Scholarly article on topic 'Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction'

Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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{"Collision phenomenon" / "Bow-side hull interaction" / "Finite element analysis" / "Internal energy" / "Damage extent"}

Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Aditya Rio Prabowo, Dong Myung Bae, Jung Min Sohn, Ahmad Fauzan Zakki, Bo Cao, et al.

Abstract The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of selected ship collision parameter values on the characteristics of the absorbed energy in several ship collision scenarios. Non-linear simulations were performed using a finite element method (FEM) to obtain virtual experiment data. In the present research, the size of the side damage from a collision phenomenon were measured and used to verify the numerical configuration together with the calculation results using an empirical equation. Parameters in the external dynamics of a ship collision such as the location of the contact point and velocity of the striking ship were taken into consideration. The internal energy and deformation size on the side structure were discussed further in a comparative study. The effects of the selected parameters on several structural behaviors, namely energy, force, and damage extent were also observed and evaluated in this section. Stiffener on side hull was found to contribute significantly into resistance capability of the target ship against penetration of the striking bow. Remarkable force during penetration was observed to occur when inner shell was crushed as certain velocity was applied in the striking bow.

Academic research paper on topic "Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction"

Accepted Manuscript

Aditya Rio Prabowo, Dong Myung Bae, Jung Min Sohn, Ahmad Fauzan Zakki, Bo Cao, Qing Wang

Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction

PII: DOI:

S2095-0349(16)30087-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.10167j.taml.2016.12.001

Reference: TAML 115

To appear in: Theoretical & Applied Mechanics Letters

Please cite this article as: A.R. Prabowo, D.M. Bae, J.M. Sohn, A.F. Zakki, B. Cao, Q. Wang, Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction, Theoretical & Applied Mechanics Letters (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taml.2016.12.001

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Analysis of structural behavior during collision event accounting for bow and side structure interaction

1 2 * 3 3 2

Aditya Rio Prabowo ' ' , Dong Myung Bae , Jung Min Sohn , Ahmad Fauzan Zakki , Bo Cao4, Qing Wang 5

1 Interdisciplinary Program of Marine Convergence Design, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea

2 Department of Naval Architecture, Diponegoro University, Tembalang, Semarang 50268, Central Java, Republic of Indonesia

3 Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Systems Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea

4 China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation Economic Research Center, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, People's Republic of China

5 College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150000, People's Republic of China

Abstract: The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of selected ship collision parameter values on the characteristics of the absorbed energy in several ship collision scenarios. Non-linear simulations were performed using a finite element method (FEM) to obtain virtual experiment data. In the present research, the size of the side damage from a collision phenomenon were measured and used to verify the numerical configuration, together with the calculation results using an empirical equation. Parameters in the external dynamics of a ship collision such as the location of the contact point and velocity of the striking ship were taken into consideration. The internal energy and deformation size on the side structure were discussed further in a comparative study. The effects of the selected parameters on several structural behaviours, namely energy, force, and damage extent were also observed and evaluated in this section. Stiffener on side hull was found contribute significantly into resistance capability of the target ship against penetration of the striking bow. Remarkable force during penetration was observed occur when inner shell was crushed as certain velocity was applied in the striking bow.

Keywords: Collision phenomenon, Bow-side hull interaction, finite element analysis, Internal energy, Damage extent.

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: aditya@pukyong.ac.kr (A.R. Prabowo).

1. Introduction

In recent years, the demand of case investigation with objective to minimalize the phenomenon of ocean pollution and vessel losses as the casualties of collisions and grounding has rose as the primary necessity. One example is the environmental damage caused by the Exxon Valdez accident, which forced the USA to make The Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA-90) into law. The accident of several roll on-roll off ships, such as the Scottish Viking on 2010, the Primula Seaways in 2015, and remarkable accident of collision between the Doña Paz and the MT Vector in 1987 with the casualties' more than 4000 lives, made the related parties performed investigation and evaluation of the safety of passenger ships in many countries. Collisions and groundings contribute significantly to ship structural damage. Based on the statistical data from the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund in 2006, collisions and groundings were responsible for more than 50% of all environmental damage as cause of oil spill [1]. A collision accident also occurred in the Sunda Strait on May 3, 2014, at around 2:25 am local time, between Sumatera Island and Java Island which are both located in the Republic of Indonesia. The collision occurred between the Ro-Ro passenger ship Marisa Nusantara and the reefer Qi Hang. After the accident, the struck Ro-Ro passenger ship Marisa Nusantara, which carried 75 passengers and 47 vehicles, experienced severe damage at the forepeak hull side, with a tear 7 m in length and other material losses from passengers.

This paper presents a comparative study on the results of a simulation using several parameter values in collision simulations. Finite element (FE) simulations for several collision case scenarios were conducted to obtain virtual experiment data. This study was focused in assessing structural response as collision load was applied on target structure. Scenario was built based on several physical parameters which were classified as dynamic parameter in ship collision. Comparative analysis was conducted on each parameter category to obtain prediction of side structure behavior after collision event.

2. Research review

The studies by various methods on the object's behaviour under collision load performed by previous researchers and related parties. Research on the collision of tanker with double

hulls [2] were performed including a comparative study in term of structural behaviour of hull construction from bulk carriers in collision damage [3], and a finite element method (FEM) to the simulation of impact damage [4]. Other researches on impact technology were also carried out between 2011 until 2014 in term of mathematical and virtual models [5-7].

The ship collision study by Wisniewski and Kolakowski [8] described numerical simulation of simplified experiment on the impact phenomenon. Several simulations of ship collisions based on the collision type were studied by Haris and Amdahl [9]. Another reference on this subject is the study of Kitamura [10], in which he stated that in order to obtain good accuracy and practicality, the study must be based on several data, including from finite element analyses (numerical experiments), physical experiments, and actual accidents.

3. Theory and method review

When a collision between ships occurs, the involved ships are classified as the "struck' and "striking' ship. The struck ship is the ship that has part of its body penetrated by the other ship. The striking ship is the ship that penetrates into the other ship. Collisions can occur in many possible scenarios, for instance is side collision. In this phenomenon, the side part or hull of the struck ship is crashed into by the striking objects which can be ship, rigid log, etc. Simplified coordinate system used in the collision process is presented in Fig. 1.

Struck Ship

Fig. 1. Illustration of coordinate system.

Collision analysis itself has experienced continuous improvements since it was first introduced by some researchers. The methods used in collision analysis can be divided into four categories: empirical methods, simplified methods, experimental methods, and FEM.

Empirical methods have been introduced and developed by many researches. Minorsky [11], Woisin [12], and Zhang [13] were considered in the present study.

Improvement on the methods of both Minorsky and Woisin were presented by Zhang. The proposed formula by Zhang represent the damage in crushing, folding, and tearing categories. An FE approach is introduced these days for performing the analysis and simulation of complicated cases in physics and mathematics. The approach basically consists two different analysis concept. The non-linear concept is performed to calculate the structural response, such as stresses and deformations during general loading and non-linear material conditions are defined in phenomenon model. The non-linear analysis generally involves complex model, which high non-linearity is involved, but most of complicated phenomenon, namely contact mechanics was successfully observed using this method.

The implementation of a non-linear analysis was considered to be the most suitable for the present study. In this research, a non-linear FE analysis was conducted using the LS-DYNA FE codes to produce virtual experiment data. The algorithm in this code is characterized as given in Eqs. (1) and (2).

{a} = {^({F^MF*}), (1)

Fnt = 2 [Q BTa„ dQ + Fg] + Fcontact, (2)

Where {at} is the acceleration at time t, {M\ is the mass matrix, {Fxt} is the applied external and body force vector, {Fnt} is the internal force vector given by Eq. (4), Fhg is the hourglass resistance force, and Fcontact is the contact force.

In this algorithm, the velocities and displacements are then evaluated as presented in Eqs.

(3) to (6).

(V+At/2) = {Vt-At/2} + (ajAtt, (3)

(ut+At} = (ut} + (Vt+At/2} Att+At/2 (4)

AW2 =1 (Att+Att+At) (5)

Att-At/2=1 (Att - Att+At). (6)

The model is progressing by adding the updated displacement variable to the initial model |x0}, as presented in Eqs. (7) and (8).

(xt+At} = (xo} + (ut+At}, (7)

Aj+i — Ai + Xcont Ax,

cont ¿-^penetr.

4. Calculation of ship collision

4.1 Collision phenomenon

A collision occurred on May 3, 2014, between Sumatra and Java Island, specifically in the Sunda Strait, 5 km from Bakuheni Port (Lampung Province). Marisa Nusantara, a Ro-Ro passenger ship was severely damaged after Qi Hang, a reefer ship struck its hull. Qi Hang ran with a velocity approximately 6 m/s into the starboard side of the Ro-Ro passenger ship. As a result, a rip formed with a length approximately 7 m and width 5 m. An illustration of the damage can be seen in Fig. 2. The penetration depth was 2 m between the main deck and middle deck [14].

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. Condition of the struck ship: (a) damage as ship arrived in shipyard and (b) repairing process.

Table 1

Configurations of struck ship.

Characteristic Value

Length over all (m) 85.92

Length between perpendicular (m) 78.00

Breadth moulded (m) 15.00

Design draft (m) 4.30

Depth (m) 10.40

Frame spacing (m) 0.60

Table 2

Configurations of striking ship.

Characteristic Value

Length over all (m) 144.50

Breadth moulded (m) 19.80

Design draft (m) Depth (m)

5.60 10.20

The configurations and main dimensions of these ships are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The struck ship is the ship that has of its body penetrated by the other ship, whereas the striking ship is the ship that crashes into the other ship.

4.2 Procedure for collision calculation

In the FE experiment, the plastic-kinematic characteristic was implemented in the analyses, and material model for virtual experiment is given in Table 3. The numerical models of the both of involved ships are presented in Fig. 3. Some researchers such as Kitamura explained that the strain failure is not constant but varies with the structural arrangement. In certain cases, the material failure characteristic is influenced by the structure size, shape, and loading mode, which causes the failure to be different in each sector [15]. The stress-strain field, which can be affected by the loading pattern and structure configuration also makes a contribution is related to the material failure behavior [16].

Fig. 3. Ships involved in collision accident process: (a) struck ship and (b) striking ship.

However, for a ship collision analysis itself, Simonsen [17] mentioned that the simplified analysis is built based on the overall deformation mechanism, so that the effort to trace the strain history at a very detailed level can be considered impossible. Therefore, several researchers such as Wang [18] and Paik and Pedersen [19] used the maximum strain failure in their studies. The maximum strain is defined as the condition when a structure reaches the critical strain and the structure undergoes rupture. Based on their study, present research will also use maximum strain failure criteria in their studies, and showed that a structure ruptures when the maximum strain in it reaches a critical point. Amdahl and Kavlie [20] described that

the mild steel has the tensile ductility characteristic in a range between 0.20-0.35. The latest implementation of this value was considered and applied by Ozguc et al. [3] when they were defining material model for collision analysis. Based on a review of the previous literature and Ozguc's material model, this research applied the failure strain as presented in Table 3. The strain rate P represents the Cowper-Symonds constant. In this research, the applied value was recommended in the software package LS-DYNA library [21], while a friction coefficient for mild steels was considered [22].

Fig. 4. Illustration of involved objects in collision: (a) contact points and (b) impact situation.

Fig. 5. Procedure diagram of present research.

The event of a collision was considered to be physical phenomenon that was simplify modelled and the calculation was performed by numerical method of FE approach to obtain experiment results. The Belytschko-Tsay element was selected to be used on the ship model

in the present research. The work of Alsos and Amdahl [23] and Prabowo et al. [24] indicated that the implementation of element-length-to-thickness (ELT) ratio on models in numerical experiments should be in the range of ratio between 5 and 10 so that the stress and strain in specific area can be well obtained. The applied ratio for the involved models was in the range 8 and 10. Several collision scenarios were considered in the simulations and analyses.

The results of a numerical experiment would be compared with the damage from the physical phenomenon and calculation results from empirical formula to verify the method used in the numerical simulation. The simulation used the non-linear FE while the details of the procedure for this study are presented in Fig. 5.

4.3 Verification for setting and configuration

In this section, a study to verify implemented setting and configuration in FE simulation would be conducted. Three denoted scenarios were used in this study to be analysed and compared with calculation using energy formula and collision data. Location of contact points were predicted between main and middle deck as presented in Fig. 4. The striking bow was implemented with velocity 6.17 m/s and the struck ship was set to be fixed on centreline while the end of model was clamped.

In term of formula, energy was calculated by developed Minorsky's formula [11] which is presented in Eqs. (9) and (10). This formula was refined by Zhang [13] that the basic formula of Minorsky was expanded into several formulas accounting for deformation patterns. The mathematical equations of these formulas are presented in Eqs. (11) to (13). Collision data in other hand was taken directly by field survey on involved ship in collision as introduced in previous sub-section. Measurements of damages length and width were performed and would be used as real-life comparative data of numerical results.

E = 47.2Rt + 32.7 , (9)

Rt = I Pn LNtN + I Pn Lntn , (10)

E = 0.77 sc G0RT , (11)

E = 3.50 (t/d)067 o0 Rt , (12)

E = 3.21 (t//)06 ooRt , (13)

where E is absorbed energy, RT is destroyed material volume for both struck and striking ship / resistance factor, PN is damage depth of striking ship, LN is damage length of striking ship, tN is damage thickness of striking ship, Pn is damage depth of struck ship, Ln is damage length of struck ship, tn is damage thickness of struck ship, ec is the critical rupture strain of the material which is determined from ec = 0.10 (= £f / 0.32) where £f is the steel material ductility obtained in tensile test [25], o0 is the flow stress of the material, t is average thickness of crushed plate, d is average width of the plates in the crushed cross-section, and l is critical tearing length.

I > \ Finite element analysis

ABC Scenario denotation

Fig. 6. Energy magnitude by FE simulation and energy formula calculation.

Fig. 7. Damage characteristic on side structure after simulation. Field data represents direct measurement.

Verification in energy was performed using Zhang's empirical formula since the formula was developed based on previous energy equation-formula such as those of Minorsky [11], Woisin [12], and Vaughan [26]. The results of the FE calculations for three predicted collision cases and its comparison with the empirical formula and collision data are presented in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. It can be seen in the result, the greatest difference in the present analysis between the FE and formula calculation was 4.85%, which was smaller than the differences in the previous work of Ozguc et al. [3] for ship collisions, which showed difference values in range of 2.87%-72.82%. In terms of energy, we can conclude that all of the FEM results showed a good correlation with the formula calculation. The deformation size for three cases from numerical simulations and the damage characteristics from the direct measurement also showed positive agreement with the most similar one to damage on repaired ship was the collision B. Therefore, the setting and configuration of the numerical simulation was successfully verified with the real collision data and formula calculation. The configuration and setting from this study would be used and applied in further analysis and calculation.

Table 3

Material model for various impact scenario simulation.

Properties Symbol Value

Density (kg-m-3) P 7850

Elastic modulus (MPa) EX 210000

Poisson's ratio NUXY 0.30

Yield stress (MPa) Oys 440

Strain rate sensitivity-I (s-1) C 3200

Strain rate sensitivity-II (s-1) P 5

Failure strain 0.20

5. Comparative study

A virtual experiment with the verified method from the previous section was performed using several selected parameters. A comparative study on the results with various parameter values was conducted, and the results were presented in this section. The collision location and ship velocity were the main focus in this study.

5.1 Impact location

Several simulation scenarios were conducted with the impact location on the struck ship as the independent variable to obtain information about the influence of the collision location on the simulation results. Six collision scenarios were utilized in the current study. The impact point locations were divided into two basic locations: frame numbers 115 and 117 for the main frame and web frame, respectively. The impact points for scenarios 1 and 2 were at the web and main frame. The targets for scenarios 3 and 4 were at the intersection between the main deck with the web frame and the main frame. In other hand, for scenario 5 and 6 were at the intersection between the middle deck with the web frame and the main frame.

Fig. 8. Internal energy of impact location study: scenario 1 and 2.

CD 4 ■_

—Intersection web frame-main deck 1 1

—o— Intersection main frame-main deck

..............-4.........-............-.........-..............---i.................[...............4.....

j-j / ^ / J2 J-r rr rr

.......yC-r

0.5 1.0 1.5

Displacement (m)

Fig. 9. Internal energy of impact location study: scenario 3 and 4.

Fig. 10. Internal energy of impact location study: scenario 5 and 6.

The obtained results during experiment process, indicated that the web frame had a better capability in resisting penetration of the striking ship than the main frame. The impact locations at the web frame and main frame, as well as the intersection, had the similar pattern for the internal energy, which led to this conclusion. The internal energy values for each scenario are presented in Figs. 8 to 10. The amount of energy that was needed to plastically deform the target was varied in the range of 7%-28%. The intersection between the web frame and main deck, as well as between the web frame and middle deck, produced the largest amounts of energy during the collision process. During the collision of this scenario, the main deck and middle deck both acted as longitudinal structures and strengthened the side structure subjected to an impact load, together with the frame of the side structure. As can be seen in Figs. 11 and 12, when the intersection was subjected to an impact pressure, the pressure mainly occurred on the longitudinal member, which caused local pressure on this member. In a special carrier or vessel with dangerous fuel such as a mother ship with a nuclear power plant, the hull structure of the ship is strengthened by transverse and longitudinal members to keep the plant safe and make sure the inner parts cannot be breached even if the ship experiences a collision load.

Fig. 11. (Color online) Pressure contour after impact process: outer shell.

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iii i i i i ii m iiii.iiii

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II II I I I I ■■IIIUIIIMIIIII

i..............ii.....mi mi

i ■■ ■ i i • l i li ni mu mu

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ni i ■ i i ii ni mu mu

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¡¡ir a ib ■ i ■ i ai ■■■■ mi mi

muí IB ■ I ■ I II lili lili lili

Fig. 12. (Color online) Pressure contour after impact process: inner shell.

5.2 Striking ship velocity

In the external dynamics of a collision, the ship velocity is one of most influential parameters in relation to the analysis and calculation results. A virtual experiment was conducted to obtain information regarding how the ship velocity affects the structural response after collision. In experiments, the striking ship was moved to the designated contact point on the struck ship with five proposed velocity values. This configuration was already used and verified in the first part of this study. Five velocity values were proposed: 5, 10, 12, 15, and 20 knots or in metric unit were 2.57, 5.14, 6.17, 7.72, and 10.29 m/s. The five

forms of internal energy-penetration are presented in Fig. 13. From these graphs, the velocity can be considered to have a significant effect during the collision process.

Fig. 13. Internal energy for all proposed velocities.

As introduced in the velocity formula, for the same time period, the highest velocity will reach the farthest distance. In the study on the velocity influence, the contact point and other parameters used the same location and parameter. In this case, the velocity formula could be applied. As expected from the velocity formula, as the highest velocity, 10.29 m/s had the deepest penetration. With a striking ship velocity of 10.29 m/s, the penetration reached almost 4.50 m, which allowed the striking ship to penetrate the inner shell of the struck ship. Under this condition, both the struck ship and cargo, especially on the car deck, experienced remarkable damage as a result of the collision with the striking ship. This could also be verified using the force characteristic during the collision process in Fig. 14. The force behaviour after a penetration of 3 m showed remarkable movement, which first occurred in the penetration period of 3-3.5 m and gradually rose until reaching a peak with a value of approximately 23 MN, and decreased after the penetration passed 3.8 m. In this state, the inner shell was completely breached by the striking ship body and immense damage to both the ship and cargo could not be avoided. Starting from depth 4 m until the end of the collision

process, the force tended to decline because there was no other structure after the inner shell was breached.

1-■-1-<-1-<-1-<-r

0 12 3 4

Displacement (m)

Fig. 14. (Color online) Force during collision process as advance penetration occurred. 6. Conclusion

The results of a comparative study of the influence of ship collision parameters were presented in this paper. The collision analysis successfully investigated various impact scenario using verified configuration and setting in FE simulation. These configurations and settings were applied in a comparative study which concerned on two parameters, namely location and velocity. The results from a location study indicated that the structure at the area of intersection between the main deck and web frame provided better resistance during the collision process than other proposed locations. It could also be concluded that the web frame at the side shell as well as at the intersection had a better ability in terms of strengthening the side structure than the main frame. In a velocity study, a higher velocity value also produced a deeper penetration and remarkable damage. A striking ship with a velocity of 10.29 m/s succeeded in penetrating the inner shell, which meant the destruction of the cargo on the car deck was unavoidable, with grave danger to the ship and passengers. A study of the stability and residual ship strength under this condition could be considered to be research topic for further study.

Acknowledgements

This work is successfully performed and finished with the grant from BK21 plus MADEC Human Research Development Group, Republic of Korea. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and editors who already gave comment, suggestion and helped in the publication process. The first author also would like to deliver special thanks to his colleagues, Mr. Nugroho W. Murti from Diponegoro University and Mr. Teguh Putranto from Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember, who helped in computational experiment.

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