Scholarly article on topic 'Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar'

Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett.
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"composite material" / "impact energy" / "fracture initiation" / J-integral}

Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — R. Fujiyama, F. Darwish, M.V. Pereira

Abstract This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

Academic research paper on topic "Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar"

THEORETICAL & APPLIED MECHANICS LETTERS 4, 061002 (2014)

Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

R. Fujiyama,1 ■a) F. Darwish,2, b) M. V. Pereira3, c)

^Department of Mechanical Engineering, Para Federal University, Belem PA 66075-110, Brazil

2)Department of Civil Engineering, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi RJ 24210-240, Brazil

3)Department of Materials Engineering Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 22453-900, Brazil

(Received 12 June 2014; revised 3 September 2014; accepted 22 October 2014)

Abstract This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

© 2014 The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. [doi:10.1063/2.1406102] Keywords composite material, impact energy, fracture initiation, J-integral

It is well known that the presence of short randomly dispersed fibers in a cementitious matrix can result in an appreciable improvement in the mechanical behavior of the produced composite.1-4 This improvement is clearly manifested by the significant superiority of the composite's toughness in comparison with that of the plain matrix. The increase in toughness, due to the incorporation of fibers, can be attributed, largely, to the fiber bridging mechanism, whereby the fibers take an active part in supporting tensile loading, in controlling matrix microcracking and in reducing the rate of crack propagation. The fiber reinforced concrete will, therefore, exhibit a pseudoductile behavior, maintaining considerable load carrying capacity after cracking of the matrix.

Studies3,4 that were made regarding the use of natural fibers, such as sisal and bamboo in cement mortars and in concretes, were focused on the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. Such an evaluation has indicated the viability of using natural fibers as reinforcing agents in cementitious matrices.

The present work is initiated with the purpose of evaluating the effect of sisal fibers on the compressive strength and fracture resistance of hardened cement mortar. Taking into account

a)Email: rfujiyama@ufpa.br.

b)Email: fadarwish@poscivil.uff.br.

c)Corresponding author. Email: marcospe@puc-rio.br.

their potential use in structural applications, the evaluation of the notch sensitivity of sisal fiber reinforced mortars, in comparison with that of plain mortar, is considered to be an important undertaking. Accordingly, the J-integral approach is adopted and specimens containing deep notches of different root radii are cast in appropriate molds, cured and then loaded in three point bending. The J-integral values at maximum load are calculated and correlated with the notch root radius, for both plain and reinforced mortars. Finally, the J-integral results are also correlated with the impact energy of unnotched prismatic bars having the Charpy dimensions.

The mortar mixture used in the present study was composed of Portland cement PC 32, washed dry sand and tap water, in the proportions of 1:1:0.4, respectively. The sand had fineness modulus of about 3.33, a maximum particle size of 2 mm and an apparent density of 1.6 g/cm3.

As to the production of the reinforced mortar, sisal fibers, in an amount of 3% of the combined weight of cement and sand, were added to the mixture in two different lengths, namely 25 mm and 45 mm. The fibers had average mechanical properties of 670 MPa tensile strength, 4% elongation and 30 GPa elastic modulus.

Compressive strength of the mortars was determined making use of cylindrical specimens (50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length) which were cast from the plain and reinforced mortar mixtures. The specimens were loaded at room temperature (23°C) in a universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 10~5 m/s.

Load-displacement (P - 8) curves were determined using notched prismatic specimens (50 mm x50 mmx300 mm), with 270 mm loading span, submitted to three point bending with a test speed of 2 x 10~5 m/s at room temperature. The specimens were cast from the plain and fiber reinforced mortar mixtures containing a 25 mm deep parallel sided notch with 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 2.4 mm root radius. Unnotched specimens with identical geometry were also tested in three point bending.

Impact testing was carried out on unnotched prismatic specimens (10 mmx 10 mmx50 mm), using a low capacity Charpy type impact machine appropriate for low toughness brittle materials.

Plain mortar specimens loaded in compression suffered a highly unstable mode of failure, whereas the fiber-reinforced mortars exhibited a more stable behavior, characterized by larger deformations with a gradual drop in the applied load. Table 1 presents the compressive strength calculated from the ultimate load. In this table, reinforced 25 and reinforced 45 mean mortars containing 25 mm and 45 mm long sisal fibers, respectively.

Table 1. Compressive strength (CS) of the mortars.

Mortar Plain Reinforced 25 Reinforced 45

CS/MPa 28 ± 1 25 ± 1 22 ± 1

From Table 1, it can be verified that the presence of sisal fibers has a deleterious influence on the strength level. Moreover, this influence turns out to be more significant for the long fibers in comparison with the shorter ones. This can be attributed to a decrease in the mortar's density, associated with an increase in its porosity.5,6 In fact, scanning electron microscopy observations have indicated the use of sisal fibers in the present investigation that also had the effect of increasing the mortar's porosity, especially for the case of longer fibers. However, it should be mentioned

that the specimen integrity was preserved over a wider deformation range in the presence of longer fibers.

The J-integral values at maximum load (Jm) were calculated from the integrated energy (U) under the load displacement curve, using the Rice estimation formula.7 The variation of Jm with the notch root radius for the plain mortar is presented in Fig. 1.

One may observe that the variation of Jm with p is in agreement with the effect normally detected for metallic and nonmetallic materials, where the J-integral value at fracture initiation varies linearly with the root radius. As fracture initiation in the plain mortar occurs essentially at the maximum load, Jm can, therefore, be considered a good estimate of the J-integral value corresponding to the event of failure initiation in the mortar. For small root radii (p ^ 1.5 mm), though, Jm becomes independent of p, remaining at a constant level discriminated as Jic and considered as a material characteristic. The limiting root radius, which is equivalent approximately to 1.5 mm, is also considered a material constant of microstructural significance, apparently compatible with the fact that the sand, used as a constituent of the mortar mixture, had a maximum particle size of 2 mm.

As to the reinforced mortars, the variation of Jm with the notch root radius is presented in Fig. 2, for both the 25 mm and 45 mm sisal fibers, in comparison with the Jm level of the plain mortar. In addition to the extremely beneficial effect of fibers on the mortar's fracture resistance, the figure also indicates that a better fracture resistance of the mortar was associated with the use of 45 mm sisal fibers. In the absence of sisal fibers, the mortar behaved essentially in a linear elastic and brittle mode with a complete loss of its load carrying capacity upon first cracking. The presence of fibers, on the other hand, had a beneficial effect on the post-crack behavior, promoting the flexural strength and ductility and hence toughness of the mortar.

The impact energy results are presented in Table 2, for the three mortars conditions. The individual energy levels shown in the table correspond to the average of five tests with a standard

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Notch root radius p/mm

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Notch root radius p/mm

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2. Variation of J-integral at maximum load Variation of J-integral at maximum load with the notch root radius for the plain and rein-

with the notch root radius for the plain mortar.

forced mortars.

Table 2. Impact energy of the plain and reinforced mortars.

Mortar Plain Reinforced 25 Reinforced 45

Impact energy/J 0.45 ± 0.05 2.04 ± 0.22 3.28 ± 0.35

deviation of about 12%.

One can therefore conclude that the use of sisal fibers as a reinforcing element in mortar results in a considerable increase in the impact resistance and that such an increase is considerably more significant for the longer fibers. This beneficial influence is attributed to the fact that, even as the matrix cracks, the load carrying capacity is replenished by invoking fiber loading. This maintains the specimens' integrity as they continue to deform and hence to absorb more energy. The superiority of long fibers in promoting impact resistance is related to the higher load carrying capacity, as well as deformability, of the mortars reinforced with such fibers.

The correlation between the impact energy levels and J-integral results is presented in Fig. 3, whereby an essentially linear relationship is seen to exist between the two parameters.

Impact energy/J

Fig. 3. Correlation between J-integral at maximum load and impact energy for the reinforced mortars with notch root radius of 0.5 mm and 2.4 mm.

Regarding the study described herein, the following conclusions can be drawn.

(1) The use of sisal fibers decreases the mortar's compressive strength. However, the fiber-reinforced mortars exhibit retardation during the failure process, characterized by larger deformations and gradual drop in the applied load, when compared with the plain mortar.

(2) The deleterious influence of sisal fibers on the compressive strength of reinforced mortar seems to be more significant for long fibers than for shorter ones.

(3) The presence of sisal fibers in cement mortar considerably improves its fracture resistance. This improvement is manifested by an increase in the J-integral values determined at maximum load in the presence of deep notches with different root radii.

(4) Results of impact tests indicate a pronounced improvement in the mortar's impact energy due to the presence of sisal fibers, particularly for the longer ones.

1. A. Sivakumar, M. Santhanam. Mechanical properties of high strength concrete reinforced with metallic and non-metallic fibers. Cemente and Concrete Composites 29, 603-608 (2007).

2. C. X. Qian, P. Stroeven. Development of hybrid polypropylene-steel-fibre-reinforced concrete. Cemente and Concrete Research 30, 63-69 (2000).

3. R. T. Fujiyama. Cement mortar reinforced by sisal fibers: Microstructural and mechanical characterization, [MS Thesis]. Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (1997).

4. R. D. Toledo Filho. Natural fiber reinforced mortar composites: An experimental characterization, [PhD Thesis]. Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (1997).

5. F. O. Okafor, O. J. Eze-Uzomaka, N. Egbuniwe. The structural properties and optimum mix proportions of palmnut fiber-reinforced mortar composite. Cement and Concrete Research 26, 1045-1055 (1996).

6. B. P. Hughes, N. I. Fattuhi. Stress-strain curves for fiber reinforced concrete in compression. Cement and Concrete Research 7, 173-183 (1977).

7. T. L. Anderson. Fracture Mechanics, 2nd edn. CRC Press, New York (1995).