Scholarly article on topic 'Influence of Amylopectin and Nitrogen Supplementation on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Heifers Based on Diets with High Ratio of Pineapple Waste Silage to Pangola Grass Hay'

Influence of Amylopectin and Nitrogen Supplementation on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Heifers Based on Diets with High Ratio of Pineapple Waste Silage to Pangola Grass Hay Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Suntorn Wittayakun, Worawut Chainetr, Weera Innaree, Pat Pranamornkith

Abstract Four crossbred Holstein heifers were assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplementing either amylopectin (AP) or nitrogen (N),and both in mixed diets containing high ratio of pineapple waste silage (PWS) to pangola grass hay (PGH) on feed intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The treatments included: T1) control diet, PGH and concentrate pellet (CT) at ratio of 70:30, T2) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:20 plus 10% cassava chip (CC) as AP source, T3) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:29.5 plus 0.5% urea as N source and T4) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:19.5 plus 10% CC and 0.5% urea. The results indicated that feed intake was similar in all groups (P>0.05) whereas the digestion coefficient and digestible nutrient intake in the control group were lower than those fed mixed diets with PWS and PGH (P<0.05). The supplementation with either AP or N, and both revealed an increase in digestion coefficient of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) (P<0.05), but not affected on digestion coefficients of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P>0.05). All supplements improved digestible CP intake in heifers (P<0.05). However, there was no effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations (P>0.05) in all groups. The results suggest that supplementing either AP or N, and both may benefit to improve feed digestion and digestible nutrient intake in dairy heifers when fed diets with high PWS to PGH ratio.

Academic research paper on topic "Influence of Amylopectin and Nitrogen Supplementation on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Heifers Based on Diets with High Ratio of Pineapple Waste Silage to Pangola Grass Hay"

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Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 10 (2016) 353 - 357

5th International Conference "Agriculture for Life, Life for Agriculture"

Influence of Amylopectin and Nitrogen Supplementation on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation ofDairy Heifers Based on Diets with High Ratio ofPineapple Waste Silage to Pangola Grass Hay

Suntorn WITTAYAKUNa*, Worawut CHAINETRa, Weera INNAREEa,

Pat PRANAMORNKITHb

aDepartment of Animal Science and Fishery, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang Campus, Lampang 52000 Thailand bDepartment of Science, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang Campus, Lampang 52000 Thailand

Abstract

Four crossbred Holstein heifers were assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplementing either amylopectin (AP) or nitrogen (N),and both in mixed diets containing high ratio of pineapple waste silage (PWS) to pangola grass hay (PGH) on feed intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The treatments included: Tl) control diet, PGH and concentrate pellet (CT) at ratio of 70:30, T2) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:20 plus 10 % cassava chip (CC) as AP source, T3) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:29.5 plus 0.5 % urea as N source and T4) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of20:50:19.5 plus 10 % CC and 0.5% urea. The results indicated that feed intake was similar in all groups (P>0.05) whereas the digestion coefficient and digestible nutrient intake in the control group were lower than those fed mixed diets with PWS and PGH (P<0.05). The supplementation with either AP or N, and both revealed an increase in digestion coefficient of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) (P<0.05), but not affected on digestion coefficients of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P>0.05). All supplements improved digestible CP intake in heifers (P<0.05). However, there was no effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations (P>0.05) in all groups. The results suggest that supplementing either AP or N, and both may benefit to improve feed digestion and digestible nutrient intake in dairy heifers when fed diets with high PWS to PGH ratio.

©2016PublishedbyElsevierB.V Thisisanopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest

Keywords: amylopectin, nitrogen, pineapple waste silage, pangola grass hay, dairy heifer.

*Correspondingauthor.Tel.: +6654-342547; Fax +6654-342549

E-mail address:w_suntorn@rmutl.ac.th

2210-7843 © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest doi:10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.09.074

1. Introduction

The dairy heifer is important and influential cows in the herd. Most dairy heifer must replace one-third of milking cows each year in order to maintain milking herd size (Tyler and Ensminger, 2006). Feed cost for heifer raising is rather high and no income returns to the dairy farm until they calve or are sold (Lowe II et al., 2016). Feeding agricultural by-products with maximizing rumen fermentation by providing essential substrates is an alternative strategy to minimize feed cost and still maximize the productive performance of the heifer. Pineapple waste, a cannery by-product of pineapple {Ananas comosus), would be an interested feedstuff for the heifer because of its nutritive quality and high palatability (Dattet al., 2008; Wittayakunet al., 2015). To keep pineapple waste quality for long storage, the ensiling process is necessary in order todevelop sufficient acid to maintain the mass in a state of preservation as pineapple waste silage (PWS) which is well suited to mix with other feed ingredients. Amylopectin is a glucose polymer which consists mainly oflong, unbranched chain D-glucose units connected by a 1,4 linkages, but is a branched molecule with al, 6 linkages with branched points every 24 to 30 glucose residues (Lehningeret al., 1993). In feedstuffs, amylopectin is rich in cassava chips {Manihot esculenta) which contain approximately 70% of total starch (Afoakwaet al., 2011). Amylopectin has a greater ruminal digestibilityand ruminal fermentation characteristics (Streeter et al., 1991; Kotarskiet al., 1992; Westeret al., 1992; Foley et al., 2015) while nitrogen is mainly required by rumen microbes together with non-structural carbohydrate to be converted to high quality protein or microbial protein for host animals (Van Soest, 1994).Ideally, optimal ratio of amylopectin combined with nitrogen would economically increase digestion with no detrimental effect on ruminal pH when fed with low quality roughage. During dry season in Thailand, pangola grass hay (Digitaria decumbens) (PGH) is rather low in soluble carbohydrate and crude protein, but high in structural carbohydrate which limits feed efficiency because of the low energy content and slow rate of digestion (Suksathitet al., 2011). The objective of this research was to examine the effect of supplementing amylopectin (AP) or nitrogen (N) or both in mixed diets containing high ratio of pineapple waste silage (PWS) to pangola grass hay (PGH) on feed intake, digestion coefficient, digestible nutrient intake and ruminal fermentation of dairy heifers.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Animals and experimental design

Four crossbred Holstein heifers averaging 226+2.4 kg body weight were assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of: Tl) control diet, PGH and concentrate pellet (CT) at ratio of70:30; T2) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:20 plus 10% cassava chip (CC) as AP source; T3) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:29.5 plus 0.5% urea as N source; T4) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:19.5 plus 10% CC and 0.5% urea (Table 1). There were four 21-d experimental periods including 14-d for adjustment to feed and 7-d for data collection each. Each dairy heifer was housed individually where drinking water and mineral blocks were available throughout. Heifers were fed twice daily. Animal management and experimental protocol were performed with respect to animal care and welfare.

2.2 Sampling and analyses

Feed offered and refused were recorded daily in all last 7-d of each data collection period. In the first 7-d of each adaptation period, PWS, PGH and CT were collected and dried in a 60°C hot air oven for 72 h for DM concentration determination in order to correct daily feed intake. All cows were weighed three times (dl, dl4 and d21) of each period. Feed samples from individual cows were collected, dried at 60°C for 72 h; ground and composited to analyze for dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) (AOAC, 1984). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was measured by the method of Goering and Van Soest (1970). Acid insoluble ash (AIA) as a natural marker in feed was measured by the method of Van Keulen and Young (1977). During the last 5-d of each data collection period, fecal grab samples were collected individually, dried at 60°C for 72 h, ground and analysed for DM and CP (AOAC, 1984) and NDF by the method of Goering and Van Soest (1970) and AIA by the method of Van Keulen and Young (1977). Digestibility coefficients of nutrients were calculated equations given by Schneider and Flatt (1975) as follows: DM digestibility, % = 100 - [100 x (AIA% in feed) 4- (AIA % in feces)]; Nutrient digestibility, % = 100 - [(100 xAIA%

in feed + AIA % in feces) x (nutrient % in feces+ nutrient % in feed)]. Rumen fluid samples were taken by suction pump at 4 h post feeding and measured pH immediately by portable pH (pHtestr 30®, EUTECH Instruments, Singapore). The 50 ml of rumen fluid were filtered through four layers of sheet cloth, added with 5 ml of 6N H2SO4 to stop fermentation, centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes and kept supernatant frozen at -20°C until later analysed for volatile fatty acids using an analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, Agilent technologies 1100 series, Germany). Total volatile fatty acid was measured by the method described by Briggs et al. (1957).

2.3. Statistical analysis

Data was analyzed using the general linear model procedure which treatment means were compared by Duncan's new multiple range test and significance was declared when P-value <0.05 (SPSS, 2006). The statistical model used was Y;j(k) = ^ + p; + yj + T(k) + Sij where Y^) = dependent variable, ^ = overall mean, p; = effect of period (i=l,2,3,4), yj = effect of animal (j = 1,2,3,4), x^) = effect of treatment, and e;j = random error (Steel and Torrie, 1980).

3. Results and Discussions

3.1.Chemical composition of diets

The ingredients and nutrient composition of experimental diets are presented in Table l.The control diet was rather high in DM and NDF contents, but low in CP. All mixed diets contained PWS and PGH had lower DM and NDF, but rather high in CP than the control.

Tablel. Ingredients, nutritive values ofdiets and daily nutrient requirement.

Items Treatment

Tl T2 T3 T4

Ingredients, kg/100 kgDM

PWS - 50 50 50

PGH 70 20 20 20

CT 30 20 29.5 19.5

CC - 10 - 10

Urea - - 0.5 0.5

Total 100 100 100 100

Nutritive values, g/kgDM

DM 876.6 556.0 558.2 556.3

OM 909.5 923.7 917.4 924.2

CP 76.6 91.4 121.1 104.8

NDF 618.2 526.3 535.7 524.5

Daily nutrient requirement

NEM, MJ/d 18.94 18.94 18.94 18.94

NEG, MJ/d 7.73 7.73 7.73 7.73

DIP, g/d 326 326 326 326

NDF, kg/d 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33

Ca, g/d 22 22 22 22

P,g/d 16 16 16 16

Tl) control diet, PGH and CT at ratio of70:30, T2) PGH, PWS and CT atratio of 20:50:20 plus 10 % CC as AP source, T3) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of20:50:29.5 plus 0.5 % urea as N source and T4) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:19.5 plus 10 % CC and 0.5% urea.

3.2. Feed intake and digestion

Feed intake was similar among treatments which ranged from 6.35 to 6.51 kg/h/d or 2.79 to 2.86 % body weight daily (P>0.05) (Table 2). The supplementation of either AP or N, and both resulted an increase indigestion coefficient of DM and OM (P<0.05), but not affected on digestion coefficients of CP and NDF (P>0.05) possibly

because of lower DM content and higher digestibility PWG. Normally, feeding more degradable NDF increases dry matter intake because of reducing physical fill in the rumen (Oba and Allen, 2000). The supplementation of AP or N or both had no effect on DM intake in all groups (P<0.05) (Table 2). The digestion coefficient of OM was increased by addition of AP and N in feeds (P<0.05). However, the digestion coefficients of DM, CP and NDF were unaffected by urea and starch supplementation (P>0.05). This contrasted with Suksathit et al. (2011), who reported that mixing PGH with PWS increased apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDFand ADF as well as caloric density of diet. The AP and N supplementations increased digestible nutrient intake including DM and CP (P<0.05) (Table 2).

Table 2. Intake, digestion coefficient, nutrient intake and rumen fermentation.

Items Treatment P-value

Tl T2 T3 T4 SE

Feed intake

DM, kg 6.45 6.37 6.35 6.51 0.28 0.848

%BW 2.82 2.80 2.79 2.86 0.14 0.907

Digestion coefficient, %

DM 43.31" 62.31b 57.36b 56.77b 5.77 0.016

OM 47.71" 65.12b 60.40b 59.77b 6.33 0.037

CP 42.70 48.21 58.55 47.55 7.33 0.128

NDF 43.84 52.89 48.82 46.22 7.12 0.359

Digestible nutrient intake, kgDM/d

DM 2.86 4.00 3.61 3.66 0.50 0.087

OM 2.87 3.83 3.48 3.53 0.50 0.155

CP, g/d 220" 290b 450c 330b 0.03 0.003

NDF 1.84 1.78 1.64 1.56 0.34 0.767

Tl) control diet, PGH and CT at ratio of70:30, T2) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of20:50:20 plus 10 % CC as AP source, T3) PGH,PWS and CT atratio of20:50:29.5 plus 0.5 % urea as N source and T4) PGH, PWS and CT atratio of 20:50:19.5 plus 10 % CC and 0.5% urea.

°bcdWithin rows, means followed by different letters are significantly different (P<0.05).

3.3. Rumen pH and VFA concentration

Rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration are shown in Table 3. The rumen pH was similar among treatments (P>0.05). The PWS feeding with AP and N supplementation did not find a significant response on rumen fermentation of dairy heifers. All heifers had the same proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate to propionate ratio and total volatile fatty acid concentration (P>0.05). The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid reflects the pattern of ruminal fermentation. If cows are fed with 100% hay, the acetate to propionate ratio is about 4.1 or 2.2, if cows are fed with 90% concentrate (Russell, 1998).

Table 3. Rumen pH and VFA concentration.

Items Treatment

Tl T2 T3 T4 SE P-value

Rumen pH 7.17 7.23 7.15 7.12 0.20 0.910

VFA concentration, mmole/1

Acetate 56.37 49.47 46.63 50.94 12.20 0.727

Propionate 18.94 15.69 14.50 15.30 3.89 0.454

Butyrate 0.55 0.52 0.45 0.65 0.30 0.842

Acetate: Propionate 3.20 3.30 3.28 3.65 0.68 0.794

Total VFA 89.96 82.19 86.60 84.77 8.77 0.664

Tl) control diet, PGH and CT at ratio of70:30, T2) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of20:50:20 plus 10 % CC as AP source, T3) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:29.5 plus 0.5 % urea as N source and T4) PGH, PWS and CT at ratio of 20:50:19.5 plus 10 % CC and 0.5% urea.

4. Conclusions

Supplement of N and AP in diets based on high ratio of pineapple waste silage to PGH effectively improved digestion coefficient of DM and OM, but not CP and NDF. The addition of AP and N also increased digestible nutrient intake of DM and CP. Feeding high ratio of PWS to PGH with AP and N supplements did not show significantly positive effect on rumen fermentation of dairy heifers. Results from this study suggest that it is beneficial to feed high ratio of PWS to PGH with AP and N supplements to improve digestion and digestible nutrient intake in heifers. Further research should be investigated on metabolic responses to allow development of feeding strategies to improve dairy heifer performance.

Acknowledgements

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