Scholarly article on topic 'Design and implementation methodology for rapid control prototyping of closed loop speed control for BLDC motor'

Design and implementation methodology for rapid control prototyping of closed loop speed control for BLDC motor Academic research paper on "Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, author of scientific article — Devendra Potnuru, Alice Mary K., Saibabu Ch.

Abstract This paper deals with rapid control prototyping implementation of closed loop speed control for a Brushless dc (BLDC) motor drive using dSPACE DS1103 controller board. Generally control algorithms which are developed for the motor drive might show good simulation results during steady state and transient conditions; however real-time performance of the drive greatly depends on execution of real time control software, speed and position measurements and data acquisition. The real challenge of hardware implementation lies in selecting appropriate hardware equipment and perfect configuration of the equipment with controller board. The dSPACE DS1103 controller board is suitable for high performance electric motor control as it has flexibility of converting the MATLAB/Simulink blocks into DSP enabled embedded code. In this paper a detailed procedure to effectively control the BLDC motor drive in real-time is presented.

Academic research paper on topic "Design and implementation methodology for rapid control prototyping of closed loop speed control for BLDC motor"

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Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

Design and implementation methodology for rapid control prototyping of closed loop speed control for BLDC motor

Devendra Potnurua *, Alice Mary K.b, Saibabu Ch.c

a Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg., GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, AP, India b Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Gudlavalleru, AP, India c Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada, Kakinada, AP, India

Received 3 March 2016; received in revised form 4 November 2016; accepted 5 December 2016

Abstract

This paper deals with rapid control prototyping implementation of closed loop speed control for a Brushless dc (BLDC) motor drive using dSPACE DS1103 controller board. Generally control algorithms which are developed for the motor drive might show good simulation results during steady state and transient conditions; however real-time performance of the drive greatly depends on execution of real time control software, speed and position measurements and data acquisition. The real challenge of hardware implementation lies in selecting appropriate hardware equipment and perfect configuration of the equipment with controller board. The dSPACE DS1103 controller board is suitable for high performance electric motor control as it has flexibility of converting the MATLAB/Simulink blocks into DSP enabled embedded code. In this paper a detailed procedure to effectively control the BLDC motor drive in real-time is presented.

© 2016 Electronics Research Institute (ERI). Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Keywords: BLDC motor; Rapid control prototyping; dSPACE; DS1103

1. Introduction

Electrical drives are important mechanical energy source component in all industrial, commercial and residential applications such as pumps, fans, mills, conveyer belts, elevators, riders, compressors, packaging equipment and many others (Bose, 2005; Hughes, 2013). These systems consume approximately 35% of generated electrical power throughout the world. Hence demand for energy efficient, less maintenance, good speed range, less noisy, high power,higher torque density and cost effective electric motor drives are emerging in the market (Bose, 2005; Gim, 1995; Jayaram, 2009; de Almeida et al., 2014; Bist et al., 2014; Bist and Singh, 2013). Nowadays, the Brushless DC (BLDC) motor

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: devendra.p@gmrit.org (D. Potnuru), k.alicemary@gmail.com (A.M. K.), chs_eee@yahoo.co.in (S. Ch.). Peer review under the responsibility of Electronics Research Institute (ERI).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesit.2016.12.005

2314-7172/© 2016 Electronics Research Institute (ERI). Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

Fig. 1. BLDC motor drive scheme.

eas(0r)

ebstfr)

ecs(@r)

0 x/6 x!2 in lb 1x16 Çbz/6 1 LT/6 IK Fig. 2. Back-EMF and stator phase currents of BLDC motor for one cycle (Electrical).

has given tough competition to the existing motors due to its superior characteristics like higher toque by current ratio, power density, speed range and noise less operation (Xie et al., 2013; Aydogmus and Sunter, 2012; Gargouri, 2012; Karthikeyan and Sekaran, 2011; Shehata, 2013). The three phase BLDC motors are increasingly being used in many industrial applications and more importantly in automotives over the past several years to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, fuel consumption and control complexity.

The BLDC motor is a combination of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, a solid state inverter, electronic control circuitry and rotor position sensors (Singh and Bist, 2013; Kim and Youn, 2002). The inverter together with its control unit and rotor position sensor of BLDC motor imitates the mechanical commutation of DC motor and which is named as electronic commutation (Pillay and Krishnan, 1989; Pillay and Krishnan, 1988). There are basically two categories of BLDC motor viz. permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and BLDC motors depending on their back-emf wave shape. The one which has six-step trapezoidal wave shape is called as BLDC motors in which stator consists of three phase concentrated winding and rotor with permanent magnets and the PMSM has sinusoidal back-emf where in stator consists of three phase distributed winding and rotor with permanent magnets (Pillay and Krishnan, 1989). To improve the performance of the drive, the researchers are mainly concentrating on speed control methods, torque ripple minimization, inverter topologies and design of the front converters (Xie et al., 2013; Aydogmus and Sunter, 2012; Gargouri, 2012; Yildiz, 2012; Liu et al., 2010; Lee and Noh, 2011; Im et al., 2010; Baratam et al., 2014;

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 3. Overall MATLAB/Simulink diagram of BLDC drive.

Table 1

Q11 Switching of inverter devices based on rotor position.

Interval

Phase - A

Phase - B

Phase - C

0<в <n/6 п/6< в < n/2 п/2< в <5n/6 5п/6< в <7n/6 7п/6< в <9n/6 9п/6< в <11n/6 11п/6< в <2n

s1 = 0;s2 = 0; s1 =1;s2 = 0; s1 = 1;s2 = 0; s1 = 0;s2 = 0; s1 = 0;s2 = 1 s1 = 0;s2 = 1 s1 = 0;s2 = 0

s3 = 0;s4 =1 s3 = 0;s4 =1 s3 = 0;s4 = 0 s3 = 1;s4 =0 s3 = 1; s4 =0 s3 = 0;s4 =0 s3 = 0;s4 =1

s5 = 1;s6 = 0 s5 = 0;s6 = 0 s5 = 0;s6 = 1 s5 = 0;s6 = 1 s5 = 0;s6 = 0 s5 = 1;s6 = 0 s5 = 1;s6 = 0

44 Pan et al., 2015; Shao et al., 2003; Wang and Liu, 2009; Moseler and Isermann, 2000; Potnuru et al., 2016). Further

45 to reduce the testing time, the rapid control prototyping plays, a greater role in designing the control strategies and

46 interfacing to the existing electronic control unit. The rapid control prototyping is a process where in the mathematical

47 models developed in MATLAB/Simulink can be easily imported on the real-time computer, with the RTI (Real Time Interface) blocks to connect the real-world systems.

49 A significant amount of work has been done on digital control of BLDC motor drive. The concept of an integrated

50 environment for rapid control prototyping for BLDC motor using Fuzzy controller given by Rubaai et al. (2008),

51 design methodology for industrial control systems using FPGA is given by Monmasson and Cirstea (2007) and

52 rapid control prototyping development of BLDC motor using DS1103 in Rubaai et al. (2006). At present dSPACE

53 DS1104, dSPACE DS1103 and opal-RT are the famous hardware and real-time software tools which operate through

54 MATLAB/Simulink interface programming for rapid control prototyping (Vasca and Iannelli, 2013). However they

55 differ in the number of ADC and DAC ports, internal memory and number of input/output ports etc. The cost involved

56 in Opal-RT implementation for rapid control prototyping is slightly higher for similar facilities. One can read (Anon,

57 2016) for comparison of the specifications of the DS1104 and DS1103 boards.

58 However, the detailed design and development methodology of Rapid Control Prototype implementation for speed

59 control BLDC motor drive is not available to the authors' knowledge in the existing literature. As the real challenge of hardware implementation lies in selecting appropriate hardware equipment and perfect configuration of the equipment

61 with controller board.

62 The present paper deals with description of various hardware implementation aspects of BLDC drive control

63 and creating an experimental test bed in the laboratory using dSPACE DS1103 controller board. The DS1103 has

64 greater flexibility in converting the MATLAB/Simulink blocks into to the real-time DSP enabled embedded code.

65 The embedded code can be dumped in to the DSP processor provided in the DS1103 board and to control power

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

Fig. 4. Overall drive for BLDC motor using DS1103 (Potnuru et al., 2016).

Fig. 5. Snapshot of BLDC motor used in the present work.

66 electronic devices. The Real-Time Interference (RTI) provided in dSPACE is a link between the software development

67 and dSPACE hardware which is a necessary criteria for faster and accurate speed response. Moreover, on-line data

68 acquisition and monitoring could be done using dSPACE control desk software. If any function modifications are

69 desirable during the test, it can simply be corrected in the MATLAB/Simulink, and flash it to hardware again (Ghaffari,

70 2012; Quijano et al., 2002; El Beid and Doubabi, 2014; Monti et al., 2003). The dSPACE rapid prototyping system can

71 be a substitute to any controller during the development process and its advantages are: (i) online modification of the

72 model; (ii) the executed model parameters can be read and updated online; (iii) and model quantity is accessible during

73 the execution time. These advantages enable the researches and engineers to test and iterate their control algorithms

74 in less time.

75 2. Drive scheme

76 The overall three-phase BLDC motor drive scheme is shown in Fig. 1. The shaft speed of motor is measured using

77 an incremental encoder and is compared with a reference speed and the speed error is fed to PID speed controller.

78 Further, torque reference is obtained by restricting the output of PID controller using a limiter. Based on load torque

79 requirement the reference current generator produces the reference currents ia*, ib* and ic* and these values are actually

80 being obtained by scaling the torque reference T* with kt and it is nothing but ia* = ib* = ic* = T*/kt. For uniform torque

81 control, the stator winding need to be excited based rotor position at six discrete positions. Therefore, the current exactly

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 6. Experimental test bed for speed control of BLDC motor.

Fig. 7. Typical dSPACE implementation process (Quijano et al., 2002).

82 follows the flat portion of trapezoidal shaped back-EMF waveform to obtain uniform torque. The torque and speed

83 control of this drive is considered as two-phase turn on control by inverter and hence it will work like dc separately

84 excited motor. Now these reference currents and actual stator phase currents are compared in the hysteresis controller,

85 then the hysteresis current controller generates control signals to turn on the inverter switches (Pillay and Krishnan,

86 1988; Krishnan, 2009).

87 3. Modeling of BLDC motor

88 In this subsection, modeling of BLDC motor is described and is based on five state variables viz. three stator phase

89 currents (ia,ib,ic), speed (&>m), and rotor position (0r). TheEqs. (1)-(5) are the dynamic state equations (Lee andEhsani,

90 2003) and developed based on following assumptions, such as iron and stray losses are neglected and induced currents 91Q6 in the rotor due to stator harmonic fields are being neglected (Pillay and Krishnan, 1988; Krishnan, 2009; Han et al.,

92 2008; Pillay and Krishnan, 1991; Lee and Ehsani, 2003).

dia 1 r -I

93 — = M [Vas - Rsia - kpMm8as (&r)J (1)

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

dt L- M

dt L -M

d&m —B

[vbs — Rsib ebs (Or )]

\_vcs — Rsic — kp«mecs (Or)] 1

j («m) — J (Te — Ti)

dT = 2[«m]

100 101 102

where eas (Or) is function of rotor angular position (in radians/second) with magnitude as shown in Fig. 2 and is represented mathematically in (6), however the same can be extended for ebs (0r) and ecs (0r). Further vas, vbs and vcs are the phase voltages fed to the stator of BLDC motor and similarly ia, ib and icare stator phase currents, Te is electromagnetic torque, Tl is load torque and kp is back-EMF constant and its value is 2NlrBmax. Where B is flux density, lr area of cross section of the conductor and N represents number of conductors.

(6E/n) Or ; E;

0 <Or < n/6 n/6 < Or < 5n/6

eas (0r) = <( - (6E/n) Or + 6E; 5n/6 < Or < 7n/6

-E; 7n/6 <Or< 11n/6

(6E/n) Or - 12E; 11n/6 < Or < 2n

where J is the moment of Inertia, B is viscous friction coefficient, P the number of poles and Xpa>m is peak value of the trapezoidal back-EMF and is denoted by in E.

106 4. Simulation of BLDC motor drive

107 In this section, simulation approach of BLDC motor drive is described and is consisting of following subsystems

108 (1) BLDC motor

109 (2) Speed controller (PID) block

110 (3) Inverter and hysteresis current controller block

111 4.1. BLDC motor

112 The overall block diagram of BLDC motor drive shown in Fig. 1 which consists of speed controller in outer loop and

113 current controller in the inner loop of the drive. The overall MATLAB/Simulink block diagram is shown in Fig. 3 where

114 in the inner current control loop is combined with the Inverter subsystem. The performance of the drive depends on the

115 tuning of PID controller gains for speed controller and more importantly the hysteresis current controller performance

116 in the inner loop. The time required for operation of inner current loop should be very much less than the outer speed

117 control loop in the design speed controller for any given motor drive. It is because of the electrical time constant (L/Rs)

118 of current loop is always lesser than the mechanical time constant (J/B) of speed control loop. The dynamic equations

119 from (1) to (5) are used for simulation of the BLDC motor.

120 4.2. Speed controller

121 The PID controller is considered for speed control of BLDC motor drive and the output of the PID controller is

122 scaled by motor torque constant, Kt to obtain the maximum reference current Imax, which is used for reference current

123 generation in hysteresis current controller. The performance of speed controller is mainly depends on PID controller

124 gains and hence the tuning of the gains has been done through Zieglar-Nichols method for desired steady state error

125 of 20% with settling time less than 3 s.

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 8. interfacing of incremental encoder with DS1103.

ADC ■-H1®^—* rf ■ Ax*8u J\ .tîN. □

y ■ Ck»Du

0S11C3ADC C17 SüH-SpjMÍ

CwUnil

Fig. 9. Interfacing of Current sensor with DS1103.

126 4.3. Inverter and hysteresis current blocks

127 In the present work, Inverter implementation is combined with current controller subsystem. The hysteresis current

128 control technique is considered as the main current control strategy. It is due to fast dynamic performance during

129 the transient conditions. The equations from (7) to (14) are used for implementation of hysteresis current controller

130 together with inverter operation based on switching function concept where switching "ON" representing with "1" and

131 "OFF" is representing with "0". The switching logic is based onia (k), ia (k - 1), slope of ia and rotor angular position

132 (0). When ia (k) is positive

133 if (ia (k)) < LL)\\((UL < ia (k) < LL) &(ia (k) > (ia (k - 1)) then Si = 1 (7)

134 if (ia (k)) > LL)\\((LL < ia (k) < UL) &(ia (k) < (ia (k - 1))) then S2 = 1 (8)

135 where LL and UL represent the lower and upper limits of the hysteresis current controller and similarly switching

136 control logic can be extended for the remaining two phases. The Inverter phase voltages are as given in Eqs. (9)—(14)

137 and switching of inverter devices based on rotor position is shown in Table 1

138 da = [(0 > pi/6)(0 < 5pi/6)] Si + [(0 > 7pi/6)(0 < 11 pi/6)] S2; (9)

139 db = (0> 0)(0 < pi/2)]S1 + (0 > 5pi/6) (0 < 9pi/6)]S1 + (0 > 11pi/6)(0 < 2pi)S2; (10)

140 dc = (0> 0)(0 < pi/6)S1 + (0> pi/2)(0 < 7 * pi/6)S2 + (0> 9pi/6) * (0 < 2pi)S1; (11)

141 Va = 0.5Vdc • da (12)

142 Vb = 0.5Vdc • db (13)

143 vc = 0.5Vdc •dc (14)

144 where s1, s2 belongs to phase-A of stator winding. Similarly (s3,s4) and (s5,s6) are for switching Phase-B and Phase-C

145 respectively.

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

Measured speed in rpm

Fig. 10. Overall dSPACE implementation in closed loop control of the BLDC motor drive.

146 5. Hardware implementation

147 Hardware implementation of the presented work has been described in this subsection. The block diagram of

148 experimental test bed is as shown in Fig. 4 and it consists of following subsystems

149 1. BLDC motor with mechanical load arrangement and incremental Encoder

150 2. dSPACE DS1103 controller board

151 3. Voltage Source Inverter with Hall Effect based sensors for current, voltage measurements

152 5.1. BLDC motor with hall sensors/incremental encoder

153 A high performance tetra square wave type 3 hp brushless dc motor is considered for experimentation. In consists of

154 an inbuilt incremental encoder, hall position sensors for sensing the speed and position of the rotor. The Fig. 5 shows

155 the snapshot of BLDC motor drive used for experimentation whereas Fig. 6 shows the top view of the experimental

156 test bed established in the laboratory.

157 5.2. dSPACE DS1103 controller board

158 The rapid control prototyping implementation using dSPACE DS1103 is having greater flexibility of interfacing

159 MATLAB/Simulink functional blocks with real-time I/O block sets. The controller board consists of a high speed slave

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 11. (a) Motor runs at 15rpm. (b) Motor runs at 15rpm.

Fig. 12. (a) Speed with step command at 100 rpm. (b) Rotor position at 100 rpm step command. (c) Duty ratio at 100 rpm step command speed.

Fig. 13. (a) Speed at sinusoidal command speed. (b) Position at sinusoidal reference speed. (c) Duty ratio at Sinusoid command.

160 DSP processor TMS320F240 and user-friendly configuration for generation Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulses,

161 incremental encoder, Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital-Analog Converter (DAC). The controller boarded

162 is provided with auxiliary connector panel CLP1103 of dSPACE which easily interfaces the controller board and the

163 external devices like sensors, encoder, inverter board etc (Anon, 2011).

164 The control algorithm/program is first developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment combined with the real-time

165 interface (RTI) blocks of dSPACE. Later the same MATLAB/Simulink blocks without BLDC motor model is converted

166 in to DSP supported code for real time implementation by using inbuilt command ctrl + B. Then the converted embedded

167 code is dumped on the DSP processor of control board for real time implementation. Data acquisition, generation plotter

168 layouts and monitor of control parameters can be done using control desk developer provided in the dSPACE. Moreover,

169 during the real time operation, the controller parameters can be monitored and tuned online through the control desk.

170 The development process involved in dSPACE is shown in Fig. 7 (Quijano et al., 2002).

10 D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 14. (a) Actual speed at 1500 rpm. (b) Rotor position (zoomed view).

Table 2

Speed error in closed loop control.

Command speed Absolute mean error

15 rpm 0.6035

50 rpm 1.2193

100 rpm 2.5126

1000 rpm 4.8262

1500 rpm 5.2811

2500 rpm 6.2692

171 5.3. Voltage Source Inverter

172 The intelligent power module (IPM) with hybrid IC-PM25RSB120 is used as a Voltage Source Inverter(VSI)

173 which is designed for power switching applications operating at frequencies up to 20 kHz with built-in control circuits

174 provide optimum gate drive and protection for the IGBTs. It has ratings of 1200 V, 25 A with integrated thermal load,

175 short-circuit, under voltage lockout protection systems. The IPM is nowadays replacing the conventional bulky and

176 expensive Inverter by providing interface with optocoupled transistors with a minimum of external components. The

177 Voltage Source Inverter is fed with a three phase diode bridge rectifier for getting the DC input voltage. A capacitor

178 filter is connected across the bridge rectifier to remove AC ripples in the output. The Fig. 8 shows the interfacing of

179 incremental encoder with dSPACE controller and similarly Fig. 9 shows interfacing of current sensors.

180 5.4. Interfacing of incremental encoder

181 Interfacing of incremental encoder with controller board is as shown in Fig. 6 and which is used for obtaining the

182 speed and position of the BLDC motor drive. The RTI block, DS1103ENC_P0S_C1 used for interfacing the encoder

183 with the controller board and is consisting of two channels. First channel is used for accessing rotor angular position

184 information and whereas second channel is used for accessing the rotor. Now the position data in degrees need to be

185 converted into radians (in electrical) as shown in Fig. 8 in which "delta_pos (deg) is first scaled to encoder tics, and

186 then divided by sampling time Ts, where Ts is a fixed step time value used to obtain the speed of the motor.

187 5.5. Interfacing of current sensor

188 The connector panel of dSPACE CLP DS1103 consists of 16 ADC (Analog to Digital Control) channels and in

189 which any three channels can be used for the measurement of three phase currents. As the voltage level of each input

190 signal is scaled down by 10 by the dSPACE ADC RTI blocks and hence output of the ADC block should be multiplied

191 with 10 for getting the actual signal. The offset voltage generally is given by the Hall Effect current transducer need to

192 be removed. Further, the value of the current should be multiplied with appropriate gain to obtained correct value of

193 current measurement.

D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

Fig. 15. (a) Actual speed with set speed of 2500 rpm. (b) Rotor position (zoomed view).

However, the gain and offset values should be obtained using extensive measurements using actual ammeter and dSPACE provided measurement block. Interfacing of current sensor with the DS1103 controller for phase-A is shown in Fig. 9. The DS1103ADC.C17 block is an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) RTI block used to sense the phase current of the motor which is placed in MATLAB/Simulink model by drag and drop and then the channel number is selected. Now in this case channel 17 is selected. As the dSPACE scale down the physical signal of [-10 10] range to [-1 1] range, the scaled physical signal is corrected my multiplying with '10'. Then the noise of physical signal may be filtered using appropriate filter. In this case a low pass filter with gains A, B, C and D are selected as 200, -200, 1 and 0 respectively. Further, _DS1103ADC_C17 block is mapped to Hall Effect based current sensor, so the sensor characteristics and actual measurements need to be calibrated. In this case, the constant block is used for removing offset voltage of the current sensor and then final value is obtained by multiplying with appropriate gain. Fig. 10 shows the overall dSPACE digital implementation diagram in closed loop control of the BLDC motor drive.

6. Experimental results and analysis

6.1. Scenario-1: step speed command

In order to check performance of the proposed speed control using dSPACE DS1103 controller, various test runs form very low speeds to high speeds also with different types of reference speeds have been performed on BLDC motor. Fig. 11(a) shows the actual speed of the motor for command speed of 15 rpm and it is observed that motor tracks reference speed with negligible speed error as illustrated in speed error plot as shown subplot of Fig. 11(a). Now Fig. 11(b) shows the corresponding rotor position when motor is running at 15 rpm.

The performance of the drive also is tested at 100 rpm for step change in speed and also for sinusoidal reference speeds. The Fig. 12(a) shows the actual speed of the motor at reference speed of 100 rpm step and one can observe that the motor tracks the set speed with negligible speed error. Fig. 12(b) shows the corresponding rotor position at 100 rpm and it is a zoomed view from 4.5 s to 8 s and corresponding duty ratios during this period is depicted Fig. 12(c).

6.2. Scenario-2: sinusoidal speed command

The dynamic performance of the drive has been validated at sinusoidal command speed. The Fig. 13(a) shows the actual speed of the motor for sinusoidal command speed which consists of offset of 100 rpm and frequency of 1 rad/s. The speed error is also illustrated for corresponding closed loop speed control and is calculated with respect to the command speed. The detailed view of rotor position as well as duty ratios from 6 s to 12 s is shown in Fig. 13(b) and (c) respectively.

6.3. Scenario-3: ramp command speed

The reference speeds of 1500 rpm and also 2500 rpm are considered for high speed operation of the drive with ramp reference in order to check the drive performance from zero speed to very high speed. The performance of the drive for

12 D. Potnuru et al. /Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology xxx (2016) xxx—xxx

225 1500 rpm is shown in Fig. 14(a) and (b). The Fig. 14(a) shows the actual speed of the motor for a given command speed

226 of 2500 rpm and corresponding error plot is shown in Fig. 14(b). It is observed that motor tracts the reference speed

227 with negligible speed error even for high speed operation and steady state error is 1% and negligible peak overshoot.

228 The performance of closed loop speed control form high speed to low speed as shown in Table 2 where in the 22<ps absolute mean error is slightly increasing from low speed to high speed and maximum error is less than 5% for higher 230 speeds Fig. 15.

231 7. Conclusion

232 Rapid control prototyping implementation for closed loop speed control of a BLDC motor drive using dSPACE

233 DS1103 controller board has been considered. The developed scheme has been successfully tested from very low speed

234 of 15 rpm to high speed of 2500 rpm. The effectiveness of the presented approach has been studied for various reference

235 speeds. It is observed that in all the cases the performance of the proposed approach has shown good results. The main

236 advantage of the present work is that it reduces the testing time of proposed control algorithm for BLDC motor and

237 one can use similar procedure for any other electrical machine. Therefore, it can be conclude that implementation of

238 rapid control prototyping scheme for speed control of BLDC motor using dSPACE DS1103 reduces the time and effort

239 of experimentation.

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