participated in the study. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a go/no-go task (Task-1), in which Japanese target words were neutrally, or negatively valenced. This was followed by four successive 5-min sessions of the HRVBF, or paced breathing at a rate of 0.5 Hz that was conducted for an equal period of time as a control condition. The go/no-go task (Task-2) was administered again, immediately after the breathing condition. In Task-1, the amplitudes of P300 for both negatively and neutrally valenced words were positively correlated with BDI scores, with amplitudes being larger for negatively valenced than for neutrally valenced words (p < .05). In participants with high-BDI scores (N=6), the P300 amplitude for negatively valenced words decreased from Task-1 to Task-2 during the HRVBF condition, whereas it remained unchanged during the control condition (p < .05). No significant changes were observed in participants with low-BDI scores (N=7). It is known that P300 magnitude of the ERPs reflects resource demands in cognitive processing (Wickens et al., 1983). Therefore, these results suggest that HRVBF might modify cognitive processing of negative stimuli in depressed individuals.

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26590168.

Poster 2-12


Jamie R. Pogue, Renee M. Cloutier, Matt J. Russo, Sydney A. McKinnis, & Heidemarie Blumenthal University of North Texas

Descriptors: electrodermal activity, anxiety

Adolescence is defined by profound neurological and somatic development (e.g., Dahl, 2004). Adult work indicates that electrodermal activity (EDA) not only may be used as a physiological index of anxious states, but also that individuals with anxiety problems evidence greater EDA than those without such problems (Blechert et al., 2006); however, studies among adolescents are needed. We examined differences in EDA across 3 time points anticipatory to a social stress

task among girls (12-15 years) with high (n=20) and low (n=32) anxiety symptoms. High anxiety girls were expected to evidence elevated EDA across all 3 time points whereas low anxiety girls would show a rise and decline. EDA was acquired through Biopac MP150. Mean Skin Conductance Responses (SCR) and Skin Conductance Level (SCL) were calculated using Acqknowledge 4.3. The Revised Childhood Anxiety & Depression Scale (Chorpita et al., 2000) was used to categorize girls with typical (t < 65) and clinical (t>70) anxiety levels. Two 2x3 Repeated Measures ANOVAs were conducted to assess mean SCR and SCL among high and low anxiety girls across the 3 time points. Both within-subjects effects were statistically significant indicating mean differences in SCR (F(2,49) = 27.27, p < .001) and SCL (F(2,49) = 32.14, p < .001) across time. However, neither the between groups nor interaction effects were significant (p>.05) suggesting girls react to anticipatory stress in terms of EDA similarly regardless of existing anxiety status. Findings will be discussed in terms of forwarding developmentally sensitive theory and research.

Poster 2-13


Renee M. Cloutier, Jamie R. Pogue, Sydney A. McKinnis, Matt J. Russo, & Heidemarie Blumenthal University of North Texas

Descriptors: salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, anxiety/depression Adolescence is a key period in terms of psychobiological risk and opportunity (Dahl, 2004). Prior adult research links markers of physiological processes (e.g., cortisol) with anxiety; however, work with youth is limited and findings inconsistent (El-Sheikh et al., 2008; Turner et al., 2005). This may be due to differing method, age range, and/or small mixed-sex samples. In the present study we examined basal and stress reactive salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha amylase (sAA) in relation to current and 3-month anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were 71 girls (age 12-15) who completed an in-lab speech task and 3-month follow-up interview. At both times the well-established RCADS (Chorpita et al., 2000) indexed typical anxiety and depression. State anxiety, sC, and sAA were assessed prior to the task (baseline), and immediately (anxiety), 5 min (sAA), 20 min (sC), and 40 min (recovery) after. Baseline and recovery values were averaged to create basal scores; change scores reflect response. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated efficacy of the stress task across all indices (ps < .05). Neither sC nor sAA were related to state anxiety or anxiety or depression symptoms. Conversely, self-reported anxious responding was significantly related to 3-month anxiety (r=.36) and depression (r=.25). Post-hoc calculations (e.g., AUCg) were explored to mirror studies reporting links between sC, sAA, and anxiety/depression; yet, regardless of calculation, neither sC nor sAA evidenced a significant, unique relation. Future directions in terms of methodology and theory will be discussed.


Ema Tanovic, & Jutta Joormann Yale University

Descriptors: anticipation, uncertainty, anxiety

Most everyday situations are characterized by some degree of uncertainty, and individuals vary in their ability to tolerate this. Uncertainty is especially distressing for anxious individuals, and the emotional experience of anticipating uncertainty, anxious apprehension, has been highlighted in models of anxiety disorders. The goals of the current study were to (1) characterize brain activity associated with anticipating uncertain threat, and (2) examine the relation to risk factors for anxiety and depression, including intolerance of uncertainty. In a community sample, we examined the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), an event-related potential component elicited when anticipating outcomes. Participants completed a card game task in which losses were associated with uncertain shocks, and the probability of losing was based on the value of the card they drew. SPN amplitude while participates waited to learn whether they won or lost in high uncertainty conditions was associated with checking behavior and, at a trend level, intolerance of uncertainty, such that individuals higher in these traits had blunted SPNs. Depression was associated with more negative SPNs while anticipating safe outcomes. These results provide preliminary evidence that individuals who have difficulty tolerating uncertainty show blunted neural responding when anticipating uncertain, potentially threatening outcomes. In contrast, depressed individuals seem to exhibit enhanced neural responding when anticipating safety.

Poster 2-15


Keitaro Machida, & Katherine Johnson University of Melbourne

Descriptors: response time variability, EEG

Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) perform multiple cognitive tasks with greater Response Time Variability (RTV). Greater RTV in ADHD may be due to inefficient functional connectivity of the brain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between brain connectivity, RTV, and levels of ADHD symptoms. Children and adolescents performed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) while EEG was recorded. The participants' levels of inattention and impulsivity were measured using the Conners 3 Parental Questionnaire. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to measure the strength of RTV. Functional connectivity between 64 electrodes was computed by the

weighted Phase Lag Index and treated as a weighted network. There was a positive association between RTV and the level of ADHD symptoms, where participants with higher levels of ADHD symptoms showed greater RTV. The graph analysis of EEG functional connectivity showed that more efficient brain network measured by global efficiency was associated with reduced RTV. Children showed greater RTV and less efficient brain networks compared with the adolescents. These findings support the view that stable responses are achieved with more efficient brain connectivity. Individuals with high levels of ADHD symptoms have relatively inefficient brain networks and make more variable responses during the task. Adolescents demonstrated lower RTV compared with children -this could be a result of a more developed, efficient brain network.

Poster 2-16


Eunsam Shin, & Sang Chul Chong

Yonsei University

Descriptors: visual attention, selection bias, trial history In visual oddball search tasks, viewing a no-target display leads to the facilitation or delay of the search time for a target in a subsequent trial. Presumably, failing to select a target in the no-target display leads to shift attention away from stimulus features that were seen in the no-target display. The current study varied trial history and tracked the resultant course of attention shift using attention-related ERP components. Participants performed a color oddball search task, in which four identically colored items (red or green) were shown in no-target displays and one uniquely colored target (e.g., green) with three identically colored distractors (e.g., red) in target displays. Here, the number of no-target displays preceding the target display was increased from 0 to 2 to reinforce attentional shift toward a particular color. Also, colors shown in two successive no-target displays were repeated or changed in order to systematically shift attention toward specific colors. Results showed that during the no-target presentations, the second display elicited a larger frontal selection positivity for changed colors and a larger anterior N450 for repeated colors. During the target presentations, the N2pc arose earlier for the target colors that were unseen or remotely seen. Moreover, the anterior N2 and N450 were largest when the target display was preceded by repeated notarget displays with repeated colors. These results demonstrate attentional inhibition and selection of specific colors, in turn suggesting that our attentional set is updated on a trial basis.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korean government [NRF-2011-354-H00011] and also by the Brain Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (20062005108).


Joseph A. Rosansky, Brian A. Coffman, Sarah M. Haigh, Timothy K.

Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, Simona Graur, Henry Chase, Erika E. Forbes, Mary L. Phillips, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: ERP, gambling task, feedback

Previous studies have identified specific event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to feedback in gambling tasks, including N1, P2, and feedback-related negativity (FRN). Here we compared these ERPs at different levels of risk/reward expectation and outcome uncertainty in healthy participants. Twenty participants (age range = 18-25; 11 female) predicted whether a single-digit number would be greater or less than 5. After a variable interval, one of 4 outcome scenarios was indicated: Win scenarios, where correct choices were awarded $0.10 and incorrect choices broke even; Lose scenarios, where correct choices broke even and incorrect choices lost $0.08; Win/Lose scenarios that awarded $0.10 or lost $0.08, and Neutral scenarios that broke even regardless of guess accuracy. After a variable interval (1.5, 2, or 3s), feedback was presented. We compared ERPs in response to win feedback in Win scenarios vs Win/Loss scenarios and ERPs to loss feedback in Loss scenarios vs Win/Loss scenarios. There were 75 trials for each feedback and scenario pair per subject. Our results indicate significantly larger N1 (t(19) = -4.84; p < 0.05) and P2 (t(19) = 6.07; p < 0.05) when outcomes were more ambiguous (i.e. Win/Lose scenarios). These results demonstrate that the feedback-evoked ERP is sensitive to risk/reward expectation, where greater uncertainty evoked larger ERP amplitudes. This is similar to recent work showing a relationship between N1 and learning from prediction errors, and may be related to greater information content in ambiguous outcome scenarios.

Poster 2-19


Alexis G. McCathern, Brian A. Coffman, Sarah M. Haigh, Timothy K.

Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: schizophrenia, first-episode, P3

Cognitive impairments are a hallmark of schizophrenia. Biomarkers of these impairments may be useful for identifying those at-risk for developing schizophrenia. For example, the P3 ERP to an oddball stimulus is reduced in individuals with schizophrenia. The P3 is biphasic, with the earlier peak (P3a) reflecting automatic orienting and processing and the later peak (P3b) reflecting cognitive and memory processing. Here we examined the "emitted" P3 to absent stimuli on a counting task. Seventeen individuals with long-term schizophrenia (minimum 5

years diagnosis; Sz), 20 individuals within 6 months of their first psychotic episode within the schizophrenia-spectrum (FESz), and 26 healthy controls (HC) were presented with standard sets of four identical tones (1 kHz, 50 ms long, presented 330 ms apart with a 750 ms interval between sets). For one in seven sets, the fourth tone was missing. Participants counted the number of tones within each set. Sz showed reduced emitted P3a and P3b compared to HC (p < .05). FESz showed a healthy P3a (p=.133) but significant reduction in P3b (p=.013) compared to HC. Sz were impaired in both automatic and controlled aspects of deviance detection within the focus of selective attention. By contrast, FESz showed intact automatic but impaired controlled detection of deviance during selective attention to stimuli. The emitted P3 shows promise as a biomarker to (1) help diagnose schizophrenia before first episode by identifying an impaired P3b and (2) to track disease progression of schizophrenia by observing a diminishing P3a with disease course.

NIH MH094328.

Poster 2-21


Gabriella G.N. Robinson, Annabelle Scott, Treva Van Cleave, & Wendy D'Andrea The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: emotion

Emotion regulation strategies are critical in managing emotion-eliciting events, contributing to overall health. Greater awareness of bodily sensations has been associated with successful emotion regulation. The Rubber Hand Illusion(RHI) task has been used to assess the way an individual perceives bodily sensations; unlike heartbeat detection, it examines body ownership rather than perception of viscera. Physiologically, during RHI the temperature of one's hand indicates body ownership. The task involves the stroking of a rubber hand on a table next to one of the participants' hands, while the participants' other hand is not on the table(the outhand). This study utilized RHI(N= 67)to examine the temperature of participants' hand, as it corresponds to psychological strategies of emotion regulation (suppression and reappraisal effectiveness and frequency). Suppression amount was significantly correlated with temperature of the outhand, r(49) = 0.33 p < .05. Suppression effectiveness was significantly correlated with temperature change of the outhand, r(46) = -0.38 p < .05. Trait suppressors reported losing conscious sensation of their outhand, but no temperature change was seen, r(59) = 0.248, p = .058. This suggests perceived effectiveness of suppression is correlated with poor body awareness, despite self-reported loss of consciousness of the hand, which may be further validation of self-reported dysregulation. Results support the idea that psychological strategy of emotional suppression plays a critical role in eliciting body's physiological autonomic response and dysregulation.


Brittany C. Speed1, James J. Gross2, Dimitris N. Kiosses3, & Greg Hajcak1 1Stony Brook University, 2Stanford University, 3Weill Cornell Medicine

Descriptors: emotion regulation, idiographic stimuli, late positive potential (LPP)

Difficulties with emotion regulation have been associated with many forms of psychopathology. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have found that one promising biomarker of such difficulties is the late positive potential (LPP), which is potentiated for emotional stimuli and can be reduced using various emotion regulation strategies. A limitation of prior LPP studies, however, is that they have relied on standardized emotional picture sets, which have not allowed for the examination of regulation to personally-relevant stimuli and memories. The current study utilized a novel paradigm designed to investigate the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation to idiographic information in 49 young adults. The Autobiographical Affective Regulation Task (AART) is a word-viewing task in which participants identify 2 neutral and 2 negative autobiographical situations and generate 10 key words unique to each situation. First, participants are instructed to simply view the words. Then, participants are presented with words from negative situations and are either instructed to react normally (react condition) or to use cognitive reappraisal to decrease negative affect (reappraise condition). Results indicate that the LPP was potentiated when initially viewing negative compared to neutral words. Furthermore, the LPP was reduced during reappraise compared to react trials, demonstrating successful down-regulation of neural activity to negative idiographic stimuli. These findings suggest the AART is a feasible and effective probe of emotion regulation to idio-graphic stimuli.

Poster 2-23


Trisha M. Karsten1, Kelly K. Bost2, Glenn I. Roisman3, Wendy Heller2, Gregory A. Miller2, & Stacie L. Warren1 1Palo Alto University, 2University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Uni-versity of Minnesota

Descriptors: attachment and trauma, fMRI, cognitive control Childhood emotional trauma (ET) and attachment insecurity affect mental health outcomes and are associated with psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena are often studied independently in parallel literatures and frequently focus on negatively-valenced stimuli. Failure to engage in, or abnormal processing of positive stimuli could contribute to the development of psychopathology. The degree to which ET and attachment style involve overlapping or distinct brain regions may elucidate the nature of the relationship between and interaction of these constructs. The present study examined effects of childhood ET, attachment insecurity, and their interaction on brain activity in 43 adults during an emotion-word Stroop task. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed no significant effect of ET on brain activity during the processing of positive words. Attachment insecurity predicted greater right DLPFC activity for positive words than for neutral words, and the interaction of ET and attachment security predicted greater activity in regions involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control (e.g., left IFG, ACC, OFC). Additionally, increased brain activity associated with regions supporting cognitive control (ACC, superior frontal gyrus) was associated with more errors for positive words and not neutral words. Behavioral and neuroimaging results suggest that positive words require more resources to process. However, these resources fail as indexed by increased error rates, indicating inefficient processing of positive stimuli.

National Institute of Mental Health (P50 MH079485, R01 MH61358) and by the University of Illinois Beckman Institute and Department of Psychology.


Daniel B.K. Gabriel, Lauren A.-M. Dahlke, James W. Rogers, Jamonte D.

Wilson, & Jeffrey J. Sable Christian Brothers University

Descriptors: attention, emotion, event-related potential

In order to determine the effect of emotional stimuli on attention and distractibil-ity, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) to background sounds while participants viewed emotion-inducing slideshows. The N1 component of ERPs reflects attention to a stimulus, even if participants are not consciously attending to the stimulus. Participants watched three separate slideshows, each consisting of negative, neutral, or positive images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Trains of five, identical, 50-ms tones (with 400-ms inter-tone intervals) were played with either 1 or 5 s between trains. N1 responses to the tones were significantly larger when participants were viewing the neutral slides than when they were viewing the emotion inducing slides (positive or negative). These results confirmed our hypothesis that emotion would affect attention, indicating that the tones drew less attention, or distracted the participant less, during emotional slides than during neutral slides.

This research was supported in part by NSF MRI award 1429263.

Poster 2-25


Laura C. Thornton1, Elizabeth Penner1, Zachary Nolan2, Christopher

Adalio3, Soonjo Hwang4, Harma Meffert1, James Blair5, & Stuart White1 1Boys Town National Research Hospital, 2Pennsylvania State College of

Medicine, 3University of California at Berkeley, 4University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5National Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: amygdala dysfunction, animacy information processing, disruptive behavior disorders, callous-unemotional traits Amygdala dysfunction during emotion processing has been implicated in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). Youth with DBDs and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits show reduced amygdala response to fear/distress stimuli, while youth with DBDs and low levels of CU traits show increased amygdala response to fear/distress stimuli. Critically, the amygdala is responsive to emotional (including fear/ distress) relative to neutral stimuli, but also to animate relative to inanimate stimuli. It is not known whether youth with DBD show amygdala impairment when processing animacy information. 29 youth with DBD and 20 TD youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage=14.45, SD=2.052) and gender, completed a dot probe task during fMRI. Stimuli consisted of threatening/animate, threatening/inanimate, neutral/animate and neutral/inanimate images. Youth with DBDs failed to increased amygdala activation to animate relative to inanimate stimuli. Moreover, within youth with DBDs, CU traits were inversely associated with activation to animate relative to inanimate stimuli within the amygdala. These data suggest that youth with DBDs and high levels of CU traits exhibit dysfunction in animacy processing in the amygdala. This suggests that amygdala dysfunction in these youth extends beyond emotional processing with implications for theory, assessment and intervention.

This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health (1-ZIA-MH002860), J.R.B principle investigator.


Timothy Wanger, & Dean Sabatinelli University of Georgia

Descriptors: emotion, perception, LPP

The late positive potential (LPP) is enhanced during highly arousing pleasant and unpleasant scene perception in both men and women. However, women rate erotic scenes as significantly less pleasant and less arousing than do men, though sex differences in LPP enhancement have not been identified. Here we examine the relationship between participant sex, scene ratings, and LPP modulation in a sample of 144 (72 women) participants as they viewed a series of 120 emotional and neutral scenes. No gender by scene content interactions were found in LPP amplitude. Consistent with past studies, women rated scenes depicting erotic couples as much less pleasant (3.6 of 8) than did men (6.0). To explore the relationship between individual ratings and LPP modulation by erotic scenes, a comparison of LPP amplitude was conducted among the top and bottom quartiles of male and female participants according to their pleasantness ratings of erotic scenes. Here we identified a marginal interaction (F(1,68) = 3.82, p = .055), such that those men who rated erotica as more pleasant showed greater LPP amplitude than did men who rated erotica as less pleasant, while the reverse relationship was evident in women. No other scene category was associated with a similar interaction. These data suggest that sex-specific processes may contribute to emotional modulation of the LPP in erotic scene perception.

Poster 2-29


Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Andrew C. Parks, Hans S. Schroder, Jason S.

Moser, & Matthew B. Pontifex Michigan State University

Descriptors: exercise, anxiety, error monitoring

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that individuals high in anxious apprehension/worry exhibit suppressed error-preceding positivity (EPP) and exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), compared to individuals low in anxious apprehension/worry. Although single bouts of exercise have been shown to reduce symptoms associated with anxious apprehension/worry, the neurophysiological mechanisms of these reductions are not well understood. Accordingly, the present investigation sought to examine the effect of a bout of aerobic exercise on atten-tional decline preceding errors (EPP) and performance monitoring following errors (ERN) in both high and low anxious apprehension/worry female college-aged adults. Using a within-participants design, event-related brain potentials and

task performance were assessed in response to a letter-based flanker task immediately prior to and following a bout of exercise or seated rest during two separate counterbalanced sessions. Differential effects of exercise compared to rest were observed for EPP and ERN amplitudes across worry groups. Following exercise, high worriers demonstrated a smaller EPP amplitude than low worriers. ERN amplitude and post-error accuracy generally increased following exercise, however, the modulation of ERN amplitude following exercise was greater for low than for high worriers. These findings suggest that exercise has differential effects on error-surrounding brain activity in females with high, compared to low, levels of worry.

Support for our research was provided by Summer Renewable Research Fellowships awarded to A. Delli Paoli and A. Parks through the College of Education and the Graduate School at Michigan State University.

Poster 2-30


Colin B. Bowyer, Isabella Palumbo, James R. Yancey, Sarah Sowards, Jens Foell, & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: ERN, threat, defensive-reactivity

It has been widely documented in the event-related potential literature that the commission of an error while performing a cognitive task elicits an error related negativity (ERN), maximal over fronto-central recording sites (Miltner, Braun, & Coles, 1997) and believed to originate from the anterior cingulate cortex (Agam et al., 2011). Furthermore, Hajcak & Olvet (2008) found that commission of errors was associated with enhanced activation of the defensive motivational system as indexed by increased corrugator activity, heart rate, and startle potentiation during the period following incorrect responses. The implication is that error recognition involves activation of threat-system circuitry, and that the ERN partly reflects this activation. Based on this, we hypothesized that the ERN would be augmented under conditions of physical threat. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample, the current study tested this hypothesis by evaluating the impact of a threat manipulation on the ERN in a novel task switching paradigm. Analyses revealed a robust ERN following erroneous responses that was reliably enhanced during trial blocks in which participants anticipated receiving intermittent electric shocks relative to 'safe' (no shock) blocks. These findings suggest that error-monitoring circuitry may be more activated under threatening relative to non-threatening conditions. Associations with other physiological indices of enhanced defensive reactivity will be discussed, as well as implications for interpretation of the ERN as an index of threat sensitivity.


Mara J. Canen, & Rebecca J. Brooker Montana State University

Descriptors: ERN, anxiety, theta

The Error Related Negativity is a neural marker for error monitoring (Botnivick et al., 2001) that has been linked to anxiety risk in children (Torpey, Hajcak, & Klein, 2009) and adults (Olvet & Hacjak, 2008). Findings linking the ERN to anxiety in children are inconsistent. For example, more negative ERN amplitudes are related with increased anxiety in children over age 12, but not under age 12 (Meyer et al., 2012). The neural dynamics underlying childhood ERN are also unknown. In this study, we investigate interactions between ERN and the Theta frequency band, which is associated with attentional control (Jensen & Tesche, 2002) as contributors to childhood anxiety risk.

We recorded EEG from 59 3.5 year old children (M=3.56, SD= 0.35) during a modified Go-No-Go task. A repeated measures ANOVA and follow-up tests revealed a significant ERN at Fz, FCz, and Cz, but not Pz (F(3,168)= 2.93, p= .04). Theta power was visible for both correct and incorrect trials (F(4,54)= 20.798, p< .05). Parents reported on children's anxious behaviors such as social inhibition and withdrawal and asocial behaviors with peers. Greater Theta power during incorrect trials predicted greater anxiety risk (B = 1.31, p < .05); however, this association was moderated by ERN (B = .11, p = .04) such that when ERN was small, theta negatively predicted anxious behaviors (B = 1.19, p = .04). Theta and anxious behaviors were unrelated when ERN was large (B = -.87, p > .05). The current study provides evidence that ERN and theta may jointly contribute to anxiety risk in early childhood.

Poster 2-33


Keisha Novak1, Amanda Bolbecker2, Lisa A. Bartolomeo3, Brian F. O'Donnell3, William P. Hetrick3, & Dan Foti1 1Purdue University, 2Indiana University, 3Indiana University Bloomington

Descriptors: ERN, ERP, schizophrenia

Extant literature has reliably shown deficits in error-monitoring among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as longer response time and commitment of more errors compared to healthy controls. Additionally, research suggests that individuals with current depression, as well as history of depression, also show impaired error-monitoring. However, no study to date has considered the interplay between psychotic and mood dimensions as it relates to error proc-

essing. In the current study, we examined differences in the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by a flankers task among a heterogeneous sample of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizotypal personality disorder; N= 67) and healthy controls. Additionally, within this clinical sample, we were also interested in the impact of mood symptoms on the ERN. Across the full sample and controlling for age and gender, there was a significant main effect of diagnosis (F(3, 61)=3.68, p=.017), with the ERN blunted in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not schizotypal. Separate from this effect of psychotic illness, a blunted ERN was also associated with history of past depression among patients (F(1, 47)=4.53, p=.039); history of mania did not predict ERN amplitude. Taken together, these data show effects of both psychotic illness and depressive symptoms on error monitoring.

Poster 2-34


Edward Wlotko1, & Gina Kuperberg2 1Tufts University, 2Tufts University and Massachusetts General Hospital

Descriptors: language comprehension, prediction

Language comprehenders use context to generate probabilistic predictions at multiple levels of representation. However, individuals vary in how efficiently they can use context information to influence these predictions during ongoing language processing. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we asked how individual differences in reading experience and working memory modulate brain responses to incoming words in context. Healthy college aged participants read sentences containing a critical word that either fulfilled predictions or strongly violated semantic constraints set up by the context [Joan fed her baby some warm MILK/OFFICES], and judged acceptability while ERPs were recorded. We used the author and magazine recognition test as a measure of exposure to text and the reading span task to measure working memory. As expected, words that violated semantic constraints of the context elicited a larger N400 compared to predictable words. The size of this effect (300-500 ms at Cz) increased with higher reading span scores, corroborating past findings. In contrast to prior studies, these violations did not produce a post-N400 positivity effect overall. However, some com-prehenders did appear to show such a late posterior positivity/P600 effect (600900 ms at Pz), and the size of the effect was positively associated with reading experience scores. These findings demonstrate that both availability of online processing resources (working memory) and accumulated past language experience (exposure to text) can affect the neural responses engaged during comprehension.

NIH grant R01-HD082527 to G.K. and K12-GM074869 institutional career development award through Tufts to E.W.


Chelsea Kneip, & Jason S. Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: estradiol, ERN, errors

Endogenous levels of estradiol have been linked with cognitive control function. For example, higher levels of estradiol are related to enhanced dopamine activity, which is involved in ACC-mediated cognitive control processes such as error monitoring. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential proposed to reflect such dopaminergic ACC activity, however, it is unclear how estradiol relates to ERN and associated performance. To address this gap, the current study utilized a longitudinal design wherein naturally cycling women of childbearing age provided hormone assays and ERN measurements across a full menstrual cycle. Multilevel modeling results showed that ERN and estradiol interacted to predict performance on a flanker task such that ERN related to performance only in the presence of high estradiol levels. That is, a larger ERN was associated with better performance whereas a smaller ERN was associated with poorer performance when estradiol was high but not when estradiol was low. It may be the case that increased estradiol levels" activate" the functionality of dopaminergic cognitive control processes. Future research would do well to consider hormone levels when making inferences regarding the nature of relationships between error monitoring brain activity and behavioral performance.

Poster 2-36


Noah C. Venables1, James R. Yancey1, Brian Hicks2, Mark Kramer3, Thomas Joiner1, Robert Krueger4, William Iacono4, & Christopher J.


1Florida State University, 2University of Michigan, 3Minneapolis VA Medical Center, 4University of Minnesota

Descriptors: psychoneurometric, suicidal behavior, disinhibition; threat sensitivity

Disinhibition (DIS) and threat sensitivity (THT) are neurobehavioral constructs hypothesized to confer risk for suicidal behavior. However, little is known about the etiologic basis of relations between these variables, operationalized as psycho-neurometric variables (i.e., conjointly through scale-report and task-physiology), and suicidal behavior. The current work addressed this important question in a sample of adult twins (N=444). DIS was operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibitory and aggressive tendencies combined with P3 brain response indicators from two lab tasks. THT was operationalized using a scale measure of dispositional fear together with physiological (i.e., startle, facial EMG, heart rate) indicators of reactivity to aversive visual stimuli. We found appreciable heritabilities for suicidal behavior (.52) and psychoneurometric indices of DIS (.68) and THT (.45). Bivariate biometric analyses revealed robust genetic correlations for both DIS and THT with suicidality (.41 and .46, respectively). Further, disinhibition and suicidality exhibited a significant nonshared environmental association (.19). The present study extends previous work by highlighting that psychoneurometric indices of DIS and THT tap core biobeha-vioral processes associated with diverse maladaptive outcomes, including risk for suicide. Findings will be discussed in the context of initiatives directed at incorporating psychophysiological measures into assessments of mental health problems.

Poster 2-37


Sonia Singh1, Anne Walk2, & Christopher M. Conway1 1Georgia State University, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: sequence processing, reading ability, language impairment Current behavioral findings suggest that task performance involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns is worse for children with developmental dyslexia compared to typically developing children. However, few studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with such impairments. The

focus of the present study was to investigate the event related potential (ERP) correlates of statistical learning in a sample of English speaking children diagnosed with dyslexia using a visual learning paradigm comprised of covert statistical regularities (Jost et al., 2015). Findings showed that whereas, age-matched typically developing children (n = 12) showed learning in task performance as well as response times, the children with dyslexia (n=8) showed no effects of learning. Moreover, the ERPs of the typically developing children showed a P300-like response indicative of learning in this paradigm (Jost et al., 2015), whereas the children diagnosed with a reading disorder showed no such ERP effects. These findings are consistent with the idea that disturbances to general purpose statistical learning abilities might underlie reading deficits observed in developmental dyslexia.

Poster 2-38


Luyan Ji, & Gilles Pourtois

Ghent University

Descriptors: emotion processing, multiple facial expressions, attention This study investigated the role of attention in the processing for multiple facial expressions and directly compared it with the processing for a single face. Event-related potentials were recorded from 24 participants judging the valence of the (average) emotion in the target face set. The target, either one happy or angry face, or four faces with different amount of happy and angry expressions, was presented with the distractor (one neutral or four neutral faces) for 250 ms, in the left or the right visual field respectively, following a central cue with 75% chances pointing to target location. Behavioral results showed no differences when the target was one single face or multiple faces. For both tasks, when attention was directed away from the target (i.e., unattended condition), the performance significantly dropped. Electrophysiological data revealed differences in the single and multiple face tasks in three main time windows. Firstly, the N170 (150-180 ms) was larger for multiple faces compared with one single face. In addition, the mean amplitude at posterior temporal sites during 240-300 ms was more positive for single faces; while that during 330-375 ms was more positive for multiple faces. All these differences were not modulated by attention. However, a contralateral negativity was present only in the attended condition, similarly for both tasks during the three periods. The results suggest that emotion processing for multiple faces and a single might recruit different neural routes, but was dependent on attention in a similar way.

This work is supported by a China Scholarship Council (CSC) grant ([2014]3026) and a cofunding grant (01SC3016) from Ghent Univesrsity, both awarded to LJ.

Poster 2-39


Mary C. Baggio, & Stephen D. Benning University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Descriptors: psychopathy, facial processing, event-related potentials Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, emotional impairment, and unstable interpersonal functioning. There is substantial amount of evidence to support deficits in psychopaths' processing of faces. No prior research has investigated the relationship between specific interpersonal psychopathy factors as measured by the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P) and facial processing. The aim of the current study was to investigate aspects of psychopathy related particularly to interpersonal factors (Grandiosity, Boundary Violations, Dominance) assessed with the IM-P. A sample of 71 community participants from the emergency room completed the IM-P and viewed a variety of faces for 2-3 seconds each while EEG was recorded from electrodes placed according to the 10-20 system. Event-related potential amplitudes to a total of all faces were correlated with IM-P factors. Results showed that Grandiosity was negatively correlated with VPP amplitude to faces at F8, suggesting that those higher in grandiosity have reduced processing of facial stimuli. Boundary Violations was positively correlated with higher P3 and LPP amplitudes at center-right across the head. This suggests that higher boundary violations are associated with greater contextual processing of human faces. Overall, the results suggest different interpersonal factors of psychopathy correlate in opposite directions with facial processing. Further research investigating this relationship is needed.


Julia L. Feldman, & Antonio L. Freitas Stony Brook University

Descriptors: N2 event related potential, congruence-sequence effect, information-processing conflict

According to conflict-monitoring theory (Botvinick et al., 2001), sequential adjustments in cognitive control indicate that encountering information-processing conflict engages cognitive-control mechanisms, which then are applied to newly encountered information-processing demands. Resulting decreases in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the second of two high-conflict events is termed a congruence-sequence effect (CSE). Research on CSEs has been controversial, as researchers have interpreted earlier brain-imaging effects in terms of numerous methodological confounds (Mayr & Awh, 2009), indicating a need for new methods. To investigate behavioral and neural CSEs with a confound-minimized task, we used the Stroop-trajectory task (Freitas & Clark, 2015). With twenty participants in an event-related-potential (ERP) experiment, we found significant CSEs for behavioral measures and for amplitude of the fronto-central N2, an ERP component established in previous work to be related to cognitive control and to ACC activation. This study is the first to identify fronto-central N2 amplitude as a neural correlate of the CSE in a confound-minimized task. Accordingly, these results support conflict-monitoring theory while also validating the Stroop-trajectory task as a confound-minimized means of assessing CSEs.

Poster 2-41


Rachel Tomko1, Russell Clayton2, & Timothy Trull3 1Medical University of South Carolina, 2Florida State University, 3Uni-versity of Missouri

Descriptors: skin conductance, electrodermal activity, ambulatory assessment Electrodermal activity (EDA) has traditionally been measured within laboratory settings. New advances in technology allow for ambulatory monitoring of EDA. The Q Sensor (Affectiva) is a wrist-worn device designed for long-term EDA monitoring in individuals' natural environments. This has significant potential clinical utility, such as alerting individuals of a potential seizure or detecting realtime drug use. However, little is known about how the Q Sensor relates to traditional EDA measurement conducted in a laboratory setting. The goal of this study was to compare skin conductance level (SCL) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) recorded via the Q Sensor and traditional laboratory-based EDA recording (Biopac). Adult participants (N=30), over-sampled for emotional dysregula-tion, were exposed to videos known to produce emotional responses within a laboratory setting. Q Sensor and Biopac recordings were compared using correlational analysis. Results suggest that the Q Sensor data correlate positively and significantly with traditional, laboratory-based (Biopac) measures of SCR. Associations are largest when the index of interest is number of SCRs per minute. The correlation is attenuated when the index of interest is SCL. Of note, the Q Sensor produced higher average SCL and lower average SCRs per minute than the Biopac-based measurement. When adjusting for participant use of medications with anticholinergic properties, the pattern of results remained unchanged. These data indicate that the Q Sensor may be most useful in detecting change in EDA, rather than absolute level.

NIAAA F31AA022031, NIAAA R21AA022099.

Poster 2-42


Chris M. Fiacconi, & Adrian Owen University of Western Ontario

Descriptors: startle eyeblink reflex, cardiac feedback

Previous research has demonstrated that the magnitude of the acoustic startle eye-blink reflex is subject to a number of modulating influences. For example, negative affect has been reported to increase startle magnitude, whereas baroreceptor-mediated cardiovascular feedback has been shown to decrease startle magnitude.

Here, we examined the joint influence of these two factors to probe whether startle potentiation induced by negative affect is reduced in the presence of cardiovascular feedback. Participants viewed neutral and negative pictures during which time startle probes (50 millisecond noise burst, 105 decibels) were presented and muscle activity from the orbicularis oculi was recorded. Critically, startle probes were presented either during cardiac systole, during which time baroreceptor feedback is most pronounced, or during cardiac diastole, during which time baroreceptor feedback is minimal. In line with previous research, we found that startle probes presented during cardiac systole as compared to cardiac diastole produced a relatively smaller startle eyeblink response, and that the magnitude of this effect was related to mean heart rate. Interestingly, across multiple experiments, we found no evidence that startle magnitude was reliably influenced by the content of the foreground picture. Our results point to a complex interplay between the mechanisms responsible for affective modulation of the startle response and visceral cardiovascular feedback.

Poster 2-43


Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Gregory West, & Pierre Jolicoeur Universite de Montreal

Descriptors: event-related potentials, visual spatial attention Our visual system is often subjected to a high-density stream of stimulation that overloads the capacity of downstream processing systems. Visual spatial attention therefore responds to a need to be selective and distribute resources based on importance. In electrophysiology, the N2pc is an event-related potential (ERP) with a posterior negative and contralateral scalp distribution relative to the side of the visual field where attention is deployed. Most N2pc research segments data by time-locking to the onset of a search array. The goal of the present study was to observe the disengagement of visual spatial attention as well as the subsequent mechanisms by instead time-locking segmentation to the motor response. The task was a simple visual search where subjects identified a lateralised pop-out target amongst distractors, allowing us to compare the N2pc time-locked to stimulus onset (S-N2pc) and to the motor response (R-N2pc). We demonstrate that it is possible to observe neuronal activity following the engagement of attention using the R-N2pc. Indeed, the scalp distributions of both the S-N2pc and the R-N2pc demonstrate a similar pattern of activity at posterior sites. We also separated trials by long and short response times (RT) and observed a shorter delay between the onset of the R-N2pc for short RTs and the motor response, which likely reflects the duration of post-visual spatial attention cognitive processes.

Poster 2-44


Joshua Hendrickse, Rachel Secharan, & Russell Clayton Florida State University

Descriptors: attention, emotion, eating disorders

This experiment examined how women cognitively and emotionally process thin, average, and plus size female fashion models depicted in the media. A 3 (body shape: thin/average/plus size) x 4 (images) x 15 (time) repeated measures experiment was conducted. Participants (N = 49 women) viewed 15 images, consisting of five images in each body shape condition for 15-seconds each. All images were pretested prior to the experiment for body shape type and level of attractiveness. Cardiac activity and skin conductance were collected for a 5-second baseline period and time-locked during image exposure. Participants competed a visual recognition task at the end of the experiment. Data analysis revealed a main effect for body shape on cardiac activity change from baseline, F(1, 48) = 4.26, p = .018, gp2 = .15, such that cardiac deceleration was greatest for plus size models followed by average and thin size models. There was a significant body shape x time interaction on skin conductance change from baseline, F(1, 48) = 2.96, p < .011, gp2 = .05, such that skin conductance was greatest for plus size models followed by average and thin size models. Data analysis also revealed a main effect for body shape on visual recognition accuracy, F(1, 48) = 9.20, p < .001, gp2 = .16, such that plus size models resulted in greater recognition memory than average and thin size models. The results from this experiment suggest that depicting plus size models in the media might have cognitive and emotional advantages over depicting thin size fashion models.


Rachel Bailey, Jiawei Liu, Tianjiao Wang, Adrienne Muldrow, & C. Kit Kaiser

Washington State University

Descriptors: energy density, primary motivation, emotional response Though food is a primary biological motivator, emotional reactions to different types of foods are highly differentiated. Individuals prefer energy dense foods owing to biological optimal energy drives and palatability preferences, but in the current climate of increasing obesity and obesity related illness, these types of foods also present risks. This means these types of foods create coactive motivational activation. This has been supported in previous research with high food knowledge individuals likely to be aware of such risks. This study investigated how individuals emotionally responded to food stimuli that were classified as health halos, or foods that enjoy better health perceptions than they actually deliver, compared to other foods. 97 undergraduate students viewed still pictures of food varying in health halo status and energy density level. During exposure, orbicularis oculi (OO) and corrugator supercilli (CS) facial electromyographic activation was collected. An interaction of energy density, halo status x time of exposure was found on OO (F(3,288)=2.77, p < .05, gp2=.03) and CS (F(3,288)=3.40, p< .03, gp2=.03). The non-health halo items elicited similar patterns of positivity, with the higher energy density foods showing more positive response than the lower energy density foods, as expected. The halo items elicited patterns of coactivity for both low and high energy density, especially later in the response curve. Interestingly, the higher energy density items elicited stronger negative responses across exposure compared to the lower energy density items.

Poster 2-46


Jewel E. Crasta, William J. Gavin, & Patricia L. Davies Colorado State University

Descriptors: sensory gating, autism spectrum disorders, EEG/ERP Sensory gating is a neural process that filters out irrelevant stimuli, and prevents sensory overload of higher brain functions. Research examining gating in autism is mixed. Gating is typically examined at the P50 ERP component and rarely at mid-and late-latency ERP components. Sensory gating was examined in 20 children with high functioning autism (HFA; 5-12yrs) and 20 typically developing children (TD) using the paired-click EEG/ERP paradigm. Using the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), the associations between sensory processing behaviors and gating were also tested. Gating was assessed using Test/Conditioning click (T/C) ratios and difference scores (C-T) of P50, N1, P2, and N2 ERP amplitudes. Using difference scores and T/C ratios, TD showed significant gating at all components while HFA showed gating only at P2 and N2. Whereas, the HFA group showed reduced gating at P50 (t [38] = -3.37, p = .002), N1 (t [38] = -4.58, p < .0005), and P2 (t [38] = -2.2, p = .03) compared to TD. No significant group differences were found at N2, suggesting typical gating in the HFA group at N2. P50 and P2 T/C ratios significant correlated with SSP scores. Results show that children with HFA have deficits in orientation and filtering of auditory stimuli. However, HFA group exhibited gating at P2 and N2 suggesting that children with HFA use different neural mechanisms for gating compared to TD. Moreover, neural measures of gating correlated with behavioral measures of sensory processing suggesting that unusual sensory behaviors observed in children with HFA may relate to atypical gating.

NICHD (R03HD049532).


Sherona Garrett-Ruffin, & Elizabeth Herring Bowling Green State University

Descriptors: EEG slow wave/fast wave ratios, empathy, reward sensitivity A well-established finding is increased resting electroencephalogram (EEG) theta/beta (T/B) ratios among people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to extend research on T/B ratios to affective traits. Given that larger T/B ratios are thought to reflect cortical under arousal, we made the following predictions:

1. T/B ratios would be positively correlated with empathy deficits.

2. T/B ratios would be positively correlated with reward sensitivity.

3. T/B ratios would be negatively correlated with anxiety, with larger T/B ratios linked to less anxiety

We will discuss our composite T/B ratio calculation and the challenges with assessment of T/B ratios in a non-clinical sample. While there is some research linking excessive slow wave activity with antisocial personality disorder, there is limited research on non-clinical samples. Future research will involve exploring relationships between empathy manipulations and T/B ratios.

Poster 2-48


Jerillyn Kent1, Abraham Van Voorhis1, Seung Suk Kang2, & Scott R.


1Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 2Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: action, efference copy, corollary discharge The efference copy (EC)/corollary discharge (CD) predictive coding mechanism is believed to function as a neural indication that an action is self-generated. It has been hypothesized that performing an action generates an EC (a duplicate of the motor command) which results in a CD, a representation of the expected sensory consequences of that action that suppresses sensory cortical activity in response to the action. There is some evidence that the CD is preserved when the action and resulting sensory consequences are different modalities (pushing a button to hear a tone), indicating that the EC carries additional information related to agency, and that the EC indicates self-initiation as well as self-generation of movement. We investigated whether CD is preserved in the motor domain in response to cued action. Participants (n=56) completed a Stop Signal Task while EEGs were recorded. Go Only trials (no chance of stop signal), in which a stimulus prompted a left or right response, were analyzed. Others have measured CD as the degree to which the somatosensory ERP (0-50ms post-response) evoked contralaterally from the sensation of responses is suppressed. Analysis of this ERP at electrodes C3 and C4 in response to right-handed responses showed a robust contralateral ERP (C3 peak amplitude significantly higher than C4, p= .004). CD is not evidenced in response to cued action, potentially because these movements, while self-generated, were initiated by task cues. In previous work showing evidence of CD in response to button presses, action was self-paced rather than cued.

This research was supported by a Merit Review grant received by Dr. Scott Sponheim from the Veterans Health Administration Clinical Science Research and Development Program (grant number ICX000227A).


Peter A. Lynn, & Scott R. Sponheim Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: schizophrenia, working memory, EEG

Spatial working memory (SWM) ability is compromised in both people with schizophrenia (PSZ) as well as their unaffected first-degree relatives (REL), and abnormal electrophysiological correlates of SWM processes have been found in both groups using ERP analysis. We recorded EEG from 23 PSZ, 30 REL, and 37 CTRL during performance of a delayed-response spatial working memory task. Participants were sequentially presented two or three test stimuli in one of 16 locations, after which a probe stimulus appeared; in half of the trials, one of these stimuli was an irrelevant "distractor" stimulus. Participants indicated whether the probe appeared in the location of a previous target stimulus. Task performance was impaired in PSZ relative to CTRL, while performance in REL was preserved. PSZ and REL demonstrated abnormalities in posterior N1 responses to probe stimuli: whereas CTRL showed increased N1 amplitudes to probes in the position of relevant encoding stimuli, PSZ showed no such modulation, and REL N1 responses showed differentiation between probes at previous targets vs. probes at distractor locations. Furthermore, amplitude indices during retrieval were predictive of behavioral performance for PSZ and REL, but not CTRL. These results suggest that processes during retrieval may represent a compensatory mechanism in REL, and that abnormal retrieval processes may be a particularly important piece to understanding SWM ability in both PSZ and REL alike. Time-frequency analyses of SWM retrieval processes in PSZ and REL may help to elaborate aberrances observed in the time domain.

This research was supported by a Merit Review grant received by Dr. Scott Sponheim from the Veterans Health Administration Clinical Science Research and Development Program (grant number ICX000227A).

Poster 2-51


Xiao Yang1, J. Richard Jennings2, Bruce H. Friedman1, Laura Braunstein1, Hanna Vohra3, Olivia Garcia3, & Alisa Huskey3 1Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 2University of Pittsburgh, 3Virginia Tech

Descriptors: accessory stimulus effect, cardiac timing effect, interoceptive sensitivity

An irrelevant sensory stimulus speeds reaction time (RT) when it accompanies a cue to react in another sensory modality, which is known as the accessory stimulus effect (ASE, Hackley, 2006). Cross-modality facilitation has been proposed to explain the ASE (Lipp et al., 2006). RT sensory processing is also modulated by cardiac phase (Jennings et al., 1992). The cardiac modulation is related to stimulus valence and interoceptive sensitivity (IS; Garfinkel et al., 2015). However, it

is unclear whether cardiac modulation interacts with the ASE. In the present study, the relationship of the ASE, cardiac timing, stimulus valence, and IS was examined. Forty-nine subjects performed 400 trials of a simple RT task. Images of neutral and fear face served as visual accessory stimuli; the RT stimulus was a 75-dB, 400-Hz tone. Electrocardiography (ECG) and respiration were recorded. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented at cardiac systolic phase or diastolic phase. The stimulus onset asynchrony was either 0 or 75 ms. IS was assessed by a mental tracking task (Katkin et al., 1982). RT data was submitted to four-way repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that cardiac timing modulated RT, F(1, 48) = 6.03, p < .05, but only when accessory stimuli were absent. Onset asynchrony did modulate the ASE, F(2, 48) = 134.52, p< .001, but valence of the facial accessory did not, p=.13. Also, IS was unrelated to valence or cardiac modulation of RT, ps>.019. The results indicate that the ASE overrides cardiac timing effects and is not influenced by affective processing.

2015 the Society for Psychophysiological Research (SPR) Research Training Fellowship Award.

Poster 2-52


Jens Foell1, Christopher J. Patrick1, Angela Heinrich2, Isabella Palumbo1, Emily R. Perkins1, & Herta Flor2 1Florida State University, 2Central Institute of Mental Health

Descriptors: fMRI, externalizing

The European IMAGEN Consortium project includes behavioral, self-report, clinical-interview, neuroimaging, and genomic data for over 2,000 adolescents within a longitudinal design. The overarching project aim is to understand biobe-havioral mechanisms contributing to substance use disorders (SUDs). Prior work has established externalizing proneness as a genetically-based liability to impulse control problems including SUDs (Krueger et al., JAP, 2002). We applied a scale construction approach to self-report data from this project to create and validate an item-based measure of trait disinhibition (Patrick et al., JAP, 2013) as a construct-anchor for identifying neural and behavioral correlates of externalizing proneness. Here, we report on relations of this trait disinhibition scale and an interview-based index of impulse-control problems with behavioral and brain data, respectively, from two tasks—a delay discounting (DD) task and an fMRI-based monetary incentive delay (MID) task—presumed to index processes associated with externalizing proneness. Performance in the DD task was significantly related to both trait disinhibition and impulse problems in this large project sample, and both showed associations with brain activation in performance-relevant regions (e.g., ventral striatum, supplementary motor area) within the MID task. Along with discussing implications of findings for understanding neural mechanisms of externalizing process, we also consider key issues in analyzing large-N fMRI data, including statistical correction and the identification of regions of interest.


Melanie Bozzay1, Konrad Bresin2, & Edelyn Verona1 1University of South Florida, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: externalizing psychopathology, cognition, response monitoring A prominent characteristic of individuals with externalizing disorders is insensi-tivity to negative consequences incurred by harmful behaviors. This tendency may reflect neurocognitive deficits in monitoring responses for errors. While these deficits have been found among those high on the externalizing spectrum (Hall, Bernat, & Patrick, 2007), whether there are differences in error monitoring across specific externalizing diagnoses is not well understood. This study investigated whether patterns of error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), and reaction time (RT) differed across externalizing diagnoses on a flanker task. Participants (n=55) were grouped by presence/absence of lifetime Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Alcohol Dependence (AD), and Drug Dependence (DD). The biggest difference in ERN for all disorders was for central sites relative to parietal sites. However, while individuals with APD/ CD had decreased ERN, those with AD/DD displayed an increased ERN in response to both correct and error trials. RTs for individuals with APD and AD/ DD were slower following errors, but RTs were slower for AD across all trials. Pe was not related to the disorders. Individuals with AD/DD may be more sensitive to decision-making processes due to cognitive deficits or negative affect, while decreased sensitivity among APD/CD may reflect a stronger association with externalizing tendencies (Krueger et al., 1999; Lu, Collins, & Tucker, 2000). These findings indicate that patterns of response monitoring differ across externalizing disorders.

Poster 2-54


Isabelle Bachrach1, Andrea Fortunato1, & Wendy D'Andrea2 1The New School, 2The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: power pose, interpersonal violence, agency The resilience literature suggests that individuals who have promotive personality traits such as personal agency often have positive health outcomes in the face of adversity (Elder & Hitlin 2007; Masten et al. 2009; Seccombe, 2002). The present study aims to study female agency through the lens of the body, physiology, and power. A group of women with experiences of interpersonal violence (N = 64) were asked to embody a standardized high power pose, as well as their own, ideographic version of a high pose. RSA and EDA were measured during the poses. Results show that there was a significant difference in RSA and EDA for participants during the standardized high power pose versus idiographic high power pose, F(1, 61) = 5.699, p = .020; F(1, 61) = 50.916, p < .001, respectively. Additionally, RSA and EDA was significantly higher when participants came up with their own power pose than when they used the standardized high power pose, (Mdiff = .259, p = .020, 95% CI[.477, .042]; (Mdiff = 1.464, p = .000, 95% CI[1.941, .986]. These findings indicate that when women were given agency to choose a power pose that reflected how they feel they communicate "high power" socially, their parasympathetic activity is higher than when they use a prescribed pose. These findings support the resilience literature, in reflecting that when women are given agency to chose a power pose that reflected how they feel, their parasympathetic nervous system reflects a state of positive health as evidenced by higher RSA and EDA in each ideographic pose.

This project was funded by The Gender and Sexuality Studies research grant at The New School for Social Research.


Nicholas Fehertoi1, Andria Schmid1, & Wendy D'Andrea2 1The New School, 2The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: reading the mind in the eyes, cardiovascular reactivity, interpersonal distress

Existence in a social world demands the navigation of individual emotions, and physiology may support this process. Past research in on Theory of Mind (ToM) has focused on Borderline Personality Disorder, but yielded paradoxical findings. The present study used the IIP, the ERQ, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) to investigate how accurately individuals with interpersonal difficulty could employ ToM as well as their use of trait emotion regulation. We hypothesized that ToM and interpersonal difficulties would be related to Using Harkness et al.'s (2005) separation of the RMET by valence, we found that more interpersonal problems were related to lower heart rate reactivity to positive trials: domineering, r=-.41, p = .044, vindictive, r = - .60, p = .004, and cold, r= -.51, p = .012. Some interpersonal problems (cold; avoidant) were also related to less reactivity to negative trials. Findings held when accounting for baseline heart rate. Taken together, these findings suggest that viewing interpersonal stimuli elicits less cardiovascular reactivity among individuals with interpersonal distress, consistent with conceptualizations of blunted reactivity to stressors and inflexible adaptations to potential distress.

Poster 2-56


Yanli Lin, Ling Peng, Sean Roberts, Courtney Callahan, & Jason S. Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: error monitoring, emotion processing

Recent theories speculate that emotional processes are involved in early error monitoring, indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN) of the human event-related potential (ERP). However, evidence for this notion is mixed and further investigation is warranted. In the present study, we sought to clarify the role of emotion in error monitoring by examining the relationships among early and late indices of error monitoring—the ERN and error positivity (Pe)—with likewise early and late indices of emotion processing—the N1 and late positive potential (LPP).

Within-subject correlations showed that the Pe was significantly correlated with both the N1 (r = .43, p = .02) and LPP (r = .54, p < .01) elicited by negative images. The ERN, however, was not correlated with either emotion processing measure (rs < 1.051, ps >.78).

The robust Pe-N1 and Pe-LPP correlations suggest that late, but not early, stages of error monitoring are linked with emotion processing. Indeed, the Pe, N1, and LPP all reflect functional similarities in that these components involve attentional responding to the occurrence of negative (e.g., unpleasant pictures) or aversive events (e.g., errors). To the extent that the N1 and LPP serve as proxies for emotional processing, our findings are inconsistent with the notion that the ERN reflects an emotional reaction to errors. Nonetheless, these results support the more general hypothesis that emotional processes are involved in error monitoring, and narrow the relationship to later attentional mechanisms.

Mind & Life Institute Francisco J. Varela Research Award.


Sara Taylor, Akane Sano, & Rosalind Picard Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Descriptors: electrodermal activity, sleep

We collected nearly continuous electrodermal activity (EDA) from a wrist sensor worn 30 days by each of 62 undergraduate students as part of the study SNAPSHOT (Sleep, Networks, Affect, Performance, Stress, and Health using Objective Techniques). The students filled out an online survey each morning to report their sleep timing and energy level. Sleep EDA was modeled as a point process by first making the raw EDA signal binary. This signal was then downsampled to 1Hz. We found that the median number of peaks detected per night was 74. Then we modeled this signal for each participant as a point-process by fitting a generalized linear model with a poisson distribution and log link. The rate function of this model depended on the time since sleep start and the history of peaking for up to 180 seconds in the past. We fit several models to each participant by varying the number of seconds the history component considered. The optimal model for each participant was found by minimizing the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We found that the median required peaking history is 60 seconds. We also found that the rate of peaking in the first 3 hours of sleep is significantly higher than during the last 3 hours (p < 0.001). There is a suppression in the rate of peaking 1-2 seconds after a peak, while 3-4 seconds after a peak there is an average 4.9 fold increase in rate of peaking (p < 0.01). Finally, there is a correlation of -0.38 between the expected first peak time of the EDA during the night's sleep and the average energy reported the following morning (p < 0.01).

This work was supported by the MIT Media Lab Consortium and NIH Grant R01GM105018.

Poster 2-58


Sharon Lo, C. Emily Durbin, & Jason S. Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: effortful control, error-related negativity, children Effortful Control (EC) develops most rapidly during early childhood and is a robust predictor of major life outcomes related to physical and mental health, financial status, and academic achievement, even after controlling for IQ and social class. The brain processes involved in EC development are understudied in young children, however. An event-related potential (ERP) known as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is a prime candidate marker of EC-related processes, but the nature and function of the ERN in young children is not well understood. The proposed study uses a short-term training targeting behavioral EC skills as an experimental manipulation to test whether neural (i.e., ERN) and/or behavioral manifestations of EC can be readily fostered in young children.

Twenty children rated by their parents as exhibiting low-to-moderate behavioral EC skills were randomized into training (5-day, 3-hour per day) and no-training groups. Results suggested that the short-term training group exhibited improvements in behavioral tasks such as Tower of Hanoi (d = 1.63) and Simon Says (d = 0.87), and, importantly, a larger ERN (d = 1.18) compared to the no-training group. Parents reported significantly fewer problem behaviors 3 months following training in attention (d = 1.47), rule breaking (d = 1.34), anxiety (d = 1.62), and depression (d = 1.59), in the training group compared to no-training. These results suggest that the ERN may be a valid marker of EC-related process in children and that increases in EC may accompany decreases in social-emotional adjustment problems.


Sophie DelDonno1, Lisanne Jenkins1, Natania Crane1, Alyssa Barba1, Catherine Dion1, Kelly Ryan2, & Scott Langenecker1 1University of Illinois at Chicago, 2University of Michigan

Descriptors: depression, substance use, connectivity

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders (SUD) may share a common neurobiological vulnerability. Studying these disorders in the remitted state may reveal neural risk factors without the potentially confounding effects of active symptoms and substances. The present study explored functional connectivity (FC) of the reward network in individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and HSUD in relation to trait reward responsiveness. Participants were rMDD (n = 27), rMDD with HSUD (n=15), and healthy controls (HC; n=26). Participants completed the Behavioral Activation Reward Responsiveness Scale (BASRR) to assess trait reward responsiveness. FC data were acquired during an 8-minute resting state scan at 3T. Left inferior ventral striatum (LVSi) was the seed of interest. Group activation differed in FC of the left orbitofrontal cortex (rMDD with HSUD>rMDD, HC), right putamen (HC>rMDD, rMDD with HSUD), inferior temporal gyrus (rMDDrMDD, HC). In regions where LVSi connectivity was positively related to the BASRR, the rMDD with HSUD group had increased connectivity to the lingual gyrus relative to rMDD. LVSi connectivity differed between rMDD individuals with and without HSUD. The rMDD with HSUD group had greater connectivity from the ventral striatum to orbitofrontal regions important in motivation, reward, and value-driven behavior, as well as to temporal regions involved with substance cravings. These differences highlight the need to control for history of MDD and SUD when studying each disorder.

This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (T32MH067631, SD; R01 MH091811, SL).

Poster 2-60


Ashley Culoso, Cara Keifer, Anthony Burns, Elliot Keenan, & Matthew D.

Lerner Stony Brook University

Descriptors: affect, electrophysiology, olfaction

Research shows that odors have the capacity to evoke powerful emotional responses and also suggests a close relationship between both olfactory and affective information processing (Kadohisa, 2013; Soundry et al., 2011; Novak et al., 2015). However, the relationship between odor sensitivity and affect processing remains elusive. We aimed to clarify the link between odor sensitivity and decoding of affective voice cues across behavioral and perceptual levels of analysis via 1) an affect recognition task, and 2) concurrently recorded N100, an early ERP component implicated in the automatic processing of prosodic stimuli (Niznikie-wicz, 2013). Data were collected from 27 adults (9 male, M(age) = 20.92). Odor sensitivity was assessed with an olfactory rating task in which participants rated intensity and arousal for a set of positive, neutral, and negative scents (Jin et al., 2015). Number of errors made in identifying high intensity vocal affect correlated with greater arousal ratings for positive (r = .39, p = .02), neutral (r = -.23, p = .17) and (marginally) negative (r = -.30, p = .07) odors. Greater N100 amplitude in response to only high intensity voices correlated with negative arousal ratings (r = -.58, p < .01). Those rating odors as more arousing showed greater performance error in the vocal affect recognition task and greater N100 amplitude, indicating that high sensitivity to sensory stimuli may impede affect perception. These results have implications for understanding how broad cross-modality sensory sensitivity may interfere with social affect processing.


Adithya Chandregowda1, Yael Arbel2, & Emanuel Donchin1 1University of South Florida, 2Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions

Descriptors: motor praxis, LRPs, hemispheric dominance We employed a spatial-temporal principal component analysis (PCA) to study the componential structure of lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs). Participants pressed a button with the right index finger and another button using the left index finger based on the color of a stimulus frame displayed on a computer screen. Data from twenty-one right handed participants (11 females) were subjected to interhemispheric difference wave analysis (Kutas & Donchin, 1980) and a spatial-temporal PCA. Interhemispheric difference wave analysis, in line with previous studies, showed that right hand movements were preceded by the LRP that was larger over the left hemisphere. The LRP that preceded left hand movements, however, showed right hemisphere lateralization to a lesser degree. Results of the PCA revealed left hemisphere lateralized activity for right hand movements and bihemispheric lateralized activity for left hand movements. Further research is required to confirm if this left hemisphere activity for both right hand and left hand movements indicates left hemisphere dominance for motor praxis regardless of the responding hand (e.g., Kimura, 1993).

Poster 2-62


Brandon H. Nutting1, Travis Loof2, Collin K. Berke2, & Charlie A.


1University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2Texas Tech University, 3University of

South Dakota

Descriptors: narrative engagement, flow, media

Recent research has attempted to connect self-reported narrative engagement with physiological measures. Narrative engagement is described as a flow-like state induced by media narratives. Past research found correlates through heart rate and skin conductance measures. Handgrip strength has been shown to be a predictor of general body strength, postoperative complications, mortality, and functional decline. 66 participants were recruited for a secondary task style experiment. Participants were told that the primary task was to squeeze a trigger as hard as possible while watching a 3-minute narrative. A median split was performed after a pretest of the 12-item narrative engagement scale on 16 total clips resulting in 8 high NE clips and 8 low NE clips. Participants were assigned to one of two orders and viewed 8 clips each (4 high and 4 low). The results indicate that handgrip strength degradation does not accurately predict overall narrative engagement. However, handgrip strength does correlate with narrative engagement subscales. Those clips rated as high narrative understanding and high atten-tional focus experienced significantly quicker degradation of handgrip strength compared to low. Clips rated as low narrative presence and emotional engagement experienced significantly quicker handgrip strength degradation when compared to high.

Poster 2-63


Sandra Diaz-Ferrer1, Blanca Ortega-Roldan1, M. Carmen Pastor2, Jose Luis Mata-Martin1, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz1, M. Carmen Fernandez-Santaella1, & Jaime Vila1

1University of Granada, 2Jaume I University of Castellon

Descriptors: emotional reactions, heart rate, mirror exposure

Previous research has demonstrated that pure and guided mirror exposures have

different patterns of emotional activation. However, physiological activation to

own bodies is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the psychophy-siological responses to ones own body before and after two body mirror exposure treatments. Thirty-five university women with body dissatisfaction and subclini-cal eating disorders symptoms were randomly assigned to one of two exposure groups: Pure Exposure (n=17) or Guided Exposure (n=18). Participants were exposed to their body in a full-length mirror before and after treatment. All participants received six exposure sessions. Subjective discomfort and heart rate were recorded. Before treatment, both groups exhibited similar subjective discomfort and heart rate responses during confrontation with their own bodies. After treatment, both groups showed habituation of subjective discomfort. However, pure exposure group showed a greater heart rate response compared with guided exposure group. This finding suggests that pure exposure produces greater heart rate activation than guided exposure after treatment due to the continuous attentional focus on more conflicting body parts, accompanied by the verbalization of emotions and thoughts. Nevertheless, guided exposure requires focusing attention on the cognitive neutral reprocessing of all body parts. In accordance with the inhibitory learning model, pure exposure could be a more effective tool because it directs the attentional focus on the negative body parts and the free emotional expression.

This study has been funded by two research projects of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) [PSI2012-31395], the Spanish Ministry of Education [FPU grant Ref. AP2009-3078] and University of Granada [University Research Plan 2015-2016].

Poster 2-64


Christina Sheerin, Shaina Gulin, Roxann Roberson-Nay, & Scott Vrana Virginia Commonwealth University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, social anxiety, shyness Anxiety disorders are characterized by reduced baseline heart rate variability (HRV). Limited studies exist on social anxiety disorder (SAD) specifically and examining changes in vagal activity during tasks. The present study aimed to examine baseline and task-related HRV differences in individuals with SAD, high in shyness, and healthy controls.

The sample (N=59, 50% female, Mage=20.2) consisted of individuals diagnosed with SAD (n=12), highly shy but without SAD (n = 25), and healthy controls (n=22). HRV was assessed continuously through a 5-min baseline, 3-min conversations with a confederate (same sex and opposite sex), and a 5-min speech. Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) were assessed after each task.

No group differences in baseline HRV were found (ps >.50), but greater SUDS was found in the SAD and shy groups compared to controls (ps=.004). Repeated measures ANOVA interaction (p=.002) was found: The SAD group showed an HRV decrease from baseline to conversation and an increase during the speech, whereas the other groups showed an opposite, though less pronounced, pattern. Correlations between SUDS and HRV at baseline differed across groups, with a negative correlation for controls (r=-.45) and positive correlation for SAD (r=.58).

Though the expected lower HRV for the SAD group was not found, those with SAD exhibited a unique pattern of HRV change in SAD during social tasks and a different relationship between baseline HRV and subjective distress. This suggests differences in underlying parasympathetic processes in social anxiety disorder.


John R. Vanuk, John J.B. Allen, & William D.S. Killgore University of Arizona

Descriptors: connectivity, HRV, light exposure

Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects, in part, parasympathetic control and may relate to alertness, as preliminary data suggest that lower HRV is associated with enhanced psychomotor vigilance (PV). The present study examined the association between changes in HRV following exposure to bright light and the strength of functional connectivity of brain networks that are normally anticorrelated in resting individuals (i.e., internally focused default mode network or DMN; externally focused task positive network or TPN). This investigation was motivated by the assumption that good PV performance requires efficient network switching between DMN and TPN. Twenty healthy young adults received 30 minutes of morning bright light; resting HRV was recorded for 5 minutes before and at the halfway point during light exposure. Six minutes of resting state fMRI were then obtained for functional connectivity analysis. Increases in HRV in response to light predicted greater connectivity between frontal regions of the TPN and posterior DMN regions (posterior cingulate cortex; left angular gyrus). Increased HRV in response to light exposure was associated with reduced vigilance, and aberrant functional connectivity between frontal TPN and posterior DMN. Thus, an increase in HRV in response to light may index a propensity towards reduced vigilance that results from increased coupling and inefficient task-related switching of the DMN and the TPN.


Poster 2-66


Jackson M. Gray, Sarah E. Garcia, & Erin C. Tully Georgia State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, emotion regulation

Heart rate variability (HRV) has been conceptualized as a physiological indicator of one's capacity for flexible emotion regulation. Although many studies support associations between resting HRV and emotion regulation, effect sizes vary substantially across studies in magnitude and direction. Recent research indicates that associations between HRV and regulation measures may be nonlinear, which may help explain these mixed findings. The current study sought to replicate and extend this research by examining both linear and quadratic associations between HRV and four behavioral measures of emotion regulation, broadly defined. We hypothesized that resting HRV would be positively associated with adaptive regulation tendencies (i.e., positive affect (PA), psychological flexibility, and cognitive reappraisal) and negatively associated with maladaptive regulation tendencies (i.e., negative affect, suppression, rumination, and a latent variable representing emotion dysregulation). Electrocardiograms were recorded at rest for 248 young adults (77% female; Mean=19.7 years) who then completed self-report rating scales assessing emotion regulation. Multiple nonlinear regression was used to test HRV's linear and quadratic associations with emotion regulation. As expected, higher HRV was linearly associated with higher PA. Contrary to predictions, HRV had no significant linear or quadratic associations with any other regulation variable. These findings suggest that HRV may not be a good marker of emotion regulation at the trait behavioral level or their association may be complicated.

Poster 2-68


Sarah E. Vogt, Jackson M. Gray, Meghan R. Donohue, & Erin C. Tully Georgia State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, risk factors for depression, young children

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an index of an individual's capacity for physiological regulation. Investigations of linear associations between HRV and risk factors for depression have revealed mixed findings and generally small effect sizes. Recent research suggests HRV may be a marker of maladaptive processes at

extreme high and low levels and that the association between HRV and risk factors for depression may be nonlinear. One early risk factor for depression is the tendency to make negative attributions (i.e., internal, stable, and global) for negative interpersonal events. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that children with very low and very high HRV have the most negative attributions for interpersonal negative events. Young children (N=80, Mage=5.5 years; 50% female) completed the Children's Attributional Style Interview to assess attribu-tional style for negative interpersonal events. Electrocardiograms were recorded during a 5-minute resting period and HRV within the high-frequency band (HF-HRV) was used as an index of physiological regulation. Multiple nonlinear regression revealed a significant positive quadratic association with very low and extremely high levels of HRV associated with more negative attributional styles. These findings suggest HF-HRV may be an early physiological marker of cognitive risk for depression but its relation to early risk may more complicated than previously conceived.

Poster 2-69


Andrea M. Tountas1, Farah Alkhafaf1, Jena Michel1, Shannin Moody2, Yoojin Lee2, Elizabeth Shirtcliff2, & Connie Lamm1 1University of New Orleans, 2Iowa State University

Descriptors: competition, electrophysiology, N200

Social competition can be a highly motivating factor in understanding human behavior. However, few event-related potential (ERP) studies have examined the neural mechanisms involved in social competition. Furthermore, no studies that we are aware of have analyzed the association between social competition and N2 activation, which is a purported measure of cognitive resource utilization and executive control. We used a competition-modification to the Monetary-Incentive-Delay task to assess how the brain may respond to the same task based on the perception of playing alone versus against another participant (competition). We used a sample of 52 undergraduate students. Results revealed a significant relationship between higher competition scores and less (more positive) N2 activation, Beta = .31, t (48) = 2.41, p = .02, F (3, 48) = 4.25, p = .01; however, this effect was found only in the context of competition. Thus, in the context of high social conflict, highly competitive people may show more efficient neural processing than less competitive people.

Poster 2-70


Ashley L.T. Wright, Madeline R. Jefferson, Nikki C. Degeneffe, Melissa P. Hartnell, Samuel E. Cooper, & Shmuel Lissek University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Campus

Descriptors: trait fear, fear generalization, fear-potentiated startle Trait fear (TF) is a dimension of personality reflecting individual differences in fearful reactivity to the threat of danger. Though measures of TF have only recently been developed, such measures have already been linked to virtually every DSM-based anxiety disorder, implicating trait fear as a promising, transdiagnostic dimension of clinical anxiety. Here, we test associations between TF and both generalization and inhibition of conditioned fear, two important conditioning abnormalities found across anxiety disorders. We used a novel conditioning paradigm including rings of different sizes with extreme sizes serving as conditioned danger (CS1: paired with shock) and safety cues (CS-), and intermediaries, referred to as generalization stimuli (GS), forming a continuum of size between CS1 and CS-. CSs and GSs were presented in the presence of additional occasion-setting (OS) shapes indicating whether the CS1 would (OS1: 50% of trials) or would not be paired with shock (OS-: 50% of trials). Outcome variables included online risk-ratings and fear-potentiated startle (EMG) during CSs and GSs across the OS1 and OS- conditions. During OS1, those high versus low on TF displayed less steep gradients of behavioral and psychophysiological generalization indicative of over-generalization. During OS-, when no shocks were possible, neither group showed generalization, but those high on TF reported elevated shock expectancy across stimuli. Such results implicate TF as a personality factor that might drive over-generalization and impaired fear-inhibition across the anxiety disorders.


Shara S. Grant1, Bruce H. Friedman1, Alisa Huskey1, Justin B. White2, & Kye Kim3

1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2Carilion Clinic, 3Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine; Carilion Clinic

Descriptors: cardiovascular, caffeine, methodology

Caffeine exerts effects on cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), yet there exists wide variability in control of caffeine's acute and withdrawal effects in CVR research. The aim of this study was to identify a minimal abstention time in regular coffee drinkers whereby CVR is unconfounded by caffeine; Six hours was the hypothesized time, based on caffeine's average half-life. Thirty nine subjects (mean age=20.9; SD=1.9; 51% female) completed a study involving a series of tasks (cold pressor (CP) and a memory task), ingestion of caffeinated coffee (230 mg caffeine) on one day and decaffeinated coffee (5 mg) on a second day. High frequency heart rate variability (hfHRV), heart rate (HR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were acquired during baseline, task, and recovery epochs prior to coffee intake, 30 minutes-, and six hours post-intake. Three-factor (Condition, Phase, Task) repeated measures MANOVA's assessed task reactivity. Acute hfHRV reactivity was significantly greater on the caffeinated day versus the decaffeinated day (p < .005). Consistent with literature suggesting vagally mediated increases in hfHRV with moderate doses. For HR reactivity, a significant Phase x Task interaction showed lowest reactivity at phase 2 for the memory task and greatest at phase 2 for the CP (p < .05). Pairwise comparisons revealed differences in mean SBP between phases 1 and 2 (p < .00), and 2 and 3 (p < .00), but no differences between phases 1 and 3 (p=.30). Results indicate that a six-hour abstention is adequate to control caffeine-elicited changes in CVR. Carilion Clinic Research Acceleration Program (RAP) Grant.

Poster 2-73


Ken P. Bennett, Christine L. Larson, & Jacqueline Dickmann University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Descriptors: uncertainty, threat-of-shock, anxiety

A key component of anxiety is the misinterpretation of uncertain future events (Gray, 1985). Uncertainty, or the inability to predict the valence, intensity, likelihood or type of future stimulus, is often associated with increased anticipatory physiological reactivity (Grillon et al., 2004; Grape & Nitschke, 2013). The current study compared modulation of the startle blink response associated with temporal uncertainty (TU), or not knowing when a shock will occur, and occurrence

uncertainty (OU), or not knowing if a shock will occur. Participants completed a modified threat-of-shock task (Grillon et al., 2004) consisting of 4 conditions: TU, OU, Certain Threat (C), and Safe (S). Results showed that OU startle magnitude was significantly larger than C and S, and that TU, C, and S startle magnitudes were not significantly different from each other. These findings suggest that not knowing if threat will occur is more anxiety-provoking than either knowing or not knowing when it will occur. This may indicate that anxiety is most robustly produced in situations in which it is uncertain whether or not a threat will actually occur. Overall, this may provide insight into uncertainty's role in the development of anxiety.

Poster 2-74


Margaret M. O'Brien1, Alexandru D. Iordan2, Anna Madison1, Yuta Katsumi2, Zachary Bertels1, Christine Richards1, Simona Buetti1, Alejandro Lleras1, Sanda Dolcos2, & Florin Dolcos3 1University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, 2University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign & Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology

Descriptors: emotion regulation, memory, eye-tracking

Emotional information often shows a retrieval advantage, but there is a downside: negative information is remembered with fewer contextual details, possibly because of initial narrowing of attentional focus. In extreme circumstances, this may lead to gist-based retrieval of traumatic memories, as observed in PTSD. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term impact of focused attention (FA) as an emotion regulation strategy, in healthy participants. The immediate impact of FA was assessed (N=18) by recording ratings of emotional experiences, following instructions to focus on emotional (Emotion Focus) or nonemotional contextual (Context Focus) aspects of negative pictures. Eye-movements were also recorded (N=5) to elucidate the mechanisms of FA. One week later, the long-term impact was assessed in a subset of participants by a surprise memory task for the pictures. First, Context Focus resulted in lower emotion ratings and was associated with longer fixations on non-emotional aspects of the pictures, compared to Emotion Focus; these findings were also confirmed when compared to a Free-Viewing condition (N=10). The long-term memory data showed a recognition advantage for images encoded in the Context Focus, compared to those from the Emotion Focus condition, suggesting that FA may combat the attention-narrowing effect of negative emotions. Overall, these findings demonstrate the effectiveness of FA as an emotion regulation strategy, both in reducing the immediate negative experiences and in enhancing long-term memory for non-emotional contextual details.


Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie Gorka, Stewart A. Shankman, & K. Luan Phan University of Illinois at Chicago

Descriptors: panic disorder, anticipatory anxiety, unpredictable threat Exaggerated anxious responding to unpredictable threat (U-threat) has been implicated as a core dysfunction in panic disorder (PD). However, it is unknown whether this abnormality is specific to the categorical diagnosis of PD or would manifest along a continuum of panic symptoms (PS). Additionally, little is known about the neural processes underlying this abnormality among those high in PS. Finally, no studies have tested whether startle potentiation and limbic neural reactivity - commonly used indices of responding to U-threat - are associated. It is therefore unknown whether these indices capture the same abnormality. These questions were investigated in 42 adults with a range of PS. Participants completed two variants of the NPU-threat task to probe responses to U-threat, once during assessment of startle potentiation and another during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Panic symptoms were measured using the Inventory for Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS-II). As hypothesized, PS positively predicted startle potentiation, b = .51, t(38) = 3.05, p < .05. Whole-brain analyses indicated that greater PS was associated with greater dorsal ACC activation during U-threat (MNI peak [2, 16, 42], Z=4.80, k=252mm3, p < 0.05, corrected). Startle potentiation and dACC activation to U-threat were positively associated, b = .41, t(38) = 2.75, p < .05. These results suggest a biobehavioral profile of aberrant responding to U-threat associated with PS.

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number R01MH101497 (PI: KLP). Other support for this work was provided by the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) award number UL1RR029879 from the National Center for Research Resources. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding sources.

Poster 2-76


Jaclyn Aldrich, Madeline Wielgus, Lauren Hammond, & Amy Mezulis Seattle Pacific University

Descriptors: self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, sympathetic nervous system, adolescence

Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are a major mental health issue among adolescents, and include suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, gestures, or threats, and nonsuicidal self-injury. Low sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal, indexed by electrodermal responding (EDR; Beauchaine, 2001), may be a risk factor for engagement in SITBs (Crowell et al., 2005). This relationship

may be exacerbated by trait vulnerabilities such as impulsivity, which has been shown to predict engagement in SITBs (Claes et al., 2015). Adolescents with low arousal to stress and high levels of trait impulsivity may be at risk due to the inability to inhibit SITBs. The present study assessed whether trait impulsivity moderated the prospective relationship between arousal to a stressor and engagement in SITBs among 108 adolescents (Mage = 12.88, SD = .85, 52.5% female). SNS arousal was assessed using EDR during a 4-minute resting baseline and 5-minute stressor task. Adolescents completed self-report measures at baseline that assessed SITB engagement, depressive symptoms and impulsivity; parents and adolescents were interviewed regarding SITB engagement at baseline and 6-months. Controlling for history of SITB engagement, depressive symptoms, and baseline arousal, results showed that impulsivity moderated the predictive relationship between arousal to a stressor and SITB engagement at the 6-month follow-up (b= -1.46 (.71), Wald = 4.23, p= .04). At high levels of trait impulsivity, adolescents with low arousal during stress were more likely to engage in SITBs over a 6-month period.

R15MH098294-01A1 (PI: Mezulis).

Poster 2-78


Emma E. Condy, & Bruce H. Friedman Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Descriptors: respiratory sinus arrhythmia, autism, social awareness Social stressors, such as a child's mother leaving the lab, are often used to assess psychophysiological responses in children. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social deficits, making the social nature of this 'absence' stressor salient. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) is often used to study response to stress and has been related to social deficits in children. The present study evaluated RSA-R to the 'absence' stressor and its relation to social deficits in typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded in TD children (n= 16) and children with ASD (n= 11) during a baseline, 'absence' task, and recovery period while their mother filled out the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Two RSA-R scores were calculated: the first by subtracting baseline RSA from task RSA (T-B), and the other by subtracting baseline RSA from recovery RSA (R-B). These were then compared to subscale scores on the SRS-2. While the T-B change score did not significantly predict social awareness deficits, regression analyses revealed that the R-B change score predicted social awareness deficits when controlling for diagnosis (B= 0.175, p < .01). The results show a transdiagnostic relationship between social awareness deficits and RSA overshoot after mom returns. It has been posited that lack of reactivity to stress coupled with increasing baseline RSA is an alternative recovery mechanism. This abberant response to change in the social environment should be further investigated in relation to social awareness deficits.

The Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research graduate student award & the Virginia Tech graduate research development program.


Yuya Maruo1, Werner Sommer2, & Hiroaki Masaki3 1Waseda University, Matsuyama University, 2Humboldt-Universitaet at Berlin, 3Waseda University

Descriptors: error-related negativity, error positivity, interoceptive sensitivity

We investigated the relationship between interoceptive sensitivity and error monitoring by recording the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Both the ERN and the Pe are thought to reflect affective-motivational aspects of response evaluation. Because affective sensation is associated with interoceptive sensitivity, we predicted correlations between error-related potentials and interoceptive sensitivity as assessed in a heartbeat counting task (HCT). Twenty-four participants performed a spatial Stroop task in three conditions. In different conditions, correct responses were rewarded (10 yen every 4 accumulated corrects), error responses were penalized (10 yen per error), or participants neither lost nor earned money (control condition). Each condition involved 4 blocks of 72 trials. Error rates were significantly lower in the punishment than in the control condition. Although ERN did not differ among conditions, Pe was significantly larger in the punishment condition than in the control condition. In addition, we found negative correlations between the HCT scores and ERN amplitudes in both the reward and the punishment conditions, suggesting that participants higher in HCT scores showed larger ERN amplitudes in both the reward and the punishment conditions. These findings suggest that the Pe reflects motivational evaluation of errors. In addition, interoceptive sensitivity seems to be relevant for error monitoring when inhibition of errors becomes more important.

This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 15K12657 from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to HM and by Waseda University Grant for Special Research Projects (2015K-280).

Poster 2-80


Takuto Matsuhashi1, Sidney Segalowitz2, Yuichiro Nagano3, & Hiroaki Masaki1

1Waseda University, 2Brock University, 3Faculty of Human Studies, Bunkyo Gakuin University

Descriptors: motor learning, error-related negativity, basal ganglia We investigated whether the error-related negativity (ERN) amplitude can predict improvement of performance in two motor learning (ML) paradigms, a sequence-learning and an adaptation task. In both tasks the ERN is difficult to directly record during execution. It has been reported that the striatum is more involved in sequence learning whereas cerebellum is more involved in adaptation. Based on previous reports that the basal ganglia is a major contributor to the ERN, we predicted that a trait-level ERN amplitude (measured on a separate standard task) would predict improvement in the sequence-learning task more than in the adaptation task. Prior to ML experiments, we recorded ERNs in a monetary reward/ punishment condition (8 blocks of 72 trials). In the sequence learning task, participants were required to press buttons with four fingers in a pre-required sequence (8 button presses). In the adaptation task they were instructed to move a cursor to a target that randomly appeared at a location among eight possible locations. In both tasks, participants performed 10 blocks of 16 trials and both speed and accuracy were emphasized. Performance improved with practice in both ML tasks. We found correlations between the ERN amplitudes and performance improvements from block 2 to block 10 in the sequence learning (r = -.472, p = .035) but not in the adaptation task (r = -.105, n.s.), and remained for sequence learning (p = .044) and not adaptation (p = .82) when regressed together. Our results suggest that the ERN predicts improvement in tasks dependent on the striatum.

This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 15K12657 from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to HM.


Francesco Versace1, Menton M. Deweese2, Jeffrey Engelmann2, Kimberly N. Claiborne2, Jennifer Ng2, Hannah L. Stewart2, Danika Dirba2, & Susan Schembre2

1Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Descriptors: reward, emotion, event-related potentials

Preclinical models show that reward-predicting cues (e.g., food-related cues, drug-related cues) activate affective states, become attractive, and motivate behaviors (e.g., compulsive eating, drug-seeking) only for a subset of animals (i.e., "sign-trackers"). Here, we tested whether individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to food-related cues predict human eating behavior. We collected event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by pleasant (erotic, romantic), unpleasant (mutilation, violence), neutral, and food-related (sweet, savory) images. At the beginning of the session, we informed participants (N=49) that after each "food-predictive" image, they would receive a candy. The participant had to decide whether to eat or deposit the candy in a box. A total of 60 candies were delivered during the session. We estimated the level of incentive salience attributed to the images by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) recorded between 400 and 800 ms after picture onset. We labelled "sign-trackers" (N=19) individuals with larger LPPs to food-predictive images than to erotic ones and "goal-trackers" (N=30) individuals with the opposite brain response pattern. On average, sign-trackers ate almost 3 times as many candies as goal-trackers (21 vs 8; p < .01). Neither body mass index nor appetite at the beginning of the session moderated this effect. By clarifying some of the neural underpinnings of cue-induced eating behavior in humans, these findings will contribute to improved neurobiological models of impulse control disorders.

This work was supported in part by NIH-NIDA award R01DA032581to Francesco Versace.

Poster 2-82


Angelika M. Dierolf1, Daniela Schoofs1, Eve Hessas1, Marcus Paul1, Boris Suchan1, Michael Falkenstein2, & Oliver T. Wolf1 1Ruhr-University Bochum, 2Institut fur Arbeiten Lernen Altern GmbH

Descriptors: inhibitory control, aging, stress

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol, which are assumed to influence executive functions. Although stress, allegorical for the life in the 21st century, concerns and affects both the young and the elderly in work life, little is known about the mutual impact of stress and aging on executive functioning. The present EEG study investigated the impact of acute stress on the core executive function inhibitory control in young and older males. Forty-nine participants were either stressed via the Trier Social Stress Test or underwent a control condition. Subsequently, they performed a Go Nogo task while EEG, reaction times, errors and salivary cortisol were measured. Though older participants reacted slower to Go stimuli relative to young participants, both groups showed the same accuracy rate for Go and Nogo stimuli. Surprisingly, stress improved accuracy compared to the control group. The similar pattern was found in the EEG data with an enhanced error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in the stress group. Beside this, elderly showed a reduced Ne compared to the young. No interaction between stress and age was observed. The present results suggest that stress may have beneficial effects on inhibitory control and error monitoring, irrespectively of the age. However, further research is needed to clarify if this is valid for other executive functions and under which circumstances negative impacts manifest.


Erin N. Burdwood, Emilio A. Valadez, & Robert F. Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: couples, inhibitory control, EEG

Interpersonal betrayal is highly prevalent in romantic relationships and is a common presenting problem for couples therapy. However, little is known about factors that help or hinder an individual's ability to forgive these transgressions. The purpose of this study was to examine inhibitory control as a predictor of forgiveness in the context of romantic relationship betrayals. Recent victims of betrayal completed a SSRT task that involved inhibiting responses to negative and neutral photos while EEG data were recorded. Results indicated that larger N2 and P3 amplitudes in response to negative relative to neutral photos during successful stop trials were associated with more forgiveness of the betrayer at a 3-month follow up. This suggests that the tendency to recruit more attentional resources in order to successfully inhibit a prepotent response to negatively-valenced stimuli is associated with more progress in forgiving interpersonal betrayals. Findings are in line with previous work (Worthington & Scherer, 2002) conceptualizing forgiveness as a purposeful, emotion-focused action that requires overriding negative emotions in order to move beyond a transgression, as well as research highlighting inhibitory control, conflict monitoring, and broad executive functioning ability as crucial to the forgiveness process (e.g., Pronk et al., 2010). These findings have implications for interventions related to interpersonal betrayal, as therapists may need to directly target emotional processing of unpleasant stimuli in helping an individual work through these incidents.


Lucy Simmonds, Steven Bellman, Rachel Kennedy, Svetlana Bogomolova, & Magda Nenycz-Thiel University of South Australia

Descriptors: HRV, mass media, marketing applications

Psychophysiological measures have enormous scope to examine important, yet largely untested assumptions in the marketing literature. We tested one such assumption, arising from well-documented survey findings that respondents with prior brand experience (users of a brand) have better memory for that brand's advertising than those without such brand experience. From this, marketers have surmised that respondents with prior brand experience pay greater attention to advertising for their brand. Contextualizing this assumption within the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we test the hypothesis that greater attention and arousal induces additional resources to be automatically allocated to encoding and storage. This study empirically assesses the link between brand usage, attention and arousal by measuring heart rate variability and electrodermal activity in 99 adults (20-79 yrs) with or without prior brand experience during viewing of ten recent advertisements contained in an episode of a popular television program. The results indicate attention and arousal does not differ between participants with or without prior brand experience. Accordingly, and contrary to common belief in marketing, this research suggests that respondents with prior brand experience do not pay greater attention to branded advertising, and demonstrates the benefits of applying psychophysiological methods and theory to marketing.



Poster 3-1


Yasuko Okumura1, Tetsuko Kasai2, Ryuji Takeya2, & Harumitsu Murohashi2 1National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Hokkaido University

Descriptors: visual word processing, spatial attention, event-related potentials While roles of spatial attention in visual word processing are of increasing interest, it is rather unclear how words' attributes constrain spatial attention toward them. The present study examined early spatial attention effects in event-related potentials (ERPs) for Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and reversed words (i.e., words written from right to left) to clarify influences of lexicality and the position of initial letter. ERPs were recorded from 19 native Japanese speakers, all of whom were expert adult readers. Stimuli consisted of four Japanese Hira-gana letters that were aligned horizontally across the left and right hemifields. Participants attend to either the left or right end of the rapidly and randomly presented stimuli, and detected target letters that appeared infrequently at the attended hemifield. In ERPs to the standard stimuli (i.e., stimuli without a target), P1 peak amplitude at the right occipito-temporal electrode (PO8) was more positive in the attend-left than in the attend-right condition for words and nonwords; however, this attention effect was absent for reversed words. The result indicates that the deployment of early visual spatial attention to Hiragana letter strings depends on the position of an initial letter, which may reflect rapid formation of biased letter-string representation toward an initial letter based on learned lexical knowledge and reading direction. Such an early interaction between reading-related learning and spatial attention towards letter strings may contribute to rapid and fluent word processing in expert readers.

This work was supported by a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (#23 4188).

Poster 3-2


Yi-Yuan Tang1, & Rongxiang Tang2 1Texas Tech University, 2Washington University in St. Louis

Descriptors: mindfulness intervention, brain activity, self-control Patients with depression show deficits in attention, emotion and self- control. Mindfulness intervention has shown the improvement of emotion regulation and self-control ability. However, whether brief mindfulness could serve as a psychotherapy for dysregulated affective states and symptom reduction remains unclear. Here we used Integrative Body-Mind Training (IBMT) to examine the efficacy of IBMT in college students with first episode of depression and its possible brain mechanism. Thirty-three patients (via DSM-IV depression diagnosis) and 33 matched healthy students participated. Subjects received 30 min IBMT each session with 10 hours in total. Before and after intervention, subjects underwent a widely used Attention and Mood tests to assess changes in attention and self-control. Brain measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was applied to detect brain activity. Before intervention, compared to healthy control, depression group showed deficit in executive attention and more negative moods. After intervention, all of these attention and mood indexes showed significant improvements. Before intervention, regional CBF indicated the global reduction especially in anterior cingulate and adjacent prefrontal cortex, insula and striatum associated with self-control of attention and emotion, reward and self-awareness, but the rCBF of these regions significantly increased after intervention. Our results suggest that a brief mindfulness intervention has the potential to help mood disorders through regulation of self-control and reward networks in the brain.

The Office of Naval Research.


Rongxiang Tang Washington University in St. Louis

Descriptors: IBMT, immune function, mindfulness

Previous studies have shown that integrative body-mind training (IBMT) reduces stress, improves immune function, attention and cognitive performance, as well as neuroplasticity in young adults following few weeks of practice. However, it is unknown the long-term IBMT on changes in physiology. We randomly chose 55 healthy Chinese elders (mean age = 64 years old), who has 10 years of IBMT or physical exercise (29 in IBMT group) to study their effects on physiology. Physiological indexes are important biomarkers for aging. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), skin conductance response (SCR) were used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is an antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. More sIgA is produced in mucosal linings than all other types of antibody combined. The secretory immune system of the upper respiratory tract's mucosal tissues is considered the body's first line of defense against pathogens. Therefore, we chose sIgA and ANS activity as physiological indexes following 10 years of practice. We found significantly lower SCR, greater high-frequency HRV in the IBMT group than in the PE group. In contrast, the PE group showed significantly lower resting heart rate and greater chest respiratory amplitude than the IBMT group. Moreover, IBMT group showed higher basal sIgA level compared to PE group. Our results suggest that long-term meditation practice has positive effects on health in elders, and IBMT and PE may involve in different but interrelated mechanisms.

The Office of Naval Research.

Poster 3-4


Christen Deveney Wellesley College

Descriptors: ERP, irritability

Severe and persistent irritability is a pressing clinical problem, yet little research has examined its underlying pathophysiology. Research on irritability in young adults is conspicuously lacking, despite associations between childhood irritability and disorders that emerge during early adulthood. Therefore, we examined the relationship between irritability and the feedback related negativity (FRN) in 39 young adults who completed a spatial cued attention task under frustrating conditions (~60% of correct responses received rigged negative feedback which resulted in a small monetary loss). Because irritability increases risk for depression, and risk for depression is associated with reduced FRN amplitudes, we hypothesized that higher irritability scores would correlate with lower FRN amplitudes. Results indicated that the frustration manipulation increased self-reported frustration and decreased task accuracy, especially on trials requiring shifts in special attention. Higher self-reported trait irritability, but not depression or anxiety, was associated with reduced FRN amplitudes. These findings suggest that irritability may be associated with reduced reward responsivity in young adults, reflecting a possible common reward deficit in populations with irritability and depressed mood. In addition, because the behavioral performance of these young adults is similar to what has been observed in children, this task may be a useful promising tool for probing irritability across the developmental spectrum.

This research was supported by institutional funds from Wellesley College.


Wen-Pin Chang Creighton University

Descriptors: autism spectrum disorder, mismatch negativity, meta-analysis The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an electrophysiological signature of sensory memory and pre-attentive, automatic processing of auditory stimuli that reflects an index of the human ability to detect change during repetitive auditory stimulation. As children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties in processing and interpreting auditory information, the MMN is deemed to be a suitable measure to study in this population. Yet, evidence of atypical MMN remains inconsistent in the literature. This study sought to further determine if impaired MMN exists in children with ASD using meta-analysis. A search from PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science yielded 10 qualified articles that compared the MMN at Fz between healthy controls and children with ASD. The results of random-effects model showed no differences in amplitude (27 investigations), Hedges' g (g) = -0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.32-0.05, nor in latency (23 investigations), g = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.27-0.15. When examining the MMN from speech sound stimuli, there were no differences in amplitude (17 investigations), g = -0.11, 95% CI = -0.36-0.14, nor in latency (13 investigations), g = 0.08, 95% CI = -0.18-0.33. Nonsignificant results were also obtained in non-speech sound or tone stimuli. The findings suggest that regardless of whether they are speech or non-speech stimuli, children with ASD do not show impaired MMN at Fz compared to health controls, which overturn the idea that abnormal auditory processing in children with ASD is more likely severe for speech than non-speech stimuli.

Poster 3-6


Natalia V. Shemyakina, Zhanna V. Nagornova, Eduard A. Burykh, & Svyatoslav I. Soroko Russian Academy of Sciences (IEPhB RAS)

Descriptors: hypoxia, cognitive tasks, EEG

The experimental hypoxia is a model to explore adaptive potential of the brain to the lack of the oxygen & to evaluate border states causes behavioral changes. The study aimed to explore EEG spectral power changes at mental tasks under experimental hypoxia (breathing with oxygen-nitrogen gas mixture with 11.5% oxygen content). 14 men aged 25 ± 1.8[SD] had to make descriptions (D) & generate stories (St): before (Normoxia) & after Hypoxia, at the beginning & the end of 1/2 hour hypoxic influence during EEG registrations. Spectral power analysis was carried out on EEGs at D, ST & REST. By means of ANOVA were separately analyzed EEG spectra at D, REST & ST. For mentioned states was obtained gradual increase of slow activity during different stages of Hypoxia(beginning, end), that reflected growing cortex deactivation in comparison with D, REST & ST in Normoxia. Also were compared EEG spectra in ST & REST in D(1.5-3.5Hz), T(4-7.5) A1(7.5-10), A2(10-13), B1(13-18), B2 (18-30) bands before, after & during hypoxia. ST task vs REST was accompanied by decrease of T & A2 power in Normoxia, decrease of A2 power in beginning of Hypoxia. There were no differences for ST vs REST at the end of Hypoxia influence & no difficulty changes of tasks' fulfillment. While hypoxia influence was removed there were obtained power differences for ST vs REST in D, T, A1,2 bands (TASKx-ZONE) with higher spectral power during ST in most number of zones in D & T bands, in B1,2 bands & in frontal lobes in A1,2 bands, that might reflect compensation hypoxia state for successful cognitive tasks fulfillment.

Supported by I.19P Program.


Curtis Von Gunten, & Bruce D. Bartholow University of Missouri

Descriptors: cognitive control, conflict monitoring, cognitive effort It is regularly assumed that the engagement of cognitive control is costly. These hypothetical costs are routinely appealed to in order to explain why mental effort is avoided when less effortful alternatives are available. This explanation applies to both behavioral economic approaches (e.g. cost-benefit analysis) and social psychological approaches (e.g. limited resource management). Moreover, recent work suggests that conflict is a necessary antecedent for the recruitment of control and that this conflict is imbued with motivational significance through its aversive nature. This aversive quality could underlie the apparent costly nature of control. The current study examined whether the activation of an ERP component associated with conflict monitoring could be registered as a neurocognitive decision cost. Participants completed a cognitive conflict task (flanker) during which individual differences in N2 were measured. Next, participants completed a behavioral measure of mental effort avoidance. This measure operationalized avoidance as the number of low conflict trials participants voluntarily chose. If conflict as measured by the N2 is aversive, participants with a greater N2 should be more likely to avoid high conflict trials. Contrary to this prediction, N2 amplitude was not correlated with mental effort avoidance. This is consistent with past fMRI evidence suggesting that the activation of the control network (LPFC) is registered as a decision cost while the activation of the monitoring network (ACC) is not.

Poster 3-8


Satoko Kurita1, Shunya Omori2, Jun'ichi Katayama2, & Annie Lang3 1Mie University, 2Kwansei Gakuin University, 3Indiana University, Bloomington

Descriptors: event related potentials, violent game exposure, affective picture processing

This study attempts to expand our understanding of cognitive and emotional processing of pictures as a function of prior exposure to violent games. Recent research has focused on decreased physiological responses (i.e. desensitization) caused by repeated exposure to violent games. In general, unpleasant stimuli produce stronger/faster emotional responses than pleasant stimuli. This so-called negativity bias has been linked to evolutionarily adaptive nature of attentional processing. Recent studies have shown smaller ERP components (e.g. LPP) for high compared to low violent game exposure (VGE) participants when looking at unpleasant pictures. This study recorded ERPs while showing IAPS pictures (neutral vs. highly pleasant vs. highly unpleasant) for 2 seconds each to 26 Japanese college students (low VGE n= 14, high VGE n= 12) and investigated whether the negativity bias of relatively late ERP components (200-1000ms) elicited by the pictures would be reduced in the high VGE group. Results showed smaller P200 amplitudes in response to highly unpleasant pictures compared to the neutral and highly pleasant pictures among the high VGE group while P200 was equally large for highly pleasant and unpleasant pictures among the low VGE group. Habituation also varied as a function of VGE with the low VGE group exhibiting significant habituation to highly pleasant pictures and the high VGE group habituating to highly unpleasant pictures- again suggesting that the adaptive negativity bias may be reduced by long term VGE.

Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) #26380996.


Andrew D. Wiese, Melody Roberts, Catlin Pearson, Seung-Lark Lim, & Diane L. Filion University of Missouri - Kansas City

Descriptors: emotion regulation, LPP, reaction time

The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive demand associated with cognitive reappraisal. Participants were instructed to view IAPS negative and neutral valence images, and cognitively reappraise a subset of the negative images. Reaction time (RT) to a brief auditory stimulus served as the of index cognitive demand while LPP served as an index of emotional reactivity and modulation. We hypothesized that if cognitive reappraisal is cognitively demanding then RT would be slower in the reappraisal condition compared to the viewing conditions. Images were presented in random order for 6 seconds. On each trial, the RT tone was presented at an SOA of either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 seconds. A Trial Type x SOA repeated measures ANOVA indicates a significant effect of Trial Type on RT, but only for the 1-second SOA. Post-hoc tests on the 1-second SOA reveal significant differences between all three conditions, with cognitive reappraisal associated with the longest RT, followed by viewing negative and neutral images, respectively. These data suggest that cognitive reappraisal is more demanding than viewing images, but only early in the reappraisal process, with differences disappearing after the 1-second SOA. The cognitive demand subsides after individuals have more time to process images and modulate affective responses. LPP patterns are expected to confirm that cognitive reappraisal effectively modulated emotional reactivity relative to viewing negative images. LPP results and the relationship between LPP and RT by SOA will also be presented.

Poster 3-10


Kyle Woisard, Wayne Stafford, Phillip Klineberger, Kelly Harrison, & David Harrison Virginia Tech

Descriptors: binaural beats, EEG, brain entrainment

Binaural beats is a phenomenon that arises when two auditory tones of differing frequencies, one to each ear, are presented. This results in the perception of a third tone with a frequency which is the difference of the two presented tones. Research has suggested that presentation of binaural beats can result in brain entrainment when the frequency occurs in a physiologically relevant range to the human EEG. The current experiment investigated binaural beats induced brain entrainment in the beta frequency (14-32 Hz), a frequency range associated with active concentration. Participants performed the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), a verbal fluency task, before and after receiving binaural beats treatment in the beta frequency range or a placebo tone. This allowed us to assess the utility of binaural beats in improving cognitive functioning. Preliminary analyses indicate that in the binaural beats group, beta activity increased across a 6 minute recording period while no such changes were observed in the placebo group. Our results support previous findings indicating brain entrainment following presentation of binaural beats.


Christian Panitz1, Christiane Hermann2, Jurgen Hennig2, Tim Klucken2, Andreas Keil3, & Erik M. Mueller1 1Marburg University, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 2Justus Liebig University Giessen, 3University of Florida

Descriptors: fear conditioning, EEG, comt val158met

Motivationally salient stimuli prompt late responses in the EEG at posterior sites, reflected in time (e.g. Late Positive Potential; LPP) and frequency domain (e.g. alpha power reduction). Our study leverages the ability of fear conditioning paradigms to investigate saliency-related responses, using conditioned threat (CS1) and safety cues (CS-). Dynamics and extent of fear conditioning vary interindi-vidually. Specifically the Val allele of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with better CS1/CS- discrimination. Here, we investigated (a) if long-term fear conditioning and extinction modulate LPP and posterior alpha power and (b) if COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates these responses.

N = 91 male participants (N = 32 Val/Val, 30 Val/Met, 29 Met/Met) underwent differential fear conditioning with two neutral faces as CS1, two other faces as CS- and aversive noise bursts as US. Subsequently, one CS1 and one CS-were presented during an extinction phase, the other two CS not. In a critical recall test 24h later, all CS were presented again.

In the recall test, LPP amplitude was higher for CS1 vs. CS-, specifically in Val/Val carriers. Wavelet analysis revealed a strong and widespread relative alpha reduction for CS1 vs. CS-. This effect had a shorter duration in Met/Met carriers.

Our results show for the first time evoked alpha power reduction to conditioned stimuli. Moreover, Val carriers showed stronger differentiation for CS1 vs. CS-in LPP and alpha power. Potential mechanisms of the COMT effects are discussed.

This study was supported by a grant of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to E.M. Mueller (DFG MU3535/2-1).

Poster 3-12


Kristina Suchotzki, & Matthias Gamer University of Wuurzburg

Descriptors: lying, deception

Previous research revealed that instructed lying usually comes with costs, both in behavioral as well as autonomic responses. Little is known, however, whether this also holds for self-chosen lies and to what degree the context in which the lie takes place (i.e., a confrontation or a cooperation context) influences this cost. In the current study, 31 participants played an interactive game with another player, in which they could win money by truthfully or deceitfully communicating the results of a coin toss they observed on a computer screen. In the confrontation condition, participants were told that money could be won if the other player did not guess the correct result of the coin toss. In the cooperation condition, participants were told that money could be won if the other player did guess the correct result of the coin toss. On some trials, participants received a cue instructing them whether to lie or tell the truth. On other trials, they could choose freely. By telling participants that the other player would not always believe what they told them and that sometimes it would be advantageous to lie also in the cooperation condition (e.g., because the other player would be suspicious), we ensured a sufficiently large number of lie trials in all conditions. Results revealed a dissociation between measures. Whereas lying resulted in longer reaction time and stronger skin conductance responses compared to truth telling, context and choice only modulated behavioral responses. Possible explanations of this dissociation will be discussed.


Zaira Romeo, Alessandro Angrilli, & Chiara Spironelli University of Padova

Descriptors: language laterality, qEEG, depression

Although an impaired language lateralization was found in psychotic disorders with brain imaging methods, no clear altered language asymmetry has been described in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) so far. To this aim, EEG was recorded in 11 MDD patients and 17 healthy controls and beta band (20-35 Hz) amplitude was measured while participants performed two linguistic tasks, i.e., rhyming and semantic judgment, compared with a baseline resting state control condition. All right-handed patients (7 females) were suffering from MDD (euthymic phase: HAM-D=9.0 ± 5.3; PANAS Positive Affect [PA] = 27.4 ± 6.8, and Negative Affect [NA] = 23.6 ± 8.5). Patients had higher error rates (5%) than healthy controls (2.7%; F[1,26] = 8.02, p < 0.01). Considering beta EEG amplitude, regardless of the task, controls showed significantly greater left vs. right frontal activity (p < 0.05), whereas patients showed an inverted asymmetry, i.e., greater right vs. left frontal activity (p < 0.01). Concerning group differences, patients showed significantly lower beta activity than controls on frontal left sites only (p < 0.001). Pearson's correlations between beta left frontal activity and patients' PANAS subscales revealed that higher frontal activation was positively associated with PA and negatively associated with NA. Beta EEG activity is a quantitative index of neuron recruitment engaged in specific cognitive processes, that was able to reveal both the alteration of language later-alization in MDD patients, and a correlation between left frontal hypoactivation and higher levels of negative affect.

Poster 3-14


Alexander Kaeppler, & Stephen Erath Auburn University

Descriptors: autonomic responses, social anxiety

A substantial body of theoretical literature suggests that social anxiety may be related to abnormal or inflexible autonomic nervous system activity. In recent years, this notion has been corroborated by some empirical studies, though evidence has been inconsistent. Modest and inconsistent associations between social anxiety and psychophysiology may reflect discordance across subjective and physiological dimensions of emotion, or limitations and differences in the methods or analyses used across studies. To address these limitations, the physiological responses (heart rate, HR; respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA; skin conductance level, SCL; and pre-ejection period, PEP) of 123 preadolescents

(Mage = 12.03 years; 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities) were measured continuously during a lab protocol designed to simulate common peer evaluation experiences. Preadolescents provided reports of global social anxiety on a well-validated questionnaire as well as context-specific anxiety during the peer evaluation protocol. Latent growth model analyses indicated that context-specific anxiety was related to greater heart rate reactivity to and recovery from social stress, as well as greater RSA recovery. Furthermore, global social anxiety was related to blunted SCL recovery. SCL results are more consistent with an auto-nomic inflexibility model, whereas HR and RSA results are more consistent with an autonomic hyperarousal model. Findings demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between psychophysiology and social anxiety, and may reflect specificity among physiological parameters.

Poster 3-16


Alexander Conley1, Todd Jolly1, Jaime Rennie1, Patrick Cooper1, Grant Bateman1, Mark Parsons1, Chris Levi1, Natalie Phillips2, Patricia Michie1, & Frini Karayanidis2 1University of Newcastle, Australia, 2Concordia University

Descriptors: cerebrovascular risk factors, executive function, aging The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a strong predictor of age-related cognitive decline, as well as the development of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Cerebral white matter is particularly vulnerable to damage associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In a cross-sectional study, reduced white matter microstructural organisation was associated with increased cerebral arterial pulsatility (Jolly et al., 2013) and poorer performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Jolly et al., 2016). Both effects were stronger for participants who reported the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Yet, arterial pulsatility, a measure of cerebrovascular health, was not related to cognitive performance and did not mediate the effect of decreased white matter integrity on cognition. Jolly et al. (2016) argued that increased arterial pulsatility may have a delayed effect on cognition and white matter integrity. The present study uses a longitudinal design to examine whether arterial pulsatility (measured at Time1) predicts decline in white matter microstructural organisation and cognitive functioning over a 2 year period. A subset of Jolly's original cohort were retested at two years using an identical procedure. Preliminary results indicate that arterial pulsatility at time 1, while not related to MoCA performance at time 1, were strongly related to decline in cognitive performance over time. These results indicate that cerebrovascular factors can have medium to long-term impact on cognitive functioning in the healthy aged.


Kellie Ann Lee1, Brandon Joachim1, Vivian Khedari1, & Wendy D'Andrea2 1The New School, 2The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: children, decision making, trauma

Interpersonal functioning and decision-making impinge on an individual's ability to regulate their behaviors in prescribed contexts, and these problems are particularly salient among trauma-exposed youth. We assessed risk-taking behavior, perspective-taking abilities, well-being, and vagal tone using behavioral and physiological assessments. Our sample was a of youth group with severe trauma exposure (e.g., removed from family custody) consisting of 53 children and adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19. We find that baseline values of RSA (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) negatively covaried with and predicted expectancies of reward in a modified dictator task (M = 4.30, SD = 2.03), r(43) = -0.33, p < 0.03. Performance on a risk and reward task, the BART (balloon analogue risk task; Lejuez et al., 2002), yielded lower scores (M = 21, SD = 11) relative to a comparison sample of at-risk youth (M = 36, SD = 14). Our findings suggest that at-risk youth are risk averse, high on the expectancy of reward but low in the pursuit of encountering risk for such rewards; and that these behavioral adaptations are related to low vagal tone. These data may suggest that trauma-exposed youth are unable to regulate their expectations in the face of such tasks, further exacerbating pursuit of reward and avoidance of risk.

Poster 3-18


Erik Benau1, Aminda O'Hare2, Linzi Gibson3, Stephen Ilardi1, & Ruth Ann Atchley1

1University of Kansas, 2University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, 3Washburn University

Descriptors: depression, P3b, EEG

Individuals with major depression show less sensitivity to interpersonal stimuli, which may contribute to their social isolation. The present study explored how attentional allocation in major depression may be involved in the blunted process of recognizing interpersonal stimuli. Adults with major depression and healthy controls completed two oddball tasks using lexical stimuli while EEG was recorded. They were asked to identify positive and negative words, respectively. Half of the target stimuli referred to people ("pretty," "loser"), and half did not ("sunshine" "gloom"). Filler stimuli were neither affective nor person-referent ("leaf," "tire"). The results showed that healthy controls were faster and more accurate at responding to positive, person-referent stimuli than were the depressed individuals. The depressed group was faster and more accurate at identifying the negative person-referent stimuli than the health controls. The healthy controls' largest amplitudes were for person-referent target stimuli in the positive task, and their smallest P3b amplitudes were to negative non-person referent stimuli. The depressed individuals elicited a larger P3b to target stimuli; however, there were no other main effects or interactions for this group. We conclude that individuals with major depression not only have blunted attention to affective stimuli, but also to stimuli pertaining to people.

Poster 3-19


Vivian Khedari1, Erin Stafford1, Steven Freed1, Jonathan DePierro1, Ashley Doukas1, Reese Minshew2, Catherine McGreevy3, Greg Siegle4, & Wendy D'Andrea5

1The New School, 2Hamilton College, 3Teachers College Columbia University, 4University of Pittsburgh, 5The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: trauma, health

Previous literature has established a link between cumulative trauma exposure and negative health outcomes. This link might be partially explained by low levels of heart rate variability resulting from a reduction in parasympathetic tone. The present study examined differences in resting physiology of individuals with and without trauma exposure across six studies. As part of their protocol, each study collected self-report data, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI),

PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and a two-minute resting baseline measure of HR, HRV (RSA, SDNN, and RMSSD), and EDA. The combined data resulted in a community sample N = 362 (mean age = 32, SD = 10.94) of racially diverse (Caucasians = 28.4%; African Americans = 27%) individuals. Results show that PCL mean score and CTQ total score were positively correlated with sympathetic indicators: resting HR (rs = .13-.14, p < .05) and EDA (rs = .10-.14, p < .05). However, only CTQ total score significantly negatively correlated to measures of HRV (RSA, r (360) = -.151, p < .01). Individuals with low RSA did not have more psychiatric symptoms, but did have more physical health conditions (r = -.15, p < .05). The findings suggest that while both early trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress reactions are associated with an increase in sympathetic activity, only early trauma exposure is associated with decreased parasympathetic activity, and may have important consequences for physical health.

Poster 3-20


Christian A. Andreaggi, Brian A. Coffman, Sarah M. Haigh, Timothy K.

Murphy, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: schizophrenia, auditory perception, repetition suppression Schizophrenia is associated with smaller auditory evoked potentials, reduced detection of auditory novelty (smaller mismatch negativity), and poor click pair sensory-gating (reduced P50 suppression). Here we examined repetition suppression (the reduction of sensory responses with repeated presentations) to repeated tones in 15 individuals with chronic schizophrenia (Sz), 23 individuals at their first psychotic episode within the schizophrenia-spectrum (FESz), and 32 healthy controls (HC, 15 age matched to Sz and 23 age matched to FESz). Participants heard sets of 4 identical tones (1.0 kHz, 80 dB, 50 ms) while watching a silent movie. Tones were separated by 330 ms with an inter-set interval of 750 ms. Deviant sets of 3 identical tones were also presented, but only responses to standard sets are discussed here. For Sz and matched HC, P1, N1 and P2 amplitudes were reduced with repeated presentations (p < 0.05) Of primary importance, this repetition suppression did not differ between groups. Similarly, for FESz and matched HC, P1, N1 and P2 amplitudes were reduced with repeated presentations (p < 0.05), and repetition suppression was unimpaired in FESz. These data suggest that local inhibition of sensory responses may be intact in schizophrenia, and does not contribute to other deficits in early auditory processing such as MMN deficits.

NIH MH094328.

Poster 3-21


Alexis G. McCathern, Sarah M. Haigh, Brian A. Coffman, Timothy K.

Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: mismatch negativity, schizophrenia, first-episode Mismatch negativity is a negative event-related potential evoked by a deviant stimulus outside the focus of attention. MMN to infrequent pitch deviants amongst repeated standard tones is reduced in long-term schizophrenia (Sz, illness duration over 5 years), but not as robustly, if at all, in the first episode schizophrenia spectrum (FESz). Because more neural processing resources are likely needed for detection of pattern deviants, complex pattern MMN may reveal abnormalities earlier in disease course by taxing a less impaired system. Here, tone pairs were used to measure complex MMN. Twenty-one FESz, 23 Sz, and 37 healthy controls (19 age-matched to FE, HCFE; 18 age-matched to Sz, HCSz) watched a silent movie while ignoring a stream of paired tones (50 ms duration, 200 ms SOA, 1000 ms ITI). The standard tone pair was played 87.5% of the time, with the second tone three semitones higher than the first. The deviant tone pair was played 12.5% of the time, with the second tone three semitones lower than the first. All deviant second tones were also used as standard second tones. Complex tone-pair MMN was significantly reduced in Sz (p=.026), but not in FESz (p=.808). These preliminary results suggest that FESz, unlike Sz, do not show deficits in tone-pair complex MMN. It is unclear if tone-pair complex MMN deficits develop with disease duration. The two-tone pattern is relatively simple; further research with more complex patterns is underway to examine whether complex MMN may detect deviance-related processing abnormalities at first episode.

NIH MH094328.


Rebecca M. Laher, Timothy K. Murphy, Sarah M. Haigh, Brian A. Coffman, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: first-episode schizophrenia, mismatch negativity, syllable deviant Patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz) typically have reduced mismatch negativity (MMN) to deviant syllables. It is unclear whether this deficit is present early in the disease course. Twenty-four first psychotic episode schizophrenia-spectrum participants (FESz), 19 SZ, and 37 healthy controls (HC; 19 age-matched to FESz, 18 age-matched to Sz) watched a silent film while passively hearing auditory stimuli through headphones. Subjects were presented with four artificial syllables varying in voice-onset time (VOT) along the Ba-Pa continuum. A standard syllable sounding strongly like a "Ba" (VOT=0ms) comprised 70% of the stimuli and deviant syllables with VOT at either 15ms (weak "Ba"), 25ms (weak "Pa"), or 40ms (strong "Pa") each comprised 10% of the remaining stimuli. No MMN at FCz was apparent for the 15ms or 25ms VOT syllables in any group. There was a significant reduction in MMN for the 40ms VOT in Sz compared to matched HC (p=.034), but no significant difference between FESz and matched HC (p=.447). These findings suggest that the mechanisms for syllable processing may be intact at first schizophrenic episode, and that MMN amplitude reduction at FCz reflecting the automatic detection of syllable change may not be a useful biomarker of the presence of schizophrenia early in disease course. Currently we are analyzing MMN topography to determine if more subtle deficits may exist at first break.

NIH MH094328.

Poster 3-23


Paulina S. Marell1, Timothy K. Murphy1, Jaspreet Brar2, Patricia Schlicht2, Sarah M. Haigh1, Brian A. Coffman1, Kayla L. Ward1, K.N. Roy

Chengappa2, & Dean F. Salisbury1 1University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Descriptors: schizophrenia, antioxidant, auditory perception Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation may contribute to decreased neuronal activity in schizophrenia by affecting the high metabolic demand parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking cortical interneurons. We measured the effects of the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera; WSE) on event-related potentials (ERPs). Eleven patients with long-term schizophrenia

participated in a pilot double-blind adjunctive medication study: 6 took WSE, 5 placebo. Participants heard pitch (10%) and duration deviants (10%) among standard tones (80%) in a mismatch negativity (MMN) task while watching a silent movie. They also performed two auditory oddball tasks, either counting rare pitch deviants (15%) or ignoring sounds. For the oddball tasks, a 500 ms duration 40 Hz click train was presented between tones. ERPs were measured before administration of WSE or placebo (T1) and 3 months later (T2). Preliminary analyses indicated improvements in duration MMN with WSE (d= 1.28) but not with placebo (d=0.27). In the oddball task, the WSE group showed a larger P3 from T1 to T2 (attend d = 0.47; ignore d=0.69) compared to placebo (attend d = 0.24; ignore d = 0.29). Gamma-band steady-state potentials in the WSE group displayed greater attention-related amplitude increase at T2 (d = 0.59) than the placebo group (d=0.07). WSE intake appears to recover some of the impaired early sensory/cognitive potentials in schizophrenia, possibly by reversing oxida-tive stress and neuroinflammation. These pilot data indicate further investigation into such adjunctive target pharmacotherapy is warranted.

UPMS97074 The Stanley Medical Research Institute Grant Award 12T- 001.

Poster 3-24


Timothy K. Murphy, Sarah M. Haigh, Brian A. Coffman, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Descriptors: first-episode schizophrenia, prodrome, mismatch negativity Large effect size (d >1) reductions of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude are seen in long term schizophrenia (Sz). However, the effect sizes for MMN reductions at the first psychotic episode within the schizophrenia-spectrum (FESz) are much smaller. Our recent meta-analysis showed no evidence for pitch MMN reduction (d < 0.1) and a medium effect size for duration MMN reduction (d ~0.5). To explore factors that might explain the variable findings of MMN reductions in FESz, we recorded MMN from 50 Sz (WASI = 104, sd 14) and 50 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls (WASI =104, sd 11), and 30 FESz (WASI = 113, sd 14) and 30 matched controls (WASI =110, sd 10). Participants watched a silent video while ignoring randomly presented tones (330ms SOA; standards: 1 kHz, 50ms, 80%; pitch-deviants: 1.2kHz, 50ms, 10%; duration-deviants: 1 kHz, 100ms, 10%). Sz exhibited robust MMN reductions at FCz to pitch (p < .001) and duration (p < .001) deviants. FESz did not show MMN amplitude reductions to pitch (p=.12) or duration (p=.70) deviants. However, within FESz the duration of the prodromal phase was associated with duration MMN (r= -.573, p= .003), such that a more rapid transition to full psychosis was reflected in a more impaired duration MMN within the context of a "within normal limits" group mean MMN. Rapid conversion may reflect greater underlying cortical pathology, and these defective mechanisms appear to be reflected in duration MMN pathophysiology. Differences in prodrome duration may explain some of the discrepant findings in duration MMN in FESz.

NIH MH094328.


Kyle J. Curham, & John J.B. Allen University of Arizona

Descriptors: connectivity, phase, network

Phase-synchronization is a potential mechanism to dynamically modulate functional connectivity between brain regions. The phase locking value (PLV), a bivariate measure of phase-synchronization, has been used to reveal functional relationships between EEG electrodes. For example, theta synchronization between medial and lateral-frontal electrodes after error commission on a forced-choice Flankers task, coincident with the error-related negativity (ERN), predicts post-error slowing on subsequent trials. However, bivariate approaches can lead to spurious correlations due to the third-variable problem, have low statistical power due to multiple comparisons, and potentially attenuate event-related relationships not time-locked to stimulus or response onset due to trial averaging. The current study overcomes these limitations with a new multivariate phase covariance analysis (MPCA) approach to infer network connectivity and mean phase differences between electrodes in EEG time-series. Sample covariance matrices are obtained for each trial by computing the outer product of the channel by time-point data matrix of complex-valued phases (obtained by wavelet transformation). The geometric mean of these matrices across trials is found by gradient descent in the space of Hermitian symmetric positive-definite (SPD) covariance matrices. Convergence is guaranteed due to the convexity of the space. When used to characterize network connectivity during error trials in the Flankers task, MPCA shows increased contrast and sensitivity compared to phase-synchronization using PLV.


Boris Kotchoubey1, & Yuri G. Pavlov2 1University of Tuebingen, 2Ural Federal University

Descriptors: learning, conditioning, disorders of consciousness Research of learning abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness is an object for wide discussion. The most difficult issue is the lack of good developed paradigms for studying of learning in these patients. In the current study we tried to assess the potential of a novel learning paradigm which could allow us to evaluate the success of learning without any overt behavioral response. 23 healthy participants were included in this study. The procedure was subdivided into two phases. Participants were instructed to do nothing except listening to the sounds in both phases. In the 1st (learning) phase musical chords followed by emotional sounds were presented. One of the chords was associated with 5 different positive emotional sounds and the other one with 5 different negative emotional sounds. The 2nd (test) phase was a simple oddball paradigm, in which one of the chords presented during the 1st phase was used as a standard stimulus, and the other one as a deviant stimulus. A 64 channel EEG was recorded. The analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) in the 2nd phase revealed the presence of expected differences in P3a, P3b components between standard and deviant stimuli. In addition to these findings the analysis revealed a significant effect of condition on negative ERP component in 380-480 ms time window. Most pronounced effect was detected in frontal and fronto-central sites. We assume that the obtained N400 effect may reflect reactions of brain to the emotional stimuli that were associated with the chords in the learning phase but omitted in the test phase.

The study was supported by the German Research Society (DFG).

Poster 3-27


Patrick L. Woody, Andrea Perez-Muñoz, James W. Rogers, Jamonté D.

Wilson, & Jeffrey J. Sable Christian Brothers University

Descriptors: ERP, attention, distraction

Previous research suggests that there is a tug-of-war between automatic and selective attention as they compete for limited cognitive resources. We manipulated selective attention by engaging participants in a 1-back (easy) or 3-back (difficult) task. Automatic attention (salience of distractor stimuli) was manipulated by presenting 5-tone trains that either remained constant ("same") or varied in frequency ("different") through the train. Tones within each train were separated by 400-ms onset-to-onset intervals, with 4-5 s between trains. Participants were instructed to ignore the tones and focus on the tasks. For each of the four conditions, we examined the N1 component of the ERP—an automatic response elicited by stimuli even in the absence of overt attention—to each tone. The N1 typically decreases in amplitude across the tones in a train. We also compared participant performance (reaction time and accuracy) among conditions. In accordance with previous research, we hypothesized that N1 amplitudes would attenuate less across the "same" trains than the "different" ones. Additionally, we hypothesized that "different" trains would be more distracting than "same" trains, producing a decrease in performance. As predicted, N1 amplitudes were larger to "different" trains than to "same" trains. This difference was greater in the 1-back than in the 3-back condition, and became larger to later tones in the trains. Although performance was better on the easy task than the difficult one, the characteristics of the tone trains did not affect performance.

This research was supported in part by NSF MRI award 1429263.

Poster 3-29


Andria Schmid1, Wendy D'Andrea2, Greg Siegle3, & Jonathan DePierro1 1The New School, 2The New School for Social Research, 3University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: affect, trauma, erotica

Negative Affect Interference (NAI) is a form of anhedonia defined as the experience of negative affect in typically positive situations and is evidenced in clinical observations of individuals with early and sustained trauma exposure (Frewen, Dean, & Lanius, 2012). NAI may explain why some individuals, particularly those who have experienced sexual trauma, may experience this typically-positive stimulus as aversive. To better understand the relationship between NAI and erotica in survivors of sexual trauma, the present study seeks to examine heart rate (HR) responses to images varying in valence and arousal including erotic stimuli. NAI was assessed via blocked IAPS image presentation, using the framework of the defense cascade to understand potential perception of the images as positive vs. threatening. An interaction following child sexual abuse x heart rate acceleration was found, confined to the first three seconds of heart rate reactivity, suggesting parasympathetic withdrawal while viewing erotic images. Pairwise comparisons revealed that, for participants who endorsed childhood sexual assault showed greater HR immediately following presentation of erotic stimuli (M = 5.28, SD = .92) compared to neutral stimuli (M = 2.20, SD = .79), Mdiff = 3.08, p < .05, d = 0.52.


Sarah E. McKinzie1, & Lauren Ethridge2 University of Oklahoma, 2University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Descriptors: cognition, social engagement, electroencephalography Electroencephalography (EEG) studies indicate a reduced or absent self-preference effect for faces in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study extends these findings to adults below the diagnostic cut-off for ASD who differ in social engagement. Participants (n=200) were classified as either high or low in social engagement, but within the sub-clinical range, using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, then during dense array EEG a subset of participants were presented with images of faces in three categories: pictures of themselves (24 trials), a close "other" (24 trials), and a stranger (72 trials). For those low in social engagement, the N170 event-related potential showed a longer latency to their own face than to strangers and close others, whereas N170 latency did not differ between conditions for those high in social engagement. There was also a trend toward reduced lateralization of neural response to faces in low social engagement participants, consistent with stronger findings in ASD. Delayed processing of the self in those closer in social engagement to the clinical end of the autism spectrum suggests that neural processing of self-relevant concepts may vary incrementally across the entire spectrum according to social processing network function and may not be restricted to those with a clinical diagnosis of ASD.

Poster 3-32


Lauren E. Ethridge1, Stormi P. White2, Matthew W. Mosconi3, Jun Wang4, Craig A. Erickson5, Matthew J. Byerly6, & John A. Sweeney5 1University of Oklahoma, 2University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 3University of Kansas, 4Zhejiang University of Technology, 5University of Cincinnati, 6Montana State University

Descriptors: fragile x syndrome, EEG, gamma

Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli is a common feature of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) that can be clinically distressing and difficult to treat. Preclinical evidence and available clinical electrophysiology research suggests that cortical hyper-excitability, particularly in the gamma frequency range, may contribute to sensory processing abnormalities in FXS. The current study investigated basic functional properties of auditory cortex with a focus on gamma frequency band activity using a sensory entrainment task. Seventeen adolescents and adults with FXS and

17 age and sex-matched healthy controls participated in an auditory chirp task using a 1000 Hz tone amplitude modulated by a sinusoid linearly increasing in frequency from 0-100 Hz over 2 seconds during dense array EEG. Single trial time-frequency analyses revealed decreased gamma phase locking to the chirp in FXS, which was strongly coupled with broadband increases in gamma power. Changes in gamma phase locking and power were also associated with theta-gamma amplitude-amplitude and phase-amplitude coupling during the pre-stimulus period and with parent reports of heightened sensory sensitivities and social communication deficits. These findings represent the first demonstration of neural entrainment abnormalities in FXS, and thus provide novel evidence for the model of neocortical hyper-excitability in FXS. They parallel findings in fmr1 knockout mouse models of FXS and thus may characterize a core pathophysio-logical aspect of FXS and provide a translational biomarker strategy for evaluating promising therapeutics.

NIMH/NICHD grant U54 HD082008-01 (Huber/Sweeney).

Poster 3-33


Eric Rawls, Greg Denke, Mejdy M. Jabr, Carl A. Armes, Diana A. Hobbs, & Connie Lamm University of New Orleans

Descriptors: attentional blink, emotional eating, anxiety Emotional eating is for some people an attempt to deal with the stress associated with negative emotions; however, rather than reducing stress, this behavior often leads to additional distress. In particular, anxiety has been shown to predispose individuals to emotional eating. However, not all individuals who are high in anxiety exhibit emotional eating behavior. Anxiety and emotional eating behavior have both been linked with attentional biases, yet the specific attentional sub-processes that underlie these biases have not been explored. Therefore, the present study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to decompose the chronology of attentional processing underlying the link between anxiety and emotional eating behavior. More specifically, the current study investigates which ERPs moderate the anxiety - emotional eating association. In order to examine this neural chronology, we examined three successive ERP components (the P2, the N2 and the P3) in the context of an attentional blink paradigm. Results indicated that the N2, as well as the P3, exhibited moderating effects on the relationship between anxiety and emotional eating behavior. The effect for the N2 was present only in neutral contexts, while the effect for P3 was present only in negative emotional contexts. The direction of this moderating effect for N2 & P3 activation was consistent with previous studies linking neural processing efficiency with reduced activation during cognitive tasks. Our results suggest that efficient attentional processing moderates the association between anxiety and emotional eating.


Amanda Tarullo1, Ashley St. John1, Stacey Doan2, & Srishti Nayak1 1Boston University, 2Claremont McKenna College

Descriptors: executive function, ERP, children

The preschool years are critical to executive function (EF) development, but little is known about neural processing of EF at this age. The parietal P3b indexes stimulus discrimination in adults and older children. This study investigated whether preschool children would show the P3b during a Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) and whether the P3b would be linked to performance. Methods: EEG was recorded from 105 children (M=4.18 yrs) during a computerized DCCS. Children were instructed to sort by one dimension, e.g. shape, for 15 pre-switch trials, and then by a different dimension, e.g. color, for 30 post-switch trials. The P3b was defined as the third positive peak in midline parietal sites, with peak amplitude 450-700 ms after stimulus onset. To be included in analyses, children had to score above 70% accuracy on the pre-switch and have at least 10 artifact-free post-switch trials (M = 18.74 trials). The relation of P3b amplitude to performance was tested with repeated measures ANOVA. Results and Discussion: Shorter post-switch reaction time on correct trials related to a smaller P3b amplitude, F(1,47) = 4.34, p = .043. The association of P3b amplitude and reaction time was more pronounced in the posterior parietal compared to anterior parietal region, F(1,41) = 4.14, p = .048. The P3b was not related to accuracy. Results show the P3b is present in preschool children on a set shifting task, though with a longer latency and slightly different topographic distribution than in adults. Smaller P3b amplitude may indicate greater neural efficiency in stimulus discrimination.

Poster 3-35


Megan M. Filkowski, Ian W. Anderson, & Brian W. Haas University of Georgia

Descriptors: sex differences, fMRI, social attitudes

Sex differences in neural activation have been reported in studies of emotion processing and emotion regulation as well as in the processing of social appraisals and consumer trust. This study was designed to examine sex differences during the conscious control of interpersonal attitudes of trust and distrust toward another person. 114(45.2% male) healthy adults participated in behavioral testing and neuroi-maging. Each participant underwent fMRI while instructed to control how much they either trusted or distrusted each face or to evaluate the age of the face. When controlling social attitudes of trust and distrust, men exhibited increased activation in several regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus/angular gyrus relative to women. Women exhibited no increased activation relative to men when controlling social attitudes. Distinct and overlapping regions were found within each condition. When attempting to control trusting attitudes, men exhibited increased medial prefrontal cortex and left middle occipital gyrus/angular gyrus response relative to women. When attempting to control attitudes of distrust, men exhibited increased activation in bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus in men relative to women. Together, these findings suggest that men engage an additional network of brain regions involved in the top down control of attitudes during the conscious control of interpersonal distrust and trust compared to women.

University of Georgia, Office of the Vice President of Research.


Megan Strowger1, C. Alix Timko2, & Stephen Moelter1 1University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, 2University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Descriptors: interoception, emotion recognition, attention Perception of physiological arousal is associated with labeling of emotion. It is less clear how understanding of own body state (i.e., interoception) influences emotion recognition. We hypothesized that facial emotion recognition, as measured by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME), would be better when participants listened to their own heartbeat compared to other sounds. Participants (n = 36) were randomized to listen to three body sounds (own live heartbeat via Fetal Doppler, other person's prerecorded heartbeat at 65 bpm, or footsteps) in one of six orders. A baseline no sound condition was always administered first. Ratings of self-reported attention to stimulus type (RME or body sound) were gathered via visual analog scales administered after each body sound condition. Contrary to predictions, RME performance did not vary according to body sound condition, F (3, 105) = .53, p = .67, g2 = .02. There was, however, a significant interaction between attention ratings to stimulus and body sound such that self-reported attention to the RME test was higher when participants listened to their own heartbeat than to other body sounds, F (2, 70) = 3.84, p < .05, g2 = .1. Our results suggest that more attention was directed toward facial emotions when subjects listened to their own heartbeat but this increase did not result in changes in RME performance. Future research using other measures of interoception and attention are necessary to confirm the result.

Poster 3-37


Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri Hutcherson, & Michael Inzlicht University of Toronto

Descriptors: conflict, decision-making, neuroeconomics

People often experience decision conflicts when choosing between competing options or responses. Existing studies of conflict have focused on cognitive control tasks (e.g., Stroop task) where there exist objectively correct and incorrect responses; but relatively little is known about how the brain tracks conflict during value-guided decisions involving subjective preferences and tradeoffs between choice options. It is also unclear whether such conflict signals reflect different intensities of conflict. To investigate the nature of this conflict signal, participants performed an intertemporal choice task. We parametrically varied the amount of conflict in different choice pairs by asking participants to choose between immediate ($15 today) and participant-specific delayed rewards (e.g., $19 in 10 days), which were generated based on each participant's idiosyncratic hyperbolic discount function estimated from a prior behavioral session. We observe a large conflict-related neural potential at the point of maximal conflict where the immediate and delayed rewards are equally desirable. Crucially, the magnitude of this signal discerns not only high- versus low-conflict choices but also different gradations of decision conflict: As one reward becomes increasingly more desirable than the other, this signal decreases in magnitude. Our results provide evidence for neural systems that represent and compare the subjective value of choice options, showing that a neurometric approach can be used to study and quantify the neural processes underlying value-guided decisions.


Blair Saunders, & Michael Inzlicht University of Toronto

Descriptors: performance monitoring, social neuroscience, emotion Recent research suggests that performance monitoring, particularly the error-related negativity (ERN), partially represents the aversiveness of mistakes. However, it is currently not clear if this affective evaluation always reflects a catastrophic response to failure, or might also be associated with more accepting and open responses to threat. Here we tested this possibility by assessing the effects of interpersonal touch between romantic partners on the performance monitoring and the subjective experience of control. Forty-five romantic couples (N = 90; > 6 months dating) were recruited to take part in the study. Error-related ERPs, subjective experience ratings, and inhibitory control were measured from one member of the couple while their partner intermittently held their hand during performance. Participants reported being less self-critical and self-judgmental during hand-holding, suggesting that interpersonal touch led to an increase in acceptance and self-compassion. Hand-holding also led to increased neural reactivity to errors (ERN amplitude) when holding hands with their partner. Together, these results suggest that early reactivity to errors are not always driven by catastrophic responses to mistakes per se, but are also potentiated by factors that increase openness to threat, including interpersonal touch.

Poster 3-39


Matthew Moore1, Yuta Katsumi1, Florin Dolcos1,2, & Sanda Dolcos1 1University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology

Descriptors: social cognition, financial decision making, ERPs Social decision-making is a complex process that unfolds over time, but impressions can be formed within hundreds of milliseconds. Hence, a method with high temporal resolution (electroencephalography, EEG/event-related potentials, ERPs) is necessary to clarify the neuro-behavioral mechanisms underlying social interactions and their effect on subsequent decision-making. In the present study, the influence of observed social interactions was examined with respect to decisions to accept or reject monetary offers in an ultimatum game. Subjects responded to offers following proposer behaviors of approach or avoidance, or following a non-social interaction control condition. Behavioral results from 23 subjects showed positive effects of social interaction, particularly of approach, compared to control, suggesting a facilitating effect of social interaction in increasing cooperative decisions. ERPs recorded from a subsample of five subjects showed greater N2 response at the start of social interaction conditions compared to control and greater medial frontal negativity responses to unfair offers following approach compared to avoidance. These findings show that the influence of proposer behavior on decisions is reflected at both behavioral and electro-physiological levels, with the latter suggesting possibly increased uncertainty in earlier stages of social interaction. These results expand on previous findings from studies of the traditional ultimatum game, and point to detectable temporal indices of response to social interactions that may predict subsequent financial decisions.


Yuta Katsumi1, Matthew Moore1, Florin Dolcos1,2, & Sanda Dolcos1 1University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology

Descriptors: nonverbal behavior, functional MRI, ERPs Despite evidence for the role of prefrontal and lateral temporo-parietal cortices in observing dynamic social interaction, less is known about their temporal dynamics. Specifically, it is not clear how social cues that unfold over time are processed during continuous social interaction, and how these mechanisms may be implicitly impacted by subtle contextual factors, such as the ethnicity of interacting partners. In this study, 26 subjects observed and evaluated a series of social interactions with ethnically ingroup and outgroup members displaying approach or avoidance behaviors, with concomitant recording of fMRI (N=20) or EEG (N = 6) data. First, behavioral results identified higher ratings of social interaction linked to observing approach than avoidance behavior, regardless of the hosts' ethnicity. Second, fMRI results revealed overall similar engagement of the lateral tempo-parietal cortices in observing social interaction, while the medial prefrontal cortex showed sensitivity to ingroup vs. outgroup interactions. Finally, ERP results identified a late positivity over centro-parietal sites starting at around 300 milliseconds following the hosts' display of dynamic nonverbal affective behaviors relative to static control, and this effect was more pronounced for ingroup hosts. These findings provide novel psychophysiological evidence that processing of dynamic social cues and contextual information in impression formation occurs implicitly as fast as a quarter of a second following social encounters, and engages distributed neural networks involved in social cognition.

Poster 3-41


Adrienne Manbeck1, Samuel E. Cooper1, Brian Van Meurs1, Scott R.

Sponheim2, & Shmuel Lissek1 1University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Campus, 2Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: fear conditioning, fear generalization, PTSD Overgeneralization of conditioned fear to stimuli resembling learned danger-cues is centrally implicated in PTSD, though little research on the topic exists. Here, we compare patterns of generalized conditioned fear in OEF/OIF veterans with (n = 15) and without PTSD (n= 19). To this end, we apply a validated generalization paradigm including rings of gradually increasing size, with extreme sizes serving as conditioned danger-cues (CS1) and conditioned safety-cues (CS-). The rings of intermediary size create a continuum-of-similarity between CS1 and CS- across which to assess response slopes, referred to as generalization gradients, with less steep downward gradients indicative of stronger generalization. Primary outcome variables included slopes for online risk-ratings and fear-potentiated startle (EMG). Veterans with versus without PTSD displayed markedly less steep risk rating gradients, indicative of overgeneralization, only after covarying dysphoria as defined by the Simms four-factor model of PTSD (Simms et al., 2002). Group differences in generalization, as measured by startle-EMG, did not reach significance regardless of whether levels of dysphoria were covaried. Current results provide some support for overgeneralization of conditioned fear in PTSD, and highlight the importance of accounting for dysphoria when examining fear-conditioning abnormalities in PTSD. Specifically, aspects of dysphoria associated with depression, a low arousal state, might dampen the heightened anxious arousal thought to precipitate overgeneralization in trauma-related psychopathology.

This work was supported by a National Institute of Mental Health K99/R00 grant awarded to SL (#5R00MH080130-04).


Katie Lehockey1, Kelly Bickel2, Alexandra Stephenson3, Eric Watson4, Jonathan Highsmith5, & D. Erik Everhart3

1MedStar National Rehabilitation Hospital, 2Case Western Reserve University, 3East Carolina University, 4Mount Sinai Health System; East Carolina University, 5Southwest Texas Veterans Healthcare System

Descriptors: P300, coping, emotion

Novelty is often a prominent facet of psychosocial stress. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this important factor when investigating an individual's capacity for adaptive adjustment. In order to explore associations between coping responses and responsivity to novel positive and negative stimuli, correlation analyses were conducted between scores on a self-report inventory of coping responses (Brief COPE) and P300 responses to positive and negative target stimuli during an oddball paradigm task completed by 77 young adults. A significant, negative correlation was observed between disengagement coping responses (M=3.20, SD=3.559) and P300 amplitudes elicited by positive target stimuli presentations at two electrode sites: Pz (M=8.031 microvolts, SD=7.213), r(70) =-0.285, p=0.015, 95% CI [-0.49, -0.050], and P4 (M=8.874 microvolts, SD=7.041), r(70) =-0.249, p=0.035, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.012]. As higher P300 amplitudes are thought to indicate a response to novel stimuli, these findings suggest that people who reported having a lower tendency to use disengagement as a coping strategy may be more sensitive to perceiving positively valenced stimuli infrequently presented among negative visual stimuli. Findings have potential implications for tailoring interventions in psychotherapy and while delivering important health information to patients.

Poster 3-43


Derek J. Fisher1, Katelyn McKearney2, Laura Smith2, Emma Carter2, Kathryn McNeil2, Anne Sophie Champod3, & Will Shead2 1Mount Saint Vincent University; Dalhousie University, 2Mount Saint Vincent University, 3Acadia University

Descriptors: gambling, ERP

Previously, problem gamblers were found to have a larger late positive potential (LPP) elicited by gambling-related cues, thought to be reflective of brain-based pathology. It is unclear if these findings are in fact reflective of increased exposure to gambling cues and not illness. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of gambling experience on the LPP and the cue-elicited P300b in healthy gamblers. Methods: 28 healthy controls were divided in to high gambler (HG; n = 14) and low gambler (LG; n = 14) groups. EEG activity was recorded during the presentation of positive, negative and neutral emotive images, as well as gambling-related images. P300b and LPP were assessed in response to each stimulus type. Results: P300b amplitudes elicited by gambling stimuli were significantly larger than those elicited by neutral stimuli (with no difference between gambling, positive or negative stimuli) in HGs. P300 amplitudes elicited by gambling stimuli were not significantly different than neutral stimuli in LGs, and both were smaller relative to positive and negative stimuli. In both HGs and LGs, gambling and neutral LPPs were not significantly different and both were reduced compared to positive and negative LPPs. Discussion: Our findings support previous reports that altered LPPs elicited by gambling-related cues in problem gamblers are reflective of underlying pathology, rather than simple exposure. P300b components elicited by gambling-related cues do, however, appear to be larger in those who gamble more and may reflect experience rather than illness.

This study was funded by a Standard Internal Grant awarded by Mount Saint Vincent University to DF.


Sarah Kahle1, Kenneth Rubin2, Amy E. Root3, & Paul D. Hastings1 1University of California, Davis, 2University of Maryland, 3West Virginia University

Descriptors: RSA, temperament, fear response

This study examined whether parasympathetic responding to fear predicted changes in preschoolers' temperamental inhibition over time. Children (n = 88) visited the lab at 2 and 4 years. At both times, change in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured from a baseline condition to a fear induction. At each age, an aggregate of inhibited behavior was created from multiple measures, including observed and mother-reported ratings. A cross-lagged path analysis showed that, over and above stability in RSA reactivity and inhibited behavior, stronger RSA suppression to fear at 2 years predicted greater inhibition at 4 years (Beta = - .21, p = .05). However, this association was moderated by earlier inhibition (Beta = .24, p = .03). Children who showed strong RSA suppression at 2 years had moderately high levels of inhibition at 4 years regardless of their earlier inhibition. Conversely, RSA augmentation emerged as both a risk and a protective factor, depending on earlier inhibition. Children who increased RSA to fear and were highly inhibited at 2 years had the greatest inhibition at 4 years. Alternatively, children who increased RSA to fear but were less inhibited at 2 years showed the least inhibition two years later. Thus, the adaptiveness of a given physiological reaction to fear may depend on an individual's disposition towards fearfulness.

Poster 3-45


Reema Najjar, & Rebecca J. Brooker Montana State University

Descriptors: delta-beta coupling

Parenting behaviors serve as early influences on children's developing regulatory capacities (Kopp, 1982). Sensitive parenting, or parents' ability to correctly interpret and respond to children's signals is believed to support the development of regulation. In contrast, harsh parenting, or uninvolved, or punitive parent behaviors, is thought to diminish regulatory development (Ainsworth et al., 1974). Delta-beta coupling is believed to index functional crosstalk between cortical and subcortical systems of the brain (Knyazev, 2007). Though coupling has been studied as an index of neural systems of regulation in children, it is unclear whether parenting impacts coupling in ways that are consistent with developmental theory. Thus, we tested associations between parenting behaviors and deltabeta coupling as regulatory systems are developing.

Using a measure of resting EEG, we found that preschoolers (N= 91, Mage= 3.59, SD= .15) with fathers high in harsh parenting showed greater coupling in the frontal sites (z=-2.66, p< .01) while fathers' low harsh parenting was linked to greater coupling in parietal sites (z=2.38, p< .01). There were no significant findings in mothers (zs< 1.33). Greater coupling was also seen at frontal sites for preschoolers who were high in overanxiousness (z=-1.86, p< .05) or social fear (z = -2.74, p< .01), suggesting that enhanced early coupling in frontal regions may expedite the development of frontal regulatory networks in order to cope with negative parenting and may serve as proxy of regulation-based risk for anxiety problems in young children.

NIMH: K01 MH100240 (PI: Brooker) NIGM: P20 GM104417 (PI: Harmsen).


Frances H. Martin, & Kylie Campling University of Newcastle

Descriptors: behavioural addiction, attention bias

The aim of this study was to investigate smartphone addiction by utilising methodologies used in addiction research to assess cue salience and attention bias to visual smartphone-related stimuli in females with high addiction scores. It has been well established that cue reactivity to substance-related stimuli is an indication of addiction, however, to date there have been no studies exploring cue reactivity in relation to smartphone addiction. Twenty-two female participants (11 with high addiction scores on the Smartphone Addiction Scale) completed a Dot-Probe Task while behavioural measures and EEG activity were recorded. Event-related-potential markers for attention reorienting (N2pc) were analysed to investigate attentional biases towards, smartphones, social network site images and game images. While no significant group or picture effects were found in behavioural measures, larger N2pc amplitudes for females with high addiction scores were observed at occipital sites in response to social network site pictures, suggesting greater resource deployment was necessary to disengage from social network site pictures. These results suggest that social network site stimuli are motivation-ally salient for females which could result in addiction to smartphone devices.

Poster 3-47


Douglas J. Angus1, Christina Steindl2, Eva Jonas2, Cindy Harmon-Jones1, & Eddie Harmon-Jones1 1University of New South Wales, 2University of Salzburg

Descriptors: reward positivity, stimulus preceding negativity, ERP In the current study we test the prediction that having a sense of control over outcomes increases the Stimulus Preceding Negativity (SPN) and Reward Positivity (RewP) compared to having no sense of control. Previous research has shown that the SPN and the RewP are modulated by motivational intensity. In this context, motivational intensity can be thought of as the amount of effort individuals are willing to expend on a given behavior. If a task is believed to be, impossible -in that an individual does not have control over the outcomes associated with their actions - then motivational intensity is reduced. Although past research using observational learning and roulette type tasks have found that reduced control is associated with smaller SPN and RewP amplitudes, these results may be confounded by task specific differences. Twenty-five female participants completed a gambling task in which a correct choice was followed by pictures of attractive men and an incorrect choice was followed by pictures of rocks. Rather than using fundamentally different tasks to manipulate perceived control, participants were told that in one block of trials, they could learn a mouse-click rule in order to see only pictures of men (high-control condition) while in the other block, the pictures would appear randomly (low-control condition). However, in both conditions, feedback appeared randomly. Although the SPN and RewP were elicited in both blocks, their amplitudes were larger in the high-control condition.

DJA was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award. Portions of this work were funded by a grant from the Australian Research Council (DP150104514).


Eric S. Drollette1, Lauren B. Raine1, Mark R. Scudder2, Shih-Chun Kao2, Daniel R. Westfall2, Matthew B. Pontifex3, Naiman A. Khan1, Neal J.

Cohen1, Arthur F. Kramer4, & Charles H. Hillman4 1University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2Michigan State University, 3Northeastern University

Descriptors: individual differences, cognition, physical activity The present investigation examined the interaction of socioeconomic status (SES) and sex to cognitive control outcomes associated with a 9-month physical activity intervention (FITKids clinical trial) in children. This was accomplished by randomizing three hundred eighty-four children into an afterschool physical activity intervention or a wait-list control group. All participants at pre- and post-test completed a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment as well as a modified flanker task while event-related potentials (ERP) were collected. Pre-test cardiorespira-tory fitness and IQ were utilized as matching variables with one hundred seventy-two participants (n = 86 treatment; n= 86 wait-list) successfully matched across treatment, SES, and sex. Results demonstrated that a 9-month physical activity intervention significantly improved flanker accuracy and post-error accuracy for all children in the intervention, regardless of SES or sex. Additionally, ERP findings revealed sexual dimorphic facilitation in performance monitoring such that only females in the treatment group demonstrated decreased N2 amplitude while only females in the wait-list group demonstrated increase ERN amplitude from pre- to post-test. Together, these results have considerable implications for promoting organized physical activity interventions for improving cognitive health, regardless of SES or sex, with further implications for sexual selective benefits to performance monitoring brain patterns in preadolescent females. Support provided by NIH HD069381 and HD055352.

Poster 3-49


Georgia Panayiotou, Maria Karekla, Dora Georgiou, & Michaella Siamata University of Cyprus

Descriptors: social anxiety, phobias, emotion

The study extends findings regarding psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to feared situations in social anxiety and public speaking anxiety. It was predicted that high social anxiety symptoms would relate to reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related. This would be attributed to comorbid depression. Public speaking fear was expected to be predicted by circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined a series of standardized anxiety situations, including socially anxious scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological (HR, Facial EMG) and subjective reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher in social imagery. Public speaking fear was related to increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity in social anxiety could be attributed to depression, while the specificity in public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Social anxiety seems to fall in-between a "distress-fear" continuum, whereas fear of public speaking is similar to specific phobias.

Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also comborbid negative affect and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations.

Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and EU structural funds through grants YrEIA/0506/18 and EPYDI/0205/05.


Rafael Delgado, Laura Miccoli, Pedro Guerra, Carmen Gervilla, Alicia Sánchez-Adam, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz, Jaime Vila, & M. Carmen Fernandez-Santaella University of Granada

Descriptors: emotion, food

In the absence of food deprivation the motivational relevance of food is only moderate and the physiological correlates of food cue processing are typically limited. To increase the motivational relevance of food cues, healthy women were displayed pictures of their personally favorite foods. Non-personal foods were also included. Affective images (erotica, neutral objects, and attacks) served as controls, so that the reactivity to food cues was compared to the reactivity to non-food affectively relevant stimuli. Stimuli were displayed repeatedly within a pseudo-randomized passive picture-viewing paradigm. Emotional images caused the expected patterns in skin conductance, zygomatic and corrugator muscles, and the startle blink reflex. In line with emotion research, foods prompted, compared to affective stimuli, a large inhibition of the corrugator muscles and a large potentiation of the zygomatic muscles, indicating appetitive motivation. On the contrary, electrodermal reactivity and the startle blink reflex indicated that foods were processed as motivationally neutral. However, the startle blink reflex was more inhibited for personal stimuli. In general, electrodermal and facial EMG data indicate that in the absence of food deprivation healthy women process personal and non-personal foods as motivationally unimportant. However, the startle reflex modulation showed sensitivity to the personal relevance of the stimuli and might prove especially informative when obese and eating-disordered women will look at images of the food they like/fear the most.

Regional Ministry of Economy, Innovation, and Science of the Junta de Andalucía, Spain (grant code: P12.SEJ.391).

Poster 3-51


Rachel Bailey, Jiawei Liu, Tianjiao Wang, & C. Kit Kaiser Washington State University

Descriptors: motivation, optimal foraging, energy density Organisms must consume food in order to maintain proper metabolic balances. For this reason, food cues are considered primary biologically motivating stimuli. Optimal foraging theory predicts that due to natural selection pressures, organisms are biologically predisposed to prefer foods that are more energy dense. This study examines how this predisposition operates in a modern foraging context: viewing food advertisements. Previous research supports that more energy dense food is more motivating in this context, especially when individuals' energy needs are not already met. This study examines how stimuli that elicit resource expenditures (opportunity for sexual encounter and darkness) moderate this effect. Forty-two students watched ads for more or less energy dense food (e.g. fruit bowls vs. snack cakes). Half of these ads contained sexual appeals, half did not. Approximately half of the participants were randomly assigned to view ads with the room lights off. During exposure to the ads, participant's skin conductivity levels were collected. Results suggest that in darkness, which increases initial conditions of aversive activation and creates more difficulty in foraging, ads for more energy dense foods are more motivating when they do not also contain a concurrent potential expenditure of energy (e.g. sexual encounter), F(33,1287) = 2.73, p < .05. In a lighted context, this pattern changes across time. Dual appetitive motivators (high energy density and sex) are most appetitive initially but single appetitive motivators show more gradual and sustained motivated response.


Eric Watson1, Alexandra Stephenson2, & D. Erik Everhart2 *Mount Sinai Health System; East Carolina University, 2East Carolina University

Descriptors: P300, sleep, individual differences

Event-related Potential (ERP) studies are limited when studying sleep due to the inability to behaviorally respond to stimuli. Using the oddball paradigm task to measure cortical arousal/excitability, ERP investigations attempt to assess information processing upon sleep onset or upon wakening as a means to examine daytime consequences. The current literature shows inconsistent results, with several studies identifying a significantly higher level of cortical activation (increased P300 amplitudes) for people with disordered sleep. Enlisting the participation of 37 undergraduate students, the present study examined subjective sleep quality in relation to recorded P300 amplitudes and latencies at electrode sites Fz, Cz, and Pz. ERP data were recorded within an oddball paradigm in which participants examined a series of valenced sleep-related images. Analyses were employed to examine group differences for P300 amplitude and latency. There were no significant findings associated with P300 amplitude. Analysis of P300 latency showed self-reported poor sleepers (M = 339.81 SD = 51.86) as having an earlier P300 onset than good sleepers (M = 384.33, SD = 21.70) at the Fz electrode site for positively-valenced sleep images, t(18.41) = 3.50, p = .003, d = .94. As compared to good sleepers (M = 377.67, SD = 21.59), the poor sleepers (M = 339.80, SD = 49.49) also demonstrated this significantly early P300 latency at the Cz electrode site, t(17.35) =3.02, p =.008, d =.84. Results suggest poor sleep may have a paradoxical effect on information processing for visually appealing images.

Poster 3-53


Stephany M. Molina, Meghan E. Pierce, & Stephen D. Benning University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Descriptors: psychopathy, postauricular reflex, startle blink reflex Psychopathy is a personality disorder that can be divided into two factors: fearless dominance (FD) and impulsive antisociality (IA). FD, but not IA, has been linked to reduced fear-potentiated startle and appetitive deficits. The role of anticipatory processing in the context of this model remains unclear. This study investigated anticipatory and consummatory processing in psychopathy in a clinically depressed community sample. Participants viewed emotional pictures, listened to emotional sounds, and saw geometric shapes that served as anticipatory cues associated with each stimulus valence. FD correlated with reduced startle blink modulation during aversive vs. neutral cues and with reduced postauricular reflex modulation during pleasant vs. neutral cues. IA was associated with reduced startle blink modulation during aversive vs. pleasant sounds. Correlations with psychopathy revealed that those high in both FD and IA showed enhanced potentiation during aversive vs. neutral sounds, whereas those high in FD but low in IA showed no such startle blink potentiation. Additionally, those high in FD but low in IA showed enhanced postauricular reflex potentiation during pleasant vs. neutral sounds and reduced inhibition during aversive vs. neutral sounds. Our results suggest anticipatory emotional processing deficits in those high in FD and depression, but not in IA or psychopathy. Conversely, FD was associated with greater appetitive and reduced defensive reactivity during sounds, but only for those low in IA.

The project described was supported in part by grant MH093692 from the National Institute of Mental Health.


Julie Flannery1, Craig Marquardt2, Seung Suk Kang3, & Scott R. Sponheim3 1Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 2University of Minnesota, 3Min-neapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota

Descriptors: PTSD, affect, ERP

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous condition associated with the past occurrence of traumatic events and current alterations in arousal and reactivity. The present study (n = 106) investigated neural responses of a cross-sectional sample of United States military veterans recently deployed to wars in Iraq and Afghanistan to affectively arousing and neutral images. We presented pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) as well as a set of highly arousing and aversive combat-relevant images to examine P3 event-related potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that the PTSD group had marginally reduced P3 amplitudes compared to the non-PTSD group for the combat images (p = .06) but not for other images across midline frontal, central, and parietal electrode sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Results also showed a marginal PTSD symptom severity by electrode site interaction in P3 amplitudes (p = .058), where reduced P3 amplitudes were associated with increased hyperar-ousal symptoms at only electrode site Pz (p = .045). Across all participants irrespective of PTSD diagnosis, strong P3 latency effects were observed at midline electrode sites (p < .001). P3 in response to combat pictures peaked 14 - 37 milliseconds before all other picture conditions, suggesting selective attention towards aversive visual content of personal relevance. Additional analyses will evaluate the relationships of PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (CAM, grant number 00039202); the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (SRS); the Department of Defense (SRS, grant number PT074550); and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Rehabilitation Research and Development Service (Scott Sponheim, Psychologist, Minneapolis VAMC, grant number I01RX000622). The funding sources were not involved in the choice of topics, study design, data analysis or interpretation, or preparation/submission of the manuscript. Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, or the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Poster 3-55


Emilio A. Valadez, Kelly N. Farrell, & Robert F. Simons University of Delaware

Descriptors: reward, event-related potential, principal components analysis Previous principal components analysis (PCA) investigations of the doors mock-gambling task have indicated that what appears to be a negative-going frontocen-tral deflection in the human event-related potential (ERP) approximately 250-350 ms following negative feedback (the feedback-related negativity; FRN), may be better characterized as the absence of a large positive component that follows reward feedback (e.g., Foti et al., 2011). In the present study, 38 young adult participants completed a similar mock-gambling task. At the end of each trial, participants received feedback indicating that they won a lot, won a little, lost a lot, lost a little, or neither won nor lost money during that trial. Although PCA of the feedback ERPs revealed that variance in the FRN was, in fact, largely dominated by a frontocentral positivity following reward feedback that was attenuated following nonreward feedback, an additional PCA factor emerged with a similar topography (Fz maximum) and latency (254 ms post-feedback) that differentiated between rewards and nonrewards (F(1, 37) = 18.83, p < .001), such that the factor was negative for each of the three nonreward feedback types and positive for each of the two reward feedback types. In a second independent study, a similar factor again emerged and was stable across a two-month test-retest interval. Results suggest that the FRN may not be entirely an artifact of a missing reward positivity as recent reports argue, but partially comprised of a negativity that may be unique to nonrewards.


Tara A. Miskovich, Daniel M. Stout, Alexa N. Wild, & Christine L. Larson University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Descriptors: cognitive control, state anxiety

According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (Braver, 2012), cognitive control consists of processes that organize goal-driven behavior through two mechanisms: a proactive mechanism that maintains goal-related information, which is impaired in trait anxiety, and a reactive mechanism that responds transiently on an as needed basis, which is intact in anxiety. We aimed to characterize the impact of anxious states on cognitive control by using a well-validated task conducted both under threat of unpredictable shock and safe conditions, while measuring event-related potentials (ERPs). The AX-CPT provides a measure of proactive control as trials rely on maintenance of goal-relevant information. While monitoring a series of letters, participants respond "yes" when they see an X (probe) only when it follows an A (cue). Proactive control is most required on BX trials, which have a target probe (X), but an invalid cue letter (B) and maintenance overrides the prepotent response to the X. We found that engagement in cognitive control, as indexed by the N2 component, is increased in response to B cues, compared to A cues when individuals are under threat (p = 0.02). This difference is not present when individuals are safe from shock (p = 0.48). These findings provide a neural measure of cognitive control that reflects successful proactive control under states of anxiety; setting the stage for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying impaired maintenance of goal-related information under anxiety — a common symptom in individuals diagnosed with neuropsychi-atric disorders.

Poster 3-57


Victoria A. Kazmerski, Dawn G. Blasko, Alysha Simmons, & Rachel Mooney

Pennsylvania State University, Erie

Descriptors: language, ERPS

Sarcasm is often used to convey a message that is opposite of the usual meaning of the words. There are many factors that can influence how sarcasm is interpreted. In many cases the message is perceived by the listener as hurtful. However, if one listens to late night comedy TV, the message can be quite humorous. Interpretation can vary depending on characteristics of the speaker, such as their profession, status, and gender. In a previous study, we investigated whether participants could judge whether a single word was sarcastic or sincere based on the prosody. We found that words with a sincere prosody were categorized as being sincere more accurately and more quickly than sarcastic were. Furthermore, we found males were less accurate and slower than females. We also noted differences in the ERPs based on participant sex. In that study all the voices were male. In the current study we included both male and female voices in the recorded stimuli. We found that the voice gender influenced the rating of the words, in that there was no voice difference in how words with a sincere prosody were rated, however, for the sarcastic prosody a male voice was rated as more sarcastic than a female voice regardless of the participant's sex. As in our prior work, responses were faster to sincere words. They were also faster to male voices than female voices. Voice gender also influenced the ERPs for the sarcastic words particularly in the later processing stages (1800 ms). These data demonstrate that sarcasm is a complex form of language that must be understood in context.


Nicholas Davenport1, Erin Begnel2, & Lisa Keacher3 1Minneapolis VA Health Care System; University of Minnesota, 2Univer-sity of Minnesota, 3Minneapolis VA Health Care System

Descriptors: functional connectivity, stress, military

Military training involves prolonged physical and psychological stress; individual responses may provide insight into subsequent military experiences (e.g., PTSD, depression). Based on evidence that prolonged stress can disrupt functional connectivity (FC) within and among distributed networks, we tested the hypothesis that longitudinal changes in FC are associated with military training stress. Twelve minutes of eyes-closed resting-state fMRI data (Siemens Prisma 3T) and a personality assessment (MPQ) were collected from 100 National Guard Service Members within 1 month of beginning Basic Training. Ratings of training stress were collected from 51 participants, and post-training MRI and MPQ data from 30 participants. Resting fMRI data from both time points were corrected for motion and distortion, and ICA (GIFT) was used to remove noise and to compare spatial maps (SM) and frequency spectra (FS) for 34 components, as well as the temporal correlation matrix (CM) among components, within subjects across the two time points (n=30). The entire sample (n=100) and survey sample (n=51) were used to test associations of baseline FC with MPQ traits and stress ratings, respectively. While changes in FC (i.e., SM, FS) were observed in several local networks and between networks (i.e., CM), they were not significantly correlated with stress ratings. Relationships of baseline FC with MPQ traits and stress ratings did not survive multiple comparison correction. Data collection is ongoing, and additional measures of stress and cognition will be considered in future analyses.

VA Rehabilitation R&D Career Development Award to Dr. Davenport (RX-000709-01A3).

Poster 3-59


Jessica Busler, Alejandro Lazarte, & Jennifer Robinson Auburn University

Descriptors: positive emotions

Positive emotions have been shown to broaden and build our psychological resources. In addition, positive emotions have the ability to undo physiological effects that negative emotions elicit. Moreover, positive emotions have been proposed to fuel psychological and physiological resilience. Given these qualities, we hypothesized that positive emotions would also have the power to prevent physiological effects elicited by negative emotions. To test this notion, we used video clips to induce participants into feeling either positive, negative, or neutral affect, followed by all participants experiencing the same negative emotion induction video clips. During this process, we continually measured impedance cardiography, heart rate, skin conductance, and respiration in order to see if our positive group exhibited a different pattern of physiological responding compared to our other two groups on these measures. Our results showed that the positive group did not exhibit a significantly different pattern of physiological responding. Though this result did not support our hypothesis, we have provided further value to the power of positive emotions being related to their undoing quality with respect to physiological arousal.

Poster 3-60


Meghan Weissflog, & Sidney Segalowitz Brock University

Descriptors: psychopathic traits, real-world attention, visual ERPS It was reported that psychopathic individuals has shown a reduction of the P1/N1 ERP complex to light flashes (Raine & Venables, 1990). To date these results have not further explored or replicated in the literature despite potential implications for understanding information processing abnormalities associated with psychopathic traits. We used a similar basic perceptual paradigm, the alternating checkerboard task, to elicit early visual responses (VEPs: N75, P1) in undergraduate students varying in psychopathic traits. We hypothesized that VEP magnitude would be negatively related to psychopathic trait severity.

Male undergraduate students (N=33) viewed alternating checkerboards during which they attended to a fixation symbol presented in the lower third of the checkerboard. The black and white checkerboard squares alternated mimicking

the onset of a light flash. Participants also completed self-report measures assessing psychopathic traits (Self-Report Psychopathy Scale) and the Attentional Control Scale (ACS), due to the importance of attention in abnormal information processing in psychopathic individuals.

Specific factor-level correlations were observed for the latency of the N75 and the peak amplitude of the P1: Individuals higher in Factor 2 had later N75 peak latencies and those with higher Factor 1 traits had smaller P1 peak amplitudes. Further analyses showed that the ACS mediated those relations. Our findings address many of the information processing abnormalities seen in psychopathic individuals (e.g., emotion processing, aversive conditioning, etc.).

Poster 3-61


M. Carmen Pastor1, Nieves Fuentes1, Irene Jaen1, Raul Lopez2, Ignacio Lucas3, Eva Cifre1, & Jaime Vila3 1University Jaume I, 2University of Illes Balears, 3University of Granada

Descriptors: emotional regulation, startle reflex, affective ratings Emotional regulation is defined as the ability to influence what emotions we have, when we have them, and how we experience and express them. One of the most investigated strategies of emotional regulation is cognitive reappraisal, basically using brain measures (fMRI or ERP). However, only a few studies have focused on peripheral psychophysiological correlates of these processes. Our study aims to investigate startle reflex modulation using pictures of different content (Erotica, Adventure, Household objects, Attacks, Victims) in a classic emotional regulation task (group 1: Pleasant vs. Neutral; group 2: Unpleasant vs. Neutral). Each trial began with a "cue" (2 s) indicating the strategy (Look, Increase, Decrease) to follow during picture presentation (8 s). Acoustic probes (white noise, 105 dB, 50 ms) were delivered either at 4 or 7 s after picture onset (4/5 of each condition) in order to prompt defensive startle reflexes. After picture offset, affective ratings (hedonic valence & arousal) were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (9-point scale). Preliminary results show that blink responses vary depending on the picture category and task instructions. Similarly, affective evaluations differ depending on the specific content and task instructions. These results suggest that startle reflex is a reliable peripheral index of voluntary regulation of affect, showing how certain strategies such as cognitive reappraisal can modulate physiological responses. Further clinical implications on psychopathologies characterized by emotional dysregulation are also discussed.

Universitat Jaume I (Reference P1-1A2013-06).

Poster 3-62


Andrey A. Kiselnikov1, Arkadiy A. Sergeev1, Dmitry A. Vinitsky1, Alexander V. Vartanov1, Stanislav A. Kozlovskiy1, & Julia A. Marakshina2 1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education

Descriptors: color, emotion, semantics

We studied color and emotions interaction at semantic level in conceptual frame of E.N. Sokolov's 'Vector Psychophysiology'. Every possible combination of 20 Russian words (10 basic color and 10 basic emotions) was presented to 50 subjects 5 times with order to use 1-9 scale to estimate difference. 20*20 full matrix and 10*10 color and emotional submatrices were averaged and multidimensionally scaled. 19-channel EEG was recorded and ERPs to process of categorization of stimulus as belonging to Color or Emotion categories were calculated. 20 group-averaged ERPs were intercorrelated in every of 19 leads in each of 100-ms epochs and corresponding sets 20*20 full 'correlational' EEG-matrices and 10*10 color and emotional EEG-submatrices were analyzed. 1. The semantic emotional subspace is four-dimensional and spherical (corresponds to Sokolov E.N., 2013) and represented by 3 bipolar (Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance) and one unipolar ('Condemnation') axes. 2. The semantic color subspace is also 4D & spherical and represented by 4 bipolar axes: 2 chromatic ('Green-Red', 'Blue-Yellow'), Intensity and 'Contrast Grey' (achromatic vs. chromatic but not in the order of saturation). 3. The full semantic space is 4D & spherical and mainly repeats emotional axes hence color system has been substantially overwhelmed by the emotional one. 4. Subjective- and EEG-matrices are significantly correlated in specific leads and latencies indicating cortical mechanisms of color-emotion interaction. These data produce new multidimensional psy-chophysiological model of color-emotion semantic interaction.

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 1618-00066).


Jessica Kegel1, Jamie Hershaw2, Sardeep Virk2, Ashley Safford1, Evelyn Cordero1, & Mark L. Ettenhofer2 1Henry M. Jackson Foundation/Uniformed Services University of the

Health Sciences, 2Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Descriptors: traumatic brain injury, cognitive resources, pupillary indices Evidence is inconclusive whether individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) have different patterns of cognitive resource allocation from controls. We used a dual task paradigm to examine whether task difficulty moderates the effect of TBI on resource allocation. While performing a cued attention task with three cue-target pair types, participants also made judgements about the targets: in the low load condition, they pressed a button when the target appeared (target detection); in the moderate load condition, they identified the color of the target (target discrimination); in the high load condition, they decided if the color of the target matched the previous target (working memory). A 2 (group) x 3 (trial type) x 3 (condition) ANOVA was used to evaluate influences on manual response time (RT). RTs increased as task difficulty increased for both groups, but no group differences were evident. Similar ANOVAs were used to assess group differences in pupil diameter. Pupil metrics included average diameters over a 200ms baseline and a 1700ms cue-locked epoch. Baseline and cue-locked diameter were greater in the high load condition relative to low and moderate. The TBI group had greater baseline and cue-locked diameter than controls. No significant interactions were found. The condition effect confirms that a working memory task is more resource intensive than target detection and target discrimination. Importantly, these results also suggest that resource allocation is greater in TBI despite similar task performance.

Support for this research was provided by Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) Award #W81XWH-13-1-0095, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC), and the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM). The technology described in this manuscript is included in U.S. Patent Application #61/779,801, with rights assigned to USUHS. The views and opinions presented in this manuscript are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the position of USUHS, the Department of Defense, or the United States government.

Poster 3-64


Ana Calzada-Reyes Legal Medicine Institute

Descriptors: EEG, qEEG, LORETA

To date, there is no other research studying Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) technique using QEEG analysis in adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits.

Objective: To find electrophysiological differences specifically related to the psychopathic traits. The current investigation compares the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) and the current source density measures between adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits and adolescents with CD without psychopathic traits.

Methods: The resting EEG activity and LORETA for the EEG fast spectral bands were evaluated in 42 teenagers with CD, 25 with and 17 without psychopathic traits according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device. All adolescents were assessed using the DSM IV-R criteria. The EEG visual inspection characteristics and the use of frequency domain quantitative analysis techniques (Narrow band spectral parameters) are described.

Results: QEEG analysis showed a pattern of beta activity excess on the bilateral frontal-temporal regions and decreases of alpha band power on the left centro-temporal and right frontal-central-temporal regions in the Psychopath group. Current source density calculated at 17.18 Hz showed an increase within fronto-temporo-striatal regions in the Psychopath relative to the Non-psychopath group.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among teenagers with CD and psychopathic traits, which was not obvious to visual inspection


Sylvia D. Kreibig, Andrea C. Samson, & James J. Gross Stanford University

Descriptors: emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, peripheral physiology The effects of regulating affective responses constitutes a central topic in the field of affective science. Whereas prior research has principally examined the down-regulation of negative and the up-regulation of positive states, little is known about the effects of emotional counter-regulation, i.e., focusing on positive aspects of a negative situation or the negative aspects of a positive situation. To address this issue, we presented 48 healthy young women with 54 film clips that elicited negative and positive states. Participants were instructed to either view the films naturally or to focus on the positive aspects of negative films or the negative aspects of positive films. We measured self-reported feelings after and facial electromyographic, cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory activity during presentation of films. In comparison to viewing negative films, positive reappraisal increased mixed emotional feelings, decreased corrugator supercilii reactivity, and decreased cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity. In comparison to viewing positive films, negative reappraisal increased mixed emotional feelings, increased corrugator supercilii and decreased zygomaticus major reactivity, increased cardiac parasympathetic reactivity, and decreased peripheral vasoconstriction and central inspiratory drive. These data demonstrate that emotional counter-regulation results in a more mixed emotional state, with certain components of the original response preserved, others undone, and still others newly emerged.

This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (PBGEP1-125914, PA00P1_139593, PBFRP1-127896, PA00P1_136380).

Poster 3-66


Jonathan Kuziek, & Kyle E. Mathewson University of Alberta

Descriptors: alpha oscillations, electrophysiology, attention Alpha oscillations, rhythmic neural activity fluctuating 8-12 times per second (Hz), modulates awareness and inhibits detection of visual stimuli. This inhibitory process is dependent on both high amounts of alpha activity and the precise moment a visual stimulus occurs during the alpha cycle. These alpha oscillations can be induced using an entrainment technique whereby visual stimuli are rapidly presented at 8-12 Hz, causing alpha to oscillate in a similar rhythm. Targets then presented in-time with entrainment are better detected than those out-of-time. However it is unclear if attention plays a role in modulating this entrainment process.

The goal of the current research is to understand the role of feature attention in the entrainment of neural activity, specifically, can entrainment be isolated to a single set of distinct attended stimuli when multiple, competing entrainers are presented at the same spatial location but in counter-rhythm to the attended set. Data suggests entrainment can be actively manipulated by attending to certain stimuli while ignoring others; participants tend to be entrained by attended stimuli and not by the competing stimuli or the combined rhythm of all presented stimuli. Brief visual targets presented in-rhythm of the attended set of entrainers are better detected than those presented out-of-rhythm of the attended set. These results suggest that attention can modulate the entrainment process, influencing detection of visual stimuli based on the rhythm of attended, rather than unattended, entrainers. NSERC.


David Parker1, Jennifer McDowell1, Matcheri Keshavan2, Carol Tamminga3, Godfrey Pearlson4, & Brett Clementz1 1University of Georgia, 2Harvard Medical School, 3University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 4Yale University School of Medicine & The Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital

Descriptors: bipolar disorder, auditory steady-state, EEG Psychotic symptomatology occurs in about half of persons with bipolar I disorder (BD). The presence of psychotic symptoms could indicate important and unique neurobiological distinctions between BD disease states. This study measured brain activity using EEG during auditory steady-state (aSSR) to probe beta-, gamma- and high gamma-band (20-hz, 40-hz, 80-hz) oscillatory network capability between BD disorder persons with (BD-P) and without psychosis (BD-NP).

Methods: 136 individuals (Healthy=68, BD-P=41, BD-NP=27) participated. Stimuli were 1500ms binaural broadband noise sequences modulated at 20, 40, or 80-hz. Grand average ERPs for each frequency was used in a spatial PCA on the 64-sensor EEG data to comprehensively and accurately capture the spatial topographies of ERPs. Two components for each frequency were identified; these components were used to reduce the multi-sensor data to one waveform per component for each subject. FFTs with 1 -hz resolution were calculated on each component waveform resulting in time-frequency plots ranging from 5 to 90-hz and -500 pre to 2000ms post-stimulus onset for each frequency and subject. ANOVA's were calculated for each component for each frequency of interest to test for group differences.

Results: Both BD-P and BD-NP showed significantly weaker entrainment at 20-hz than the healthy comparison group (P < .0012).

Conclusions: Deficits at 20-hz suggest dysregulation of long-range neural communication between the primary sensory cortices and higher order cortical regions and is related to the pathology of both BD-P and BD-NP.


Poster 3-68


Natalie Ulrich1, & Johannes Hewig2 University of Wurzburg, 2Julius-Maximilians-University Wurzburg

Descriptors: problem gambling, near miss, frn

Near outcomes in gambling refer to wins and misses where the current trial would have almost resulted in the opposite outcome. Previous research has shown evidence of differences in the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 following near compared to full (i.e. non-near) outcomes, although the results are heterogeneous concerning the direction of the differences. In case of the P300 this might be due to confounding influences of outcome probability in the paradigms used.

The current study used a wheel of fortune paradigm, balancing the probabilities of wins and misses and near and full outcomes, respectively. A group of 20 problem gamblers and 20 matched controls were compared in the processing and evaluation of near outcomes using the amplitudes of FRN and P300 as well as subjective rating data on valence, motivational effects, arousal and the probability of winning in the next trial.

Near and full outcomes did not differ in the elicited FRN, whereas the P300 was smaller for near compared to full outcomes. The subjective rating data did not show differences between near and full outcomes. Problem gambling status did not interact with outcome closeness on any of the dependent measures. However, problem gamblers showed a reduced FRN and increased subjective arousal compared to controls.

The reduced FRN in problem gamblers is in line with previous results and might indicate reward and punishment hyposensitivity in this group. Future studies should test whether the reduced P300 following near outcomes is linked to increased perceptual demands of these outcomes.


John A. Walker, Kathy A. Low, Neal J. Cohen, Monica Fabiani, & Gabriele Gratton

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: development of memory, reactivation, relational memory The point at which infants can start to create and utilize relational memories from single episodes has yet to be established. Some studies have been able to show that associations can be created as early as three months (e.g. Rovee-Collier et al., 1980), but it typically takes multiple trials for infants to learn these associations. Memory for associations formed after a single episode is typically thought to begin after the first year of life. However an eye tracking study suggests that 9-month-old infants may demonstrate this type of memory (Nelson & Richmond, 2009). Here we tested the ability for 9-month-old infants to demonstrate relational memory using the Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS), a technique allowing us to image brain activity with cm precision on a ms timescale. Here we examine whether infants can show the same type of relational brain activation to the presentation of one item in an episodically learned pair as is present in young adults (Walker et al., 2014). We had infants listen to nonsense sounds by themselves or with a short audio-less movie clip and then re-presented those sounds by themselves. We found that those sounds that were previously paired with movies reactivated visual cortices whereas the sounds that were not paired with movies showed no such activity, demonstrating that infants as young as 9-months old can create and use relational memory. Furthermore we found that infants look at the screen more for those sounds that were paired with movies, demonstrating that relational memory can also manifest in behavior at this age.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 683NSF DGE 07-15088FLW The project was supported by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Abbott Nutrition through the Center for Nutrition, Learning, and Memory (CNLM) grant #040644.

Poster 3-70


Alexander Puhalla1, Dan Kulper1, Mitchell Berman2, & Michael McCloskey1 1Temple University, 2Mississippi State University

Descriptors: heart rate variability, aggression, taylor aggression paradigm Previous studies have shown that resting sympathovagal balance (i.e. low frequency/high frequency [LF/HF] heart rate variability [HRV]) is positively associated with aggression. The current study examined the relationship between resting LF/HF and in-vivo aggression.

HRV data were collected in 76 participants during a 10-minute baseline period. Participants completed 36 reaction-time trials (9 4-trial blocks) that allowed them to administer electric shocks to a fictitious opponent who shocked them as well. This was designed to mimic real-life provocation (i.e. going from low provocation, to quickly increasing to high provocation, and then quickly returning to low provocation). Aggression was defined as the average intensity of electric shocks set within each block, with greater shock intensity indicating greater aggression. We examined aggression during peak provocation and over the provocation periods.

Results showed that aggression during peak provocation was positively associated with LF/HF, r= .26, p< .05. A repeated measures ANOVA showed a main effect of shock [F(8,584) = 6.50, p < .001], with all participants increasing in aggression when provocation increased and then decreasing in aggression when provocation decreased. There was no main effect of LF/HF, F(1,73) = .24, p = .62. The LF/HF x shock interaction was significant [F(8,584) = 10.39, p < .001], such that as LF/HF increased so did the relationship of provocation period and aggression. Thus, resting sympathovagal balance is positively associated with in-vivo aggression and aggression reactivity.

This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental health: R01MH086525 (Dr. Michael McCloskey).


Katherine R. Luking1, Brady D. Nelson1, Zachary P. Infantolino2, Colin L.

Sauder3, & Greg Hajcak1 1Stony Brook University, 2University of Delaware, 3University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

Descriptors: reliability, reward, development

Abnormal neural reward-response is increasingly thought to act as a transdiagnostic, trait-like vulnerability factor predicting change in internalizing and externalizing symptoms/behaviors during adolescence. However, this view assumes such responses show good psychometric properties, a rarely tested assumption. Here we examine the spilt-half reliability of neural response to reward assessed via Electroencephalogram and fMRI in a large community sample (n=177) of 8-14 year-old females. Participants completed the 'Doors' reward task, where money was gained and lost, to elicit reward-related Event-Related Potentials (ERP -Reward Positivity) and BOLD response within the ventral striatum (VS) and medial/lateral prefrontal cortex. Response on odd versus even trials to gain, loss, and gain-loss difference scores were compared using Spearman Brown correlation coefficients (SB). Moderation analyses were conducted to investigate whether reliability differed by age. ERP and VS responses to gain and loss feedback showed strong reliability (SBs > 0.70). However, differences in response to gain versus loss, ERP and VS, showed weak reliability (SBs < 0.36). Age did not significantly moderate split-half relationships, indicating similar reliability across childhood/early-adolescence. Results suggest focusing on response to gain or loss, rather than difference scores, when investigating individual difference relationships or identifying biomarkers of psychopathology risk during these ages. NIH MH097767.

Poster 3-72


Kreshnik Burani, Brady D. Nelson, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: unpredictability, sex difference, startle

Heightened sensitivity to threat is an important trait related to anxiety symptoms and disorders. The predictability of threat has been suggested to differentiate fear (elicited by predictable threat) and anxiety (elicited by unpredictable threat). Consistent with gender differences in anxiety symptoms and disorder prevalence, one study found that women, relative to men, were characterized by an increased sustained startle response in anticipation of both predictable and unpredictable shocks relative to no threat (Grillon, 2008). However, the predictable threat condition contained elements of unpredictability and it is unclear whether these results extend to other aversive stimuli. In the current study, we aimed to replicate and extend the Grillon (2008) finding by investigating whether sex differences were also evident in anticipation of unpleasant pictures. All participants completed a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat (NPU-threat) startle task— including counterbalanced versions that used either shocks or unpleasant pictures. Results indicated that women, relative to men, were characterized by increased startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable (but not predictable) threat relative to no threat—and this was evident across both types of aversive stimuli. The present study suggests that women, relative to men, demonstrate an increased sensitivity to unpredictable threat, irrespective of the type of aversive stimulus. These results provide insights regarding potential mechanisms that may contribute to sex differences in anxiety symptoms and disorders.


Peter J. Ehmann, Christopher J. Brush, Ryan L. Olson, & Brandon L.

Alderman Rutgers University

Descriptors: depression, autonomic function, cardiac autonomic balance Studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired cardiac vagal control and heart rate variability (HRV). Recently, cardiac autonomic balance (CAB) has been proposed to index the ratio of parasympa-thetic to sympathetic activation (Berntson et al., 2008), and may reflect adaptive flexibility. Few studies have examined CAB in relation to depression, and whether the relation is influenced by known health variables. Thus, the purpose was to determine if CAB and cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR) predict current MDD status and covariation with aerobic fitness and body mass index (BMI). We examined CAB and CAR during a 5-min vanilla baseline task in 182 participants (83 with MDD, 99 nondepressed controls; Mage = 21 yrs). Autonomic function was assessed through HRV and impedance cardiography measures of CAB (zRSA-(-zPEP)) and CAR (zRSAl(-zPEP)). Variables were derived from respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an index of parasympathetic activity, and pre-ejection period, an index of sympathetic activity. Findings indicated impaired HR, F(1,180) = 13.5, p < .001, RSA, F(1,180) = 6.3, p < .05, and CAB, F(1,180) = 7.2, p < .01, in MDD relative to nondepressed controls, while PEP and CAR were nonsignificant. Regression analyses demonstrated that CAB significantly predicted current MDD status, even after controlling for known individual physical health characteristics of BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that CAB may be a successful indicator of current MDD, but may not be influenced by traditional exercise and dietary interventions.

Supported by The Charles and Johanna Busch Memorial Fund at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

Poster 3-74


Scott Burwell, Stephen Malone, Kathleen Thomas, Ruskin Hunt, & William Iacono University of Minnesota

Descriptors: substance use, functional connectivity, resting-state Current research suggests that resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and brain regions important for goal-directed behavior is reduced in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders relative to controls. Yet, it remains unclear whether substance exposure itself causes diminished rsFC, or whether preexisting genetic and shared environmental vulnerabilities are responsible for this difference. A co-twin control (CTC) analysis may be used to distinguish shared familial effects from exposure effects by re-expressing an individual's substance use as between-pair (average exposure among twins from the same family) and within-pair (differing exposure among twins from the same family) use, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data and self-reports of prior substance use were acquired from a sample of 50 pairs of female twins (approximate age = 25 years). Consistent with published research, we found that rsFC strength between dACC and regions spanning thalamus and striatum was inversely related to quantitative measures of illicit substance use (marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine). Further examination using the CTC elucidated this association attributable to between-pair effects rather than within-pair effects. These results are consistent with a familial vulnerability to substance use behavior, and support the notion that reduced rsFC between dACC and these subcortical regions may serve as a potential endopheno-type for substance use disorders. DA036216; DA05147.


Paige Ethridge1, Autumn J. Kujawa2, Kodi B. Arfer3, Ellen M. Kessel3, Daniel N. Klein3, & Anna Weinberg1 1McGill University, 2University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Stony Brook University

Descriptors: monetary reward, social reward, reward positivity (RewP) Abnormal reward processing has been implicated in multiple forms of psychopa-thology. The reward positivity (RewP), an ERP occurring approximately 300ms following feedback, is sensitive to the receipt of rewards vs. non-rewards. However, it is not clear whether the RewP is equally sensitive to all reward types, or to what extent the incentive value of these two types of reward might differ over the course of development. The primary aim of this study was to compare the underlying components of the RewP in response to monetary and social reward in early adolescence (n = 34, age 12) and emerging adulthood (n = 48, mean age = 20.3). In the Doors task, participants guessed which one of two doors contained a monetary prize, and received feedback indicating whether they won or lost money following each trial. In the Island Getaway task, participants voted to 'keep' or 'kick out' computerized co-players, and received feedback indicating whether co-players accepted or rejected them following each trial. Using principal component analysis and source localization, we decomposed the RewP in each task and identified likely neural generators. In both groups, social and monetary reward elicited a RewP maximal at approximately 300ms that localized to medial prefrontal cortex and striatum. However, social reward elicited additional early and late positiv-ities, and exhibited a more complex factor structure. These results indicate that reward is not a uniform construct, suggesting that identifying weighting of different reward types may be important in understanding psychological dysfunction.

Poster 3-76


Noelia Do Carmo Blanco1, Jeremie Jozefowiez1, & John J.B. Allen2 1University of Lille, 2University of Arizona

Descriptors: attention, associative learning, N2pc

Expectations of an event can facilitate its neural processing. One of the ways we build these expectations is through associative learning. Besides, this learning of contingencies between events can occur implicitly, without intention and awareness. Here we asked how a learned association between a cue and an outcome impacts the attention allocated to this outcome, and particularly when this association is irrelevant to the task at hand and thus implicit. We used an associative learning paradigm where we manipulated predictability and relevance of the association upon streams of cue-outcome visual stimuli, while stimulus characteristics and probability were held constant. In order to measure the event related component N2pc, widely recognized to reflect allocation of spatial attention, every outcome was embedded among distractors. Importantly, the location of the outcome could not be anticipated. We found that predictable outcomes showed an increased spatial attention as indexed by a greater N2pc component, and surprisingly, even when the learned association was irrelevant to the main task. A later component, the P300, was sensitive to the relevance of the outcome (i.e. intention to learn). The current study confirms the remarkable ability of the brain to extract and update predictive information, including implicitly, in accordance with a predictive coding model of brain functioning. Associative learning can guide a visual search and shape covert attentional selection in our rich environments.

Conseil Regional Nord - Pas de Calais DAI-ED SHS.


Laura Miccoli, Rafael Delgado, Pedro Guerra, Sonia Rodriguez-Ruiz, Jaime Vila, & M. Carmen Fernandez-Santaella University of Granada

Descriptors: emotion, food, obesity

There are scarce data on the peripheral physiological correlates of food cue processing in obesity. In the present work, obese and healthy women were presented with images of their own preferred foods while peripheral measures were recorded. Affective images (erotica, neutral objects, and attacks) were included as controls, so that the reactivity to food cues was compared to the reactivity to non-food affectively relevant stimuli. Food and emotional images were displayed repeatedly within a pseudo-randomized passive picture-viewing paradigm. Physiological measures informed on general reactivity (skin conductance) and reactivity to pleasant (zygomatic muscles) and unpleasant stimuli (corrugator muscles). Overall, electrodermal and facial reactions to affective and food images were in line with literature, showing: larger skin conductance to erotica and attacks compared to food and neutral stimuli, larger zygomatic muscles responses to food compared to other stimuli, and larger inhibition of the corrugator muscles for food and erotica. However obese women, compared to controls, overall tended to react less to all cues, showing blunted electrodermal reactions to all cues and not showing distinct reactions to food and emotional cues in measures related to approach (zygomatic) and avoidance (corrugator muscles). The inclusion of preferred foods and high-arousing affective images provided reliable stimuli to investigate motivation in obesity. As a whole, peripheral data tended to suggest low motivational reactivity in obese women.

Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/MINECO (grant code: PSI2013-43777-P).

Poster 3-78


Ariel Currie1, Mitchell Sauder1, Hannah Scott1, Garry Smyda2, & Karina Quevedo1

1University of Minnesota, 2University of Pittsburgh

Descriptors: fMRI, suicide attempts, self-face processing This study sought to test whether the neurobiology of self-processing, measured as self- versus other-face recognition, would differ between depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt from depressed adolescents with high or low suicide ideation, and healthy controls. Adolescents (N=119) were assessed with a structured psychological interview and were separated into one of four groups: depressed youth with suicide attempt (SA, N= 22), high suicidality (HS, N= 27), or low suicidality (LS, N=33), and healthy controls (HC, N=37). Participants completed a visual self-recognition fMRI task in the scanner, during which they identified their own or an unfamiliar adolescent face across three emotional expressions (happy, neutral or sad). A mixed repeated measure GLM: 4 Group (SA, HS, LS, HC) by within subject factors 2 Self conditions (self, other) by 3 Emotions (happy, neutral, sad), showed that SAs are distinguished from HS, LS, and HC youth by less MPFC activity during recognition of their own happy face compared to other happy faces. SAs also more ventral striatum (L-caudate) activation compared to HS adolescents. Additionally, SA and HS youth showed lim-bic hypoactivity during recognition of the happy self-face compared to LS and HC groups, suggesting low affective engagement with positive self-cues. These results suggest that future suicide behavior might be predicted by MPFC and caudate activity during happy self-face recognition, and the change from thoughts to suicide behaviors might be predicted by low MPFC mediated awareness of positive self-information.

NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation: 2012-2015, QUEVEDOK (PI). 1K01MH092601. The Neurobiology of Self Appraisals and Social Cognition in Depressed Adolescents.


Kiry Koy1, Christine Egan1, Mitchell Sauder1, Hannah Scott1, Garry Smyda2, Jennifer Pfeifer3, & Karina Quevedo1 1University of Minnesota, 2University of Pittsburgh, 3University of Oregon

Descriptors: neuroimaging, maltreatment, adolescence

BACKGROUND: The neurophysiology of self-processing changes drastically during adolescence, but the effect of maltreatment duration has not previously been studied. Understanding how the duration of maltreatment affects brain function, especially in relation to self-processing, will be important in identifying neurobiomarkers that suggest new treatment methods and in improving self-development, self-identity, and overall mental health among victims of child maltreatment. METHODS: Depressed adolescents (n=52) who experienced maltreatment in the form of physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and/or witnessed domestic violence underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while appraising positive and negative self-descriptors. The impact of maltreatment duration on brain activity during self-processing was studied through regression analysis in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8). RESULTS: While appraising positive and negative self-descriptors, a shorter duration of maltreatment was associated with higher activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (p < 0.005), while a longer duration of maltreatment was associated with greater activation of the cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus (p < 0.005). DISCUSSION: As expected, longer maltreatment durations result in decreased PFC activity, leading to dampened decision making and executive function. Increased activation of emotional, behavioral, and self-processing regions due to longer maltreatment durations points to possible treatment approaches in dealing with depressed and maltreated adolescents.

1K01MH092601: 2011-2016, QUEVEDOK (PI). The Neurobiology of Self-Appraisals and Social Cognition in Depressed Adolescents. NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation: 2012-2015, QUEVEDOK (PI). Identifying Neural and HPA Axis Markers of Chronic Adolescent Depression.

Poster 3-80


Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Jennifer Buckman, Gurpreet Singh, & Marsha Bates Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Descriptors: heart rate variability, baroreflex, alcohol

Standard parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) have a long history as health indicators. The goal of this study was to explore novel parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) that more sensitively capture a physiological process through which the baroreflex contributes broadly to physical and mental regulation. We compared young healthy alcohol drinkers (age M=21.9, SD=2.2 years of age) who did not (n = 23) or did (n=24) engage in binge drinking, which is associated with reduced cognitive and emotional regulation. Parameters included baroreflex (BRS) gains in heart rate, stroke volume, and vascular tone baroreflex arcs, standard HRV indices, and an HRV index representing a RRI spectral power peak at 0.066 Hz (at rest). BRS signs of unhealthy drinking were found: all three BRS gains were significantly lower in the binge than in the social drinking group. Yet, there were no group differences in the standard HRV indices. Importantly, significant negative associations were found between the number of years of drinking and vascular tone BRS gain (p < 0.014, R2 = 0.2) and the 0.066 Hz (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.37) RRI spectra power peak. These results suggest that the power of a RRI spectrum peak at 0.066 Hz in binge drinkers provides information about drinking history and the degree of harm to vascular tone regulation, given the relation of binge drinking to vascular tone BRS gain. Results showed that a specific RRI spectrum parameter of HRV, i.e., the power of the peak at 0.066 Hz, can be more sensitive to subtle, compromised health states than the common HRV indices.

Research was supported by R21AA020367, K01AA017473, K24AA021778, and K02AA00325 (NIH-NIAAA).


Grace Herrick, Benjamin DeVore, Kelly Harrison, & David Harrison Virginia Tech

Descriptors: laterality, hostility, arousal

Over the past decade, there has been an increase in research into the neural substrates of hostility. However, many of the studies have failed to recognize the importance of sex differences on the laterality of brain function. Previous research by Williamson & Harrison (2003) found differences in right frontal lobe functioning between high- and low-hostile males in a study assessing blood pressure, heart rate, and perseverative errors corresponding to two neuropsychological tasks mediated by the right and left anterior hemispheres of the brain. In the current study, sex differences in the influence of hostility levels on verbal and nonverbal fluency, and the concurrent cerebral regulation of autonomic nervous system functioning was examined in high or low hostile females. Relying on Kinsbourne's functional cerebral space theory, the verbal Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the nonverbal Ruff Figural Fluency Task, mediated by the left and right anterior cerebral systems respectively, were used as dual task antagonists of frontal lobe regulatory control of sympathetic drive. Blood pressure and electrocardiography, along with fluency and perseverative errors, were analyzed. In contrast to the previously mentioned research, preliminary results indicated brain laterality differences in low- and high-hostile females resulted in non-statistically significant differences in dependent measures. These findings support research that suggests more interhemispheric connections in the brains of females versus greater intrahemispheric connections in the brains of males.

Poster 3-82


Michael C. Mensink1, Jacob Achtemeier2, & Paige Lysne3 1University of Wisconsin-Stout, 2University of Minnesota, 3University of Florida

Descriptors: text comprehension, respiratory sinus arrhthmia, memory Highly engaging anecdotes related to the human condition (e.g., death or sex) are commonly added to scientific texts by authors to increase readers' emotional interest in boring content, with the expectation of enhancing learning (Kintsch, 1980). Yet, these attempts typically elicit a seductive details effect, in which these seductive details attract attention while reducing memory for important content (Rey, 2012). Across two experiments, the authors examined how emotional arousal, as indicated by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), contributes to the seductive details effect during reading and recall. In Experiment 1, participants read two seductive scientific texts and rated sentences for interest and importance in order to ensure the text elicited a seductive details effect during reading. In Experiment 2, participants read a seductive and non-seductive scientific text while both sentence reading times and recalls were measured. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) events were measured continuously throughout the experiment. Participants demonstrated longer reading times and higher proportional recalls for seductive detail sentences, and participants recalled more important content overall for the non-seductive science texts. However, RSA events only significantly increased during the recall phase for the seductive scientific text. These preliminary findings suggest that seductive details may impair readers in different ways during different phases of the reading process, as indicated by differing levels of emotional arousal.


Arvid Kappas, Dennis Kuester, Pasquale Dente, & Christina Basedow Jacobs University Bremen

Descriptors: EMG, facial activity, affective computing

Facial activity has been of interest to emotion scholars since centuries. Particularly since Darwin, there been the notion that there are universal facial activation patterns associated with a variety of mental states. In the last decades, emotion research has been relying of manual coding of facial movements with standardized tools such as Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and facial electromyography. While the two methods cannot be directly compared, as FACS targets visible changes and EMG the activation of underlying facial muscles, both methods have been part of emotion researchers' tool box. One of the great advantages of EMG, apart from high temporal resolution, is the immediate availability of activation measurements, as opposed to the time of coding that can take months or even years. Because of this, there is a strong interest in computer based automatic coding of facial movement with the hope to have a quick and reliable assessment of facial activity.

We present data from a task in which 23 participants learned the association of Japanese characters and sounds in interaction with a NAO robot. During the task EMG was taken at the sites of Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major, while video was recorded. Video was coded with iMOTIONS FACET software and we compare EMG data with AU4 and AU12. We demonstrate high variability in coherence between the two methods. We also tested and addressed methodological issues such as the influence of EMG electrodes on automatic coding by comparing skin colored cable and electrodes with standard sensors.

This research was partially funded by EU FP7 EMOTE (ICT-2011-8 317923).

Poster 3-84


Jeanette Taylor Florida State University

Descriptors: impulsivity, mood, skin conductance

Negative and sometimes positive moods lead people to act rashly - or do they? The association between trait measures of impulsivity and emotional reactivity have not been uniformly confirmed in experimental studies using mood induction. The present study provided an experimental investigation of the effect of four mood states (happy, sad, angry, and neutral) on motor- and reward-based impulsivity that was informed by the inclusion of skin conductance measurement throughout most tasks. Participants were 60 undergraduates (31 women) with no current suicidal ideation or mood disorder. Mood ratings were taken using a computerized visual analog scale at 6 time points. Mood induction occurred through a combined sentence reflection/music task. Reward-based impulsivity was measured with the Balloon Analog Reward Task (BART) and motor impulsivity was measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) before and after the mood induction. Results showed a significant time x gender x mood interaction for SSRT such that men in the sad and angry conditions became less impulsive but women in the angry condition became more impulsive. The BART task revealed only a significant main effect for time with all mood groups collecting more on the post-test. However, a significant decline in SCR amplitude to collections of money from pre- to post-test were found in angry participants only. Negative mood states appear to induce changes in certain types of impulsivity, and changes in arousal associated with certain negative moods may impact the experience rather than the level of rewarding activity.


Kimmo Alho1, Emma Salo1, Juha Salmi2, & Viljami Salmela1 1University of Helsinki & Aalto University, 2University of Helsinki, Aalto University & Abo Akademi University

Descriptors: attention, functional magnetic resonance imaging, event-related potentials

To overcome low temporal resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we used multivariate pattern analysis in combined analysis of fMRI data and temporally accurate event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from identical experiments. In these experiments, healthy adult participants were presented with audiovisual stimulus pairs consisting of a tone varying in pitch and a grating varying in orientation. They performed either a forced-choice pitch or orientation discrimination (1-back) task (selective attention conditions), or both (divided attention), or neither task. Thus, in addition to target modality, we varied the mode of voluntary attention. Randomly on 1 /6 of the trials, an auditory distractor (a novel sound), and on another 1/6 of the trials, a visual distractor (a novel texture) was presented together with the tone-grating pair to elicit involuntary attention. With representational similarity analysis, we revealed from fMRI data spatial activity patterns corresponding in representational structure to short temporal segments in ERPs. These activity patterns were apparently associated with bottom-up processing of distractors and involuntary attention to them, top-down attentional control, initiation of motor responses, and shifting between brain states. According to our results, fMRI activation patterns contain recoverable spatial information from different time points. In the present study, this recovered information revealed spatiotemporal dynamics of voluntary and involuntary auditory and visual attention within one second from stimulus onset.

This research was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant #260054).

Poster 3-86


Johannes Rodrigues1, Mathias Müller1, Andreas Mühlberger2, & Johannes Hewig1

Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, 2Universitat Regensburg

Descriptors: frontal asymmetry, virtual reality, EEG: alpha frequency Different theories about frontal asymmetry and its meaning are present. The original theory of Davidson and the diversification by Harmon - Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to left frontal brain activation and withdrawal motivation to right frontal brain activation. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding a bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues theorized that left frontal brain activation stands for behavior, while right frontal brain activation stands for behavioral inhibition and the experience of conflict. Frontal asymmetry has been investigated in state based approaches where different stimuli are used to induce emotions and motivational states. One major problem of many state based approaches is the lack of opportunity to show behavior. In this study, 30 participants explored a virtual T-maze in a desktop virtual reality paradigm, giving participants the opportunity to react to stimuli and showing frontal brain activation as well. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation on the observed behavior, we found an influence of frontal asymmetry on the resulting behavioral categories shown in the paradigm. Also, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing at all during a trial. Hence this study provides evidence for the theory of Hewig and colleagues, where frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation and bilateral frontal activation for behavior. Universitüatsbund Wüurzburg.



Poster 4-1


Yifan Hu1, Zachariah Bertels1, Benjamin Olivari1, Audra Chaves1, Matthew Moore1, Sanda Dolcos1, & Florin Dolcos2 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign & Beckman Institute for Advanced Science &


Descriptors: amygdala, trait anxiety, neuroticism

Volume reductions in the amygdala have been found in both anxiety patients and subclinical participants with high trait anxiety scores. Smaller amygdala volume has also been related to neuroticism, a personality factor consistently linked to increased vulnerability to anxiety. However, it is not clear how amygdala volume and neuroticism together may contribute to anxiety symptoms in healthy participants. These issues were investigated in a sample of 46 healthy participants, who received anatomical MRI scans and completed measures of trait anxiety and neu-roticism. Unlike most of the extant research, amygdala volume was assessed using manual tracing, based on anatomical landmarks identified in each anatomical image. First, amygdala volume was negatively correlated with neuroticism, which in turn was positively correlated with trait anxiety. Second, mediation analyses confirmed that amygdala volume had a significant indirect effect on trait anxiety through neuroticism. This effect was not bidirectional, as trait anxiety did not predict amygdala volume through neuroticism. Collectively, these findings provide support for a brain-personality-symptom framework of understanding affective dysregulation, which may help inform the development of prevention and intervention paradigms targeting preservation of amygdala volume and reduction of neuroticism, to protect against anxiety symptoms.

Poster 4-2


Nathaniel E. Helwig University of Minnesota

Descriptors: event-related potential, individual differences, smoothing spline Many event-related potential (ERP) studies quantify individual and/or group differences by comparing ERPs at select time points, e.g., 300-500 ms after the stimulus. In most cases, the researcher must choose which time points to examine, which can lead to a selection bias. Furthermore, if multiple time points (or windows) are of interest, some sort of multiple comparison correction is needed to control the false-positive rate, which could severely reduce the power to find differences. This study reveals the benefit of using the Smoothing Spline Analysis of Variance (SSANOVA) framework to analyze individual and group differences in ERP data. Unlike the pointwise analysis approach, the SSANOVA framework can analyze individual and/or group differences simultaneously across multiple ERP time points. Furthermore, with a Bayesian interpretation, the SSANOVA results can be used to examine differences across multiple time points without the need for a multiple comparison correction. Using visual stimulus ERP data collected from control and alcoholic subjects, we demonstrate how the SSANOVA model can be used to examine amplitude differences in ERPs simultaneously across multiple time points. Our results reaffirm previous results on the P300 attenuation in alcoholic subjects. However, we find noteworthy individual differences in ERPs both within and between subject populations. Consequently, this study illustrates the importance of examining both individual and group differences in ERP data.

Start-Up funds from the University of Minnesota.


Camilla C. Luck, & Ottmar V. Lipp Curtin University

Descriptors: fear conditioning, preparedness theory, electrodermal responding Preparedness theory proposes that some stimuli are evolutionarily prepared to associate with aversive events. Prepared associations should to be rapidly acquired, resistant to extinction, and resistant to cognitive influence. Snakes and spiders are the only stimuli which have been shown to fulfil all of the above criteria, but fear acquired to pointed guns resists extinction. We examined whether fear acquired to pointed guns would also resist cognitive intervention. Using a differential fear conditioning design, an image of a gun (fear-relevant CS1) and hair-dryer (fear-irrelevant CS1) were followed by an aversive electrotactile shock and loud noise blast, whereas, a second gun (fear-relevant CS-) and hairdryer (fear-irrelevant CS-) were presented alone. During acquisition, differential electrodermal responding was acquired between the fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant CS1 and CS-, which was immediately abolished after participants were informed that the aversive stimuli would no longer be presented (instructed extinction). In Experiment 2, using the same within-participants design, we replicated the original finding that fear acquired to images of snakes and spiders resists instructed extinction. The results suggest that the original reports of resistance to instructed extinction using snakes and spiders are reliable but that images of pointed guns do not show the same resistance to instruction.

This work was supported by grants number DP120100750 and SR120300015 from the Australian Research Council.

Poster 4-5


Alexandra D. Iordan1, Matthew Moore1, Yuta Katsumi1, Ryan Larsen1,

Edward L. Maclin1, Andrea Shafer2, Anthony Singhal3, Sanda Dolcos1, Bradley P. Sutton1, Monica Fabiani1, Gabriele Gratton1, & Florin Dolcos4 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Wayne State University, 3University of Alberta, 4University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign & Beck-man Institute for Advanced Science & Technology

Descriptors: multimodal imaging, emotional distraction, emotion regulation The link between temporal (when) and spatial (where) aspects of the neural correlates of most psychological phenomena is not clear. Elucidation of this relation requires integration across multiple brain imaging modalities and tasks that reliably modulate the engagement of brain systems of interest. The present poster illustrates one such integration across 3 imaging modalities: electroencephalogra-phy/event-related potentials (EEG/ERP), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and event-related optical signals (EROS). Two executive tasks with emotional distraction were used because such dual-task designs can dissociate between large-scale dorsal and ventral brain systems involved in cognitive and affective processing. Pilot data from 5 subjects performing an emotional odd-ball task provided initial validation of simultaneous EEG-fMRI and EEG-EROS recordings and identified prefrontal and parietal cortical responses consistent with unimodal spatial and temporal evidence. Additional data (N=5) extended these results to a combined working memory-emotion regulation (ER) task with emotional distraction, and showed further spatio-temporal dissociations convergent across the 3 modalities in fronto-parietal areas, as a function of the source of distraction (external-percepts vs. internal-memories) and the type of ER (spontaneous vs. instructed). Finally, EEG-informed fMRI analyses identified links between ERP amplitude at parietal electrodes and fronto-parietal hemodynamic responses when coping with distraction, further supporting the value of multimodal imaging integration.

This research was supported by a UofI Campus Research Board grant and by BRIDGE Initiative Funds (to FD), and by NIH grant S10-RR029294 (to GG).


Nathaniel Elkins-Brown, Blair Saunders, & Michael Inzlicht University of Toronto

Descriptors: corrugator, stability, reliability

Historically, electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG) has been used as measure of negative emotion and of exerted effort. Recently, researchers have found evidence for early increased cEMG during errors in cognitive control tasks, and that these increases are correlated with behavioral and neurophysiological measures of error monitoring. Given the potential for cEMG to be a more objective, continuous, and unobtrusive measure of emotion or cognition than self-report, we sought to assess its stability and reliability during errors of commission. In the present study, we reanalyzed error-related cEMG data from two studies—one using an inhibitory control task (n = 54) and the other using a classic Eriksen flanker task (n = 51)—and compared them to established measures of neural monitoring, the ERN and Pe. Calculations of Cronbach's alpha, signal-to-noise ratios, and correlations with grand average signal revealed that error-related cEMG was sufficiently stable and reliable in as few as 6 trials, and acquired high or excellent stability and reliability between 10 and 14 trials. Surprisingly, these results are fairly comparable to both the ERN and Pe, despite the greater overall inter- and intra-variability of facial EMG compared to EEG. These findings suggest that cEMG is a stable and reliable measure when event-locked to errors, and may prove useful to researchers seeking an additional measure of negative affect or effort in error monitoring tasks.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Councial (NSERC).

Poster 4-9


Joshua Ahles, Jaclyn Aldrich, Andrew Fox, & Amy Mezulis Seattle Pacific University

Descriptors: pre-ejection period, anhedonia, stress

Under specific stimulus conditions, approach motivation and reward responsiveness may be indexed by cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity (Zisner & Beau-chaine, 2016), a measure of sympathetic nervous system arousal. Vulnerability-stress models of depression posit that in the context of increased stress, individual differences such as responsiveness to reward may confer greater risk for depression. This study examined the interaction between stressful life events and PEP reactivity to a reward task as a predictor of future anhedonia symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 70; 50% male; Mean age = 13.24).

Participants completed measures of stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Anhedonia symptoms were assessed using items from the Child Depression Inventory-II (Wetter & Hankin, 2009). PEP reactivity was assessed in response to a modified delayed-matching-to-sample task in which adolescents were able to earn $10 dollars.

Moderation analyses were conducted using Hayes PROCESS macro (2013). The analyses revealed a significant interaction between PEP reactivity to reward and stress (b = .01, p = .04) such that as stress exposure increased, adolescents who displayed no change or lengthening PEP to reward reported greater levels of anhedonic symptoms at a six month follow-up (b = .09, p = .02). In contrast, adolescents with more pronounced PEP shortening to reward reported the same level of anhedonic symptoms regardless of the degree of stress exposure (b = .01, p = .74).



Lisa J. Schmall1, Rebecca J. Brooker1, & Elizabeth J. Kiel2 1Montana State University, 2Miami University

Descriptors: pregnancy, emotion regulation, stress

The Late Positive Potential (LPP) is believed to index emotional reactivity at the neural level (Hajcak et al., 2012). The LPP is reduced when emotions are successfully regulated (Hajcak & Niewenhuis, 2006), making enhanced LPP a potential neural marker of risk for mental health problems associated with regulatory deficits. During pregnancy, women are at increased risk for the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms (Heron et al., 2004). Though factors such as social support are thought to buffer risk (Cohen & Willis, 1985), it is unclear whether this effect operates at the level of neural function. To test this possibility, we investigated the links among LPP, perceived stress, and levels of social support in expecting mothers (N = 31). We anticipated that greater stress would deplete emotion regulation, relating to increases in LPP, but that these increases would be diminished in mothers with higher levels of social support.

We found that LPP was enhanced for emotional relative to nonemotional stimuli across all mothers (F(4,112) = 4.73, p < 0.05), during a passive viewing task. Consistent with expectations, we found that social support moderated the association between perceived stress and LPP (B = -0.65, p < 0.01), such that, at low levels of social support, greater stress predicted greater LPP (B = 0.51, p< 0.01). However, stress was unrelated to LPP at high social support (B = -0.18, p > 0.10). Results are consistent with the idea that social support may buffer associations between perceived stress and emotional reactivity by supporting emotion regulation.

National Institutes of Health 5P20GM104417 Montana State University Undergraduate Scholars Program.

Poster 4-11


Brittany K. Taylor, Patricia L. Davies, & William J. Gavin Colorado State University

Descriptors: attention, development, event-related potential (ERP) The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a slow negative drift in event-related potentials (ERPs) resulting from attentional anticipation between two stimuli. A previous study in children indicated that across two sessions, CNV E-wave amplitudes became more negative. Prior research suggests that changes in ERP amplitudes after practicing a task may indicate shifts in cognitive strategies. The purpose of the present study was to determine how attentional control changed across sessions. ERP data were collected from 51 children (7-13yrs, M = 10.37, SD = 1.59) while performing a Go-NoGo task during two sessions (S1 and S2). The averaged E-wave amplitude was measured for each individual for each session. Participants also completed the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) to measure selective, sustained, and shift attention. Using structural equation modeling, two models were compared: one where TEA-Ch measures predicted E-wave amplitudes, and one where E-wave amplitudes predicted TEA-Ch measures. Age was controlled in both models. Only the model with E-wave amplitudes predicting TEA-Ch measures was valid, chi square(51) = 36.06, p = .91, CFI = 1.0, RMSEA < .001. The results indicated that the E-wave of S1 predicted only selective attention, beta = -.38, p = .03. In contrast, the E-wave of S2 predicted both shift, beta = .29, p = .05, and sustained attention, beta = .32, p = .05. Thus, across sessions the E-wave amplitude relates to different types of attentional processing in children, possibly due to utilizing different types of attention as they learn a task.

NICHD 5R03HD046512; CSU College of Health and Human Sciences to PLD & WJG; CSU Department of Occupational Therapy to PLD, WJG, BKT, & MHL.


Joanna Scanlon, Kimberly Townsend, Danielle Cormier, Jonathan Kuziek, & Kyle E. Mathewson University of Alberta

Descriptors: mobile EEG

Mobile EEG allows the investigation of brain activity in increasingly complex environments. In this study, EEG equipment was adapted for use and transportation in a backpack while cycling. Participants performed an auditory oddball task while cycling outside and sitting in an isolated chamber inside the lab. Cycling diminished alpha amplitude and increased EEG noise. Significantly decreased P2 amplitude was observed when evoked by both standards and targets during cycling outside. This may be due to attentional processes filtering the overlapping sounds between the tones used and similar environmental frequencies. This study established methods for mobile recording of ERP signals. Future directions include investigating P2 filtering inside the laboratory. NSERC helped to fund this project.

Poster 4-13


Sayeed A.D. Kizuk1, Ankur Banerjee1, & Kyle E. Mathewson2 1Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, 2University of Alberta

Descriptors: alpha, entrainment, neural oscillations

Attentional biasing is needed to select relevant sensory information. Recently, it has been shown that alpha band (7-14 Hz) oscillations can serve attentional biasing functions via phase and amplitude changes which modulate neural activity and perceptual awareness in a pulsating inhibition. These pulses of inhibition can be entrained by bottom-up induction of temporal expectancies with repetitive visual stimuli, eliciting cyclic decrements in visual performance for stimuli appearing out-of-phase with the external rhythm. One outstanding question is whether these phase-dependent decrements in visual processing are specific to the alpha frequency. If so, it would suggest that alpha specifically reflects neural processes related to visual perception, whereas non-alpha oscillatory rhythms have functions unrelated to vision. We presented bilateral entrainers 4, 8.5, 12, 15, and 20 Hz, corresponding to Theta, Low Alpha, Alpha, High Alpha, and Beta. Oscillations in brain activity were entrained at each frequency, with increased phase-locking observed at all 5 frequencies. However, the behavioural interaction with phase was present to a greater extent for the 12-Hz rhythm. These findings extend the recent findings on the dependence between alpha phase and visual perception, showing that this phase-dependency cannot be extended to non-alpha rhythms, and thus provide further evidence implicating alpha as a pulsating inhibition which serves to rhythmically inhibit visual processing.

Poster 4-14


Frini Karayanidis1, Todd Jolly1, Patrick Cooper1, Jaime Rennie1, Christopher Levi1, Rhoshel Lenroot2, Patricia Michie1, & Mark Parsons2 1University of Newcastle, Australia, 2University of New South Wales, Australia

Descriptors: cognitive aging, task-switching paradigm, cerebral white matter Task switching performance declines with increasing age, especially under conditions of high interference. In older adults, task switching performance has been shown to be sensitive to changes in white matter microstructure. This study examines whether age-related decline in task switching performance is mediated by global or tract-specific disruption in cerebral white matter microstructural organisation. We also examine whether the presence of cardiovascular risk factors moderates the relationship between white matter disruption and task switching performance. Seventy cognitively intact individuals (43-87y) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm, as well as structural MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. Measures of microstructural white matter changes

were calculated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the DWI sequence. The relationship between age and task switching performance was removed after controlling for variance associated with global white matter microstructural organisation. In contrast, the relationship between task switching performance and white matter microstructure remained when controlling for age. Task switching performance was more strongly related to white matter microstructural changes in tracts that connect frontal and parietal regions. All effects were most strongly evident in participants who reported the presence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that age-related cognitive decline may represent the emerging effects of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

HMRI Project Grant, Discovery Project (DP120100340), Australian Postgraduate Award, HMRI Research Higher Degree Scholarship.

Poster 4-15


Mejdy M. Jabr1, Eric Rawls1, Connie Lamm1, & Nathan Fox2 1University of New Orleans, 2University of Maryland

Descriptors: multitasking, cognitive control, social multimedia The sweeping dissemination of mobile social technologies in recent years has irrevocably changed the way in which we communicate. Although a great deal of good has come about as a result of our unprecedented interconnectedness, research suggests that this technology's pervasiveness in our day-to-day interactions might also have social-emotional consequences. The literature on such issues, however, remains sparse at best. This study sought to examine the distinct temperamental and neural correlates of individuals who engage heavily in social multimedia multitasking during face-to-face interactions. Utilizing an AX-continuous performance task (CPT) and event-related potentials (ERP; n = 36 undergraduates), results revealed that individuals who reportedly spent more than half of their daily face-to-face interactions simultaneously texting, emailing, or engaged in social media displayed greater (more negative) N2 activation, an ERP associated with conflict monitoring, beta = -.50, t (30) = -3.30, p = .003. Furthermore, high social multimedia multitasking correlated positively with anxious-introversion, beta = .36, t (32) = 2.17, p = .038. Conjointly, these results indicate that heavy social multimedia multitasking individuals might have anxiety induced cognitive inefficiencies in social contexts and therefore turn to technology as an avoidance technique.

Poster 4-16


Diana Henz, & Wolfgang I. Schuollhorn University of Mainz

Descriptors: EEG, qigong

Chinese Health Qigong is a technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine commonly applied to strengthen mental and physical health. Several studies have reported increases in electroencephalographic (EEG) theta and alpha activity after meditational Qigong exercise indicating a relaxed state of mind. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by dynamic Qigong techniques that involve bodily movements that direct attention to movement control and kinaesthetic sensations. In the present study, we compared effects of the dynamic Health Qigong techniques Ba Duan Jin and Yi Jin Jing on EEG theta and alpha activity. Subjects performed the techniques Ba Duan Jin (Eight Pieces of Brocade) and Yi Jin Jing (Muscle/Tendon Change) in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-minute exercise block. Our results demonstrate different temporal dynamics in theta and alpha activity for the two dynamic Qigong techniques. Theta activity remained at the same level in Ba Duan Jin after 15 and 30 minutes, whereas alpha activity was increased after 15 minutes, with a further increase after 30 minutes. Theta and alpha activity was increased after 15 minutes, followed by a further increase after 30 minutes when training the Qigong technique Yi Jin Jing. We hypothesize that the found brain activation patterns result from different attentional focusing mediated by different breathing techniques performed during the investigated dynamic Health Qigong techniques.


Jeremy Harper, Stephen Malone, & William Iacono University of Minnesota

Descriptors: adolescent alcohol use, cognitive control, theta Research suggests that adolescent alcohol use is related to adult executive functioning deficits. However, less is known about any potential long-term consequences of early drinking on EEG correlates of cognitive control. Testing etiological hypotheses of the association between adolescent drinking and adult outcomes has been difficult since most studies to date have used purely observational designs. The present study tested the hypothesis that adolescent drinking is associated with reduced theta-band EEG dynamics of cognitive control (midfrontal cortex [MFC] power; MFC-dorsal prefrontal cortex [dPFC] functional connectivity) during a flanker task in a large longitudinal sample of twins assessed at the target ages of 11, 14, 17, and 29. Cumulative adolescent alcohol use (between ages 1117) was negatively related to adult (age 29) theta MFC power and MFC-dPFC connectivity, suggesting diminished cognitive control-related theta dynamics. A cotwin control analysis examined whether premorbid familial risk towards drinking or the potential causal effects of early drinking better explained the observed effects. Results suggested that reduced MFC power and MFC-dPFC connectivity was associated with a preexisting genetic/shared environmental risk towards adolescent drinking. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that a heritable liability towards drinking may underlie the association between adolescent alcohol use and diminished adult theta dynamics of cognitive control. DA005147; AA009367; NSF-GRF No. 00039202.

Poster 4-18


Sergii Tukaiev, & Igor Zyma National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

Descriptors: emotional burnout, classical music, EEG

Music changes the emotional state of the listener if it gets into resonance with his/her emotional state. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of changes of psychophysiological parameters under listening to music depending on the severity of burnout. 75 healthy volunteers students aged 17-22 years old participated in the study. We used the CAM (cenesthesia, activity, mood), State Anxiety Inventory, and the Syndrome of Emotional Burnout test. EEG was registered over a period of 5 min during the rest state, 3 min during listening to the music (Beethoven, Fuer Elise), and 3 min of aftereffect. The resistance stage was detected in 29 students. The influence of music was more significant for the group, which did not develop the resistance stage. Listening to music decreased the level of anxiety and improved the level of cenesthesia. Generalized decrease in spectral power density indicated an overall decrease of activation of cognitive processes and weakening of the emotional background of mental activity in both groups. Depression of the theta2-, alpha1-, alpha2-subbands indicated a decrease in psychic tension. Listening to music led to changes in alpha- and betasubbands. The level of activation of the general tone was lower than in the group with the resistance stage. It was characterized by the transition to the state of tran-quility and actualization of memorial traces. Simultaneous desynchronization of theta1-, beta2 and alpha-subbands indicated a reduced level of nonspecific activation. Thus, the severity of burnout affected the traits of response to music.

Poster 4-19


Lauren B. Neal, Jonathan P. Sowell, & Philip A. Gable University of Alabama

Descriptors: personality, motivation, frontal asymmetry

The approach, withdrawal, and control systems are thought to lie at the core of human personality. Models of frontal asymmetry link greater relative left and right frontal activity with greater approach and withdrawal motivation, respectively. Much lesion and fMRI research links the right hemisphere with the control system. Past evidence has also found that trait deficits in control (e.g. impulsivity) relate to reduced right frontal activity. We assert that stronger trait control system function-

ing should be related to greater relative right frontal activity. In the current study, we sought to investigate whether traits related to stronger control functioning, but not withdrawal motivation, were associated with greater right frontal activation. Participants (182) completed personality measures (UPPS-P Impulsivity, BIS, BAS) and resting EEG recordings. BIS-Anxiety (risk appraisal and control) and BIS-FFFS (withdrawal motivation) subscales were calculated based on Gray's revised RST theory. Greater BIS-Anxiety related to greater relative right frontal activity. Impulsivity related to less relative right frontal activity. Controlling for BIS-FFFS and BAS motivation did not influence these relationships. Enhanced control system functioning is related to greater relative right frontal activity, but reduced control system functioning is related to less relative right frontal activity. Relative right frontal activity appears to underscore traits associated with the control system.

Poster 4-20


Collin K. Berke, Travis Loof, Rebecca Densley, Eric Rasmussen, & Justin R. Keene Texas Tech University

Descriptors: children, co-viewing, educational media content The dynamic interaction of educational content—in the form of explicit plot content, explicit educational content, and implicit inferential content—and parent child co-viewing can result in changes in children's phasic cognitive processing of mediated messages. This variation in phasic processing has important effects on what children learn from educational media content. Specifically, predictions of children's phasic cognitive processing in relation to co-viewing and educational content type were derived from both Social Facilitation Theory and the Limited Capacity Model for Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP) theoretical frameworks. Two main predictions were made in this study. First, parent child co-viewing would lead to greater resource allocation to encoding the message—as indicated by cardiac deceleration. Second, information that required internal processing, such as explicit educational or implicit inferential content would lead to greater resources allocated to internal processing—as indicated by cardiac acceleration. A multi-level model was used to examine children's cardiac response curves to the three types of content in a co-viewing situation. Results reveal co-viewing leads to cardiac deceleration (beta=-1.19) and implicit content leads to cardiac acceleration (beta =1.57). In sum, these results provide evidence that both educational content type and parent child co-viewing have an effect on children's over time phasic cognitive processing responses of educational media content.

Poster 4-21


Zachary P. Hohman, Justin R. Keene, Breanna N. Harris, & Elizabeth Niedbala Texas Tech University

Descriptors: emotion, ambivalence, coactivation

People often hold simultaneously positive and negative evaluations of an object, a feeling called attitude ambivalence. However, the motivational activation by which these ambivalent attitudes are formed is not fully understood. One possibility is that coactivation in the motivational systems results in ambivalence. This study used five possible emotional trajectories within anti-drug messages (pleasant, unpleasant, simultaneously pleasant and unpleasant, start pleasant and end unpleasant, and start unpleasant and end pleasant) in order to better understand the dynamic interaction of coactive motivational activation, arousal and attitudes. This study measured self-reported ambivalence and physiological arousal via salivary cortisol investigate if coactivation, as evidenced by arousal, is predictive of resulting ambivalence. The results revealed a significant main effect of emotional trajectory on salivary cortisol, F(4,86) = 5.14, p < .001, and a significant main effect of emotional trajectory on felt ambivalence, F(1,324) = 12.94, p < .001. Participants reported greater felt ambivalence to messages that started pleasant and ended unpleasant or that co-presented pleasant and unpleasant content compared to the other emotional trajectories. These two emotional trajectories also resulted in an increase in cortisol after the message presentation where the other messages resulted in a decrease. In sum, emotional trajectories that elicit coactivation in the motivational systems would seem to lead to greater arousal and also result in greater attitude ambivalence.


Christiane Pane-Farre, & Christoph Benke University of Greifswald

Descriptors: defense cascade, dyspnea, interoceptive threat Evidence from animal and human research indicates that defensive behavior dynamically changes with increasing imminence of a threat. Threat may originate from within one's own body, e.g., from the respiratory system. Such interoceptive threat bears high relevance for a number of anxiety and health problems. The current study aimed at evaluating a new experimental paradigm to characterize the dynamics of defensive mobilization to increasing levels of dyspnea indicating proximity of a short respiratory occlusion requiring breath-holding for a limited time. Persons low and high in suffocation fear (SF; N= 69) were exposed to a looming sequence of increasing levels of dyspnea induced by inspiratory resistive loads and directly followed by the short occlusion for 8 times. When dyspnea was severe and the occlusion about to occur, high compared to low-SF persons exhibited a maladaptive breathing pattern as indicated by an increased respiratory rate that was accompanied by increased reports of panic symptoms. This pattern was also observed when participants terminated the looming sequence prematurely to avoid delivery of the occlusion. Results will be discussed in reference to descriptive models of defensive mobilization in relation to threat proximity as well as etiological models of panic.

This study was supported by the Landesgraduiertenfuorderung MecklenburgVorpommern, Germany to CB, and the Kuathe-Kluth research group at the University of Greifswald, Germany to CPF.

Poster 4-23


Sanae Naka, & Jun'ichi Katayama Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: distraction effect, P300

Task irrelevant environmental changes attract attention and sometimes impair the ongoing cognitive processes. This study investigated the relationship between this distraction effect and the set for the task by manipulating the types of the duration discrimination task. Task relevant visual stimuli were presented once every 1200 ms with long (400 ms) or short (100 ms) duration (50% each). Each visual stimuli was consisted of small blue circle and large gray square. The square was always presented at the center of display and the circle was presented at either the center (90%), lower left quadrant (5%), or upper right quadrant (5%) on the square. The position of the circle was task irrelevant information. ERPs were recoeded while twelve participants performed three types of duration discrimination task; a choice task to respond both short and long duration stimuli by corresponding button press, and two go/no-go tasks for short or long duration stimuli. The RT for the short duration stimuli was longer than those in the go/no-go task. In the choice task, the P3 amplitude increased for the deviant information of the short duration stimuli compared with those of the standard stimuli. The distraction effect for the short duration stimuli in the choice task was smaller than those for the others. These results suggest that attention allocated to the short deviant stimuli in the choice task, and the set changed by the task and then in the choice task, they were unable to respond to short as quickly as possible. Therefore, the RT distraction effect decreased because of the task type.


Tsukasa Kimura, & Jun'ichi Katayama Kwansei Gakuin University

Descriptors: multisensory interaction, sequential effect, expectation The aim of the present study is to investigate how the regularity of visual stimuli approaching the body modulates spatial expectations of subsequent somatosensory stimuli by recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a simple reaction time task to somatosensory stimuli. The participants (N = 21) were instructed to put their arms on a desk, and LEDs as visual stimuli were placed between arms with equal distance (8.0 cm each). The mild electrical stimulation as somatosen-sory stimulus was presented to the left (or right) wrist with a high probability, and to the opposite wrist with a low probability. Each trial was composed of three visual stimuli and one somatosensory stimulus, with the interval (SOA) of 1000 ms. Four blocks (95, including 5 catch trials for each block) were presented in each condition. In the sequential approach condition, the right, center, and left (or reverse order) LEDs were presented sequentially approaching the wrist where the high probability stimulus was presented, whereas, in random approach condition, LEDs were randomly presented, but the third visual stimulus was always presented near the wrist for the high probability stimuli. After them, the somatosensory stimulus was presented to the left (or right) wrist. The P3 amplitudes elicited by low probability stimuli were larger under the sequential condition than under the random condition. The present study indicates the existence of an automatic adjustment function using regularity of visual stimuli approaching the body for spatial expectations of subsequent somatosensory events.

Poster 4-25



Benjamin Zimmerman, Kathy A. Low, Chin Hong Tan, Mark A. Fletcher, Nils Schneider-Garces, Edward L. Maclin, Bradley P. Sutton, Gabriele Gratton, & Monica Fabiani University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: aging, cerebrovascular reactivity, cardiorespiratory fitness Cerebrovascular health is important to cognitive integrity, especially in the context of normal, age-related cognitive decline. Cerebrovascular health is often studied using reactivity to manipulations such as hypercapnia. Both the amplitude and the timing of reactivity may be important, reflecting different components of cerebrovascular health. Here, we looked at how the timing and magnitude of the response to hypercapnia was associated with age and fitness in a cohort of older adults (age 55-88). Arterial spin labeling (ASL) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data were concurrently recorded during six blocks of voluntary breath holding, which induces global vasodilation in the brain. We found that ASL amplitude measures alone could lead to data whose interpretation is difficult, due to differences in timing of the cerebrovascular response. For instance, we found that during the rest period between breath holding epochs, blood flow positively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in the younger half of the subjects, but negatively correlated with CRF in the older half. This opposite pattern could manifest if the lower fit older adults do not return to baseline before the next breath holding period begins. In support of this hypothesis, the concurrently recorded NIRS data, providing superior temporal resolution compared to ASL, show that the younger half recovers more quickly following breath holding. These results demonstrate how using concurrent, multi-modal brain imaging measures can improve our understanding of brain physiology.

This project was supported by a grant NIH 1 RC1 AG035927 Z ARRA to Monica Fabiani and an NSF IGERT fellowship (0903622) to B. Zimmerman.


Kate Holland1, Alana Rosa1, Cristina Blanco1, Michael Doster1, & David Harrison2

1University of South Carolina Lancaster, 2Virginia Tech

Descriptors: trait anxiety, anticipatory stress, right hemisphere activation Anticipation of stress in laboratory settings has been associated with high levels of trait anxiety (Juster et al., 2012). Trait anxiety has been associated with increases in right temporoparietal activation. Accordingly, it was predicted that high trait anxious participants would evidence increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) relative to low trait anxious individuals upon exposure to two affective stressors. Participants completing the Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were classified as having high (n=23) and low (n=23) levels of trait anxiety. Participants viewed a video depicting scenes of animal neglect before completing the Auditory Affective Verbal Learning Task (AAVLT). A Trait x Condition interaction was found (F(3, 132) = 2.63, p=.05), indicating that low trait anxious individuals evidenced a reduction in SBP relative to high trait anxious individuals in task conditions where they were required to view a distressing video and recall negatively valenced words on the AAVLT. No between group differences were found for the final SBP reading. A main effect for Trait was found for the number of errors made on the AAVLT (F(1, 44)=4.56, p=.03), indicating that high trait anxious individuals made more errors on the AAVLT. Taken together, our hypothesis that high trait anxious individuals would experience more anticipatory stress relative to low trait anxious individuals was supported. The results provide support for the theory that anticipatory stress is associated with increases in relative right hemisphere activation in high trait anxious individuals.

Poster 4-27



Travis Loof, Collin K. Berke, Austin Davidson, Jacob Fisher, & Justin R.

Keene Texas Tech University

Descriptors: emotion, media, coactivation

The dynamic interaction of a text frame—gain or loss—and the emotional trajectory of a public service announcement—pleasant or unpleasant—can result in coactivation of the motivational systems. This coactivation has important effects on physiological arousal, cognitive processing, attitude formation, memory, and, ultimately, choice behavior with relation to drug abuse prevention and drug use cessation. The limited capacity model for motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP) was used to examine the physiological arousal—indexed here by skin conductance level—and cognitive resources allocated to encoding—indexed here by cardiac deceleration over time—in response to the sequential presentation of a text frame and a audio/visual anti-drug message. It was predicted that non-congruent combinations—such as a loss frame with a pleasant message—would result in motivational coactivation and that these coactive combinations would elicit lower arousal and higher cognitive resource allocation over time. A multilevel model was used to examine this prediction. Results revealed that incongru-ent message combinations lead to significantly lower arousal responses and significantly higher cognitive resource allocation over time during the audio/visual PSA (Loss/Pleasant [beta=-1.03, p < .05]; Gain/Unpleasant [beta=-5.58, p < .001]). In sum, these results support the claim that incongruent combinations lead to coactivation in the motivational systems, as evidenced by lowered arousal responses and higher cognitive resource allocation over time.



Justin R. Keene1, Collin K. Berke1, Brittany E. Blanchard1, & Annie Lang2 1Texas Tech University, 2Indiana University, Bloomington

Descriptors: motivation, emotion, sensation seeking

Emotional content is commonly used to increase the effectiveness of public service announcements (PSAs). Extant literature indicates both emotional content and trait-level sensation seeking (SS) can affect cognitive resource allocation (CRA) toward the encoding of a message. However, less is known about the dynamic interaction between content and SS on CRA of anti-drug PSAs. The limited capacity model for motivated mediated message processing was used as a framework to examine the impact of SS on psychophysiological arousal and CRA to the encoding of PSAs' emotional trajectory (i.e., increasingly pleasant, unpleasant, both pleasant and unpleasant increasing simultaneously). We hypothesized coactive content would elicit less arousal but greater CRA. Second, SS would moderate the effect of emotional trajectory on arousal and CRA of message content. Heart rate was used as an indicator of CRA, whereas arousal was measured by skin conductance. A multilevel model was used to test these hypotheses. Results indicated coactive messages lead to lower arousal responses (beta=-0.26, p < .05) and higher CRA (beta=.61, p < .05). Second, results indicated a marginally significant moderation of SS and negative content on CRA (beta= .15, p= .06) and a moderating effect of SS and both negative (beta=.01, p < .05) and positive (beta=.04, p < .05) content on arousal. In sum, these results support the prediction that coactivation lowers arousal and increases CRA of PSA content; moreover, these results indicate a moderating role of SS on individual's responses to emotional trajectories.

Poster 4-29


Sreekari Vogeti, & Paul M. Corballis University of Auckland

Descriptors: emotion, face space, ERP/EEG

Visual perception of emotional facial expressions has been associated with a range of event related potential (ERP) components. Despite the large corpus of research in this area, the electrophysiology of facial expression processing remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the way in which emotional expressions are processed along the expression trajectory. We recorded EEG while participants viewed either faces that were neutral in expression or morphed faces that were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, or full-intensity happy or angry faces. Participants were asked to indicate whether each face displayed an emotional or a neutral expression. Results show that faces = < 40% emotional elicited a greater positiv-ity in the occipital regions from onwards 120 ms in comparison with neutral faces, whereas 80% and 100% emotional faces elicited a greater negativity from 270ms. There was also a graded positive response in the central region as a function of emotion intensity starting from 360ms (100% emotion had the highest amplitude and 20% had the lowest amplitude). Furthermore, happy images elicited greater positivities than angry ones. This aligns with behavioural data which indicates that happy faces were rated emotional at lower intensities than angry ones. These data suggest that ERP modulations for different basic expressions are not equal. Furthermore, they indicate that there are systematic differences in ERPs that are modulated as a function of the intensity of emotional facial expressions.


Benjamin DeVore1, David Harrison1, & Dale Alden2 1Virginia Tech, 2Lipscomb University

Descriptors: psychophysiological, media, affect

The effect of media on psychological processing, including emotion response and self-appraisal, is an area in need of continued research efforts. Within this construct, reality television has become increasingly popular with millions of people viewing reality shows every week. There is an increasing need for research on the psychological effects of this specific type of programming on viewers. By analyzing psychophysiological reactivity to emotionally positive and negative content in reality television clips, neural correlates of affect response were hypothesized. Utilizing the valence theory of emotion, the current research effort explores the impacts of media on the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses via lateralized control of the right hemisphere for negative affect and the left for positive affect. 42 university students were analyzed using heart rate variability and galvanic skin response to assess changes in emotional responses to the presented reality television media content. Significant differences were observed compared to baseline and the implied neural arousal associated with general emotional reactivity to various reality television clips is discussed.

Poster 4-31


Arianna Schiano Lomoriello, Federica Meconi, & Paola Sessa University of Padua

Descriptors: social/affective, empathy, prosody

Empathy is the ability to share and to explicitly infer others' inner states and is the foundation of social interactions. Together with facial expressions, a primary form of communication between individuals for successful interactions is doubtless language. By using event-related potentials (i.e., ERPs) technique, in the present study, we investigated the role of emotional prosody in modulating empathic reactions to faces with a painful/neutral expression when the meaning of the sentence was either intelligible or not for the participants. We orthogonally manipulated language (participants' mother tongue vs. pseudo-language), emotional prosody of the report (painful vs. neutral) and the expression of the face (painful vs. neutral). We observed an effect of congruence/incongruence between prosody and facial expression on the N2-N3 temporal window, such that painful prosody presented with a painful face enhanced empathic reactions over centro-parietal regions irrespective of the language, whereas painful prosody was associated with a suppression of the empathic reactions when presented with a neutral facial expression over the same regions. Furthermore, prosody enhanced empathic reactions only when pain was expressed in participants' mother tongue whereas suppressed empathic reactions when semantic content was unintelligible on the later P3 component irrespective of the facial expression. To conclude, our findings strongly suggest that emotional prosody serves empathic reactions in both early and later time-windows but only when other cues are available.

Poster 4-32


Philippe Fournier1, & Sylvie Hebert2 1Universite d'Aix-Marseille, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), 2École d'orthophonie et d'audiologie, Faculty of medicine, Universite de Montreal

Descriptors: acoustic startle, auditory research, temporal processing The gap-startle paradigm is the primary gap detection test used in animal research to identify gap detection thresholds' and impairment. The startle reflex is inhibited when a silent gap is presented shortly before the loud startle stimuli: the amount of

inhibition is assumed to reflect detection. The effect of the presentation condition, that is monaural vs. binaural, on the startle reactivity and its inhibition by a silent gap has not been assessed in normal human adults. Twenty-nine normal-hearing adults (Mean age: 21.9 years old) were tested binaurally and monaurally with one of the two gap durations (5 or 50 milliseconds) in two different frequency backgrounds (.5 and 4 kHz narrow-band noise). Binaural presentation produced greater startle reactivity with means of 234 vs. 99 microvolts (mV) (p < .001) and shorter latency with means of 59 and 62 ms (p=.005) for binaural vs. monaural conditions, respectively. Regarding gap durations, there was a significant interaction between the frequency background and the presentation condition (p=.017). Indeed, when the gap was presented within a high-frequency background noise, inhibition was not different in the binaural and monaural presentation (binaural: 45, monaural: 53 mV). However, when the gap was presented within a low-frequency background noise, inhibition was increased in the binaural compared to the monaural presentation (monaural: 42, binaural: 105 mV, p=.004). Binaural vs. monaural presentation can dramatically affect startle reactivity, latency and its inhibition by gaps, and should be considered in future research.

Institut de recherche sur la santé et la securite au travail Robert-Sauve (IRSST) Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Santé (FRQS) Institut de Recherche en Sante du Canada (IRSC).

Poster 4-33


Caroline C. Meadows1, Philip A. Gable2, Keith R. Lohse1, & Matthew W.


1Auburn University, 2University of Alabama

Descriptors: reward positivity, approach motivation, dopamine From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00 - $4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude, with the P3b also being affected by valence. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components.

Poster 4-34


Mario Reutter1, Johannes Hewig1, Matthias J. Wieser1, & Roman Osinsky2 Julius-Maximilians-University Wurzburg, 2University of Osnabrück

Descriptors: attentional bias, N2pc, social anxiety

We systematically compared different measures of attentional bias (i.e. reaction times, the N2pc component in the EEG, and explicit stimulus ratings) in their ability to capture attentional engagement to threatening vs. neutral facial stimuli in a Dot Probe Task and tested their relation to trait measures of general and social anxiety. We found that the N2pc component captures a bias towards angry faces with excellent internal consistency. Similar results were obtained for explicit ratings. Reaction time (RT) differences, however, were not indicative of attentional biases and showed zero odd-even reliability. We further found that higher (i.e. more negative) N2pc amplitudes were associated with more severe symptoms of social anxiety even when controlling for general trait anxiety. The valence rating bias was also specifically associated with social anxiety. Conversely, the RT bias was not related to social anxiety levels but to general trait anxiety. This highlights the importance of valid and reliable outcome measures for interventions like attentional bias modification protocols. Mutual exclusivity of different bias operationalizations is discussed.

This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG fund numbers HE 5330/8-1, OS 422/4-1, and WI2714/7-1).


Felicia Jackson, Brady D. Nelson, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: unpredictability, social anxiety, late positive potential Fear of negative evaluation (FNE) is a core element of social anxiety (SA). However, an emerging literature suggests that intolerance of uncertainty is as strong a predictor of SA as FNE. Few studies, however, have examined neural response to unpredictable social evaluation. In the present study, 25 undergraduate females completed (1) self-report measures to assess FNE and SA, and (2) our novel Mixed Evaluation and uNpredictability (MEAN) task to examine neural response to cues that signal predictable and unpredictable social feedback. In MEAN, participants received social feedback from four female characters—three were always neutral, positive, or negative, and the fourth was unpredictable (i.e. randomly positive or negative). On each trial, feedback was preceded by a social anticipation cue—the character's neutral face paired with a phrase to signal pending evaluation (e.g. "Jessica says..."). The late positive potential (LPP) was measured in response to the social anticipation cue to assess stimulus processing while awaiting predictable and unpredictable feedback. Results showed that a larger LPP to the unpredictable social anticipation cue predicted greater SA, over and above the LPP to predictable neutral, positive and negative social anticipation cues. Moreover, the LPP to the unpredictable social anticipation cue predicted SA over and above FNE. Findings demonstrate the association of SA with sensitivity to cues that signal unpredictable social feedback, and thus contribute to the literature suggesting that SA is characterized by a core sensitivity to unpredictability.

Poster 4-37


Elizabeth A. Parisi, Brady D. Nelson, & Greg Hajcak Stony Brook University

Descriptors: emotion, startle reflex, event-related potentials Temporal predictability and stimulus valence have both been shown to impact psychophysiological indices of motivation (startle reflex) and attention (event-related potentials). However, research has primarily examined these characteristics in isolation and it is unclear whether they have independent or interactive effects. In the current study, 95 participants completed a picture-viewing task during which neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images were presented with either predictable or unpredictable timing. The startle reflex and probe N100 and P300 were measured in anticipation of picture presentation. Consistent with previous research, results indicated that the startle reflex was increased in anticipation of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures - and this effect was similar for both predictable and unpredictable trials. In addition, the startle reflex was potentiated on trials with unpredictable, relative to predictable, timing irrespective of picture valence. Both the probe N100 and P300 were enhanced in anticipation of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures, suggesting that the anticipation of motivationally-salient information enhances early sensory attention and primes later attention toward an unexpected stimulus (i.e., startle probe). Predictability had no impact on either the probe N100 or P300. This study suggests that temporal unpredictability uniquely primes defensive motivation, whereas the anticipation of emotional stimuli potentiates defensive and attentional measures of information processing in response to the startle probe.


Zachary P. Infantolino1, Jamie Ferri2, & Greg Hajcak3 1University of Delaware, 2University of California, San Francisco, 3Stony Brook University

Descriptors: adolescence, puberty, social anxiety

Research has shown that neutral faces elicit amygdala activation, potentially due to the salience and ambiguity of neutral facial expressions. We previously found that this activation was inversely related to puberty and positively related to social anxiety symptoms. That is, more socially anxious and less developed girls were characterized by increased amygdala activation to neutral faces. The present study examined the interaction between amygdala activation to neutral adolescent faces and hormonal levels of pubertal development on social anxiety symptoms. Adolescents (N = 72) with no history of social phobia completed an emotional face-matching task that contained male and female faces. Results indicated that participants exhibited increased activation in bilateral amygdala for neutral faces relative to shapes. In addition, the interaction between right amygdala activation and hormonal levels of pubertal development predicted social anxiety. Increased amygdala activity to neutral faces predicted social anxiety, but only for less developed girls. These data suggest that hormones associated with pubertal development may moderate the association between amygdala reactivity and social anxiety symptoms. RO1 MH097767.

Poster 4-39


Jerry Chen, Nicholas Madian, Whitney N. Geller, & Stacie L. Warren Palo Alto University

Descriptors: mental imagery, working memory, fMRI

Mental imagery (MI), defined as the ability to mentally construct images, is associated with cognitive functioning, particularly working memory (WM) and attention. Aberrant MI vividness and cognitive dysfunction are associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific mechanisms are not well understood. As MI relies in part on WM and attention, delineating the relationship between MI and cognition can further elucidate their roles in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study examined fMRI responses as a function of MI vividness during a working memory sorting task in community participants with varying levels of co-occurring depression and anxiety. Results demonstrated that the degree of MI vividness differentiated frontal pole regions supporting attentional control: increased MI vividness was associated with greater activity in vmPFC, whereas decreased MI vividness was associated with less activity in bilateral frontopolar cortices. Additionally, behavioral data demonstrated that decreased MI vividness improved WM task performance (e.g., faster RT), while increased MI vividness disrupted WM task performance (e.g., slower RT). In combination, neuroimaging and behavioral results suggest that enhanced MI commandeers task-independent attentional resources, resulting in poorer WM task performance. Overall, the relationship between WM and MI vividness is complex, and present results raise questions about how regions supporting atten-tional control interact in psychopathology.

Department of Psychology Palo Alto University.


Maria Ruiz-Blondet, Elizabeth Anderson, & Sarah Laszlo Binghamton University

Descriptors: biometrics

A significant challenge for brain biometrics regards their collectability; that is, the ease and speed with which they can be collected from a user (e.g., fingerprints are highly collectable, DNA is not). In the particular case of ERP biometrics, col-lectability is a function of how many sensors and data epochs are needed in order to achieve a particular level of identification accuracy (i.e., protocols requiring fewer sensors and fewer trials are more collectable). One way of improving the collectability of data acquired from a given protocol is to apply machine learning techniques to its post-processing, in order to reduce the amount of raw data needed to make an identification. In prior work, we have demonstrated that a very simple time-domain classifier, built on cross-correlation, can achieve 100% biometric identification accuracy in a pool of 50 users who submitted their ERPs for analysis, when data are considered from 3 electrodes and 360 trials of visual stimulation. Here, we asked whether the minimal classifier needed to achieve 100% recognition could be slimmer (in terms of number of electrodes and trials needed) if data were considered in the combined time/frequency domain, through the use of wavelet transformation. Results indicate that wavelets classification is at least as sensitive as the time domain cross-correlation classifier. We discuss tradeoffs between accuracy advantages obtained with the wavelet classifier and its increased computational weight.

This work was supported by an award to S.L from NSF CAREER-1252975 and by awards to S.L. and Z.J. from NSF TWC SBE-1422417, the Binghamton University Interdisciplinary Collaborative Grants program, and the Binghamton University Health Sciences Transdisciplinary Area of Excellence.

Poster 4-41


Mark S. Schmidt Columbus State University

Descriptors: numerosity perception

Subitizing and non-verbal counting are mechanisms proposed for numerosity perception of small item sets. Subitizing (1-3) is fast and accurate; non-verbal counting (4-6) is systematically slower and less accurate. The P3b component of the event-related potential (ERP) is a large positive deflection with onset/offset latencies 300 - 900 ms post-stimulus and maximum amplitude over Pz. P3b amplitude and latency are thought to reflect aspects of stimulus processing; large amplitudes with better discrimination and short latencies with faster evaluation time. In this study, it was predicted that P3b amplitude and latency would reflect the distinction between subitizing and non-verbal counting typically seen with accuracy and response time measures. ERPs were recorded at Pz, Cz, Fz in response to 150 ms dot displays varying in numerosity (1-7). Six odd-ball tasks in which target numerosity (1-6) occurred on 14% of trials were presented. Participants (N=12) responded by pressing one of two buttons (target/non-target) and were instructed to emphasize both accuracy and speed. P3b difference waves (DW) were obtained from target and non-target waveforms at Pz and the jackknife-based scoring method was used to compare DW amplitude and latency across target numerosities. Larger P3b amplitudes and shorter P3b latencies were found in the subitizing range compared with the non-verbal counting range. These results extend previous findings on the subitizing/counting distinction, and provide additional support for P3b as a measure of stimulus discrimination and evaluation time.


Evelyn Cordero1,2, Jamie Hershaw2, Jessica Kegel1,2, Ashley Safford1,2, & Mark L. Ettenhofer2 1Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 2Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Descriptors: pupillometry, post-concussive symptoms

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research indicates that most cognitive impairments resolve within two to three months of the initial injury. Yet, a small subset of those experiencing mTBI continue to report post-concussive symptoms well beyond the three-month mark. Currently, neuropsychological assessments are the main tool used to measure cognitive impairment, while post-concussive symptoms are typically measured by use of self-report measures such as the Neurobe-havioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Neuropsychological assessments have not been useful in predicting the post concussive symptoms in mTBI; therefore, better predictors are needed. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of pupillary measures of cognitive load in conjunction with neuropsychological outcomes to predict post-concussive symptoms, and compared this to the predictive ability of neuropsychological outcomes alone. Using a series of hierarchical linear models, we discovered that the addition of pupillary metrics significantly improved the predictive value of the model over neuropsychological outcomes alone. This indicates that pupillary metrics, a more direct measure of cognition and neural integrity, may be a useful predictor of post-concussive symptoms.

This project was funded by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Disclaimer: The technology described in this manuscript is included in U.S. Patent Application #61/779,801, with rights assigned to USUHS. The views and opinions presented in this manuscript are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the position of USUHS, the Department of Defense, or the United States government.

Poster 4-43


Page Hayley, Mackenzie Labus, Amy Early, & Nathaniel J. Thom Wheaton College

Descriptors: resilience

Aid workers represent a unique cohort of people who expose themselves to extreme levels of adversity potentially resulting in behavioral health concerns that affect their performance. We've demonstrated a link between autonomic function, interoception, and behavioral health, suggesting that high-functioning individuals process information distinctively. We conducted a preliminary study by collecting heart-rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic function, and by administering surveys that assess sleep, resilience, and behavioral health to men (n=7) and women (n = 3) workers with exposure to tremendous trauma (e.g., rape, murder, natural disaster, bad accident). Our data showed a Pearson Correlation of 0.77 (p=0.07) between the PCL and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio, suggesting that as self-reported PTSD symptoms rise, HRV decreases. We also found an inverse relationship (r = - 0.90, p < 0.01) between the PSQI and the RSES and a positive relationship (r = 0.78, p = 0.04) between the PSQI and the Mini-Screen indicating that better sleep quality is associated with less depressive symptoms and greater resilience. Finally, both the RSES (r = -0.73, p = 0.04) and the CD-RISC (r = -0.83, p = 0.02) showed significant inverse relationships to the Mini-Screen, suggesting that depressive symptoms decrease with increasing resiliency. These preliminary results from our pilot data successfully extend previous research. HRV and sleep may be potential indices of performance under duress among a unique sample. Future studies will directly assess brain activity EEG and fNIRS.

This work was funded in part by Wheaton College's G.W. Aldeen Memorial Fund.


Megan Fisher, Yanli Lin, & Jason S. Moser Michigan State University

Descriptors: EEG, mindfulness, attention

Substantial research has linked mindfulness with changes in responding to aver-sive events. The present study examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and attentional responding to negative events, in particular. Participants completed a selective attention flankers task and passive picture-viewing task while continuous EEG was recorded. Two event-related potentials (ERPs)— the error positivity (Pe) and the late positive potential (LPP)—were measured to assess attention to errors and attention to negative images, respectively. Disposi-tional mindfulness was measured using the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire - Acting with Awareness (FFMW-AA) subscale. Initial correlational analyses showed dispositional mindfulness was associated with both a smaller Pe (r 5 -.43, p 5 .01) and a smaller LPP (r 5 -.45, p 5 .01). Moreover Pe and LPP were related to one another (r 5 .55, p < .01), consistent with the idea that both the Pe and LPP are thought to reflect attention to motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., errors and negative pictures). When simultaneously entered into a linear regression analysis, neither the Pe nor LPP (ps > .16) alone predicted disposi-tional mindfulness. Together, however, the shared variance between LPP and Pe accounted for a significant portion of the variance in dispositional mindfulness (R2 5 .16, p 5 .04). Consequently, our findings suggest that attentional processes may play a key role in the relationship between mindfulness and responding to aversive events.

Poster 4-45


William G. Murphy, Amy Anderson, Ellen Saylor, Jacob Gurera, Catlin Pearson, & Diane L. Filion University of Missouri - Kansas City

Descriptors: sleep, startle, attention

Research has shown that sleep deprivation negatively affects a variety of cognitive abilities including attention and memory. For attention specifically, Petrov-sky (2014) recently reported that one night of total sleep deprivation significantly decreased Prepulse Inhibition of Startle (PPI), a measure that indexes sensorimo-tor gating and early attentional filtering. Rather than total sleep deprivation, college students often report a more chronic partial sleep deprivation, obtaining less than an optimal amount of sleep each night over a prolonged period. The current study investigates the relationship between objectively measured sleep data and PPI assessed under conditions of high and low task difficulty. Undergraduates (n=25) wore commercially available activity bands for two weeks, and then completed a serial arithmetic task that included easy and difficult problems. The task was presented visually and required participants to keep a silent running total in order to report the correct solution at the end of each trial. A startle-eliciting noise burst was presented occasionally throughout each trial, with half preceded by a tone prepulse at a lead interval of 120ms. We hypothesized that there would be a significant correlation between PPI scores and average minutes of sleep per night. Results supported our hypothesis for the difficult task condition (r=.40, p < .05) but not the easy condition. This finding highlights the importance of sleep to efficient attentional filtering and also suggests that sleep may be an important moderator of attention during difficult tasks.


Daniel E. Bradford, Jesse T. Kaye, & John J. Curtin University of Wisconsin - Madison

Descriptors: NPU, IAPs, startle

Psychophysiology research has begun to combine multiple physiological and self-report measures in attempts to better index latent constructs relevant to psy-chopathology and individual differences in emotion. These goals are synergistic with recent RDoC and related initiatives designed to further understand mechanisms in psychopathology. These efforts may be most successful if they include data from both multiple measures and multiple tasks. In the current study, participants (N = 128) completed the No Shock, Predictable Shock, Unpredictable Shock (NPU) task, Affective Picture Viewing task (APV), and Resting State task twice separated by one week. We measured potentiation/modulation scores in NPU and APV tasks for startle and corrugator responses and general startle reactivity in the Resting State task. We also administered an array of trait negative affect related self-report questionnaires. We examined correlations among all of these psychophysiological and self-report variables across sessions. We then completed an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test evidence for underlying constructs of relevance. We found moderate to strong significant correlations within and between some psychophysiological and self-report variables. However, EFA analysis with various multiple factor solutions suggests that the relationships among these variables may be dominated by method variance. This should raise concerns and spur discussion about issues relating to method variance when attempting to tease out underlying constructs of interest.

Poster 4-47


Amanda Levinson1, Brandon E. Gibb2, & Greg Hajcak1 1Stony Brook University, 2Binghamton University

Descriptors: reward positivity, face morphing, emotion recognition Individual differences in the Reward Positivity (RewP) have been related to reward-related neural networks using fMRI, self-report and behavioral measures of reward sensitivity, as well as variability in depression and depression risk. Depression is characterized more broadly by biased processing of positive and negative emotional stimuli. The current study of 107 girls aged 8 to 13 sought to examine whether reward sensitivity as indexed by the RewP would predict sensitivity to emotional information. The participants completed a face morphing task in which they view images of faces gradually changing from neutral to emotional (happy, sad, or afraid) and are instructed to classify the emotion as quickly as possible. The RewP was also elicited using the doors guessing task. We then examined the relationship between the RewP and behavioral measures of emotion detection on the face morphing task. Correlational analyses found a smaller RewP was associated with slower reaction times to all emotional faces. In hierarchical regression analyses, after adjusting for age and reaction times to other emotional faces, a smaller RewP predicted slower reaction time to happy faces and faster reaction time to sad faces. Together, these data suggest that an increased RewP is associated with a behavioral bias to classify emotional faces expressing positive affect (i.e., happy) and not negative affect (i.e., sad). Insofar as both measures have been linked to depression, future work will explore whether these measure can be used in combination in relation to depression and risk.

Funding provided by the NIMH (# 1 R01 MH097767-01).


Anne Walk1, Naiman A. Khan1, Sasha McCorkle1, Eric S. Drollette1, Lauren B. Raine1, Arthur F. Kramer2, Neal J. Cohen1, Lisa Renzi3, Billy

Hammond3, & Charles Hillman2 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Northeastern University, 3University of Georgia

Descriptors: attentional control, lutein, cognitive development Macular pigment, specifically the carotenoid lutein, has been the focus of several recent reports related to brain and cognitive health. Early evidence suggests that lutein may be especially critical for neural development in children. However, to date no systematic investigation has attempted to link lutein to measurements of brain or cognition in children. We measured macular pigment optical density (MPOD) using a modified heterochromatic flicker photometry technique in 54 preadolescent children (8-9-year-olds). ERPs were used to measure the neural correlates underlying attentional control during a modified Eriksen flanker task. The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) was implemented to assess academic achievement. For incongruent flanker trials, where attentional control demands are high, MPOD was directly related to response accuracy, but indirectly related to P3 amplitude at midline electrodes as well as at a six sensor region of interest encompassing the topographic maxima. These results suggest that lutein may be related to neural efficiency, especially when attentional control is employed. In addition, MPOD was positively related to the math composite and subtests of the KTEA. These results indicate that lutein is related to cognitive and brain health in a variety of domains within the pediatric population.

This research was funded by Abbott Nutrition through the Center for Nutrition, Learning, and Memory (CNLM) and by NIH Grant (HD069381). Lauren Raine was supported by the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture under the Illinois Transdisciplinary Obesity Prevention Program grant (2011-67001-30101) to the Division of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Illinois.

Poster 4-49


Lauren Raine1, Neal J. Cohen1, Arthur F. Kramer2, Naiman A. Khan1, & Charles H. Hillman2 1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Northeastern University

Descriptors: visceral adipose tissue, P300

The neurocognitive impact of adiposity during childhood remains controversial. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is metabolically active and implicated in inflammation and insulin resistance; however, the influence of VAT on children's cognitive function remains virtually unexamined. This investigation evaluated the impact of VAT on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of cognitive function among 9-10-year-old children. 94 children (41 females) performed flanker and oddball tasks while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and task performance were recorded. %body fat (%FM) and VAT were assessed by DXA. Covariates included demographics, IQ, and fitness. Males and females had different levels of VAT and %FM, warranting separate analyses by sex. Correlation analyses revealed no significant associations between behavior and adiposity. However, %FM and VAT were negatively correlated with P3 amplitude at central-parietal midline electrodes. Regressions were performed to determine whether the association between %FM and P3 amplitude was mediated by VAT, following adjustment of age and fitness. Although %FM was negatively associated with P3 amplitude in the regression models, this relationship was mediated by VAT. Increasing VAT negatively predicted P3 amplitude only during the flanker task

condition requiring upregulation of inhibitory control. These results suggest that, in males, VAT compromises inhibitory control when task demands are increased. These results point to VAT as an adiposity marker related to the neural underpinnings of cognitive control in prepubescent males.

Supported by the Center for Nutrition, Learning, and Memory at the University of Illinois, Abbott Nutrition, and the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture under the Illinois Transdis-ciplinary Obesity Prevention Program grant (2011-67001-30101) to the Division of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Illinois.

Poster 4-50


Rebecca Calcott, & Elliot Berkman University of Oregon

Descriptors: cognitive control, attentional flexibility, dopamine Effective cognitive control requires not only stable maintenance of one's attentional focus, but also flexible adjustment of attentional focus when necessary. Stability and flexibility of attention appear to exist in an antagonistic balance, such that higher flexibility comes at the cost of greater distractibility and thus reduced stability. Dopamine (DA) is thought to influence this balance between stability and flexibility, but its precise role remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to clarify the role of DA by independently examining flexibility and distracti-bility within a single task. Participants (N=64) completed an attention shifting task. Flexibility was indexed by the switch cost magnitude when subjects shifted between attending one of three standard colors (red, blue, green) in an array. To measure distraction, a task-irrelevant distractor in a novel color (e.g., orange) appeared on 20% of trials. DA was measured using eye blink rate (EBR), a marker of striatal DA levels. EBR significantly interacted with trial type, such that EBR positively predicted switch costs on standard trials, but not on trials with oddball distractors. Thus, higher striatal DA was linked with reduced flexibility when switching to a familiar but previously-irrelevant target. Critically, these data suggest that DA may be specific to flexibility and may not be involved in distractibility by novel, task-irrelevant stimuli. A follow-up study will use eye tracking to determine the particular gaze patterns that underlie these DA-linked effects on switch costs.

Poster 4-51


Ashley Scolaro1, & Kira Bailey2 1Central College, 2Ohio Wesleyan University

Descriptors: prospective memory, DLPFC, direct current stimulation The gateway hypothesis posits differential roles of the lateral and medial prefron-tal cortices in prospective remembering (Burgess et al., 2008). Given that recent studies have demonstrated improved performance on task switching after anodal direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Leite et al., 2013; Loftus et al., 2015), we hypothesized that similar stimulation would improve prospective remembering. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of healthy participants while they completed two task-switching blocks (one block included an embedded prospective memory component). Analyses of ongoing trials replicated previous findings of a cognitive benefit of anodal stimulation of the left dorsolat-eral prefrontal cortex. Surprisingly, anodal stimulation of the left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex reduced prospective accuracy relative to sham and cathodal stimulation conditions suggesting a complex role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in task switching and prospective memory paradigms.


Michelle Leckey, & Kara D. Federmeier University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Descriptors: language, syntax

Evidence from both brain-damaged and neurologically intact participants has suggested that the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more able to process language syntax than was traditionally appreciated. Recent work has further linked RH involvement in syntactic processing to the familial sinistrality profile of the individual. In response to phrase structure violations those right-handers who do not have left-handed relatives (FS-) show a P600 response in the left hemisphere (LH) only, whereas right-handers with left-handed relatives (FS1) show a bilateral P600 response. Findings like these raise questions about what aspects of syntax the RH of the FS- group can appreciate. Prior work has shown that lexically marked syntactic violations elicit a bilateral P600 compared with a LH-only response to morphologically marked violations, suggesting that the RH may rely more on lexical aspects of language when processing syntax. Here, we followed up on these findings by examining whether lexically marked violations will show differential patterns of RH P600 responses based on familial sinistrality. 48 young adults (24 FS-, 24 FS1) were presented with sentences containing lexically marked morphosyntactic violations, the probability of which was manipulated across blocks. Both the FS- and FS1 groups showed a bilateral P600 response, indicating that the RH of FS- participants is capable of appreciating syntactic information under at least some conditions.

Poster 4-54


Sebastian Schindler, & Johanna Kissler Bielefeld University

Descriptors: EEG/ERP, social feedback, language/emotion The personal significance of a language statement depends on its communicative context. Recently, studies showed that emotional and neutral adjectives are processed more intensely when putatively sent by another human compared to a computer. Here, we investigated how ascribed expertise alters the cortical processing of language-based personality feedback.

To this end, thirty participants described themselves in a video interview and filled in a short personality questionnaire. They were told that based on this an 'expert' (psychotherapist) or a 'layperson' evaluated them on written positive, negative, or neutral adjectives, while high-density EEG was recorded. In a control condition participants received putatively random computer-feedback. Actually, in all conditions random feedback was presented.

Sender effects modulated the N1, P2, EPN, P3 and LPP amplitudes. Crucially, linear trends showed for all components that decisions by an 'expert' led to largest amplitudes, followed by those of a 'layperson'. An interaction on the P3 showed that all decisions from the 'expert' were amplified, while for the 'layperson' this was only the case for emotional feedback. Linear effects were also observed in source space in broad visual, parietal, frontal and somatosensory regions as well as in the posterior cingulum. Finally, emotional decisions led to larger P3 and LPP amplitudes.

These findings show the contextual plasticity of (emotional) language processing and highlight the importance of developing ecologically situated communicative designs to investigate its neuronal bases.

Poster 4-55


Katie E. Garrison1, Julia B. McDonald2, Adrienne L. Crowell3, Nicholas J.

Kelley4, & Brandon J. Schmeichel1 1Texas A&M University, 2University of South Florida, 3Hendrix College, 4Northwestern University

Descriptors: emotion/affect, acetaminophen, late positive potential Acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol, is a common over-the-counter pain reliever. Research has suggested that acetaminophen blunts not only physical

pain but also emotional pain (Durso, Luttrell, & Way, 2015). In the current experiment we moved beyond self-reported measures to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen blunts emotional responding at the neural level. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential in the electroencephalogram (EEG), served as our index emotional responding. Undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to ingest either acetaminophen or a placebo. Later, participants' brain activity was recorded as they viewed 19 positive, 19 negative, and 19 neutral images presented in random order and displayed for 6 seconds each. We quantified the LPP as the mean EEG activity in the time window 500-1000 ms after picture onset. Results revealed a main effect of picture type, such that positive and negative images elicited larger LPPs than neutral images. Contrary to predictions, there was no effect of pill condition and no interaction between pill condition and picture type on LPP magnitudes. We explored moderating effects of trait behavioral inhibition sensitivity (BIS) and discovered an interaction between pill condition and BIS. Specifically, trait BIS predicted LPP magnitudes during emotional images in the placebo condition, but this relationship was eliminated by acetaminophen. This finding fits with the hypothesis that acetaminophen modulates emotional responding.

Poster 4-56


Rachel Zimmerman, Zachary Clark, Karly Bender, Destiny Davis, Carlie

Bright, Tiffany Barker, Melanie Hetzel-Riggin, Victoria A. Kazmerski, & David R. Herring Pennsylvania State University, Erie

Descriptors: imagery, EEG, emotional engagement

Picture perception research indicates that startle probe P3s of the event-related potential are reduced for emotional compared to neutral stimuli. These data suggest emotional images require more attention thus leaving fewer resources to attend to the auditory probes. Given different emotion induction techniques engage different processes evident by unique peripheral physiology (e.g., startle EMG), we investigated whether probe P3s during emotional imagery would be similarly reduced relative to probe P3s during neutral imagery, akin to the picture perception literature. Fifteen participants underwent a narrative script-driven emotional imagery procedure. These narrative scripts were followed by an imagery period in which 95 dB startle probes were presented. Similar to the picture perception literature, probe P3s were reduced during emotional relative to neutral imagery. These initial data suggest that while peripheral physiology may be distinct between emotional imagery and perception, attention is allocated similarly to emotional stimuli during these induction techniques. The probe P3 may prove useful as a measure of emotional engagement during script-driven imagery.

Poster 4-57


Artem Kovalev, & Galina Menshikova Lomonosov Moscow State University

Descriptors: opto-kinetic nystagmus, vection illusion, virtual reality Motion sickness symptoms can occur in the absence of real physical motion of the observer. Specifically, the self-motion illusion, or vection illusion (an example of visually induced motion sickness) often ensues as a result of exposure to dynamic visual displays. We developed a method of quantitative evaluation of the vection illusion (VI) strength based on optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) characteristics during the VI perception. According to our hypothesis the OKN may be considered as the compensation mechanism to reduce the VI. We studied the VI strength depending on viewing angle values of dynamic visual displays. The VI was initiated using the CAVE virtual reality system. The VI strength was analyzed using the SSQ questionnaire and OKN characteristics. Results revealed complex links between viewing angle values, the VI strength and OKN characteristics. When dynamic visual displays were occupying half of the visual field, the VI strength and OKN characteristics were not very pronounced. For displays which occupied the whole visual field the VI strength was greatly higher and the OKN characteristics were significantly changed: there were a lot of microsaccades in the slow OKN phase and high-amplitude high-frequency saccades in the fast OKN phase with blinks at the end of the OKN cycle. Our result showed that the OKN characteristics were tightly linked with the VI strength, so it would be possible to use them as real time indicators of the VI perception.


Rebecca Burnside, Adrian G. Fischer, & Markus Ullsperger Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg

Descriptors: observational learning, FRN, P3

Reinforcement learning theory states that learning is driven by prediction errors— the discrepancy between the predicted and actual outcome of a performed action. It is unclear, however, how learning occurs in the absence of a performed action and how this process unfolds over time. This study examines the temporal dynamics of observational learning, using a combination of EEG recording and modelbased analyses. Twenty participants learned the stimulus-outcome contingencies for a probabilistic three-armed bandit task. They played in pairs, with the acting and observing player switching every one to three trials. An adapted Q-learning algorithm (Sutton & Barto, 1998) was fit to participants' choices in this task. Comparable model estimated learning rates were obtained for trials in which the same player acted consecutively, relative to when players switched from an observing to an acting role. This suggested that participants weighted the outcomes they received from making and observing choices on each trial similarly. A feedback-related negativity (FRN), which is an event-related potential (ERP) component that is thought to index reward prediction error, was also elicited equivalently in each condition. In contrast, P3a (FCz) and P3b (Pz) ERPs were smaller in amplitude when participants viewed the action-outcomes of the other player. The P3b has been linked to behavioural adaptation. Therefore, it is the aim of an ongoing analysis to determine if response-switching can be predicted by trial-by-trial P3 amplitude to the same extent in the acting and observing conditions.

Poster 4-60


Miguel Sanchez Hechavarria1, Ramon Carrazana-Escalona1, & Beatriz Ricardo-Ferro2 1Medical Science University of Santiago de Cuba, 2Medical Biophysics Center

Descriptors: time-frequency heart rate variability, psychophysiological stress, pulse transit time

Background: Pulse transit time (PTT) is a simple, non-invasive measurement and anappropriate parameter for stress measurement, but few quantitative data are availabledescribing the factors which influence PTT.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate beat-to-beat the relationship between time-frequency heart rate variability, the cardiac interval (RR), PTT-onset and PTT-peak, using psychophysiological stress to generate changes in these variables.

Methods: In a crossover design, 10 subjects (19 ± 1,5 years of age) we evaluated correlation the beat-to-beat autonomic nervous system activity by testing the wavelet time-frequency heart rate variability(LH, HF, LH_HF), the interval RR, PTT-onset and PTT-peak, obtained by ECG and pulse tonometry signal in polygraph device (AD Instruments Powerlab 8®) for 5 min of rest and during 5 min of responses to mental stress (arithmetic test).

Results: Examining changes over time there found good correlation 0.66 between PTT-onset and PTT-peak, with a reduction (r= 0.48) in mental stress and a lower correlation between the other variable, but however in mental stress with concerning to the rest there was a increase of correlation PTT peak/LF, PTT peak/HF, PTT peak/RR, PTT onset/LF and a decrease of correlation PTT peak/ LF_HF, PTT onset/HF, PTT onset/LF_HF, PTT onset/RR.

Conclusion: Theses results suggest that pulse transit time of pulse peak is more adequate for to show cardiovascular sympathetic changes during psychophysio-logical stress.

Poster 4-61


Desiree Budd1, Michael P.W. Donnelly2, Amanda LaBode1, Jessika Tollefson1, Kevin DuVall1, Paige Mullen1, Rebecca Olson1, Christina Scinto1, & J. Johanna Hopp1 1University of Wisconsin - Stout, 2Sulcus Scientific Consulting, LLC

Descriptors: concussion, auditory oddball task, P300 event-related potential Concussion is problematic at any age, but this may be especially true for adolescents, whose frontal lobes are still developing. It is already clear that adolescents who experience concussion will have lingering aftereffects in cortical function for many years. We wondered whether it would be possible to detect altered P300 in young adults who had played collision sports as adolescents, but who had not experienced patent concussion. We used a three tone auditory oddball task to compare P300 for three groups of male college students: two groups who had played football in high school (one group of players who had experienced concussion and one group who reported no concussions) and a third group who had no history of concussion and had only played limited contact sports. Participants performed the auditory oddball task while we measured their neural activity using EEG. Preliminary data indicate that P300 component for individuals who experienced one or more concussions was decreased in amplitude and had a longer latency compared to age-matched subjects who never played football or experienced a concussion. While not as extreme, the P300 component for football players who never experienced a concussion showed P300 effects similar to the concussed group. We believe this result indicates possible lasting effects of non-concussive impacts on neural function in young adults.


Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, & Norbert Kathmann Humboldt-University Berlin

Descriptors: ERN, psychopathology, performance monitoring Overactive performance monitoring, as indexed by increased amplitudes of error-related negativity (ERN), represents one of the most robust psychophysiological findings in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). But increased ERN amplitudes have also been found in other psychiatric disorders, such as general and social anxiety, as well as in healthy individuals with high levels of traits linked to anxiety, negative affect, and worry. The relation of trait influences and disorder effects on ERP correlates of performance monitoring is not fully understood and the study thus aimed at an extensive investigation of the respective contributions of traits associated with anxiety and compulsivity (e.g. habitual negative affect, worry, perfectionism, sensitivity for punishment, conscientiousness) to variations in ERN amplitudes. To this end, 75 healthy control participants were recruited stratified with regard to OC-symptoms (i.e. low, medium, and high) and parallelized to a group of 25 patients with OCD. From all participants, EEG data as well as peripheral psychophysiological measures were collected during a flanker task. Results from regression analyses indicate strongest determination of ERN amplitudes by conscientiousness and sensitivity for punishment. Analyses further showed that highly obsessive participants displayed ERN amplitudes comparable to those of the OCD patients group, but differed in dimensional trait measures such as resilience. Implications for clinical as well as performance monitoring research will be discussed.supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG; KA 815/7-1)

Poster 4-63


Ekjyot Saini, Lauren Philbrook, Margaret Keiley, Stephen Erath, & Mona El-Sheikh Auburn University

Descriptors: adolescence, pre-ejection period, relationships Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a marker of physiological arousal that is affected by external influences. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is a cardiovascular measure of SNS activity. Basal PEP functioning stabilizes across childhood (Hinnant et al., 2011), but little is known about developmental changes across adolescence. The present study examines how interpersonal relationships predict trajectories of PEP in addition to testing differences by race and sex.

A community sample of 251 adolescents (51% female; 65% European American (EA), 35% African American (AA)) participated in laboratory visit at ages 16, 17, and 18. Basal PEP was assessed using Mindware hardware and software and adolescent self-report on relationships with peers and parents was collected with well-established measures.

Multi-group growth modeling analyses revealed that AA youth exhibited a decrease in PEP across late adolescence, signifying increased sympathetic activity, whereas EA youth did not show change over time. For AA males, deviant peer affiliations (e.g., friends who break rules, do not attend school) predicted a decrease in PEP (beta = -.056, p < .05). Hostile parental control (e.g, remind child frequently of mistakes) predicted lower PEP levels for AA females (beta = -.019, p = .05). Findings suggest that AA adolescents show a developmental increase in SNS activity, with implications for later cardiovascular health risks. Furthermore, facets of negative relationships across parent and peer domains influence PEP trajectories differently for boys and girls.


Lauren Philbrook, Ekjyot Saini, Benjamin Hinnant, & Mona El-Sheikh Auburn University

Descriptors: sympathetic nervous system, sleep, children Lower quality sleep is associated with poorer psychological and physical health, but the mechanisms of effects in these relations are not clear. One potential pathway is via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Lower quality sleep is predictive of higher SNS activity (Michels et al., 2013). At the same time, higher SNS activity may also interfere with an individual's ability to sleep (Dahl, 1996). Making a novel contribution, the present study examined the association between SNS activity and sleep quality over time in order to extricate the potential reciprocal influences between these two bioregulatory processes.

Children (N = 336) participated in a laboratory visit when they were 9, 10, and 11 years old. SNS activity was assessed via pre-ejection period (PEP) at rest using Mindware hardware and software. Children's sleep was examined objectively per state of the science recommendations using actigraphs for seven nights. Sleep efficiency, a key index of sleep quality, was derived and is defined as the percent of the night spent asleep (between sleep onset and wake time).

Growth modeling analyses demonstrated that sleep efficiency predicted an increase in resting PEP, signifying a decrease in SNS activity over development, beta = .10, p < .05. Resting PEP did not predict change in sleep efficiency. The fit of the model was good (chi square(21.62)/df 10) = 2.16, p = .02; RMSEA < .06). Findings suggest that better quality sleep is predictive of a developmental increase in resting PEP, with implications for better physical and mental health.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grant Number R01HL093246 awarded to Mona El-Sheikh.

Poster 4-65


Wesley E. Gregory1, Nicholas Fehertoi1, Treva Van Cleave2, & Wendy D'Andrea2 1The New School, 2The New School for Social Research

Descriptors: childhood trauma, body ownership, rubber hand illusion The rubber hand illusion (RHI) attempts to manipulate sense of body ownership through the adoption of a false rubber hand as one's own. This task has been implicated in the sense of self, and its constituent senses of body ownership and agency. Sustained or chronic trauma, often occurring in childhood, has been thought to result in altered capacity to feel the bodies, and by extension the self. The present study used the RHI and various questionnaires to assess how childhood trauma affects the malleability of one's body schema, and how differences in subjective ratings of the RHI affect experience of shame and identity. In the RHI, change in hand temperature is interpreted as loss of body ownership. Our study (N 5 56) found that individuals with childhood trauma (N523) had a significant drop in temperature for the replaced hand relative to those without a history of trauma, t53.08, p < .001. Additionally, individuals endorsing a history of childhood trauma rated the subjective effectiveness of the rubber hand illusion as significantly higher than those who did not, t5-2.28, p< .05. Further, individuals reporting a higher sense of the RHI reported a higher degree of traumatic shame, t5.382, p < .05, and a higher degree of identity diffusion, t52.62, p < .05, than those less susceptible to the RHI. Our results suggest that people who have experienced trauma early in life have a sense of body ownership is more easily altered, and thus a more diffuse sense of self and identity overall, paired with a higher degree of shame, which has been associated with low feelings of self-agency.


James R. Yancey, Colin B. Bowyer, Jens Foell, Kara Hulstrand, & Christopher J. Patrick Florida State University

Descriptors: fear potentiated startle, threat sensitivity, task switch Understanding the interplay between cognitive and emotional systems is crucial to a process-oriented account of adaptive and maladaptive behavior. A major question of interest is how activation in basic motivational circuits affects the capacity for cognitive control in different contexts and in people with differing attributes. A well-established procedure for studying flexible responding ('set-shifting') as a facet of cognitive control is the task-switching paradigm, in which two tasks entailing different responses to the same stimuli are performed in alternation. The current study was undertaken to examine the impact of defense-system activation prompted by physical threat on behavioral performance and physiological reactivity in a task switching procedure, in general and as a function of variations in traits of fearfulness and inhibitory control. A novel task-switching paradigm was used in which participants responded in differing ways to neutral human faces depending upon the position of the face. A threat manipulation was included involving receipt of intermittent electric shocks in some trial blocks. Results for the overall sample indicated increased accuracy and decreased reaction time on trials requiring a switch of rule set during threat versus non-threat blocks. Furthermore, these effects on flexible responding were associated both with variations in startle potentiation during threat blocks and variations in dispo-sitional fear. Implications for understanding processes underlying variations in cognitive performance under conditions of threat will be discussed.

Poster 4-67


Stanislav A. Kozlovskiy1, Anastasia K. Neklyudova1, Alexander V.

Vartanov1, Andrey A. Kiselnikov1, & Julia A. Marakshina1,2 1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education

Descriptors: recognition memory, event-related potentials, dipole localization Recognition memory was investigated during involuntary encoding situation. 18 healthy right-handed subjects (9 males) 18-28 y.o. participated. The experiment consists of two series. In the first series pictures of different objects were shown sequentially for 1000 ms. The subjects were instructed to classify objects as 'ani-mated'/'inanimated'. The second series in which previously presented and new stimuli were shown quasi-randomly was conducted in 48 hours. The subjects had to decide if they had seen an object before. 19-channel EEG was registered. Event-related potentials were averaged during presentation of objects according to the answers. Then dipole sources were calculated using of BrainLoc 6.0 software (two-dipole dynamic model, KD>0.95). The activation of right cingulate gyrus was revealed at latency 300-400 ms during the recognition of previously presented stimuli. Furthermore, activation was observed in right putamen (100 and 500 ms) and left hippocampus (200 ms) during the recognition of stimuli as new. We could hypothesize that there are two functional systems connected with recognition memory according these findings: the first one is responsible for recognition of previously presented stimuli and the second one supports recognition of objects as new. Right cingulate gyrus is involved in functioning of the first system, while combined work of right putamen and right hippocampus provides functioning of the second system. We suppose that hippocampus is responsible for the retrieval of information from episodic memory while putamen has a modulating effect on it.

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 1618-00066).


Heather Soder, Andrew Vieira, & Geoffrey Potts University of South Florida

Descriptors: punishment sensitivity, feedback-related negativity, worse-than-expected

According to the dominant theory of the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN), Holroyd and Coles (2002) Reinforcement Learning Theory, outcomes that are worse-than-expected should elicit an FRN. Typically studies have used monetary loss as the punishment, which is the absence of an appetitive stimulus. Few studies have employed actual punishment: the presence of an aversive stimulus. Here, participants completed two conditions of a passive S1/S2 outcome prediction design, one rewarding and one punishing. In the rewarding condition participants received expected and unexpected rewards ($1) or withheld rewards ($0). In the punishing condition participants received expected and unexpected punishments (white noise burst) or withheld punishments (silence). Both unexpected withheld rewards (worse-than-expected) and unexpected withheld punishments (better-than-expected) elicited a similar FRN. This challenges the Reinforcement Learning hypothesis which states that the FRN indexes valenced (good/bad) outcome prediction violation. Instead this result suggests that the FRN indexes the unexpected absence of a motivationally salient stimulus, regardless of valence. Additionally, a positivity that occurs to unexpected delivered rewards (Reward Positivity: RewP) was also found here to unexpected delivered punishments. The medial frontal neural system indexed by the FRN/RewP may respond in a bipolar manner to prediction violations, but not better or worse than expected, but rather the unexpected presence or absence of a motivationally salient stimulus regardless of valence.

Poster 4-69


Paige Mullen, Kaitlyn Rowley, Jimmy Vance, Desiree Budd, & J. Johanna Hopp 1University of Wisconsin - Stout

Descriptors: concussion, memory-guided saccades, cognitive function This study compares the attention and short-term memory processing of college students who played high contact (e.g. football) or low contact (e.g. track) sports in high school, either with or without past concussion. While concussion has detrimental effects on cognition, the effects of sub-concussive head impacts, particularly in the short-term, is less understood. In this study, subjects completed either a general memory-guided (MG) saccade task or a MG saccade adaptation. Memory-guided saccades utilize short-term memory processing in the frontal lobe, an area thought to be involved in MG adaptation and affected by concussion. In both experiments, subjects fixated a visual target while a peripheral target was flashed briefly in the periphery. After a short time, they looked to the location of the flashed target. In the general study, characteristics of the performance (accuracy and latency) and the subject's ability to stay attentive to the task were examined. For MG adaptation, the characteristics of the adaptation, including the degree and time course, were studied. Finally, for both experiments, subjects completed a sport demographic survey assessing their sport participation experience and concussion history. Preliminary results indicate a difference between the groups regarding attention to the task and adaptation characteristics. A detailed comparison of the behavioral performance between the different populations and the implications this has on understanding the effects of sport-related repetitive head impacts with, and without, concussion will be discussed.


Amy M. Smith, & Ayanna K. Thomas Tufts University

Descriptors: stress, memory

Stress induced prior to memory retrieval often results in substandard memory performance. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether a learning technique called retrieval practice could protect memory against the negative effects of stress. Retrieval practice involves the initial studying of information followed by repeated attempts to remember that information. This technique has been widely shown to improve memory performance relative to repeated re-studying. The present study examined whether the utility of learning through retrieval practice could extend to retrieval under stress. Prior to stress induction, participants learned pictures and words through either study practice or retrieval practice. Twenty-four hours later, we induced stress in half of the participants using the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) and measured memory performance. As a manipulation check, we also measured heart rate before, during, and after the TSST-G tasks using Empatica E4 wristbands. Compared to their pre-stress values, stressed participants showed reduced heart rate variability during the TSST-G whereas those who completed the time-matched control task did not. With regard to memory performance, participants who engaged in study practice demonstrated stress-related memory deficits, whereas those who engaged in retrieval practice were immune to these deleterious effects. These results suggest that (1) our stress manipulation was effective, and (2) retrieval practice may serve to create memory representations that are resistant to stress-related retrieval impairment.

This research was funded in part by the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, & Engineering Center (NSRDEC), and in part by the Tufts University Graduate Student Research Award awarded to Amy Smith.

Poster 4-71


Matthias F.J. Sperl1,2,3, Christian Panitz1,2, Isabelle M. Rosso3, Daniel G.

Dillon3, Alexis E. Whitton3, Poornima Kumar3, Andrea Hermann2, Christiane Hermann2, Diego A. Pizzagalli3, & Erik M. Mueller1,2 1Marburg University, 2Justus Liebig University Giessen, 3McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Descriptors: fear conditioning/extinction, theta oscillations, simultaneous EEG/MRI

Human fMRI and EEG studies as well as animal studies indicate that the amygdala and the anterior midcingulate cortex (AMC) are involved in fear expression. Moreover, AMC theta oscillations have been associated with fear expression in both animals and humans. The aim of the present study is to establish an experimental paradigm to bridge findings from prior animal, human EEG and human fMRI studies by recording fMRI and EEG simultaneously during the recall of conditioned and extinguished fear. Specifically, the goal of the current analysis is to evaluate the feasibility of the design to detect oscillatory EEG correlates when EEG is recorded during MRI. Twenty-one participants underwent a 240-trial fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. EEG and fMRI were recorded simultaneously during a 160-trial recall test 24h later. Extinguished (CS1E, CS-E) and nonextinguished conditioned stimuli (CS1N, CS-N) were compared to identify effects specific to extinction versus fear recall. SCRs and EEG activity on day 2 showed significant interactions of day 1 conditioning and extinction: Differential (CS1 vs. CS-) SCRs were stronger for nonextinguished vs. extinguished CS during the first half of the recall test. Importantly, fronto-medial theta activity was reduced for extinguished vs. nonextinguished stimuli: only nonextinguished stimuli showed a differential theta response. In conclusion, these findings show that oscillatory EEG activity within the theta frequency is a valuable tool to study fear conditioning and extinction, including in the MRI environment.

The study was supported by a grant of Justus Liebig University Giessen (Germany) to Erik M. Mueller and by a PROMOS scholarship of the German Academic Exchange Service to Matthias F.J. Sperl.


Brandi Emerick1, Ashley M. Schnakenberg1, Brian F. O'Donnell2, Tom Busey1, & Sharlene Newman1 1Indiana University, 2Indiana University Bloomington

Descriptors: electroencephalogram, visual perception, cannabis Objectives: This study measured neural synchrony in chronic cannabis (CB) users and non-users during a visual recognition task, using electroencephalogram (EEG) to record steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). We compared neural synchrony and processing of visual information across CB users and nonusers to see whether participant groups would differ in strength of entrainment (measured by magnitude of SSVEPs) to image and noise before or after recognition.

Methods: 19 CB users (mean age = 21.7 years; 8 females) and 24 non-CB users (mean age = 22.3 years; 14 females) were recruited. Degraded images were embedded within visual noise and two different presentation frequencies (6.67 and 8.57 Hz) were used to frequency-tag stimuli, allowing differentiation of brain responses to image and noise. Participants were instructed to attend to images and ignore noise and to press a button once they recognized the image.

Results: There were no significant differences between current users and nonusers. For both participant groups, SSVEPs to image and noise were both significantly greater once the image was recognized, and entrainment to image was significantly larger than entrainment to noise.

Discussion: Current analyses show no significant differences between groups. However, analyses limited to only heavy users (1001 times) are currently underway and may reveal differences between heavy users and non-users. Planned regression analyses will look at whether factors such as age of onset or lifetime use are predictive of entrainment strength.

Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the NIDA R21 DA035493 and a Fellowship to B.E. by the NIH UL1-TR001108 CTSA.

Poster 4-73


Xi Ren1, Fernando Valle-Incan2, & Steven A. Hackley1 1University of Missouri - Columbia, 2University of La Coruna

Descriptors: post-error slowing, stimulus-preceding negativity, attention Post-error slowing (PES) is a phenomenon in which people tend to slow down their response after making an error. It is traditionally theorized as a strategy to improve performance via a speed-accuracy trade-off (Laming, 1968, Information Theory of Choice-Reaction Times, NY: Academic Press). This explanation is less plausible when accuracy is instead reduced, as in the present ERP study.

Sixty healthy young adults performed a motor skill-learning task with varied feedback delays. On each trial, they were instructed by a visual display to make four brief, precisely timed key-press responses with a designated hand. After a short (2.5 s) or long (8 s) delay, feedback was given via a similar display. Collapsing across delay condition, response times increased (from 908 ms to 965 ms, p< .01) and accuracy decreased (from 96% to 94%, p< .001) on trials that followed an error in both delay conditions. No interaction was found. Also, the amplitude of SPN, an index of feedback anticipation, was found to be dramatically reduced after error trials. This suggests that subjects' anticipatory processes in the current trial were compromised by negative feedback on the previous trial. These results are consistent with the theory of Notebaert, Houtman, et al. (2009, Cognition, 111: 275-279) that, when errors are infrequent events, they orient subjects' attention away from the task at hand.


Petr Kondrashkin, Daria Shibkova, Pavel Bayguzhin, & Evgenia Tolstykh Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University

Descriptors: pain, individual pain sensitivity

Pressure algometry is the widespread approach to pain study. Pain threshold values in paravertebral points present both a scientific and practical interest. The aim of the study was to obtain the statistical characteristics of the individual's pressure pain threshold (PPT) for healthy women and persons with minor violations in the condition of vertebral-motor segment (VMS). The two groups of students-volunteers were studied: group #1 was examined in the quiescent state (n=45); group #2 was examined in a state of agitation and willingness for a physical activity (n= 145). Each group was split into 2 sub-groups depending on the availability or absence of complaints about the state of the VMSs (according to the survey). PPT was assessed using the Wagner FPXtm algometer in paired paravertebral points at the level lumbar vertebrae (L2-L3); thoracic vertebrae (D9-D10); neck (C7-D1); and trapezius muscle in its upper part. Height, weight, body mass index were measured. The following results were obtained. (1) PPTs values in the selected points were log-normally distributed. (2) Willingness for a physical activity increase the back pain threshold values by about 20-40%. (3) Complaints about the state of the VMS were accompanied by a decrease in the PPT in para-vertebral points of the neck and the lower back in group #1 but not in group #2. (4) In all groups the right-side PPT values were 2-8% lower than the corresponding left-side values (test Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Lateralization of pain sensitivity requires further study.

Poster 4-75


Allan Heritage, Laura McClenahan, Geoffrey Woodman, & David Zald Vanderbilt University

Descriptors: psychopathic traits, affective faces, event-related potentials Psychopathic individuals consistently show deficits identifying fearful faces. These deficits are important for social communication and psychopaths' ability to manipulate and harm others. There is also evidence of deficits in attention and working memory in psychopathy, and recent work has shown interactions between these affective and cognitive deficits. However, it is unclear how cognitive deficits influence the processing of affective faces in psychopathy. Therefore, we sought to identify how individuals with psychopathic traits deployed attention

to affective faces, how they maintained those faces in memory, and how deficits in cognitive mechanisms were related to deficits in fear identification. Community participants completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and a memory-guided visual search task for affective faces. ERP components were used to index attention (N2pc) and working memory (CDA). Results show a distinct relationship between participant's scores on the fearless dominance (FD) factor of the PPI and processing of fear faces. Participants with higher FD scores showed greater attention to initial fear targets and greater maintenance of those targets in working memory, but reduced attention to fear faces in the search array. Participants with higher FD scores also had reduced search accuracy and more difficulty labeling emotional faces. This suggests that although psychopaths may initially find fearful faces more salient, they have difficulty identifying fearful expressions in the midst of potentially distracting information.

This work was supported in part by a National Research Service Award (1F31MH02888-01) to Allan Heritage.

Poster 4-77


Chris M. Fiacconi1, Erika L. Peter2, Sawayra Owais1, & Stefan Kohler1 1University of Western Ontario, 2Queen's University

Descriptors: recognition memory, cardiac cycle, visceral feedback The idea that bodily signals play a role in shaping mental experiences is central to many theories of emotion. Here, we examined the extent to which such signals may also contribute to feeling states that occur in association with cognitive processing. Specifically, we asked whether visceral autonomic feedback that arises from individual heartbeats informs recognition memory judgments and experiences. To investigate this issue, we used a methodological approach that leverages phasic variation in afferent baroreceptor-mediated feedback occuring across the cardiac cycle. Following exposure to novel faces during an encoding phase, we synchronized the presentation of test items in a recognition-memory task to distinct phases of the cardiac cycle and probed whether the difference in afferent signaling across these phases influences participants' recognition decisions and experiences. As predicted, faces presented during cardiac systole (i.e., when visceral feedback is maximal) were more likely to be endorsed as 'old' relative to presentation during cardiac diastole (i.e., when afferent feedback is minimal). This pattern held regardless of whether the faces had a fearful or a neutral expression. By soliciting participants' phenomenological experience on each trial, we also found that this effect is specifically tied to feelings of familiarity, and was absent for trials on which participants recollected pertinent contextual information. The current findings identify the functional role of a specific autonomic channel in feeling states that pertain to memory experience.


Kyle Woisard, Wayne Stafford, Alex Eddy, Rachel Trizna, K'Ehleyr Thai, Steven Nguyen, Grace Herrick, Benjamin DeVore, Ransom Campbell, Kelly Harrison, & David Harrison Virginia Tech

Descriptors: anxiety, EEG, stress

Anxiety is an aversive emotional state marked by hyperarousal and cognitive impairments. Studies using Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) have shown asymmetric right frontal and parietotemporal activity at resting baseline in trait anxious subjects at resting baseline. However, there has been a lack of research investigating changes in QEEG asymmetries in trait anxious subjects following stress. The current study aims to assess changes in QEEG asymmetries following stress in trait anxious subjects. Following a two minute baseline, subjects underwent two 2 minute stress periods, during which they were presented with auditory and counterbalanced unilateral motor stressors, each followed by a two minute recording period. Subjects were classified as high or low trait anxious based on their scores on the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory. Asymmetry scores were calculated for the Fp1/Fp2, F3/F4, F7/F8, C3/C4, P3/P4, and P7/P8 electrode pairs by subtracting the Ln(L alpha power) from the Ln(R alpha power). Preliminary analyses have revealed statistically significant differences in asymmetry scores between the high and low anxious groups in the Fp1/Fp2, F3/F4, and F7/F8 electrode pairs at resting baseline. No differences were noted between conditions in any of the electrode pairs that were selected for analyses. These results replicate previous findings linking asymmetric right frontal activation to subjects scoring high in trait anxiety but do not support the use of changes in asymmetry score as a marker of acute stress.

Poster 4-79


Luyan Ji, & Gilles Pourtois Ghent University

Descriptors: facial expression, spatial cueing paradigm, mean emotion In this study, 64-channels event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded (from 24 participants) while either a single or four faces were presented for 150 ms at an attended or unattended spatial location in the visual field (using a standard cueing technique). Across different blocks, participants were asked either to identify the emotion (happy or angry) from the single face (flanked with three scrambled faces) or extract the mean emotion (happy or angry) from the four faces shown concurrently. Behavioral results showed that performance was better for attended than unattended spatial locations, but balanced between the two tasks. ERP results revealed three non-overlapping time windows following stimulus onset during

which the processing of the average emotion differed from identifying a single emotional expression. First, the occipito-temporal N170 was larger for multiple faces compared with a single face. At 250 ms post-stimulus onset, a larger negative component at lateral occipito-temporal electrodes was found for multiple faces compared to a single face. This effect was followed by a large positive component at posterior leads that was also larger for multiple faces compared to a single face. Importantly, these three ERP components showed systematic amplitude and topographical modulations with spatial attention, equally strongly with the two tasks however. The results suggest that extracting the mean emotion from a set of facial expressions differs from identifying a single facial expression, although these two processes depend on similar attention mechanisms.

Poster 4-80


Hannah Scott1, Jodi Martin2, Garry Smyda3, Jennifer Pfeifer4, & Karina Quevedo1

1University of Minnesota, 2University of Minnesota, Institute of Child Development, 3University of Pittsburgh, 4University of Oregon

Descriptors: neuroimaging, non-suicidal self-injury, adolescence Youth engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are at risk for suicide attempt and chronic psychopathology. Neuroimaging research has yielded biomarkers of emotion dysregulation in NSSI when viewing negative images, but given the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and altered self-processing in NSSI, the neural basis of social processes are key to the emergence and maintenance of NSSI. Adolescents (age 12-17; N= 123) were assessed and divided into groups based on depression diagnosis and NSSI (NSSI and depression= NSSI, depression only = DEP, healthy controls=HC). Participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing fMRI task, which includes taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers', best friends', or classmates') perspectives regarding self-related characteristics. NSSI showed higher activity in limbic and anterior and posterior cortical midline structures (CMS) across all perspectives versus DEP and HC. HC showed greater activity in rostrolateral, frontal pole and occipital cortex than NSSI and DEP youth across all perspectives. Moreover, NSSI (compared to DEP and HC) showed heightened limbic activity (i.e. amygdala, hippocampus, para-hippocampus, and fusiform) when taking their mothers' perspective, and greater precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex activity when taking their classmates' perspective. Findings suggest the role of disruptions in self-processing and emotion, and conflicted social relationships in the neurobiology of NSSI among depressed adolescents.

1K01MH092601: 2011-2016, QUEVEDOK (PI). The Neurobiology of Self-Appraisals and Social Cognition in Depressed Adolescents. NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation: 2012-2015, QUEVEDOK (PI). Identifying Neural and HPA Axis Markers of Chronic Adolescent Depression.