Scholarly article on topic 'Semantic and Pragmatical Aspects of English Business Lexemes in Turkic Languages'

Semantic and Pragmatical Aspects of English Business Lexemes in Turkic Languages Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Gulzhan Doszhan

Abstract The author of the paper by means of the retrospective analysis described the process of penetration of English business lexemes during the different periods of development of the Turkic languages, paying attention to the main -extra and intralinguistic reasons for borrowings. The carried out analysis by the author of the research on English business lexemes allows drawing a conclusion about changes both conceptual and the people's linguistic worldview, about the new phenomena in its social and economic life, demanding language fixing. The author draws a conclusion that any language including the loan words in its system, compels it to the comprehensive assimilation, existing laws and tendencies on all layers of this language structure, however receives also a part of a linguistic worldview of other people. Therefore, this paper had carried out on a linguistics and semiotics joint with attraction of data from area of ethnology, sociology, cultural science, psychology and ecolinguistics. The author also proves that English business lexemes constitute considerable layer of modern Kazakh and Turkish languages and enter into a communicative system of a contemporary lexicon.

Academic research paper on topic "Semantic and Pragmatical Aspects of English Business Lexemes in Turkic Languages"

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Procedía Economics and Finance 39 (2016) 24 - 31

3rd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT and TOURISM,

26-28 November 2015, Rome, Italy

Semantic and Pragmatical Aspects of English Business Lexemes in

Turkic Languages

Gulzhan Doszhana*

aL.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 5 Munaitpassov Str., Astana, 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan

Abstract

The author of the paper by means of the retrospective analysis described the process of penetration of English business lexemes during the different periods of development of the Turkic languages, paying attention to the main -extra and intralinguistic reasons for borrowings. The carried out analysis by the author of the research on English business lexemes allows drawing a conclusion about changes both conceptual and the people's linguistic worldview, about the new phenomena in its social and economic life, demanding language fixing. The author draws a conclusion that any language including the loan words in its system, compels it to the comprehensive assimilation, existing laws and tendencies on all layers of this language structure, however receives also a part of a linguistic worldview of other people. Therefore, this paper had carried out on a linguistics and semiotics joint with attraction of data from area of ethnology, sociology, cultural science, psychology and ecolinguistics. The author also proves that English business lexemes constitute considerable layer of modern Kazakh and Turkish languages and enter into a communicative system of a contemporary lexicon.

© 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. Thisisan open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of BEMTUR- 2015 Keywords: Semantics, pragmatics, English business lexemes, Turkic languages;

1. Introduction

The main objective of the paper - in a complex to study the semantic and pragmatically aspects of English borrowed business lexemes in Turkic languages and to make scientifically reasonable recommendations about the development, an unification and systematization of lexical and terminological system of Turkic languages.

* Gulzhan Doszhan. Tel.: +7-702-666-0815

E-mail address: gul2005@list.ru

2212-5671 © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of BEMTUR- 2015 doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30236-2

The object of the research: English Business Lexemes in Turkic Languages.

The subject of the research: Semantic and pragmatically aspects of English business lexemes in Turkic languages.

According to the purpose of the thesis the following research tasks are set:

- consideration of types and results of language contacts in interaction of the various cultures and languages;

- disclosure of an essence of a phenomenon of lexical borrowings - as one of the important results of language contacts;

- the comparative analysis on classification of foreign-language lexemes;

- studying of the main directions in research of semantic function of the borrowed lexemes;

- studying of the main directions in research of pragmatically function of the borrowed lexemes;

- the analysis of a role of English in world business communication according to the modern linguistic concepts;

- consideration of influence of English business lexemes on lexical, terminological and alphabetic systems of Turkic languages;

- the offer of scientifically reasonable provisions of opportunities of assimilation of English business lexemes through formation of all-Turkic alphabetic and terminological spaces;

- the analysis of semantic and pragmatically features of English business lexemes in the Kazakh language;

- the analysis of semantic and pragmatically features of English business lexemes in the Turkish language;

- the comparative analysis of semantic and pragmatically features of English business lexemes in Turkic languages on the Kazakh and Turkish languages.

2. Theoretical and methodological basis for analysis

Theoretically, any language can include unlimited number of borrowings. However, language is a system in which the certain laws, limiting its filling with other elements and continuous contacts with foreign partners and an involvement of the Turkic-speaking countries into world economy promotes distribution of these words.

Relevance of the presented paper has caused by active participation of foreign-language words in all main language processes observed in modern Turkic languages, and importance of studying of these processes for understanding of tendencies of development of the modern languages.

Accumulation of the new language facts, system consideration of them in a foreshortening of semantics and pragmatics allows to reveal the main tendencies of borrowings, promotes deeper judgment of intralinguistic processes which lie at the heart of the mechanism of loan words and development of lexical system of Turkic languages as a whole. Besides, systematization, unification and standardization of English borrowed lexemes acquire special importance to the functioning of literary norms of this language.

Methods of the research: In the research the integrative method, receptions of the semantic and pragmatically analysis, linguistic experiment, comparative analysis, thematic classification, lexicographic analysis are used.

Scientific novelty of the research:

- the theoretical and methodological bases of the borrowed lexemes, their semantic and pragmatically aspects are defined in a complex for the first time on the basis of theories of a linguistic contactology, such as: language contact, lexical loan words, bilingualism, interference, intercalation, confusions of languages, code mixture, code switching, and also according to integrative methods (ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, a linguaculturology and ecolinguistics);

- the comparative analysis on classification of loan words is carried out;

- the theoretical provisions concerning to lexica-semantic, nominative and semantic features of loan words are developed for the purpose of the analysis of the main directions of semantic function of the borrowed lexeme;

- the theoretical provisions concerning communicative and pragmatically, nominative and pragmatically features of loan words are developed for the purpose of the analysis of the main directions of pragmatically function of the borrowed lexeme;

- the influence of English business lexemes on lexical, terminological and alphabetic systems of Turkic languages is considered, the main questions are defined in this direction, the scientific approaches according to their decision are offered;

- on the basis of comparative consideration of modern linguistic paradigms and the theoretical concepts offered by the Kazakh intellectuals through formation of all-Turkic alphabetic and terminological spaces are analyzed;

- scientific-theoretical provisions and conclusions on semantics and pragmatics of English business lexemes in the Kazakh language on the basis of an author's experimental study are developed;

- scientific-theoretical provisions and conclusions on semantics and pragmatics of English business lexemes in the Turkish language on the basis of author's experimental research are developed;

In this regard the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev in the address to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy Kazakhstan - 2050: New Political Course of the Established State» noted importance of English words in terminological system of the Kazakh language: «It is necessary to remember that any language develops in the case when it is in interrelation with other language. If the basis of modern scientific terminology had made by the words which have entered from Latin, during the development of information technology the English language surely takes root into other languages of the world with the new words and concepts. We should not lag behind this process.

After creation of a rich terminological fund of the Kazakh language conforming to high requirements of modernity, we have to introduce it systematically to all spheres of the public relations.

We should conduct modernization of Kazakh language. It is necessary to make the language modern, to look for consensus in terminology issues, forever resolving the issues of translating international and foreign words into Kazakh language. These issues have not been resolved by a circle of solitary figures. The Government should resolve this. There are terms commonly adopted in the whole world that enrich any language. However, tend to make life unnecessarily complicated, we often bring in confusion to our minds and swarm our own archaic memories. There are plenty of examples like that» (Nazarbayev 2012, p. 15).

According to long-term strategy «Kazakhstan-2050» studying of a role of the English language in a lexical and terminological system of the Kazakh language - is one of the main objectives of Kazakhstan's philological science.

The review on research materials shows lack of works in domestic linguistics in a complex investigating semantic and pragmatically aspects of English business lexemes in Turkic languages. And it is a reason for why the business discourse of Turkic languages isn't created yet. All aforesaid allows defining the relevance of a subject and necessity of its scientific judgment.

The theoretical and practical importance of the paper: scientific-conceptual recommendations of paper can be used at further studying of questions of interlingual contacts and branch terminology, and also teaching on specialties of «Foreign philology: two foreign languages», «Turkology», «Kazakh philology», «Turkish philology», «Theory of translation», etc. At the same time results of research can be used for realization of the State program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, improvement of the basic principles of activity of the State terminological commission under the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, scientific and linguistic justification of reform on the transition of the Kazakh alphabet into Latin graphics, formations of all-Turkic terminological fund and the national corpus, development of etymological, comparative, terminological, explanatory and semantic dictionaries of Turkic languages.

The theoretic and methodological basis of the study include works of modern linguists on general and Turkic linguistics, on theory of terms and borrowings, on sociolinguistics, prepared by using materials about languages of various system. The theoretical basis was prepared based on ideas and views of such scientists as W. Humboldt (2000), Winford (2003), Sebastian (2008), Keenan (2003), Fromkin (1978), Baskakov (1988), Lotte (1961), Ahatov (1987), Acar (2004), Brendemoen (1998), Haugen (1950), Ayturk (2008), Baitursynov (1926), Kenesbayev (1962), Zhubanov (1966), Ahanov (1973), Aitbayev (2007), Kurmanbayuly (2009), Kul-Muhammed (2011) as well as papers of other linguists involved with problems of interlinguistic contacts.

One of the well-known linguists of Kazakhstan Sherubay Kurmanbaiuly noted relevance of complex research on integrative aspects of questions of borrowings: «It would seem that various name of the borrowed foreign words during the different periods of development of society, formation of terminology isn't so significant. Actually, it is necessary to approach to this circumstance seriously because by means of these names it is possible to define on how many loan words by the national intellectuals, scientific community, and society as a whole are estimated. The borrowed terms carry out not only nominative activity, but also estimated. It is the most important question for language which needs to be considered from the linguistic and psycholinguistic point of view» (Kurmanbaiuly, 2001: 30).

It is known that the originality of concrete language is caused by two groups of factors:

1) its origin defining a place of language in a circle of related languages;

2) its interaction with related and unrelated languages, i.e. language contacts.

Language contacts are one of the most important factors of extralinguistic character promoting creation in language of certain innovations. Practically each language comes under influence of the next languages in diachronic process. Social and language interaction between various states and the people expands and deepens language contacts.

In modern linguistics questions of semantics and pragmatics belong to objects of research of a functional lexicology. In researches of the western linguists semantics and the pragmatics of the borrowed lexemes is focused in two research tendencies. Thus, British linguists and cognitologists V.Evans and M.Green point out «according to the dictionary view the core meaning of a word is the information containing in the word's definition. And this is a proper domain of lexical semantics» (Evans 2006, p.208). The rest information that has connected with the word bears the encyclopedic character and is bound to pragmatics, which is «an area that some linguists consider to be external to the concerns of linguistics proper» (Evans 2006, p.208). Pragmatics and semantics are opposed to one another as a science, which deals with the change of word meaning in the process of its functioning, on the one hand, and as a science about the meaning of a word, on the other hand. Thus, the authors sum up, from the position of «dictionary view» semantic knowledge is autonomous from other kinds of knowledge» (Evans 2006, p.209).

As the known Dutch linguist, S. Levinson noted: «The pragmatics investigates the aspects which haven't captured the semantic theory of value» (Levinson 1983, p. 15), his colleague, the known expert in the field of pragmatics van Dijk states: «As pragmatics definition of systems of the description of a language form, value and activity enters» (Dijk 1976, p. 65).

According to the results of researches linguist J. Waterman it is possible to find such interesting facts on the interaction and interpenetration of the various cultures and languages: «The most common way that languages influence each other is the exchange of words. Much are made about the contemporary borrowing of English words into other languages, but this phenomenon is not new, nor is it very large by historical standards. The large-scale importation of words from Latin, French and other languages into English in the 16th and 17th centuries was more significant. Some languages have borrowed so much that they have become scarcely recognizable. Armenian borrowed so many words from Iranian languages, for example, that it was at first considered a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages. It was not recognized as an independent branch of the Indo-European languages for many decades» (Waterman 1976, p. 4).

According to the theory of «language contacts», the Swedish linguist L.Johanson made the significant contribution on the research of loan words in the lexical fund of Turkic languages. Framework of its scientific researches was not limited to only one of Turkic languages. Studying history of development of lexical fund of all Turkic languages, he offered the conception «Code-Copying Model».

The Code-Copying Model, developed by Lars Johanson, has used to describe and explain effects of language contact in various settings, but with a bias for settings that involve a Turkic language. The model has much to offer to contact linguistics in general, especially the explanatory potential of attractiveness. Language change is notoriously hard to predict, but if we can find out what exactly determines an element's degree of attractiveness, we can start forming hypotheses. Attractiveness must clearly be a relative notion, in the sense that things are attractive in a given contact situation, with a given pair of languages in a given sociolinguistic setting, rather than in an absolute sense. Further differentiation and relativization of attractiveness appears necessary. As Johanson distinguishes between copying in imposition (L1 > L2) and in adoption (L2 > L1), it may be potentially useful to view separately attractiveness in adoption and in imposition, as they are not necessarily the same. The model views different degrees of copying: an item has material, semantic, combinational and frequently properties that can copy entirely (corresponds to lexical borrowing) or partially (corresponds to 'loan morphosyntax', 'loan semantics', etc.). The two types of copying referred to as global and selective copying respectively. In this light, some units may prove to be attractive for global copying and yet some for selective copying (Johanson 1998, p. 326).

3. Conceptual Approaches of the Research

Among the definitions of the notion «borrowing» which are existing in modern linguistics, I am inclined to adhere to the definition proposed by M. Sebastian: «Borrowing is a common outcome of prolonged language contact in which elements of one language are incorporated into another language; these elements can range from the level of individual sounds to larger morphological or syntactic structures» (Sebastian, 2009).

One of the important aspects of process of borrowings is lexical-semantic assimilation. In this key Winford notes that in such situations of lexical borrowing where semantically related or even synonymous native and borrowed words end up coexisting, it is indeed expected for the pairs of lexical items in question to undergo some sort of semantic change as they vie for the semantic space that was formerly occupied by a single lexical item (Winford, 2003). Keenan explains the motivation for this semantic differentiation as a psycholinguistic disposition on the part of language learners to prioritize learning new words, rather than synonyms of already existing words (Keenan, 2003). There are three different kinds of semantic change possible: broadening, narrowing, and meaning shift. The first two refer to the growth or shrinkage of the semantic space occupied by a lexical item, respectively. While for both of these the lexical item retains some of its original meaning, all the same becoming more vague or more specific, words undergoing meaning shift take on a new, unrelated meaning and lose completely the meaning originally associated with them (Fromkin, 1978).

Both extra- and intralinguistic reasons influence in any language which accepts loan words. Appel and Muysken (1987) list the possible extra- and intralinguistic factors of lexical borrowing as follows:

1) Cultural influence;

2) Rare native words are lost and replaced by foreign words;

3) Two native words sound so much alike that replacing one by a foreign word resolves potential ambiguities;

4) There is a constant need for synonyms of affective words that have lost their expressive force;

5) Through borrowing, new semantic distinctions may become possible;

6) A word may be taken from a low-status language and used pejoratively;

7) A word may be introduced almost unconsciously, through intensive bilingualism (Appel &Muysken, 1987).

An analysis of linguistic papers dedicated to the problem of borrowings shows a permanent aspiration of linguists

to expand the area of study of borrowing as «import of concepts» being investigated in linguo-culturology and cognitive linguistics (Karasik, 2002). At present many linguists agree that in order to have more thorough understanding of certain facts of language it is necessary to step over the bounds of linguistics to the area of mental processes of the individual. Thus, having developed ideas of Ferdinand von Humboldt, A. A. Potebnya points out that «the world of mankind in each moment is subjective, it is the change of world view», and language - is «not a reflection of the existing world view but an activity composing it» (Potebnya, 1993).

On the principle that borrowed words are changed according to internal laws of language in their grammatical structure, sound appearance and meaning content, the linguistics sets three types of borrowings assimilation: grammatical (morphological), phonetic and lexical assimilation. However, these three types of assimilation are closely related as they all have their own peculiarities, their own specificity. So, I think it will be appropriate to describe all of them in brief.

Grammatical assimilation. Forming a connection with the vocabulary of this language, all borrowed words are subject to the laws of development of the basic word stock. They jointly change in accordance with the grammatical system of the language in terms of the internal laws of language development. The process of assimilation of borrowed words into any language is expressed first of all in their subordinacy to its grammatical system. Grammatical system worked out during the epochs penetrate into the essence of the language, including its lexical fund.

Phonetic assimilation. As soon as one or another foreign word is borrowed, its sound appearance undergoes changes and is subordinate to the regularities of the sound system of the borrowing language. If the borrowed word is fixed in the language, disseminates in it, then it will be inevitably subject to the process of phonetic assimilation; at that its completeness and speed will be determined as peculiarities of sound composition of this word and also its importance and prevalence in the language.

Lexical assimilation. The issue of lexical assimilation can be resolved correctly on the basis of two moments: 1) relation of borrowed words to the basic word stock and to all the remaining vocabulary of the language; 2)

subordinacy of borrowed words to specific lexical regularities of the language, internal laws of its vocabulary development.

The word falling within the foreign language environment loses contact with the words of its native language and is subordinate to lexical regularities of the borrowing language in its further development. It is expressed in the fact that this word gradually becomes more and more commonly used in this language, it gains the capacity to word formation, develops polysemy, is freely combined with words of original vocabulary and enters the composition of phraseological units.

By taking into consideration all of the issues mentioned above, I can emphasize the following features of lexical assimilation of borrowed words:

1) borrowed words tend to lose their primary etymologic meanings peculiar to them in the source language which is usually accompanied by the loss of their former conceptual ties as well as their inner form;

2) further development of these words is going in accordance with the laws of development of vocabulary of this language, that is expressed in semantic and stylistic differentiation of borrowings under the influence of synonymous vocabulary of the borrowing language and in appearance of new figurative meanings which are absent to the corresponding words in the source language;

3) degree of combination of borrowings with the words of native language and their ability to enter phraseological units;

4) development of word-formation efficiency of borrowed words in English language;

5) borrowed words acquire a nationwide usage up to their inclusion into basic word stock of this language.

Having understanding the entire complexity of this problem, I, however, suggest that the use of borrowings by

various people will depend on many factors of objective and subjective nature, and understanding and interpretation of some borrowings by individual can differ from definitions proposed in dictionaries and educational guidances. In spite of rapid development of the society, the cultural interaction and globalization processes are demonstrated in language by new words and this is quite natural; «old» language can be constantly seen under «new language» with its finite attitude to life and death, to labor and money, to man and woman, to «strangers». The reasons for borrowing words are probably should be looked for not in language itself and not in speech (text), but in extralinguistic reality. New meanings (as well as new words) appear under coercion of extralinguistic reality; as a result of abstractive work of human thinking disclosing traits of similarity between individual items and performing transfer of title from one subject to another under the influence of various reasons both of objective and subjective nature.

A language having borroweddy foreign words does not leave them invariable over a long period of time. These words are gradually converted in compliance with their phonetic, morphologic and lexical regularities and brought into line with the system of language in whole, i.e. they are exposed to the process of adoption, assimilation. As a result of this process a great majority borrowings lose their alien nature, discontinue attracting attention against the vocabulary being specific for the borrowing language and become its integral part.

Scientific-and-technological progress, cultural and educational achievements of one nation as a rule, gradually become the achievements of other nations. When communicating in sharing information, certain linguistic elements, mostly lexical ones, are exchanged inevitably. Lexical changes of various intensity occur in different periods of the language development.

«...Gradual evolution of vocabulary under the suitable conditions and at a given historical time results in its significant transformations. Lexis is changed not only gradually and permanently, but irregularly in the periods of especially intensive social life, in the periods of significant and cardinal social-cultural changes. » (Sorokin, 1965). Turkish and Kazakh languages are not exceptions in this regard. In particular, their contacts with the world languages are rooted in the remote past. Alien borrowing is characteristic for all periods of development of the Turkish and Kazakh standard languages. Through the whole history of its development, the agglutinative Turkish and Kazakh languages we're being affected by various languages.

4. The Role of English Business Lexemes in Formation of Business Discourse in the Turkic Languages

In recent years the most part of English loan words in lexical fund of Turkic languages are business lexemes. In this regard in official, scientific, publicistic and literary texts in the Turkic languages in oral and written

communication semantically and pragmatically mistakes in which incorrect understanding of values of English business lexemes and terms, remoteness from value of the original word, in direct translation or lack of an emotional and estimated connotation of words are often meet.

The review on scientific materials shows lack of works in domestic linguistics in a complex investigating semantic and pragmatically aspects of English business lexemes in Turkic languages. Moreover, it is a reason for why the business discourse of Turkic languages has not formed yet. All previously mentioned allows defining the relevance of a subject and necessity of its scientific judgment.

Intensification of political-economic and cultural-humanitarian integrations of the countries of the world in the conditions of globalization influences on increase of interlingual contacts. As the most important means of the international communication English language has applied at all levels of the international relations, being in many countries as the state or official language it is in a great demand in system of the public relations in a number of the world countries.

After the II world war, the role of English language sharply increased. At the beginning of XXI century English language managed to turn into a language of science and engineering, an innovation and technology, the spheres of informatization and culture, economy and business.

If to consider that based on international relations interlingual contacts amplify, certainly, loan words concern to one of its main indicators. The dictionary fund of any language, on the one hand, has enriched at the expense of internal lexical resources of this language, on the other hand, at the expense of loan words of other languages. In this regard, it has noted that in recent years Turkic languages accept a large number of loan words and terms from English. However, in modern Turkic languages there was a negative tendency of the use of anglicisms which are not assimilated or not up to the end mastered according to phonomorphological regularity of Turkic languages. Such language situation is one of the reasons of emergence of process of an interference as a result of which the standard of speech of the Turkic people is broken.

Besides, there are cases when lexico-semantic meaning of multisignificant English words and the terms are being narrowed, in the result of unreasonable translation for the puristic reason. Because of such puristic actions the terminological fund of Turkic languages, including the Kazakh language, not only isn't systematized, but also loses the scientific character and laconicism.

5. Conclusion

Because of field research, the author made a conclusion that the main changes that happened in semantic structure of English business lexemes, which have entered into lexical system of the Turkic languages characterized within the following semantic processes:

- expansion of semantic structure of English business lexemes;

- narrowing of semantic structure of English business lexemes;

- confusion of hierarchy of semantic structure (restructuring of semantic structure of the word);

- semantic modification of English business lexemes.

Semantics and pragmatics of English business lexemes in the Turkic languages on an equal basis with terminological accuracy carries out homonymic, synonymic and nominative functions, and in pragmatical aspect -communicative, informational, expressional, emotional and subjective activities.

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