Scholarly article on topic 'Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas'

Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas Academic research paper on "Chemical engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Chemical engineering, author of scientific article — Ahmed Boubenia, Ahmed Hafaifa, Abdellah Kouzou, Kamal Mohammedi, Mohamed Becherif

Abstract Recent studies have shown that the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is growing rapidly over recent years and this can lead to major dangers for the planet. This growth is mainly due to the emissions from fossil power source such as diesel plants and gas turbines. The purpose of the present paper is to study the feasibility of integrating a technique based on power to gas concept in fossil power plants such as gas turbine. This work is based on the reduction of pollutant gas emissions produced from a gas turbine plant, especially the carbon dioxide. This captured gas ( C O 2 ) can be converted once again into energy via the technique of power to gas concept. This concept starts by extracting C O 2 from exhaust gases which is carried out by multiple chemical process. On the other side, H 2 is produced from water electrolysis using the excess electricity which is produced but not consumed by the existing loads. finally the production of Methane ( C H 4 ) can be achieved by combination of the captured C O 2 and the extracted H 2 via a reactor known as a reactor of Sabatier, this operation is called methanation or hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. Simulation results are presented for the validation of the proposed technique based on real data obtained on site from a gas turbine plant.

Academic research paper on topic "Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas"

Accepted Manuscript

Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas

Ahmed Boubenia, Ahmed Hafaifa, Abdellah Kouzou, Kamal Mohammedi, Mohamed Becherif

PII: S2405-6561(16)30106-7

DOI: 10.1016/j.petlm.2016.11.013

Reference: PETLM 125

To appear in: Petroleum

Received Date: Revised Date: Accepted Date:

3 July 2016

14 November 2016

15 November 2016

KcAl ISSN: 2405-5816

№-----1 201503

Vol.1, No.l

Petroleum

Please cite this article as: A. Boubenia, A. Hafaifa, A. Kouzou, K. Mohammedi, M. Becherif, Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas, Petroleum (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.petlm.2016.11.013.

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Petroleum xx (2017) xxx-xxx

Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via

the integration of power to gas >

Ahmed BOUBENIAa,b , Ahmed HAFAIFAb*, Abdellah KOUZOU MOHAMMEDIa, Mohamed BECHERIFc

aLEMI Laboratory /MESOnexusTeam, University of Boumerdes-35000 Algeria Emails: Boubenia. ahmed@umbb. dz; mohammedi.kamal@uumbb.dz

b, * Applied Automation and Industrial Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Djelfa 17000 Algeria Emails: hafaifa. ahmed. dz@ieee. org; kouzouabdellah@ieee. org

cFEMTO-ST UMR CNRS 6174, FCLab FR CNRS 3539, UTBM, 90010 Belfort (cedex), France Email: mohamed.becherif@utbm.fr

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is growing rapidly over recent years and this can lead to major dangers for the planet. This growth is mainly due to the emissions from fossil power source such as diesel plants and gas turbines. The purpose of the present paper is to study the feasibility of integrating a technique based on power to gas concept in fossil power plants such as gas turbine. This work is based on the reduction of pollutant gas emissions produced from a gas turbine plant, especially the carbon dioxide. This captured gas ( CO2 ) can be converted once again into energy via the technique of power to gas concept. This concept starts by extracting CO2 from exhaust gases which is carried out by multiple chemical process. On the other side, H2 is produced from water electrolysis using the excess electricity which is produced but not consumed by the existing loads. finally the production of Methane (CH4 ) can be achieved by combination of the captured CO2 and the extracted H2 via a reactor known as a reactor of Sabatier, this operation is called methanation or hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. Simulation results are presented for the validation of the proposed technique based on real data obtained on site from a gas turbine plant.

b, Kamal

Keywords : Gas Turbine, Electrolyzer, Hydrogene, Carbone dioxide, Methanizer, Methane.

Nomenclature

FfUel Fuel flow [kg/h] Fbfuel Burned fuel flow [kg/h] ncomb Combustion efficiency [ % ] Pco2 Partial pressure on CO2 [ atm ] Hco2 Henry's Law constant associated to CO2 [ bar.kg / mol ]

Cco2 Concentration in the solvent [ mol / m3 ] ( Average specific absorption flux m0 Reaction speed [ mol / s ] xc Current efficiency (1 and there are side reactions, general from 95 to 98%) J Valence of the element i

1. Introduction

In the ranking of "The Climate Change Performance Index - CCPI 2015", Algeria has moved from 49th to 39th position worldwide for its policy of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But it is still ranked third in the African rankings of the most polluting countries. Indeed, recently Algeria has developed a National Climate Plan. It is based on the adoption of an energy consumption model by substituting cleaner liquid fuels by natural gas and liquefied propane, the achievement of 35,000 hectares of forests and the development of 175,000 others, and the rehabilitation of the wastes (13.5 million tons / year). The main aim of these strategies is to be among the top ranked countries and to participate in reducing greenhouses gas, because it suffers from the circumstance that influence directly the atmosphere on the various heat flows that are contributing to the increase of the earth planet temperatures [5, 16].

There are some gaseous components that help the greenhouse effect such as; the Carbon dioxide which is distributed approximately at about 76.7% with a lifetime of 100 years, the Methane distributed at about 14.5% with lifetime of 12 years and the nitrous oxide which is distributed at 7.9% with a lifetime of 5000 years. It is obvious that the most of the greenhouse gases (GHG) are from natural origin. But some of them are solely due to human activity; as an example about 21.3% of these gases are mainly from energetic plants such as Gas turbines and diesel plants [17].

It is clear that the carbon dioxide is the main gas causing the greenhouse effect, which gives the initiative to reduce emissions of this gas or to find a way to retrieve and to store it to be used for industrial purposes such as the case of the power to gas concept which is based on the use of captured CO2 for the methane production.

2. Overview of CO2 Capture in Gas turbine 2.1. Gas Turbine Combustion

The industrial gas turbines are internal combustion engines that use a continuous combustion process. In their composition, they have different organs; the most essential are, the inter alia, the air inlet, the compressor, the combustion chamber, the exhaust nozzle or a power turbine, and possibly the heat exchanger [1, 10, 18].

Mt Atomic mass of the element t

P Electrolyzer pressure [ bar ]

T Electrolyzer temperature [ °C ]

a Coefficient of energy sharing

Number of cells in series

V Volume of the reactor [ m3 ]

mCO Mass flow of carbon [ kg / s ]

Pco 2 Carbon dioxide density [ kg / m3 ]

P Density of the Nickel catalysis [ kg / m3

SA Surface of the membranes Nickel [ m2 ]

PtG Power to Gas

aH 2O Solution Activity

Combustion reactions, like all chemical reactions are done without mass change of each element. Chemical equations that describe these reactions must therefore satisfy this constraint. For example, the Carbon and methane combustion reactions are presented as follows respectively:

C + O2 ® CO2

CH4 + 2O2 ® CO2 + 2H2O

There are several studies in the literature that present different equations expressing combustion in gas turbines. The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon equation with excess air is given as follows:

CXHY + X| x + 4)o2 + X21 ^x + 4 |N2

xCO2 +yH2O + E\ x + y)o2 + X791 x + y |N2

In the combustion chamber, (FjUel) is considered as introduced fuel flow. The combustion generally is not perfect, so unburned gases are remained in the exhausts where only burned fuel flow ( Fb fuel ) brings energy to the working fluid. Hence, the efficiency of combustion is presented as:

Generally, at rated speed, its value is very high given by 0.99 <ncomb ^1.00 .

Fig. 1. Combustion in a simple gas turbine [8]

Since the combustion in a gas turbine gives a large quantity of greenhouse gases such as CO2, this gas has to be captured to limit its spread in the atmosphere. The main aim of the present work, is to propose a technique which will allow the reduction of this emission to the atmosphere by capturing the emitted CO2 and using it for the production of other gas useful for other applications.

2.2. Carbon dioxide capture process

The capture of carbon dioxide is one of the major industrial challenges of the coming years. Various experiments are underway to capture this greenhouse gas directly to the source, such as the output of thermal power plants, where its concentration in the air is higher than 10% (by volume). The CO2 capture is the most detrimental part in terms of cost of capture-transport-storage chain; generally there are three main capture processes that are Fig. 1 [8, 12, 14,]:

• Oxy-fuel combustion

In this technology an upstream intervention of the combustion is performed by injecting pure oxygen instead of air as oxidant. The reaction of the methane is presented as an example as follows:

CH4 + 2O2 ® CO2 + 2H2O

To capture CO2, it is sufficient to condense the water by cooling the mixture, the advantage of this third way of de-carbonization is that it relies on proven technology for many years, that the separation of oxygen from the cryogenic air (Air Liquid). It is also the most effective since unlike the first two capture options retain only about 90% carbon; oxy-combustion virtually retains 100% [2, 6]

• Pre-combustion

The aim of this process is to extract the carbon from the fuel before combustion. This is done by transforming the fuel into a synthetic gas comprising mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Then water vapour is added, and this reacts with the carbon monoxide converting it into CO2 . The CO2 and the hydrogen are then separated using an amine-type solvent. The hydrogen is used to produce the required energy, without any CO2 emissions. This technique is already being used on an industrial scale, but requires specific equipment that are still being developed.

• Post combustion

This is the technique that has been mastered so far in such applications. It involves in extracting diluted CO2 from the smoke and fumes by means of a chemical solvent which reacts selectively on contact with CO2. The CO2 is then recovered from the solvent by means of heat regeneration. One advantage of this technique is that it can be adapted to existing industrial plant. On the other hand, it is expensive and also relatively energy-intensive.

Boiler/ Gas turbine

Flue gas cleaning

CO; separation

Post-combustion

Pre-combustion

Gasification/ rn/H Flue gas 1 Irri co2

Reforming cleaning 1 B2 separation

^r 1 ; K

; Flue gas cleaning

Air Air

Oxyfuel combustion

Air separation

Sorter/ ; Flue gas !

Gas turbme cleaning ¡~

ccyH2o

Flue gas recycling

CQ? separation

| Raw maïeôais

Products; Gas, ammonia steal

Industrial processes

conditioning/ compression

C02to storage

Fig. 2. Different process of CO2 capture [9]

3. Power to Gas and CO2 methanation 3.1. Description of Power To Gas Technology

Power to gas concept as the name suggests is the conversion of energy into gas, often abbreviated P2G or PTG (Fig. 3). The main purposes for the development and implementation of power-to-gas are to deliver flexibility to the energy system by offering a controllable power load to facilitate the implementation of intermittent energy sources into the existing energy system and to enhance decarbonisation of the gas sector, mobility sector or chemical industry by establishing the conversion of power to natural gas substitute, hydrogen fuel/feedstock or carbon recycling via methanation. However, solely based on the rationale of exegetic efficiency, electricity should always be directly used as power whenever possible, namely every conversion step imposes energy losses [15, 19, 23, 24].

There are currently three methods that are being used to benefit from the extracted hydrogen; all of them are based on the use of electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis:

• The resulting hydrogen is injected into the natural gas grid or is used in transportation or industry; this technique also called Power to Hydrogen [7].

• The resulting hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide and converted to methane using a methanation reaction such as the Sabatier reaction.

• The resulting hydrogen is mixed with the output gas of wood gas generator or biogas plant to upgrade the quality of the biogas.

Fig. 3. Standard flowchart of the Power to Gas concept

3.2. Electrolyzer of Water

Electrolyzer is one of the most important components of Power to Gas concept; its role is to produce hydrogen by splitting the water molecule using electrical energy. The electrolytic cell of the electrolyzer consists of two electrodes (a cathode and an anode) Fig. 4. Actually large families of electrolyzer are used such as: Alkaline Electrolysis, Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis (PEME) and Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC), However the same principle is applied for all families:

H2O û

H 2 +1/2O2

Porous Current Collector Anodic Ог + H20

Porous Current Cathodic

Membrane Electrode Assembly

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of Electrolyzer [12] 3.3. Methanation reaction

Methanation is a chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide are converted to methane in the presence of hydrogen and other complementary factors Fig. 5. The reaction of methane to carbon dioxide is also known as the Sabatier process. In 1902 Paul Sabatier and JB Send Ersen discovered this reaction, the Sabatier reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at temperatures and pressures in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The catalyst usually consists of a 2% coating of nickel nitrate deposited on a chromatographic packing material [4], it plays a role of a manager between CO2 and H2 ,since it captivates the oxygen molecule and combines it with hydrogen to produce H2O, in the same time it absorbs the carbon molecule and combines it with the hydrogen to produce CH4.

Fig. 5. Structure model of a sorption catalyst based on Ni particles on zeolites [18]

The reaction is operated at a pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm) and at a temperature of 573 K , whereas; a compressor is needed to increase the atmospheric pressure. The reaction is exothermic and once is started it remains at about 573 K , however an electric heater is also necessary for the starting of the procedure Fig.6.

CO C02 H2

Catalysts

Liquid Catalyst

Slurry bubble Column 20 bar 300-35D=C

\_ CH4

■ H20

^ethanation reactors ¡TRphoto of the merhatiation process) in file Netherluids

Fig. 6. The basic Schematic of Methanation reactor

4. Case study Description 4.1. Architecture of the system

Power-to-gas technology is emphatically distinctive from power storage technologies due to its capability of resolving issues of the supply/demand imbalance and transportation resulting from the integration of energy sources such as renewable energies and fossil energies, in the existing energy system, by conversion of power into a valuable energy carrier that can be applied in different sectors. In the present study this technology is implemented with one of the most used energies in Algeria, is the case of Gas turbine in order to reduce greenhouses gases emissions and to improve the performances.

In this case exhaust gases of gas turbine combustion will be captured and treated in order to get a pure CO2 Fig. 7. At the same time electrolysis of water relates to the conversion of electricity into hydrogen by splitting the water molecule to Oxygen and Hydrogen. On the other side, the carbon dioxide and hydrogen will mixed in Methane reactor to produce methane CH 4 and water. This Methane can then be accommodated directly in the gas grid, which is utilized again in the chemical industry or mobility sector such as Gas turbine. This system is operated after calculating the excess of the output power load energy.

Fig. 7. Architecture of PTG technology & Gas Turbine

4.2. Data sheet of Gas turbine

The gas turbine chosen in this study is indexed in API-616 (American Petroleum Institute) gas turbine 1998. It is an industrial gas turbine with internal combustion engine which uses a continuous combustion process. Like all gas turbines it has different organs; the most essential are, inter alia, the air inlet, the compressor, the combustion chamber, the exhaust nozzle or a power turbine, and possibly the heat exchanger [20, 21]. The most properties of this power plant are shown in Table. I.

Table 1. Inlet and outlet gases of Gas turbine

Systems Parameter Value

Admission gases(molar AZOTE 5.41-5.5 mol %

Concentration) Carbone Dioxide 0.21 mol %

Methane 83.0-83.57 mol %

Propane 2.01-2.25 mol %

Others (Ar,Ni..) 7.40-8.48 mol %

Exhausts gases (fraction Methane 0.49 %

concentration) Nitrogen 76 %

Carbone dioxide 5 %

Water Vapor 4.2 %

Others (Co,Ar..) 1.2 %

Time (h)

Fig.8. Exhaust of gas Turbine in one day

The curve of Fig. 8 shows the variation of CO2 emissions during one day, it is found that during the first hours CO2 emission varies between 1.42 and 1.43x104 kg / h but after the 6th hours a rapid emissions evolution of 1465 x104 kg / h is observed at 10 hours and this is due to an increase in the consumption which requires additional work by the turbine, as it is shown clearly in Figure Fig.8. The maximum emission is observed in the evening between the 19th hours to the 22th hours at a rate of 1.48x104 kg / h which is presenting the maximum power consumption hours.

0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (h)

Fig. 9. Output power of Gas turbine

The curve presented in Figure 9 represents the variation of the electric power at the output of the gas turbine, it varies between 19.45 and 20.15 MW , and the average power is calculated, it is within the value of 19.87MW.

5. Modeling & Simulation of the system

The Figure 10. presents the global block system simulation where the excess of energy which is used to supply the electrolyzer is calculated. The captured CO2 is injected with resulting hydrogen from the electrolyzer into the methanation reactor which combines the two gases to produce Methane. It is important to clarify that the control and management of this system is not considered in the present paper.

Fig.10. Simulation blocks of global system 5.1. CO2 Capture

In this study the CO2 capture is performed via the post combustion capture process, the goal of this process is to recover CO2 from the boiler flue outlet. The principle is based on the use of two columns: an absorption column for separating the CO2 from other gaseous components using a solvent and a regeneration column for recovering the CO2 in gaseous form and regenerating the solvent. The carbonation reaction is an exothermic, heterogeneous reaction in the concept of the calcium looping process which is expressed as follows [7, 11, 13, 22] :

CaO(s) + CO2(g) ~ CaCO3(s)AH0 = - 178J / mol

Pco2 Hco2 - Cco2

The flow of physical absorption can be written using the following formulation:

9co2 = -Dco21 I = KL {Cco2i - Cco2s ) = (Pco2i - Pco2s ) (7)

I d Ji Hco2

Where KL is the transfer coefficient at the material liquid side ( ms_1 ), Cco2i is the CO2 concentration at the gas-liquid interface, Cco2s is CO2 concentration within the liquid, Pco2i is the partial CO2 pressure in the gasliquid interface equilibrium with Cco2i, Pco2s is the partial pressure of CO2 in equilibrium with Cco2s.

Ahmed BOUBENIA, AhmedHAFAIFA, Abdellah KOUZOU, Kamal MOHAMMEDI, MohamedBECHERIF/Petroleum (2016) 11 5.2. PEM Electrolyzer

The splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen is relatively high because the water molecules have a stable structure at ambient temperature. A potential of 1.23 V is applied to cells to initiate electrochemical reactions at both electrodes of the anode and the cathode. At the anode, electrons are formed due to the oxidation of water with oxygen and protons reaction which is presented as follows:

2H2O ® O2 + 4H + + 4e

2 2 (8) An = -1.23 V

At the cathode, the passed protons through the membrane are reduced with electrons to form hydrogen (reduction), the reaction is presented as follows:

4H2O + 4e ® 2H2 + 4OH- (9)

A = -0.83 V

On the other side, the Faraday's law expresses the mass flow rate Fi of the element i according to the current I as follows:

! [ kg / h ] (10) I

Fh 2 = 0.98x

It is important to clarify that due to the need of sufficient quantity of H2, the used electrolyzer is constituted by the juxtaposition of electrolysis cells arranged in series. Where U is the overall voltage, it presenting the sum of the cell voltages ( u ). This voltage is expressed as follows:

U = u*ncs

u = Erev + n Aa + n Ac + Relectrolys + Rdiaphragme

Where Erev is the reversible decomposition Voltage:

3RT RT i \

Erev=E° + — x ln(p)- — x ln(aH2O) (12)

And activation overvoltage is given as:

n ln( jo )-ln( j ) (13)

2aF 2aF

where j0 ,j are respectively the densities of the currents exchanged at the cathode and at the anode. 5.3. Methanation reactor

Methanation reactor generally operates with the Sabatier process which is based on the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methane. This process starts functioning at temperatures of 250 to 400 °C with pressures of 1 to 80 bar, via nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts. A lot of mathematical models are existing in the literature, in order to see the input and output of this system, a simple model based on calculating the speed of reaction has been used and it is expressed as follows [3]:

®o -Ph -PCO(Ci -PH +PCO +C2)-1

With PH , PCO are the partial pressures of the hydrogen and the carbon dioxide respectively. The volume of the reactor can be calculated as follows:

Vs = 3-6mCO (®0 - Pco - Pm - SA)-1 05)

5.4. Simulation Parameters

The table below represents the different parameter of each component of the whole presented system

Table 2. Simulation Parameter

Model Parameter Value

CO2 capture Cco2 0.05 mol / m 3

Hco2 8.3x10-1 at 273 K

P 1 CO2 2 0.05-0.15 atm

KL 15 to 30%

PEM Electrolyzer ncs 125

E ° 1.23 v

aH 2O » 1 v approximately

J 0 2.74 KA / m2

a ac 0.16 v

a aa 0.23 v

J 77.7 KA / m2

Methanation reactor Pco2 1.977 Kg / m 3 (gas)

Pm 8908 Kg / m3

K 1.02109 exp(-20500)

C1 ^ 7.64x10-2 exp(5200)

C2 2.02x104 exp(-10500)

6. Results and discussions

In the present work the excess of electricity is used for power to gas process (PTG) where the presented model starts with calculating the difference between the output power of gas turbine and the consumed power by the load, this electricity will be distributed between the PEM electrolyzer to ensure the hydrogen production and to the methanation reactor for Methane production. In the studied model the Post-combustion capture is considered to be included with gas turbine components where it works simultaneously with exhausts gas resulting from gas combustion. The simulation of this system was run along 24 hours; the principal curves resulting after simulation are shown in Fig. 11.

Time (h)

Fig. 11. The produced electrical power, the consumed load power and the PtG power

Figure 11 represents the electric power produced by the gas turbine which is in order of 20 MW , the variation of the electric power network it reaches the threshold of 20 MW in the peak hours between 19th and 22th hours and the deviation of the electric power between the two curves, this deviation is presenting the power required for the various processes of the Power to Gas system such as the electrolyzer and the methanation reaction. It is found that during the 19th to 22th hours the gap between the production and the consumption is almost zero, which is implying that there is non-productivity of methane between the 00th to the 7th hours. Hence, a power gap is detected and estimated to be around 6 MW approximately. this power can be exploited for the process of PtG system.

660 645 640 636 I

625 620 615

/ VyTT-1 !

0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (h)

Fig. 12. The CO2 quantity captured during the post combustion process

Figure 12 represents the variation of the CO2 quantity captured by the Post combustion process,. It can be noted that between 00th to 7th hours, an amount of almost steady CO2 is captured, it is about 620 kg / h, and

until an evolution 640 kg / h is observed from 7th to 20th hours. On the other side, a maximum amount is recorded between the period of 19th to 22th hours, so it can be concluded that the quantity of the captured CO2 depends on the quantity of the gas turbine emission and of the CO2 concentration in the gas.

Figure 13 represent the efficiency of post combustion process it is about 86%, it is calculated as the ratio between the CO2 captured quantity and the CO2 quantity in the exhaust Gases where jEXH is the flow of CO2 in exhaust gases, given as follows :

n co2 = (16)

Time (h)

Fig. 13. CO2 Capture efficiency

Figure 14 represents the quantity of the hydrogen flow produced by the PEM electrolyzer expressed by kg /h, this quantity is important during the period from 0th to 8th hours, it varies between 3000 and 4500 kg / h, it reaches a minimum of 1,500 kg / h during the period from 19th to 22th hours, it is due to the increased electrical consumption of the load/grid which means a minimum power remains for the Electrolyzer (Fig.11).

0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (h)

Fig. 14. Produced Hydrogen via PEM Electrolyzer

Time (h)

Fig. 15. Output gases of methanation reactor

Fig. 16. Input gases of methanation reactor

Figure 15 represents the variations of the mass flow of CH4 and H2O at the outlet methanation reactor presenting image of the phenomenon of this reaction. As it was explained, this reaction requires a nickel catalyst which plays the role of a coordinator between the H2 and the CO2. On the other side, it needs a time delay to ensure the balance. The mass flow for CH4 varies between 1200 and 1800 kg /h, for H2O it varies between 800 and 1100 kg / h during the period from 00th to 19th hours, this quantity starts to decrease during the period from 19th to 22th hours because of the electrical consumption which is very important at this duration as it was mentioned clearly in Fig. 11. However the decreasing of H2 and CO2 quantity can be observed in Fig. 16 which represents the variation of the inlet gases of methanation reactor during the methanation, its value is between 100 to 200 kg / h.

Figure 17 represents the efficiency of methanation reaction, it has an average value of about 83% during the period from 00th to 19th hours. this value is due the availability of enough qualities H2 and CO2 of considered to be sufficient from 19th to 22th hours it starts decreasing because of the decrease of the required quantities of H2 and CO2 . Based on the previous mentioned results of simulation that are based on real date from on site gas turbine plant in Algeria, it can be said that the proposed technique is a very proposing solution for the cogeneration of power from polluting gases and at the same time the environment pollution will be decreased remarkable.

Time (h)

Fig. 17. Methanation reactor efficiency

7. Conclusion

The study of the Power to Gas concept based on gas turbine plant allows to clarify the main idea of the possibility for struggling against the greenhouses gases emissions produced from the fossil energy system. Based on the present study it can be seen clearly that the integration of the concept of power to gas into fossil or renewable energies plants can be considered as one of the most powerful current methods which allows to ensure promising good results in the future. The gas turbine used in electricity production plants can be considered as a carbon dioxide source which yields to the capture of the pure CO2 with a high efficiency 80%. On the other side, the electrolyser systems power electricity based can be used to separate molecule of water to produce hydrogen. The resulting CO2 and hydrogen can be used simultaneously by the methanation reactor for the generation of methane which can be used in several industrial application, even for power reproduction. One of the main perspective of the present study is to encourage researchers and investors in this area to establish an economical study within the development of the proposed concept to be used in real plants. It is important to clarify that there is still a need for the improvement of the methanation reactor to give good results. Finally this concept is presenting an attractive promising domain of research which can contribute for improving the energy storage systems manner under the form of gazes storage.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Applied Automation and Industrial Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Djelfa and MESO teams/ LEMI Laboratory of the University of Boumerdes and the Fuel cell Laboratory of the University of Technology Belfort Montbelillard -France.

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