Scholarly article on topic 'Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies'

Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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Academic research paper on topic "Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies"

Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Analytical Chemistry Volume 2014, Article ID 236570, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/236570

Research Article

Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies

Deepak Sharma,1 Mankaran Singh,2 Dinesh Kumar,3 and Gurmeet Singh4

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Rayat Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur, Punjab 146001, India

2 Quantum Solutions, Chandigarh 160036, India

3 CSIR Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39A, Chandigarh 160036, India

4 PDM School of Pharmacy, Karsindhu, Safidon Tehsil, Jind District, Haryana-126112, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Deepak Sharma; deepakpharmacist89@yahoo.com Received 29 December 2013; Accepted 21 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014 Academic Editors: C. Desiderio, A. Niazi, and M. U. Ozgur

Copyright © 2014 Deepak Sharma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride are used for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and allergy. A simple, economical, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, that is, 244 nm and 230 nm, Amax of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Both of these drugs obeyed Beer-Lambert's law in the concentration range of 2-18 ^g/mL for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and 2-20 ^g/mL for Cetirizine Hydrochloride. The high values of correlation coefficient (R) indicated good linearity of calibration curve for both the drugs. The accuracy and precision of method were determined and the method was validated statistically. Result of percentage recovery study confirms the accuracy of proposed method. As per the ICH guidelines, the method validation parameters checked were linearity, accuracy, precision, and assay of drug formulation. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the proposed simultaneous equation spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride is rapid, economical, accurate, precise, and reproducible. Hence, the proposed method can be employed for quantitative estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride from their tablet dosage form.

1. Introduction

Ambroxol Hydrochloride [AMB HCl] (Figure 1) officially in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) is chemically trans-4-[(2-amino-3, 5-dibromobenzyl) amino]-cyclohexanol Hydrochloride. It is a white or yellowish crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in water, soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in methylene chloride [1,2]. Ambroxol Hydrochloride is a potent mucolytic and mucokinetic, capable of inducing bronchial secretion. It depolymerises mucopolysaccha-rides directly and by liberating lysosomal enzymes network of fibres in tenacious sputum is broken. It is particularly useful if mucus plugs are present. Ambroxol Hydrochloride

(AMB) is semisynthetic derivative of vasicine obtained from Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica. It is a metabolic product of bromhexine, used in a variety of respiratory disorders including chronic bronchitis and also used in the treatment of cough [3].

Cetirizine Hydrochloride [CET HCl] (Figure 2) is chemically [2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl) phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]ethoxy]acetic acid and the active metabolite of the piperazine H:-receptor antagonist hydroxyzine. It is white or almost white powder, freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in acetone and in methylene chloride [4, 5]. It is a nonsedative second generation antihistamine drug used in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis,

Figure 1: Chemical structure of ambroxol hydrochloride.

weighing balance (DV 215 CD Ohaus, USA) and bath soni-cator (PCI Analytical Pvt., Ltd.) was also used in study.

2.2. Reagents and Materials. Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride were supplied as gift sample by Trojan Pharma, Baddi, India. All other chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade.

2.3. Selection of Common Solvent. Phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 was selected as common solvent for developing spectral characteristics of drug. The selection was made after assessing the solubility of the drugs in different solvents.

O /COOH

, 2HCl

Figure 2: Chemical structure of Cetirizine Hydrochloride.

2.4. Preparation of Standard Stock Solution. Standard stock solutions of both Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride were prepared by dissolving 10 mg of AMB HCl and 10 mg of CET HCl separately in 10 mL of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution and sonicated for 15 minutes in bath sonicator and filtered through Whatman filter paper in order to get dilution of 1 mg/1 mL, that is, 1000 ^g/mL.

2.5. Determination of Absorption (X) Maximas. By appropriate dilution of standard stock solutions of AMB HCl and CET HCl with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, solution containing 10 ^g/mL of AMB HCl and 10 ^g/mL of CET HCl was scanned separately and then in mixture form in the range of 200-400 nm.

perennial allergic rhinitis, and chronic urticaria and also used as adjuvant in seasonal asthma. Cetirizine inhibits the release of histamine and of cytotoxic mediators from platelets, as well as eosinophil chemotaxis during the secondary phase of allergic response [3].

The combination of these two drugs is not official in any pharmacopoeia; hence, no official method is available for the simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in their combined dosage form. From the literature survey, it was found that many chromatographic methods [HPTLC and RP-HPLC] have been reported for estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in their combined dosage form and no spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride has been reported so far [6-13]. Hence an attempt has been made to develop new simultaneous equation spectrophotometric method which is simple, rapid, reproducible, and economical method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Apparatus. A double beam UV visible spectrophotometer (UV-1800 Shimadzu, Japan) was used. Absorption and overlain spectra of both test and standard solutions were recorded over the wavelength range of 200-400 nm using 1 cm quartz cell at fast scanned speed and fixed slit width of 1.0 nm. All weighing of ingredients was done on digital

2.6. Calibration Plots for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride. The calibration plots were constructed for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and for Cetirizine Hydrochloride using pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solutions at their respective absorption maximas in order to find the linearity range of drugs at their respective absorption maximas.

2.7. Development of Simultaneous Equation. The absorbances were measured at the selected wavelengths and absorptivities for both drugs were determined at both wavelengths. The concentrations of drugs in sample solution were determined by using following formula:

A1 = ax1CA + aylCC, At 244 nm, (1)

A2 = ax2CA + ay2CC, At 230 nm, (2)

where CA and CC are the concentration of Ambroxol Hydrochlorideand Cetirizine Hydrochloride, respectively, A1 and A2 are absorbance at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively, ax1 and ax2 are absorptivities of Ambroxol Hydrochlo-rideat 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively and ay1 and ay2 are absorptivities of Cetirizine Hydrochloride at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively.

2.8. Validation of Proposed Method. The optimized UV spec-trophotometric method was completely validated according to the procedure described in ICH guidelines. The performance parameters evaluated for the method were linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantitation, and assay of drug.

Table 1: Absorbance and absorptivity values of Ambroxol Hydrochloride at Amax 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively.

Serial number Concentration (^g/mL) 'Absorbance at 244 nm ± S.D 'Absorbance at 230 nm ± S.D Absorptivity at 244nm Absorptivity at 230 nm

1 2 0.044 ±0.001 0.034 ± 0.002 0.022 0.017

2 4 0.101 ±0.002 0.079 ± 0.004 0.025 0.020

3 6 0.152 ±0.003 0.119 ±0.002 0.025 0.020

4 8 0.197 ±0.001 0.152 ±0.003 0.025 0.019

5 10 0.248 ± 0.002 0.190 ±0.002 0.025 0.019

6 12 0.297 ± 0.004 0.229 ± 0.001 0.025 0.019

7 14 0.343 ± 0.002 0.262 ±0.001 0.025 0.019

8 16 0.401 ± 0.002 0.309 ± 0.003 0.025 0.019

9 18 0.452 ± 0.003 0.347 ± 0.002 0.025 0.019

Average oxj = 0.025 a%2 = 0.019

'Each value is the average of three determinations.

Table 2: Absorbance and absorptivity values of Cetirizine Hydrochloride at Amax 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively.

Serial number Concentration (^g/mL) 'Absorbance at 244 nm ± S.D 'Absorbance at 230 nm ± S.D Absorptivity at 244nm Absorptivity at 230 nm

1 2 0.019 ± 0.004 0.077 ± 0.002 0.0095 0.0385

2 4 0.025 ± 0.003 0.135 ±0.003 0.0063 0.0375

3 6 0.045 ± 0.002 0.209 ± 0.003 0.0075 0.0348

4 8 0.051 ± 0.005 0.267 ± 0.001 0.0064 0.0334

5 10 0.054 ± 0.003 0.332 ± 0.004 0.0054 0.0332

6 12 0.069 ± 0.002 0.393 ± 0.002 0.0058 0.0328

7 14 0.078 ± 0.001 0.468 ± 0.002 0.0056 0.0334

8 16 0.089 ± 0.002 0.530 ± 0.003 0.0056 0.0331

9 18 0.100 ±0.003 0.585 ± 0.001 0.0056 0.0325

10 20 0.107 ±0.001 0.653 ± 0.002 0.0054 0.0327

Average ay j = 0.0063 ay2 = 0.0338

'Each value is the average of three determinations.

2.8.1. Linearity. The linearity of measurement was evaluated by analyzing different concentrations of the standard solution of Ambroxol Hydrochlorideand Cetirizine Hydrochloride.

2.8.2. Precision (Repeatability). The precision of the instrument was checked by repeated scanning and measurement of absorbance of solutions (n = 6) for Ambroxol hydrochlorideand cetirizine hydrochloride (10 ^g/mL for both drugs) without changing the parameter of the proposed spectrophotometry method. The intraday and interday precision studies (intermediate precision) were carried out by estimating the corresponding responses 3 times on the same day and on 3 different days for three different concentrations of AMB HCl (8, 12, and 16 ^g/mL) and CET HCl (6, 10, and 14 pg/mL), and the results are reported in terms of relative standard deviation.

2.8.3. Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were

separately determined based on standard deviation of the y-intercept and the slope of the calibration curve by using (3) and (4), respectively:

3.35 S ' 105

where, S is standard deviation of y-intercept and S is slope of calibration curve.

2.8.4. Recovery (Accuracy) Studies. In order to check the accuracy, reproducibility, and precision of the proposed method, recovery study was carried out by taking standard mixture solution of both AMB and CET and absorbances were determined at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively.

2.8.5. Assay of Drug. Ten tablets (200 mg) were powdered in a mortar pestle and the blend equivalent to 7.5 mg of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and 5mg of ctirizine Hydrochloride was

Table 3: Optical characteristics of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride.

Optical characteristics Ambroxol Hydrochloride Cetirizine Hydrochloride

Amax (nm) 244 230

Beer-Lambert's law limit (^g/mL) 2-18 2-20

Regression equation (7 = mx + c) 7 = 0.025% - 0.002 7 = 0.032% + 0.011

Slope (m) 0.025 0.032

Intercept (c) 0.002 0.011

Correlation coefficient (R) 0.999 0.999

LOD (^g/mL) 0.450 0.457

LOQ (^g/mL) 1.424 1.386

Precision (%RSD)

Repeatability 0.452 0.381

Intraday 0.374 0.416

Interday 0.942 0.863

Table 4: Recovery studies for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride.

Ambroxol Hydrochloride Cetirizine Hydrochloride Ambroxol Hydrochloride Cetirizine Hydrochloride

(^g/mL) (^g/mL) (mean percentage recovery) (mean percentage recovery)

8 6 96.67 ±2.53 98.63 ± 1.76

12 10 95.43 ±3.14 99.79 ± 3.25

16 14 98.80 ± 1.15 101.5 ±3.29

Results are shown in ±S.D (n = 3).

weighed and dissolved in 100 mL of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solutions. The solution was sonicated for 15 minutes, filtered through Whatman filter paper, and suitably diluted with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and the drug content was analyzed from simultaneous equation method by using double beam UV spectrophotometer at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Determination of Absorption Maximas. Wavelengths of absorption maximas were determined for both drugs. AMB HCl showed absorption maximas one at 244 nm and another one at 308 nm, respectively. 244 nm was selected as Amax of Ambroxol Hydrochloride. CET HCl showed maximum absorbance at 230 nm with reference to British Pharmacopoeia and Indian Pharmacopoeia.

From the overlain spectra of Ambroxol Hydrochloride-and Cetirizine Hydrochloride (Figure 3), two wavelengths 244 nm and 230 nm and Amax of Ambroxol Hydrochlo-rideand Cetirizine Hydrochloride were selected for further spectroscopic studies. Therefore, for simultaneous equation method, wavelengths selected for analysis were 244 nm for AMB HCl and 230 nm for CET HCl.

3.2. Calibration Plots for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Ceti-rizine Hydrochloride. From the calibration plot of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride at their respective absorption maximas, the linearity was observed in the concentration range of 2-18 ^g/mL for Ambroxol Hydrochlo-rideand 2-20 ^g/mL for Cetirizine Hydrochloride, which were validated by the least square method. Coefficient of

correlation (.R) was found to be 0.999 for both Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride as given in Table 3. The high value of correlation coefficient (.R) also indicates good linearity of calibration curve for both drugs.

3.3. Development of Simultaneous Equation. The absorptivity values were found approximately the same for all the concentrations; hence both drugs obeyed Beer-Lambert's law in indicated concentration range as given in Tables 1 and 2.

The following equation was designed for the simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form:

A! = 0.025Ca + 0.0063CC, At 244 nm, (5) A2 = 0.019Ca + 0.0338CC, At 230 nm, (6)

where CA and CC are the concentration of Ambroxol Hydrochlorideand Cetirizine Hydrochloride, respectively, A1 and A2 are absorbance values at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively, 0.025 and 0.019 are absorptivities of Ambroxol Hydrochlorideat 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively and 0.0063 and 0.0338 are absorptivities of Cetirizine Hydrochloride at 244 nm and 230 nm, respectively. By solving (5) and (6) simultaneously, the concentration of Ambroxol Hydrochlo-ride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form can be calculated.

3.4. Validation of Proposed Method. The validation parameters were studied at all wavelengths for the proposed method. The optical characteristics such as Amax, Beer-Lambert's law

Table 5: Drug content uniformity of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride.

Absorbance at Serial number 244 nm ± S.D (A,)

Absorbance at 230 nm ± S.D (A 2)

(^g/mL)Cc (^g/mL)

Drug content of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (%age ) ± S.D

Drug content of Cetirizine Hydrochloride (%age ) ± S.D

0.206 0.201 0.207

0.284 0.287 0.285

7.13 6.87 7.17

4.39 4.62

95.06 91.60 95.60

87.80 92.40 88.00

Mean (я = 3) 0.205 ± 0.003 0.285 ± 0.002

94.09 ±2.17

89.40 ± 2.60

200.000 250.000 300.000 350.000 400.000

Wavelength (nm)

Figure 3: Overlain spectra of mixture of Ambroxol Hydrochloride-and Cetirizine Hydrochloride solution.

4. Conclusion

The developed spectrophotometric method, that is, simultaneous equation method is found to be simple, sensitive, accurate, and precise and can be used for routine analysis of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined table dosage form. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that simultaneous equation method by spectrophotometer could be useful technique for estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochlo-ride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form and cost of analysis is less as compared to RP-HPLC method. Hence simultaneous equation method can be conveniently used for routine quality control analysis of AMB HCl and CET HCl in its pharmaceutical tablet formulations.

Conflict of Interests

limit, Regression equation, slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, LOD, and LOQ were calculated and are summarized in Table 3.

As per the ICH guidelines, the method validation parameters checked were linearity, accuracy, precision, and assay of drug. Precision studies were carried out to study the intraday and interday variations of the responses. Instrumental preci-sionstudywas carried outbyrepeatabilitystudy. The low RSD value and LOD and LOQ values indicate that the method is precise and sensitive. The recovery studies and assay of drug for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride were given in Tables 4 and 5.

Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the proposed spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Ceti-rizine Hydrochloride is rapid, economical, accurate, precise, and reproducible. The utility of the developed method has been demonstrated by analysis of combined dose tablet formulation. Hence, the proposed method can be employed for quantitative estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. Simultaneous equation method can be used to carry out dissolution study in tablet formulation of these drugs.

The authors declare that they do not have any financial or personal relationships with other people or any other organizations that could inappropriately influence this research work.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to Trojan Pharma, Baddi, India, for providing gift samples of drugs.

References

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