Scholarly article on topic 'Sustainable SWM in Developing Countries Focusing on Faster Growing Economies, India and China'

Sustainable SWM in Developing Countries Focusing on Faster Growing Economies, India and China Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Environmental Sciences
OECD Field of science
{Sustainable / MSW / "developing countries" / Landfill}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Sadhan Kumar Ghosh

Abstract The waste management is a major issue in most of the developing countries in the globe. India and China are two faster growing economies who also have similar problems to handle huge amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). Moreover, with the population growth and the increasing GDP, the MSW generation rate is increasing proportionately. Both the countries investing a loads of funds in landfill sites, MSW handling and treatment, but still the problem is not resolved. The main hurdle is the awareness of the citizen and poor institutional initiative all through the country, in general. There are a number of good initiatives, of course. This study aims to explore the present situation of the management of MSW and analyse the sustainability of the initiatives to protect the environment and resource utilisation leading to the least amount of landfill in India and China.

Academic research paper on topic "Sustainable SWM in Developing Countries Focusing on Faster Growing Economies, India and China"


Available online at


Procedía Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) 176 - 184

International Conference on Solid Waste Management, 5IconSWM 2015

Sustainable SWM in developing countries focusing on faster growing economies, India and China

Sadhan Kumar Ghosh*

Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India President, International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW), India


The waste management is a major issue in most of the developing countries in the globe. India and China are two faster growing economies who also have similar problems to handle huge amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). Moreover, with the population growth and the increasing GDP, the MSW generation rate is increasing proportionately. Both the countries investing a loads of funds in landfill sites, MSW handling and treatment, but still the problem is not resolved. The main hurdle is the awareness of the citizen and poor institutional initiative all through the country, in general. There are a number of good initiatives, of course. This study aims to explore the present situation of the management of MSW and analyse the sustainability of the initiatives to protect the environment and resource utilisation leading to the least amount of landfill in India and China. © 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierB.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

Keywords: Sustainable, MSW, developing countries, Landfill;

1. Introduction

Rapid urbanization and population growth are big challenges to make an efficient management system of municipal solid waste (MSW). The per capita MSW generation in India ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 kg/ day and increasing at a rate of 1-1.33% annually [1][2]. The per capita MSW generation in China is 0.44-4.3 kg per person in 2012[3]. As per census 2011, India has population of over 1.21 billion where 31.2% constitutes the urban population. Urban India alone generates about 62 million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually which is estimated to increase up to 250 million ton by year 2047 [4][5]. India introduced MSW Management and Handling

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address:

1878-0296 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.073

rules in the year 2000 for handling and further treatment of the waste which is under revision at present expecting the revised rules to release in 2015 end. However, many of the cities in India still do not or unable to comply with the applicable rules. The management of urban waste management in cities are of deep concern due to various reasons like poor land use and infrastructure, weak technical and financial capacity, lack of enforcement of regulations, poor coordination between authorities, deficient policies and absence of political priorities [6]. Table 1 shows the comparative data of China and India. Of course there are plenty of investment on account of management of SWM in India. The JnNuRM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission) has spent more than INR 150,000 crore for the five year plan period (2007 - 2012). A huge portion of the amount was spent for the development of Sanitary Landfill site, Compost plant, Biogas plant, Waste to Energy plant, Recycling plant etc in 61 Indian cities. There are some improvement seen during these period. The present mission, SBM (Swachh Bharat Mission) has been announced in October 2014 for the period 2014-2019, which is a massive cleanliness drive in India, nearly 20% of the total amount will be spent in SWM. In urban areas of India, the land required for landfill is 1240 hectares per year and the majority of dumpsites are over their capacity. Furthermore, the world health organisation suggests that improved MSW management can prevent and control 22 different diseases.

Table 1. China and India - Comparative data

China India Reference

Population 1.36 billion 1.25 billion (4), (5)

Population Increase 0.61% 1.24% (4), (5)

Population density 145 people/ km2 386people/ km2 (4), (5)

Geographical area 9.6 million km2 3287240 km2 (4), (5)

Rate of increase of MSW generation 3% - 10% 1% - 1.33% (9), (1)

Per capita MSW generation 0.44 to 4.3% kg 0.2 to 1.0 kg (3), (1)

MSW generation in China has increased rapidly in the past 20 years with the annual rate of increase as 3-10% [9]. In general, China still has a long way to go in the management of solid waste with respect to solid waste recycling, treatment technology and management strategy when compared with developed countries, e.g., Germany, Sweden, UK, Japan, and the United States [10]. According to the World Bank (2005), China produced 190 million metric tons of MSW in 2004 and became the world's largest MSW generator. It was estimated that cities and towns in China would dispose municipal waste 871,000 tons/day by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) with an increase of 580,000 tons/day compared to the 2010 level [7]. Facing this pressure, China has devoted considerable effort to managing its MSW. From 1990 to 2004, investment in MSW treatment equipment and infrastructure increased 21 times and over 30 times more MSW is now treated or disposed of safely [8].

This study aims to focus on the solid waste management in India and China with respect to its sustainability.

2. Literature review

Waste generation has close relationships with population, urbanization and affluence. Waste generation rate of a country or region can be linked to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, energy consumption per capita, as well as private final consumption per capita [11] [12]. MSW consists of daily items including recyclable materials like paper, plastics, textiles, metals, glass, yard wastes; organic materials like food; inorganic materials such as dirt, a small amount of construction wastes (mainly come from house decoration of community residents and the quantity is relatively small, the mixture of these construction wastes in MSW can be attributed to the poor sorting system and the voluntary awareness of some inhabitants); and miscellaneous other materials [13]. The MSW collection efficiency ranges between 70 and 90% in the major metro cities in India, whereas in several smaller cities it is below 50% [14]. It has been reported that Indian cities dispose of their waste in open dumps located in the outskirts of the city without any concern for environmental degradation or impact on human health. The economical and infrastructural constraints, including unavailability of land for safe waste disposal, and lack of awareness and fear at all levels restrain progress resulting in inefficient, unsafe urban solid waste management [15]. The management of

MSW requires proper infrastructure, maintenance and upgradation for all activities. The MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) management system comprises with generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes [16]. In India, collection, segregation, transportation, and disposal of solid waste are often unscientific and chaotic. Uncontrolled dumping of wastes on the outskirts of towns and cities has created overflowing landfills, which have environmental impacts in the form of pollution to soil, groundwater, and air, and also contribute to global warming [17]. The absence of formalized waste segregation practices, recycling has emerged only as an informal sector using outdated technology, which causes serious health problems to waste pickers [18]. Proper management requires the construction and installation of essential facilities and machinery, based on a suitable management plan [19]. More than 90% of MSW in India is directly disposed of on the land in an unsatisfactory manner [20]. In last 20 years, the Government of India has taken initiatives like JnNuRM, Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan to manage the waste in the cities. The informal sector removes metal, plastic, paper etc from the MSW. In composting the informal sector contributes positively as they remove the dry portion of the waste. But consequently sometimes it reduces the calorific value of the waste for other processes like incineration, pyrolysis etc. Incineration facilities currently operate in China, with an expected 300 facilities to be online by 2015. However, these plants vary drastically in their ability to control pollution and toxic waste from China's incinerators[42]. The capacity of the WTE plants built in earlier years was generally less than 800 tons/day (725 tonnes/day). However, recent WTE plants are larger, typically over 1000 tons/day (907 tonnes/day). The capacity of a single line within a plant has also increased, from the 200 tons/day (181 tonnes/day) in early years to over 500 tons/day (453 tonnes/day) in recent years [43].

3. Discussion

Following are the discussion on the situation of different components/ techniques of MSW disposal. Hierarchy of SWM has been observed that in both the countries, the traditional hierarchy of SWM disposal has been referred in Figure 1.

3.1. Composting

Composting is an important way for treatment of biodegradable organic fraction of the waste. Managing the biodegradable organic fraction of the waste stream is a challenge due to its characteristics of wet (usually in excess of 50% moisture, and dense which makes transportation expensive, it is one of the largest sources of anthropocentric GHGs, and it is this fraction of the waste stream which causes nuisances such as odor, landfill leachate, and attracts vectors likes rats and flies.

As opposed to landfill and incineration, composting is not a widespread used waste treatment method in China. There are only 11 composting sites in 2010 with the designed composting capacity of 5480 t/day. The major obstacle to the development of composting is the decreasing market demand. There are multiple reasons for the weak demand. For one reason, because organic waste that are proper for composting, mainly food residues, is usually not source separated hence separation of organic fragments is needed which increases the production cost and decreases the competitiveness with chemical fertilizers [22].

There are 279 compost, 172 anaerobic digestion and 29 refuse-derived fuel (RDF) plants available in India. Out of which 56 plants in more than 43 cities handling 100-1000 tpd of MSW. In India the capital cost and infrastructure set up cost of waste processing in compost plants are relatively low. Compost in India is sold at INR 2,000 to 2,200 per ton in general which is still not lucrative with respect to return on investment and process cost. Prevalent techniques in India are, 1) Windrows composting and 2) Vermi composting. [23]. Out of 6000 tpd of MSW collected in Kolkata, 400 tons of waste are composted in a plant producing 100 tons of compost per day.

3.2. Waste to Energy: 3.2.1. Incineration

It is the process used to reduce the original volume of waste by 70-90%. The temperature is 980 to 2000C.In

India and China, MSW has a high organic material content(40-60%), high moisture content (40-60%), high inert content (20-40%) which leads to reduction in the calorific value obtained.

It has been estimated that the potential for MSW to energy in India is as high as 1.5 GW and only 2% of this total has been realised. The World Energy Council reported that the Asia-Pacific region is the fastest growing market (in terms of market size) for waste to energy business and that this is due to developments in China and India. The recent growth in both the countries has been spurred by an improved awareness of the hazards associated with MSW and increasing energy and land requirements. The prevalent incinerator types in China are the mechanical stoker grate(e.g., the Pudong MSW incinerating plant in Shanghai and Changping incineration plant located in Beijing ) , the rotary kiln(e.g.,the Longgang incineration plant located in Guangdong province) and the fluidized bed(e.g.,The Xiaoshan MSW incinerating plant located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province).By the end of 2015, over 300 waste incinerators having a capacity of disposing 35% municipal waste will come into use[23]. This means nearly 100waste incinerators will be built in the next 3 years as only 122 waste incinerators are in operation by May, 2012 (Wuhu Ecology Centre,2013).A Standard for Pollution Control on Municipal Solid Waste Incineration of China (GB 18485-2001) was issued to restrict the key hazardous air pollutants emissions from the incineration process [24].

There were eight waste to energy plants installed in India, out of which two are now present. One of them in Karimnagar, a new state of Telangana has waste supply from the municipalities. It uses both MSW and biomass. It built own machineries in India. It uses RDF made out of MSW and biomass directly. Capacity handled by the plant is 400t/day of RDF and biomass. MSW is 75% and rest major contributor is biomass. Power produced is 10.2 MW and 9MW is supplied to the grid. Ash content is 10% to 15 % as claimed by the operator. This plant is under overhaul and incorporated some new machineries. It is expected to resume its operation soon. The WTE plant Ecopolis at Delhi is under operation having capacity to handle 1100 tpd of MSW exporting 10 MG to the national grid.

New initiatives have been taken in India in many of its states to install more WTE plants using different technologies developed in European countries, China and India. Table 2 present information of a few of those. These plants are under preparation and will be ready for operation by the end of 2015. However, in both the countries the major concern for the public is the excessive dioxin and ash etc. generated out of Waste to Energy plants. New technology has effective control systems for the emission .

Table. 2.

Plant Location Tons per day, Power (MW) commissioning type of waste and

& operator MSW generation, date (approx.) technology

Gajipur, Delhi, IL&FS, 1300 12 July 2015 MSW, European

Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Technology

Services Limited

Narela, Delhi, Ramky Enviro 1400 14 December 2015 Sorted Waste,

Engineers. Chinese Technology

RDF Power Ltd, Hyderabad, IL&FS, 800 10 July 2015 RDF, Chinese


3.2.2. Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biochemical process producing biogas through the biodegradation of organic material in the absence of oxygen with anaerobic microorganisms. The process typically involves pre-treatment, separation of non-digestible materials, shredding, digestion and biogas recovery and residue treatment. Around 1 million tonnes of organic MSW is treated by AD worldwide, and plantsoperate with either single or multi stages under thermophilic (50-65°C) or mesophilic (20-40°C) conditions. The temperature controls the residence times, which for thermophilic and mesophilicare about 15 and 30 days respectively. Anaerobic digestion is often used to pre-treat the Organic Fraction of MSW (OFMSW)before it is sent to landfill, thus reducing mass, and methane and leachate emissions. In AD the OFMSW volume is reduced by around 70%, therefore, assuming a 50% organic fraction, the total MSW volume is reduced by around 35% [26]. Quite a big number of biogas plants are running

successfully in India generating gas, heat and electricity. Government of India is planning to establish huge number of biogas plants in different parts of the country in mission mode.

In developing countries small scale anaerobic digesters are used to meet the heating and cooling needs of individual rural communities. There are 8 million small scale digesters operating in China[27].

3.2.3. Gasification

Gasification involves the partial combustion of biomass to generate gas and can be achieved for MSW after shredding to reduce particulate size [28]. Several types of waste cannot be treated by gasification without pre-treatment, however agricultural, plastic and wood wastes can be processed. India has one of the world's largest small gasifier programmes and 100% producer gas systems are now commercially available from a number of manufactures and range in scale from a few kWs to MWs. As of September 2009 India had a totalled installed biomass gasifier capacity of 243 MW [29].The process produces fuel gas, which is storable. Gasifiers working in India are working with burning of biomass such as agro-residues, sawmill dust, and forest wastes. There are 120 gasifiers operating in the country.There are 179 constructed and 7 under construction gasifiers in China[44]. In India, a pyrolysis/ gasification plant in Pune was started in the year 2012 with a capacity of 700 TPS of MSW. It could not operate at its full capacity and is under trial run with a small quantity for last two years.

3.2.4. Plasma Gasifier

Thermal plasma (plasmas with local thermal equilibrium) offers extreme properties - mainly very high temperature which can be used for gasification. Most thermal plasmas are generated for gasification by either an electric arc or by a radio-frequency induction discharge [34]. In waste treatment, DC arc plasmas dominate because they are relatively insensitive to changes in process conditions. However, some AC plasma torches for biomass gasification are known [35].Plasma due to high temperature can directly gasify treated materials without adding any oxidizing media but this scenario would usually lead to carbon production at the expense of syngas production. Therefore, stochiometric amount of CO2,H2O, O2, air or appropriate mixture is added. Canadian plasma gasification technology supplier, Alter NRG (TSX: NRG & OTCQX: ANRGF) has commissioned the Westinghouse Plasma torch systems which has been constructed by GTS Energy in Shanghai, China . Plasma Gasification is not being practised in industrial scale in India. The lab scale experimentation is being carried out to develop an indigenous low cost technology specific to Indian waste characteristics in National Laboratories at Durgapur, West Bengal in India..

3.3 Handling MSW

3.3.1 Recycling

Collection, transportation, and disposal of MSW are the most pressing problems of the city today. These activities encompass an extremely complex set of operations, which take place on an enormous scale. The recycling of waste in India and China is categorized into informal and formal sector. The informal sector is the rag pickers which commute either via bicycle ,pull carts or with rag bags on their shoulders. They get paid by the sale of the collected materials. The collection by the rag pickers are done from the households, commercial establishments, streets and landfills. The economic status, proximity of local and national markets, the need for secondary raw materials, the level of financial and regulatory governmental intervention, and the prices of virgin materials define the extent of the recycling taking place. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62%.In India the recycle rate is increasing at the rate of 12-15% annually[36].

3.3.2 Storage

In India and China, the waste is put outside the residential homes in plastic buckets for the deposition of waste to the collection point. The roads are broomed and the collected stuffs lands up in the community bins. There is yet to be implementation of discarding waste based upon the end product type for e.g., waste paper, plastics, wood etc.

3.3.3 Collection and Segregation

There are two kinds of collection system prevalent where people goes to a common collection point and drop their wastes. In some of the cities there is existence of door to door collection of the waste. Huge proportion of the waste quality is lost due to in between mixing of the waste. The MSW (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 suggest the provision of appropriate containers based on waste quantity generation by the nearby population. Recyclable materials are purchased from the door steps by informal sectors. The scrappers sell the material to the recyclables distribution centre where further material sorting and treatment takes place. The amount of MSW collected and transported in China is as shown in Table 1[37]. In Kolkata, one of the biggest city in India, the wastes are collected door to door. The collected wastes are compacted in several compactors installed in different parts of the city with a capacity of compacting 5 - 10 tons of MSW, under its Green City Project. The compacted wastes are then transferred to the land fill site.

Collection system is quiet similar in China. The collection system in both the country is not efficient and leads to reduction of the MSW quality. In both the countries high rise buildings are taking initiatives for mechanical collection system of waste. The collection system of MSW are more or less similar in India and china. Segregation of waste is one of the major issue which needs to be implemented effectively in both China and India to recover value added recycled product or energy from MSW. The segregation of waste is very poor in China and India.

In India segregation of recyclables (i.e., paper, cardboard, and plastics) by rag pickers was observed to be practiced in most cities. In a few cities, NGOs were observed to be involved in the collection of waste through the services of rag pickers. Maximum cities segregation is to practiced. In China the residents volunteer to segregate source- separated collection.

3.3.4 Treatment and Processing of waste:

In metropolitan cities like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata. MSW Handling Rules, 2000 Schedule-I suggests there is a need for the installation and commissioning of processing plants. The Waste processing is still unsustainable in India. In 2012, MSW treatment rate in China is approximately 62%. The amount of MSW disposal was 74.04 million tons, of which 89.3%was land filled, 3.72%was incinerated, and 6.98%composted. In China, State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and its regional branch EPA (REPA) collects the waste disposal fee[8]. Municipal Governments collect levies for the disposal of waste from residential, commercial and industrial producers as part of general taxation (World Bank, 2005)[7]. Big cities collect about 70 -90% of MSW generated, whereas smaller cities and towns collect less than 50% of waste generated. More than 91% of the MSW collected formally is landfilled on open lands and dumps (6). It is estimated that about 2% of the uncollected wastes are burnt openly on the streets. About 10% of the collected MSW is openly burnt or is caught in landfill fires (5). Such open burning of MSW and landfill fires together releases 22,000 tons of pollutants into the lower atmosphere of Mumbai city every year[38] .

3.3.5 Transportation

The transportation of waste in both the countries is similar. The transportation of the wastes from collection point to the disposal site is done by the logistic support of large fleets which comprises of refuse removal trucks (RRTs), loaders, mini dumpers, compactors and tractor-trailers. in some cities to control the route and monitor, GPS systems have been introduced in some of the cities in both the countries.

3.3.6 Disposal

The most of waste in India is disposed off in open areas. For techno-economic reasons, land filling is the most suitable option for small and middle-sized cities. Open dumping is mostly practiced in India and other developing countries. In India the total amount of MSW collected and transported 91.4%was land filled, 6.4%was incinerated and 2.2% was composted[40].

In China, the predominant method of waste disposal is land filling. In accordance with the government plan, the waste disposal capacity will reach 17,000 tons/day in Beijing in 2012, and the proportion of waste landfill will be decreased from 90% to 50%, and furthermore 30% in 2015[41].

4. Supply Chain:

The Supply Chain of Solid Waste Management in India and China are almost similar. The waste generated is collected from the source-household, industry etc. The waste collection is done by door to door basis. In both the countries, in some of the cities, the household dump their waste in the Refuse container. The waste collected from both door to door collection and refuse container ends up to the transfer station transported by the CSB (in China) and Municipal Corporation in India) and the private agencies. In the transfer point after partial separation of the recycles, the feed to the respective different treatment facilities are sent.

There is a scope for the informal sector to contribute positively to the Waste Management system. There is a scope of transforming the informal sector into the positive contributor of Waste Management. In both the countries the waste is transferred from the source to the to the transfer stations where after partial separation, the corresponding feed material is sent to the respective treatment facility. The disposal costs are taken in form of the tax. The roads are cleaned by the CPB and the collected wastes are transported to the Transfer station. The institutions collect their waste in an institutional refuse and then by their private agent transfer the waste to the Transfer station. The transfer of the waste is done by various modes of transport like bicycles, carts etc. In rural areas there is still existence of waste being transported by the animal-carts. Commercial industries based upon the legislation on quantity and quality of waste transfer the waste generated to the transfer point. There is also contracts with company to discard the commercial wastes. Figure 1. shows the supply chain of the waste management of both the India and China.


Fig. 1. Supply Chain of the waste management in India and China

5. Conclusion

The waste management is a major issue in most of the developing countries in the globe. India and China are two faster growing economies who also have similar problems to handle huge amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). Moreover, with the population growth and the increasing GDP, the MSW generation rate is increasing proportionately. Both the countries investing a loads of funds in landfill sites, MSW handling and treatment, but still the problem is not resolved. The main hurdle is the awareness of the citizen and poor institutional initiative all through the country, in general. There are a number of good initiatives, of course. This study aims to explore the present situation of the management of MSW and analyse the sustainability of the initiatives to protect the environment and resource utilisation leading to the least amount of landfill in India and China.

References :

1) Pappu, A., Saxena, M., Asokar, S.R., 2007. Solid Waste Generation in India and Their Recycling Potential in Building Materials. J. of Buil. and Env. 42 (6), 2311-2324.

2) Shekdar, A.V., 2009. Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manag. 29 (4), 1438-1448.

3) UNEP Report 2012.

4) Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Mahmood, G., Trivedi, R.C., 2007. Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities e a review. Waste Manag. 28 (2), 459-467

5) Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 2000. Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Collection Treatment, and Disposal in Class 1 Cities. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.

6) Kumar, S., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Vaidya, A.N., Chakrabarti, T., Devotta, S., Akolkar, A.B., 2009. Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: an insight. Waste Manag. 29 (2), 883-895.

7) The World Bank, 2005. Waste management in China: issues and recommendations. East Asia Infrastructure Development, The World Bank. <http://> (retrieved August 2007)General Office of the State Council, 2012.

8) SEPA, 2006. Report on the Development of Environmental Service Industry. SEPA (State Environmental Protection Association), Beijing. < ghzc/200710/P020071022367639506984.pdf> (retrieved October 2008).

9) He,P.J.,Zhang,H.,Zhang,C.G.,Lee,D.J.,2004.Characteristicsof air pollution control residues of MSW incineration plant in Shanghai. Journal of Hazardous Materials B116229e 237.

10) Yuan, H., Wang, L., Su, F., Hu, G., 2006.Urban solid waste management in chongqing: challenge and opportunities. Waste Management 26, 1052-1062.

11) IPCC, Emissions Scenarios, Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

12) Bogner, J., Matthews, E., Global methane emissions from landfills: new methodology and annual estimates 1980-1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17 (2003), 34-1-34-18.

13) Tian, H., Gao, J., Hao, J., Lu,L., Zhu, C., Qiu, P., Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: A review, Journal of Hazardous Materials 252- 253 (2013) 142- 154

14) CPHEEO. Manual on municipal solid waste management. New Delhi: Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development; 2000.

15) Talyan, V., Dahiya, R.P., Sreekrishnan, T.R., State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India. Journal of Waste Management 2008; 28:1276-87.

16) Urban solid waste management in India, Report of the High Power Committee, Planning Commission, Government of India; 1995

17) Singh, R.P., Tyagi, V.V., Allen,T., Ibrahim, M. H., Kothar, R., An overview for exploring the possibilities of energy generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian scenario, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 4797- 4808

18) Chattopadhyay, S., Dutta, A., Ray, S., 2007. Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management for the City of Kolkata. International Conference on Civil Engineering in the New Millennium: Opportunities and Challenges (CENeM-2007), 11-14 January, 2007, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India.

19) Plastindia, 2006. End-to-End Solutions for Integrated Solid Waste Management. News and Events, Plastindia. Sintex Industries Ltd. <http://www.sintexplastics. com/PRODUCTS/environment/solidwaste.HTM>.

20) Shimura, S., Yokota, I., Nitta, Y., 2001. Research for MSW flow analysis in developing nations. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 3, 48-59.

21) Das, D., Srinivasu, M., Bandyopadhyay, M., 1998. Solid state acidification of vegetable waste. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 40

(4), 333-342.

22) Hogland, W., Marques, M., 2007. Sustainable waste management: International perspectives. In: International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, 05-07 September, 2007. Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai, India.

23) General Office of the State Council, 2012

24) 114 State Environmental Protection Administration of China, China Pollution Control

25) Standard for MSW Incineration (GB 18485-2001), Chinese Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China, 2001 (in Chinese)

26) Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Influence of codigestion with manure Uellendahl, Hinrich Wilhelm; Ahring, Birgitte Kirer, Aalborg Universitet, Water Research,2005.

27) International. Energy Agency, 2005.

28) V. Belgiorno, G. De Feo, , C. Della Rocca, R.M.A. Napoli,2003.Energy from gasification of solid wastes Waste Management

29) SC Bhattacharya, C Jana - Energy, 2009 - Elsevier, Renewable energy in India: historical developments and prospects

30) SindicatoNacional da Industria de Cimento. Annual report 2009: production and dispatch numbers. Riode Janeiro, RJ: SindicatoNacional da Industria de Cimento, 2010. Available at < pdf>.

31) Trezza MA, Scian AN. Burning wastes as an industrial resource: their effect on Portland cement clinker. Cement and Concrete Research 2000;30(1):137-44.

32) Trezza MA, Scian AN. Waste fuels: their effect on Portland cement clinker. Cement and Concrete Research 2005;35(3):438-44.

33) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, Report, 26-September, 2010

34) Heberlein, J., Murphy, A.B., 2008. Thermal plasma waste treatment. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 (5), 053001.

35) Rutberg, P.G., Bratsev, A.N., Ufimtsev, A., 2004. Plasmachemical technologies for processing of hydrocarbonic raw material with syngas production. J. High Temp. Mater. Process. 8 (3), 433-446.


37) China Statistical Yearbook: 2001-2007

38) Waste to energy research & Technology Council(WTERT) Columbia University

39) Yan Zhao Waste Management Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China.

40) Jianguo Liu from Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 2008,Municipal Solid Waste Management in China.

41) Jasti Sudhir Kumar, Australian Journal of Engineering Research SCIE Journals ,Municipal Solid Waste Management Scenario in India.



44) US Department of Energy,China plant on gasification