Scholarly article on topic 'Socioeconomic Performance of Fisheries in the “Stretto” Coast FLAG in Southern Italy'

Socioeconomic Performance of Fisheries in the “Stretto” Coast FLAG in Southern Italy Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Giuseppa Romeo, Paolo Careri, Claudio Marcianò

Abstract The importance of fisheries and their central role in creating strong relationships in the territories of some coastal communities has generated a revision process of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) with the inclusion of Fishery Local Action Groups in the definition of bottom-up local development strategies that involve the participation and planning capacity of fisheries communities. Nowadays, in some EU areas, there is a lack of information on fishermen activities from a technical-economic point of view, with negative consequences in fishery planning at the local level. The present study provides an analysis of the economic performance of the vessels operating in the area of the “Stretto” Coast FLAG in Southern Italy. The information on costs and revenues have been gathered in 2015 through a technical-economic survey on a sample of 34 fishing vessels representing 24.11% of the total number of vessels active in the area. The direct survey aims at quantifying specific economic indicators in order to link the data on fishing effort with those on the profitability of enterprises, differentiated into 3 classes of Gross Tonnage (GT), for an assessment of the technical and socio-economic results of fisheries in the area.

Academic research paper on topic "Socioeconomic Performance of Fisheries in the “Stretto” Coast FLAG in Southern Italy"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 223 (2016) 448 - 455

2nd International Symposium "NEW METROPOLITAN PERSPECTIVES" - Strategic planning, spatial planning, economic programs and decision support tools, through the implementation of Horizon/Europe2020. ISTH2020, Reggio Calabria (Italy), 18-20 May 2016

Socioeconomic performance of fisheries in the "Stretto" Coast FLAG in Southern Italy

Giuseppa Romeoa, Paolo Careria, Claudio Marcianoa *

a Agraria Department, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Localita Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy

Abstract

The importance of fisheries and their central role in creating strong relationships in the territories of some coastal communities has generated a revision process of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) with the inclusion of Fishery Local Action Groups in the definition of bottom-up local development strategies that involve the participation and planning capacity of fisheries communities. Nowadays, in some EU areas, there is a lack of information on fishermen activities from a technical-economic point of view, with negative consequences in fishery planning at the local level. The present study provides an analysis of the economic performance of the vessels operating in the area of the "Stretto" Coast FLAG in Southern Italy. The information on costs and revenues have been gathered in 2015 through a technical-economic survey on a sample of 34 fishing vessels representing 24.11% of the total number of vessels active in the area. The direct survey aims at quantifying specific economic indicators in order to link the data on fishing effort with those on the profitability of enterprises, differentiated into 3 classes of Gross Tonnage (GT), for an assessment ofthe technical and socio-economic results offisheries in the area.

© 2016PublishedbyElsevierLtd. Thisisanopenaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISTH2020

Keywords: Small-scale fisheries; Economic indicators; Budget analysis

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39-0965-169-4254; fax: +39-0965-1694550. E-mail address: claudio.marciano@unirc.it

1877-0428 © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISTH2020

doi: 10.1016/j .sbspro. 2016.05.272

1. Introduction

The fisheries sector in Calabria shows particular issues and aspects related to environmental and socio-economic differences of the various maritime sectors. In general, underdeveloped conditions are known to characterize the economy of Calabria from the rest of Italy. The causes of this situation can be traced back to some determinants, going from the insufficient organizational level in various sectors to the lack of infrastructure and to difficult environmental conditions. On the other hand, the complexity of the fisheries sector is due to the interdependence among biological, technological (vessels, gears and equipments) and economic and production factors (families, cooperatives, companies, management problems, etc.) (Marciano, Gulisano, & Strano, 2011).

Notwithstanding the complexity characterizing this sector, it is also true that the small-scale fisheries could represent an important sustainable resource for coastal areas, even if it is necessary to tackle the several issues and problems concerning the fishing activity (Cambie, Ourens, Vidal, Carabel, & Freire, 2012). Indeed, some of the municipalities of the Calabrian territory are characterized by a high level of fish production and moreover, the fisheries sector is strongly and positively linked to the other sectors important for local economy. The European Fisheries Fund (EFF) Regulation 1198/2006 (EC, 2006), through the application of Axis 4 provides for a wide range of actions to help fisheries communities through the implementation of local strategies for the sustainable development of fisheries areas. Nowadays, the lack of adequate and proper information at a local level about the socio-economic aspects of fisheries evolves into a vulnerability for policy planning activities (Lam, Sumaila, Dyck, Pauly, & Watson, 2011).

The economic assessment by adopting indicators measuring performance of fisheries allows local governance to identify the most proper development strategy and, therefore, the best management plan (Cambie, Ourens, Vidal, Carabel, & Freire, 2012). In particular, costs and incomes are important variables in determining fishing behavior (Gordon, 2010).

In this context, the present study assesses the main economic results of the fisheries of the "Stretto" Coast FLAG in South Italy (Marciano, Romeo, & Cozzupoli, 2015). The methodological approach has been subdivided into three phases: in the first one, a statistic analysis has examined both the socio-economic situation of the interviewees and the techno-structural characteristics of the vessels. Later, the sample has been segmented on the basis of Gross Tonnage (GT) into three classes (0-4; 5-10; >10). The budget analysis has been carried out and the obtained average values have allowed to describe the costs and incomes for each group, with a distinction between variable cost and fixed cost and the identification of various indicators, in order to assess the level of economic performance. The last phase examines the perceptions by fishermen of their needs and exigencies in order to improve the efficiency and profitability of their activities. The study is structured in the following way: Section 2 describes the collected data and the used methodology, section 3 shows the obtained results and the last section deals with conclusions.

2. Methodology 2.1. Data collection

A techno-economic survey was conducted during the period July-August 2015 about fishing vessels operating in Calabria, in the "Stretto" Coast FLAG area, located in the Tyrrhenian coast of the province of Reggio Calabria, including the landing points of Villa San Giovanni, Scilla, Bagnara Calabra, Palmi and Gioia Tauro. The vessel owner or members of the crew were interviewed face-to-face through a questionnaire properly prepared for the retrieval and the subsequent processing of the income statement of each vessel (Baldari, 2006). The questionnaire is structured in three parts. The first one deals with the interviewee's basic information (age, marital status, education level, the year and reason for the beginning of activity, legal form of enterprise, fishing category, authorized fishing systems in license, the most adopted fishing system, number of crew members). This part includes the characteristics of the vessel (Gross Tonnage, Engine Power, auxiliary deck equipment, on-board electronic instrumentation, gears used for fishing). The second part refers to the income statement related to the costs, earnings and fishing days in order to quantify specific economic indicators (Baldari, 2006). The last part includes an analysis of the exigencies of the fishermen. Data were collected from a random sample of 34 fishing vessels representing

24.1% of the total number of vessels operating in the study area. As regards the structural indicators of the observed sample, the total GT represents 25.4% of the area and the Engine Power is 29.4% of the total FLAG area (tab. 1). Moreover, the average Gross Tonnage and average Engine Power are higher than the total of area. The average age of the fleet, on the contrary, is lower than the average of the FLAG area. As for the fishing systems, those identified are: Hook and Lines (20.6%), Gillnets and Entangling nets (29.4%), Harpoon (8.8%), Surrounding Nets (8.8%), Driftnets (11.8%) and Trawls (20.6%).

Table 1. Comparative structural characteristics ofthe main population and sample of the field survey

Vessels Gross Tonnage (GT) Engine Power (kW) Fleet^average

FLAG Municipalities

number % GT % a.v kW % a.v a.v

Bagnara 63 44.7 1,173 65.4 18.6 8,090 62.4 128.4 28

Gioia Tauro 22 15.6 383 21.3 17.4 2,300 17.7 104.6 30

Palmi 33 23.4 80 4.5 2.4 981 7.6 29.7 40

Scilla 18 12.8 132 7.4 7.3 1,350 10.4 75.0 29

Villa S. Giovanni 5 3.5 26 1.4 5.2 240 1.9 48.0 33

Total FLAG 141 100 1,794 100 12.7 12,961 100 91.9 32

Sample 34 24.1 455 25.4 13.4 4,040 31.2 124.1 23

Source: data processing from Fleet Register and direct survey

2.2 Performance indicators and data analysis

In order to describe the structure of key costs, revenues and profits, it has been adopted the technique of economic budget. The concepts used in the budget analysis are defined as follows:

• Fishing Income (FI) is calculated through the multiplication of the daily average revenue for fishing system by working days. For the trawl vessels in this voice were considered also the subsidies.

• Total costs are classified into variable and fixed costs. The former comprehend running costs (fuel, ordinary maintenance of vessel, engine, auxiliary equipment and fishing gears; cost of food and provisions for crew; cost of fishing bait, ice and crates), labour cost and taxes. The latter consider depreciation costs, repair cost, interest on invested capital1. The value of the investment includes the initial value of acquiring the fishing vessel and all of the equipment necessary to carry out fishing activity.

This economic structure is only partially reflected in the approach used by official statistics (cf. Mannini & Sabatella, 2015). The main performance indicator is the Gross Profit (GP), obtained by taking off from FI, the Running Cost, Labour Cost, Taxes and Repair Cost (STECF, 2015). The calculated economic indicators refer to the ratio between the GP and the Fishing Effort indicators such as GT, kW, total annual Fishing Days. In addition, specific performance indicators, such as the ratio between the initial value of invested capital, obtained by calculating the initial value of means of production (vessel, engine, gears and equipment) and the GP; the ratio among the GP, the total number of Fishing Days and the Fishing Days per man (Baldari, 2006). A further aspect which is analysed is the percentage of the principal fishing system, obtained from the ratio between the FI of the principal fishing system and the total FI (tab. 2).

1 The depreciation cost is calculated by linear formula (by considering the initial value of the means of production divided by the lifetime declared by respondents, expressed in years). Dealing with interest on invested capital, it is considered the initial value ofthe necessary means of production with an interest rate of 2.18%, obtained from the average of the interest rates on government bonds of the period 2012-2014. Regarding wages, the most common compensation system consists in remunerating 50% of the obtained income, and in the calculation the paid contributions are included; for seasonal workers, they are paid by day..

Table 2. Economic Indicators.

Typology Finalities Indicator Symbol Unit of measure

Gross Profit= Fishing Income - ^(Running Cost, Taxes, repair cost, labour cost) GP €

Gross Profit per unit of tonnage GP/GT 6/GT

PROFITABILITY INDICATORS Economic compensation of Gross Profit per unit of engine power GP/kW 6/kW

the sector, according to principal variables. Gross Profit per invested capital GP/CV -

Gross Profit per fishing days GP/Day 6/Day

Gross Profit per total fishing days crew GP/FDc 6/Day/Man

Fishing income of Principal fishing system on total Fishing Income Fi/FI %

INVESTMENT INDICATORS Assessment of efficiency, in terms of invested capital of production process. Capital Value= sum the initial value of used means of production (vessel, engine, equipment) CV €

Capital value per total fishing days crew CV/FDc 6/Day/Man

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Socioeconomic characteristics

The socio-economic characteristics of the fishermen who answered the questionnaire are shown in Table 3. The descriptive analysis of the sample highlights that workers engaged in the fishing activity are exclusively male. The average age of the interviewees is quite high and is of 50 years; in particular, 35.3% of the sample appears to have an age of more than 60 years, underlining a lack of generational change. With regard to the level of education, data indicate that the 47.1% have attended a lower secondary school and none of the interviewees has an academic degree.

The main legal form is Cooperative Society, with 58.8% on the total. Moreover, regarding the years of work experience, it is observed that 88.2% is in the range over the 20 years, witnessing the long tradition that this activity has on the examined territory. Indeed, 94.1 % of the interviewees affirmed they had inherited the fisheries from their own families and come from different generations of fishing activity.

Table 3. Socio-economic characteristics.

Variable Absolute Value % Variable Absolute Value %

Gender Legal Form

Male 100 100 Cooperative Society 21 61.8

Female 0 0 Individual enterprise 13 38.2

Age Main fishery activity

20-29 4 11.76 Yes 28 82.4

30-39 2 5.88 No 6 17.6

40-49 9 26.47 Years of experiences

>50 19 55.88 1-5 0 0.0

Education 6-10 1 2.9

Primary education 5 14.7 11-15 3 8.8

Junior High school 16 47.1 16-20 0 0

High school 13 38.2 >20 30 88.2

Academic degree 0 0

Source: Field survey, 2015.

3.2 Techno-economic results

The next table summarizes the techno-structural characteristics of the detected vessels (tab. 4). The arrangement of the vessels follows the GT classes and includes three classes of magnitude. Regarding the adopted fishing systems, of the 34 surveyed vessels, 12 result using only one fishing form. By analysing the different GT classes with the related main fishing system, it is highlighted, for the GT range between 0 and 4, the dominance of the systems that do not require a high fishing effort such as Gillnets and Entangling nets anchored and Driftnets. Instead, the intermediate range (from 5 to 10 GT) involves the vessels with the Hook and Lines system; moreover, for the highest class GT (> 10) the prevailing system is the Trawls, requiring the most effort between the identified systems.

Table 4. Structural characteristics ofvessels ofthe sample

Total fishing days (FD) Total

Total Crew fishing

Vessels Principal fishing system Other adopted systems fishing GT kW members days

system (n.) (FDc)

1 Gillnets and Entangling nets Surrounding Nets 2 1 40.4 250 4 1,000

2 Gillnets and Entangling nets Hooks and Lines 2 1 44.1 270 2 540

3 Gillnets and Entangling nets Surrounding Nets 2 1 14.7 190 4 760

4 Gillnets and Entangling nets Gillnets and Entangling nets 2 1 21.0 126 3 378

5 Gillnets and Entangling nets Driftnets 2 1 24.3 210 1 210

6 Gillnets and Entangling nets Hooks and Lines 2 1 12.5 216 1 216

fU 7 Gillnets and Entangling nets Surrounding Nets 2 2 103.0 300 2 600

8 Gillnets and Entangling nets Hooks and Lines 2 2 41.0 194 2 388

9 Gillnets and Entangling nets Surrounding Nets 2 2 23.5 295 2 590

10 Driftnets Driftnets, Hook andLines 3 2 73.5 280 2 560

11 Driftnets Gillnets and Entangling nets 2 3 74.0 265 2 530

12 Suno undin g Nets 1 3 74.0 233 5 1,165

13 Suno undin g Nets 1 4 43.0 205 5 1,025

14 Gillnets and Entangling nets Driftnets, Hooks and Lines 3 4 65.0 135 3 405

Average 2 2.0 46.7 226.4 2.7 598

15 Hooks and Lines Surrounding Nets, Gillnets 3 5 52.9 210 3 630

and Entangling nets

16 Gillnets and Entangling nets Driftnets 2 8 73.5 235 2 470

17 Hooks and Lines Surrounding Nets 2 9 138.0 239 2 478

fu Surrounding Nets, Gillnets

18 Hooks and Lines and Entangling nets, 4 9 139.7 295 2 590

Driftnets Surrounding Nets, Hooks and

19 Driftnets Lines, Gillnets and Entangling nets 4 9 105.2 319 2 638

20 Hooks and Lines Surrounding Nets 2 10 139.0 155 3 465

21 Hsipoon 1 10 130.0 91 2 182

Average 2.5 8.6 103.1 221.3 2.3 493

22 Hooks and Lines 1 11 105.0 240 2 480

23 Hiipoon 1 12 127.0 100 4 400

24 Suno undin g Nets Hooks and Lines 18 159.0 258 6 1,548

25 Haipoon 1 19 169.1 85 2 170

26 Hooks and Lines Surrounding Nets, Driftnets 21 29.4 220 3 660

f- 27 Trawls 1 24 199.0 200 2 400

u 28 Trawls 1 28 81.0 230 3 690

A 29 Trawls Hooks and Lines 29 58.8 278 3 834

30 Trawls 1 33 3 53.0 232 2 464

31 Hooks and Lines Gillnets and Entangling nets, Driftnets 34 294.0 178 3 534

32 Trawls 1 36 199.0 165 3 495

33 Trawls 1 44 3 31.0 230 3 690

34 Trawls 1 58 551.6 230 3 690

Average 1.5 28.2 204.4 203.5 3 620

Source: Field survey, 2015.

The FI value tends to increase with the increment of the GT classes. In the highest dimensional category (>10 GT), with an average FI value of 235.646, the prevailing vessels are those adopting the Trawls systems; in particular, the analysis of the FI shows a good response in terms of production for such a system. At the same time, this range will highlight the highest values of the FI for the vessels n.31 (Surrounding Nets and Hook and Lines) and n. 24 (Hook and Lines, Gillnets and Entangling nets and Driftnets) with more than 400,000 Euros (tab. 5).

Economic Budget

Performance Indicators

Vessels Fishing Income (FI) Repair Cost Running Cost Taxes Laubor Cost Depretiacion Cost Interest Total Cost Gross Profit (GP) GP/GT C.P/kW Capital Value (CV) GP/ CV GP/ Days CV/ FDi? G Pc/ FDc Fi/FI

1 118.550 500 16.100 2.252 59.344.23 3.376.67 1,335.90 82.909.25 40.353.33 40,353.33 997.68 61.280 0.66 161 61 40 28.3%

2 53.400 250 13.913 1.303 21,972.03 2.430.67 978.82 40.847.45 15.962.03 15,962.03 361.75 44.900 0.36 59 83 30 79.8%

3 92,000 267 17.150 2.036 31,122.45 1.160.83 882.90 52.618.85 41,424.88 41,424.88 2.816.49 40.500 1.02 218 53 55 34.8%

4 37.440 160 5.450 711 21,624.32 1.300.83 763.00 30.009.51 9,494.32 9,494.32 452.11 35.000 0,27 75 93 25 71,2%

5 35,500 317 6.025 675 15.760.25 732.50 599.50 24.108.42 12,723.58 12.723.58 524.29 27.500 0.46 61 131 61 67.6%

H 6 33.920 0 4,600 932 15.393.76 601.82 269.01 21.797.07 12.993,76 12.993.76 1.039.35 12.340 1,05 60 57 60 55,2%

« 7 141.830 1.700 28.790 2.993 64,235.98 9.063.21 1.846.46 108,628.42 44,111.26 22,055.63 428.45 84.700 0.52 147 141 74 30.2%

S 70.320 457 27.310 1.613 25.636.96 3.067.08 1.613.20 59,697.59 15,302.70 7.651.35 373.24 74.000 0.21 79 191 39 57.3%

o 9 90.450 200 20.880 1.719 40.778.09 1.319.83 749.05 65.645.52 26.873.37 13.436.68 1.143.55 34.360 0.78 91 58 46 37.8%

10 105,200 1.050 23.350 2.087 44.681.60 6.183.75 4.084.23 81.436.38 34,031.60 17,015.80 463.01 187.350 0.18 122 335 61 59.9%

1 1 97,100 900 12.950 1.845 43.552.55 4,863.67 2.601.83 66.712.95 37,852.55 12,617.52 51 1.52 119,350 0.32 143 225 71 68.5%

12 279.600 1.036 35.780 5.312 131.403.80 5.677.50 4.654.30 183,864.00 106.067.80 35,355.93 1,433.35 213.500 0.50 455 183 91 100.0%

13 225,500 300 24.280 4.285 107,155.25 4.249.83 3.433.50 143,703.08 89,480.25 22,370.06 2.080.94 157,500 0.57 436 154 87 100.0%

14 35.450 400 9,780 674 6.893.17 5.909.33 2.642.16 26.298.21 17,703.28 4.425.82 272.36 121,200 0.15 131 299 44 3 1.6%

Average 101,161 538 17,597 2,031 44,968.17 3,566.97 1,889.56 70,591.19 36,026.76 19,134.34 921.29 86,677 0.50 159.92 147 56 58.7%

15 156.100 1.100 65,365 2.966 87.779.27 3,817.00 4.112,35 165.139.52 -1,110.17 -222.03 -20.97 188.640 -0.01 -5 299 -2 61.0%

16 92.650 650 16.370 1.760 42,399.10 5.086.78 4.652.12 70,918.35 31,470.56 3.933.82 428.17 213,400 0.15 134 454 67 56.6%

C5 17 286.000 1.413 151.970 5.434 73.367.27 8.206.43 7.274,66 247.665.69 53.815.40 5.979.49 389.97 333.700 0.16 225 698 113 82.2%

O 18 345.250 1.990 143,600 6.560 107.997.49 5.729.19 5.620.04 271,496.47 85,102.77 9.455.86 609.07 257.800 0.33 288 437 144 53.9%

' 19 290,850 700 111.000 5.526 97.694.29 6.381.61 5,700.70 227.002.74 75,929.57 8.436.62 722.02 261,500 0.29 238 410 1 19 20.4%

20 272.000 2.440 102.600 5.168 91.442.18 11.671.19 12.242,88 225.564.25 70.349.82 7,034.98 506.1 1 561.600 0.13 454 1.208 151 59,6%

21 90.900 2.200 13.000 1.727 43.486.45 6.209.67 4.142.00 70.765.22 30,486.45 3.048.65 234.51 190,000 0.16 335 1.044 168 100.0%

Average 219,107 1,499 86,272 4,163 77,738.01 6,728.84 6,249.25 182,650.32 49,434.91 5,381.05 409.84 286,663 0.17 238.46 650 109 61.9%

22 186,000 1.600 88.600 3.842 52,059.00 14,800.60 6.101.82 167,003.42 39,899.00 3.627.18 379.99 279,900 0.14 166 583 83 100.0%

23 1 13.400 1.000 17,100 2.463 56.518.70 5,470.67 5.450.00 88,001.97 36.318.70 3,026.56 285.97 250.000 0.15 363 625 91 100.0%

24 409,000 1.633 68.410 8.092 180.649.25 7.145.03 5.696.34 271.625.45 150.215.92 8.345.33 944.75 261,300 0.57 582 169 97 55.0%

25 71.250 1.740 1 1.800 1.354 33.848.13 7.525.55 6.540.00 62.807.42 22,508.13 1.184.64 133.07 300.000 0.08 265 1.765 132 100.0%

26 282.750 1.610 61.050 5,372 119.616.24 19,941.35 10.011.65 217,601.48 95.101.52 4.528.64 3.232.99 459.250 0.21 432 696 144 67.9%

H 27 250,000 1.600 53.250 4.750 100,950.00 8.141.70 6.790.70 175,482.40 89,450.00 3.727.08 450.63 311,500 0.29 447 779 224 100.0%

28 21 1,600 1.300 74,800 4.328 76.495.80 6,666.55 5.319,20 168,909.95 54,675.80 1,952.71 675.01 244,000 0.22 238 354 79 100.0%

29 239.500 1.300 90,600 4.859 80,120.75 11,023.98 10.071.60 197,974.83 62.620.75 2,159.34 1.064.40 462.000 0.14 225 554 75 86.4%

30 208.800 2.400 90.750 4.275 61,862.40 7.829.67 6,692.60 173,809.87 49,512.40 1.500.38 140.26 307,000 0.16 213 662 107 100.0%

31 472.200 767 90.700 8.972 193,464.10 9.381.05 9.718,44 313.002.05 178.297.43 5.244.04 606,45 445.800 0,40 1.002 835 334 83.9%

32 132,000 1,500 28,750 2.816 57,777.00 9.341.67 9.461.20 109,645.87 41,157.00 1.143.25 207.34 434,000 0.09 249 877 83 100.0%

33 241,500 4.400 59,050 4.897 95,551.75 11,252.89 9.450.30 184,601.44 77,601.75 1,763.68 234.50 433,500 0,18 337 628 112 100.0%

34 245.400 3.625 88,330 4.971 84,274.70 27,939.33 24,350,60 233,490.23 64.199.70 1.106.89 116.40 1.117,000 0.06 279 1.619 93 100.0%

Average 235,646 1,883 63,322 4,691 91,783.68 11,266.15 8,896,50 181,842.80 73,966.01 3,023.82 651,67 408,096 0.21 369.23 780 127 91.8%

-k. -k. Co

The analysis of explicit costs shows the highest values to the items Wages and Running Costs. Among implicit costs, the items related to the average value of depreciation costs and the interest on invested capital tend to grow with the increase of the GT dimensional classes. The average value of the GP, as in the case of the FI, increases with the increment of the GT dimensional classes. As regards economic efficiency indicators, it was calculated the ratio between the GP product and the fishing capacity indicators (GT, kW); these indicators deal with the ratio between the GP and the value of the invested capital (CV), the ratio between the GP with the total Fishing Days (FD) and the Fishing Days per man (FD/man). Moreover, the value of invested capital was compared with the total days per man (tab. 5). The data analysis shows that the ratio both between the GP and the GT, and between the GP and the kW tends to decrease with the increase of the considered dimensional classes. A further aspect concerns the ratio between the GP and the invested capital; also in this case, it is evident a decreasing trend and, for larger vessels, a lower efficiency of the financial result compared to the invested capital. The next indicator analyses the percentage ofFI obtained by the main fishing system with respect to the total ofthe FI. In the lowest dimensional class (0-4GT) and in the intermediate one (5-10 GT), the average value ofthe incidence ofthe main FI is respectively equal to 58.7% and 61.9%. The highest is characterized by a high incidence of FI dimensional class ofthe main system, the average value ofwhich is 91.8% (tab. 5).

By analysing the needs and suggestions highlighted by the interviewees in order to improve the socio-economic conditions of the fisheries sector, it is evident the persistence of various issues previously tackled (Baldari, 2006). The table 6 summarizes the priorities identified during the interviews.

Table 6. Exigencies expressed by the fishermen.

Expressed exigencies_Priority level

Productive structures anil infrastructure

Engine Benefits on excise duly for fuel and engine replacement. • ••

Fishing gear Mesh ni 18 mm for drifnets. • ••

Shipbuilding Lack of shipyards and hiyh costs For towpath and launching. • •

Commercial structures NCCCssiLy of a fish market. Realization of fish processing and/or storage plants. • • • ••

Technical assistance More information on public announcement and a support in preparation of aid applications. • ••

Professional Training Absent, •

Certification Buitding an Area Brand. •

Promotion and marketing Little developed. • •

Realization of a regional fishing calendar for target fish and gear. • •

Ban on fishing for Drawling vessels within S miles of sailing required by smalljishing. • ••

Request for fishing tourism licenses even far small-scale fishing. •

Greater consideration for small- scale fishing at political level and within the fishing community. • ••

Pollution: complaining about the lack of attention by municipalities about the outlets of purifiers. • •

Necessity of new licenses for commercial fishing.

Trend toward innovation: low. •

Stricter controls and greater restrictions for not professional fishing. • ••

Regulations: complaining about too strict, complex laws and controls. • ••

Source: Field survey, 2015.

Conclusions

Recently, there is a growing need for more detailed socio-economic information related to local fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea, in order to provide economic advise about policy tools to support fisheries communities. The economic performance indicators presented in this paper have been computed following a methodology that allows

to define the main technical, social and economic aspects related to fisheries in the "Stretto" Coast Flag in Calabria, Southern Italy. The carried out socio-economic analysis highlights that the fisheries sector presents a scarce generational turnover for the low availability of young workers to bear the sacrifices of the fishing activity. Another weakness is the low level of education, as it is evident from the survey. In general, these two aspects can represent a restraint to the effectiveness of a policy addressed to the processes of innovation and definition of new development strategies.

Regarding the three GT classes, economic results show that the group over 10 GT, with the trawls as the mainly adopted fishing system, not only has the highest average annual gross profit but also requires the greatest capital investment. Unlike the other two groups, having an artisanal fisheries connotation, the trawls fishing system is not very selective and has a significantly negative environmental impact because of the damage to the seafloor ecosystem and the catch of many pelagic species of non-commercial value.

In general, fishing activity is profitable for all GT classes and fishermen could show low interest for development policies aiming at the diversification of fisheries in order to limit fishing effort. Fishing tourism may not be very attractive for the fishermen using the trawl system; at the same time, even the small-scale fishermen are poorly oriented towards this activity, considered slightly profitable for the low tourism flow and the limited number of tourists per vessel.

The obtained results give an insight into the economic performance of the fishing fleet of the area of the Stretto Coast Flag, and constitute a reference point for decision makers involved in the definition of the new local development plan, which should be related to the real conditions of the area.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the "Stretto" Coast FLAG, Calabria Region - European Fisheries Fund (2007-2013), Priority Axis 4: Sustainable Development of Fisheries Areas - Measure 4.1. Strengthening the Competitiveness of Fisheries Areas.

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