Scholarly article on topic 'Fracture Mechanics Parameters of Fine Grained Concrete with Polypropylene Fibres'

Fracture Mechanics Parameters of Fine Grained Concrete with Polypropylene Fibres Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{concrete / "polypropylene fibre" / "fracture mechanics parameters" / "ductility ;"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Marta Kosior-Kazberuk, Piotr Berkowski

Abstract Fracture mechanics is widely used to analyze the material behaviour in a structure. The paper reports the results of an experimental programme focused on the effect of various synthetic fibres on the fracture properties of concrete investigated in Mode I conditions. The changes in concrete properties were analysed on the basis of the critical stress intensity factor K Ic , the critical value of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD c ) and the fracture energy G F . The addition of the synthetic fibres had a slight effect on the strength properties of concrete but, at the same time, it had a significant influence on the fracture mechanics parameters by the modification of pre-cracking and particularly post-cracking behaviour of the concrete. Results of measuring the toughness and energy-absorption characteristics showed that the specimens reinforced with synthetic fibres acquired a great ductile behaviour and energy absorption capacity, compared to ordinary concrete specimens.

Academic research paper on topic "Fracture Mechanics Parameters of Fine Grained Concrete with Polypropylene Fibres"

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Engineering 161 (2016) 157 - 162

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering-Architecture-Urban Planning Symposium 2016,

WMCAUS 2016

Fracture Mechanics Parameters of Fine Grained Concrete with Polypropylene Fibres

Marta Kosior-Kazberuka*, Piotr Berkowskib

aBialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45A, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland bWrociaw University of Science and Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

Fracture mechanics is widely used to analyze the material behaviour in a structure. The paper reports the results of an experimental programme focused on the effect of various synthetic fibres on the fracture properties of concrete investigated in Mode I conditions. The changes in concrete properties were analysed on the basis of the critical stress intensity factor KIc, the critical value of crack tip opening displacement (CTODc) and the fracture energy Gf. The addition of the synthetic fibres had a slight effect on the strength properties of concrete but, at the same time, it had a significant influence on the fracture mechanics parameters by the modification of pre-cracking and particularly post-cracking behaviour of the concrete. Results of measuring the toughness and energy-absorption characteristics showed that the specimens reinforced with synthetic fibres acquired a great ductile behaviour and energy absorption capacity, compared to ordinary concrete specimens.

© 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of WMCAUS 2016 Keywords: concrete, polypropylene fibre, fracture mechanics parameters, ductility;

1. Introduction

Fibre reinforced concrete has gained increasing significance over the past years, both in research and construction industry. The addition of fibres makes the cementitious material more isotropic and transforms it from a brittle to a quasi-brittle material. The real benefits of adding fibres to concrete become evident at the stage of post-cracking. Before that, the most of fibre types had a limited effect on the concrete mechanical properties [1].

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 85 746 96 00 E-mail address: m.kosior@pb.edu.pl

1877-7058 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of WMCAUS 2016

doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.515

However, the full potential of fibre reinforced concrete is still not fully exploited in practice [2]. The fracture mechanics, as one of the most significant field of science, is widely used to analyze the material behaviour in a structure [3, 4, 5]. The relation between microstructure evolution and macroscopic response is crucial in the design and modelling of heterogeneous materials. Applications of fracture mechanics to concrete structures can provide a rational basis for both service performance and failure analysis and can lead to a better understanding of the design methods.

The most of the experiments relate to concrete reinforced with steel fibres and very few represent the research on composites with other kinds of fibres, i.e. synthetic fibres, which can present the series of advantages. With low modulus of elasticity, high strength, excellent ductility, excellent durability and low price, synthetic fibres can be used in cement-based materials to improve the ductility and fracture properties of the matrix [6, 7]. In addition, in the recent years, important efforts have been devoted to development of new types of synthetic fibres [8, 9]. At present, there is little information available in literature about the fracture properties of modified polypropylene macro fibre reinforced composites. Therefore, the aim of the experimental study was the analysis of the effect of various kinds of polypropylene fibres on the fracture mechanics parameters and post-cracking behaviour of fine grained cement concrete.

2. Experimental programme

2.1. Materials and specimen's preparation

Three types of synthetic fibres were used. Two of them were smooth surface, straight, flexible fibres with a diameter of 0.05 mm and different length: type A (50 mm) and type B (25 mm). The third type (C) of dispersed reinforcement was a structural, extruded fibre with a length of 50 mm and a cross section of size 0.8x1.4 mm. Specially treated surface of the type C fibre should create a multi-directional bond between the fibre and the cement matrix. The fibres were added as a replacement of adequate portion of an aggregate at three volume fractions 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%, which range the dosage suggested by the producer. The cement (CEM I 42,5 R) content in concretes tested was constant - 360 kg/m3. The river sand, fraction 0-2 mm, and the natural aggregate with maximum diameter of 4 mm, were used. The cement content, fine aggregate content and water to cement ratio of 0.40 were also kept constant in all mixes. The maximum size of the aggregate was limited to reduce its influence on fracture properties.

The modified polycarboxylate based super-plasticizer was used to minimize fibre clumping and enhance fibre dispersion in the concrete. For each fibre-dosage combination the notched beams of size 100x100x400 mm were prepared for fracture parameters determination. Every series was composed of four replicates. The initial saw-cut notch with a depth a0 equal to 30 mm and a width of 3 mm was located in the mid-span place. The geometry of the specimen is presented in Fig. 1a. Moreover, the beams (100x100x400 mm) for flexural strength and cubes (100x100x100 mm) for the compressive strength test were also cast. After demoulding all the specimens were cured in water at the temperature of 20+2°C till they were tested.

2.2. Test methods

The fracture parameters such as the critical stress intensity factor KIc and the critical tip opening displacement CTODc were determined using procedure given by RILEM TC 89-FMT [10]. The fracture parameters were assessed in a three-point bend test on beams with initial notches (Fig. 1a). The testing machine (MTS 322) with closed-loop servo control was used to achieve a stable failure of the specimens. The crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD), measured using the clip gauge at the centre of the notch, was a feedback signal (Fig. 1b). The cycles of loading and unloading were repeated four times, and then the specimen was loaded up to failure.

The load-CMOD relationships were used for KIc and CTODc determination. The fracture energy GF was assessed according to a procedure given by RILEM TC 50-FMT [11]. The fracture energy was defined as the area under the load-deflection curve per unit fractured surface area.

d = i 100 ! HO = 5 [il ao = 30 I

1- — 1-V--' , 5 = 350

L = 400

Fig. 1. Fracture testing configuration and geometry of specimen: (a) way of load; (b) the place of CMOD measurement.

The elastic modulus was calculated from the initial parts of load-CMOD relationships. The flexural strength was defined by the load capacity at the first crack. Compressive strength of concrete was determined according to EN 12390-3 [12].

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Mechanical properties of the tested composites

The mechanical properties of the cement composite with synthetic fibers determined after 28 days of curing are presented in Tab. 1.

Table 1. Mechanical properties of fibre reinforced concrete (average values and range of accuracy).

Fibre type

i content i> vol.) Elastic modulus (MPa) Compressive strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa)

0 18375+1805 53.4+3.8 4.0+0.7

0.3 23200+2290 55.0+3.0 4.4+0.6

0.6 23760+1892 58.8+4.2 4.6+0.3

0.9 24651+2514 58.5+6.1 4.8+0.4

0.3 22287+2010 52.4+4.8 4.0+0.6

0.6 23750+1779 55.0+5.4 4.3+0.5

0.9 24310+2053 59.1+4.0 4.4+0.4

0.3 23572+2218 56.8+6.2 4.3+0.6

0.6 22591+1586 55.3+3.5 4.2+0.7

0.9 23724+2425 53.0+4.3 4.3+0.7

straight 50 mm

straight 25 mm

fabric 50 mm

The material with synthetic fibres revealed higher modulus of elasticity in comparison to the reference concrete without fibres. The modulus was determined on the basis of initial (ascending) part of the load-CMOD curve. Thus, the fibres had an effect on pre-cracking behaviour of the cement composite. However, the type and content of the fibre, in the considered range, did not cause any significant differences in elastic modulus value. The fibres caused a slight increase in compressive strength, particularly in case of the concrete with fibre types A and B. The incorporation of type A fibres appeared to increase flexural strength up to 18% in comparison to plain concrete. The shorter fibres type B and the fabricated fibres type C caused only a small change in flexural strength compared to the reference concrete.

3.2. Influence of synthetic fibres on fracture parameters of concrete

The fracture toughness (KIc) and the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODc) were determined on the basis of load P vs. CMOD curves obtained for the concrete specimens subjected to cyclic loading-unloading. The initial parts of characteristic curves of P-CMOD obtained for concretes with different content of the fibres type A are presented in Fig. 2a. Similar plots were obtained for the fibre types B and C. The fracture energy (GF) was determined on the basis of load P versus deflection S curves. The characteristic PS plots are given in Fig. 2b. The descending part of PS plot was strongly influenced by both the type and content of fibres in concrete.

0.05 0.1

CMOD, mm

5000 4500 4000 3500 . 3000 - 2500 ' 2000 1500 1000 500 0

1 J. 0.0 -

r a 0.3%-

Mil 0.6 % — " 0 0%- .

m i_ i

J /A K

- t IV

- i Vv ___

/ _

0.6 5, mm

Fig. 2. Relationships obtained for concretes with different content of fibres type A (flexible, length of 50 mm):

(a) P-CMOD curves; (b) P-£curves

From the P-CMOD plot, it can be seen that the slope of initial part of the curve becomes more and steeper with the increase in the fibre content. This phenomenon caused the increase in Young modulus values. After the linear segment of P-CMOD curve, deviation from a linear response is observed and the load reaches the maximum value, which indicates the onset of the crack initiation at the tip of the notch. The value of Pmax recorded for composites with the fibres A increased up to 30% when the fiber volume fraction increased from 0% to 0.9%. For composites with the fibres B and C the differences in Pmax were not so significant (up to 11%). The variations of fracture mechanics parameters of the cement composite versus type and volume fraction of synthetic fibre are illustrated in Fig. 3.

1.5 1.45

1.4 1.35

Q 1.3 O

1.25 1.2 1.15

f- ---¿1

B ~o- C -Ai i

0 0.1 0.2 0,3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Fig. 3. The effect of fibre type and volume fraction Vf (%) on fracture parameters: (a) KIc; (b) CTODc.

A considerable increase in K\c was observed by increasing the fibre volume fraction in the concrete. Compared to the composite without fibres, the increase in K\c for the composites with 0.9% fibres was determined as 27%, 17% and 16% for type A, B and C, respectively. However, the rate of increase in K\c became lower after the fibre volume fraction exceeds 0.6%. The variations indicate that the small volume fraction of polypropylene fibres has advantage to the improvement of the fracture properties of the cement based composite, while the overlarge fibre content may be inefficient to improve the fracture properties.

The CTODc can be defined as the crack tip opening displacement when the vertical load reaches the maximum value. The greatest differences in the CTODc when the fibre content increased from 0% do 0.9%, were observed for composites with the structural fibres C. The shortest fibres B had almost negligible influence on the CTODc. That means that the length of fibres had an effect on the critical effective crack length responsible for instable crack propagation in post-cracking stage.

With a lower elastic modulus and better flexibility, the bunchy polypropylene fibres can be distributed uniformly in a cement matrix to form a three-dimensional disorderly supported space network structure when the fibres are mixed with the cement and fine aggregate. During the course of hardening, some micro-cracks appear because of the drying and thermal shrinkage inside the cement matrix. When the micro-cracks are developing under the action of load, the polypropylene fibres stretching across the micro-cracks perform a bridging effect. The fibres can relieve the stress concentration on the top of the cracks and increase the resistance to the crack developing. The variation of GF of the cement composites are shown in Fig. 4. The specimens without fibres were destroyed for S= 0.70 mm. Thus, this value was assumed for GF calculation aiming the comparison of polypropylene reinforcement influence on the fracture energy.

- 180 E

Z 160 ^140

100 L 0

Fig. 4. The effect of fibre type and volume fraction Vf (%) on GF calculated for S= 0.70.

Growing fibre content has an increasing effect on the energy absorption. However, the increase effect of polypropylene fibre on GF is not obvious when the fibre volume fraction is about 0.3%, and the increase rate becomes greater for straight fibres than for fabricated ones. The best results were obtained for flexible, ductile straight fibres with the length of 50 mm (type A), that improve the toughness and the strain capacity in the post-cracking region. The thicker, rigid fibers (type C) were significantly less effective, although they had the specially prepared rough surface.

4. Conclusions

The results of the measuring the toughness and the energy-absorption characteristics showed that polypropylene fibre reinforced specimens acquire a great ductile behaviour and energy absorption capacity, compared to ordinary concrete specimens. The pre-peak behaviour of material was slightly affected by the addition of fibres to cement matrix. At this stage, the deformation regime was dominated by the cement matrix properties. The synthetic fibres had also a slight effect on the peak-load value as well as on the strength properties, but the post-peak behaviour

revealed an important improvement compared to the reference concrete. All fracture parameters tested were strongly

influenced by the content, type (length) and flexibility of the used synthetic fibres.

References

[1] N. Buratti, C. Mazzotti, C., M. Savoia, Post-cracking behaviour of steel and macro-synthetic fibre-reinforced concretes, Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2713-2722.

[2] M.N. Soutsos, T.T. Le, A.P. Lampropoulos, Flexural performance of fibre reinforced concrete made with steel and synthetic fibres, Construction and Building Materials 36 (2012) 704-710.

[3] Z.P. Bazant, Concrete fracture models: testing and practice, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 69 (2002) 165-205.

[4] S.P. Shah, S.E. Swartz, Ch. Ouyang, Fracture mechanics of concrete: Applications of fracture mechanics to concrete, rock and other quasi-brittle materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,1995

[5] Model Code 2010, Comité Euro-International du Béton fib (CEB-FIP), 2012.

[6] Z. Wang, D. Gao, H. Zhu, Q. Zhang, Q., Fracture properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced high strength concrete, Kuei Suan Jen Hsueh Pao (Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society), 35(10) (2007) 1347-1352.

[7] P. Zhang, Ch. Liu, Q. Li, T. Zhang, Effect of polypropylene fiber on fracture properties of cement treated crushed rock, Composites: Part B 55 (2013) 48-54.

[8] K. Behfarnia, A. Behravan, Application of high performance polypropylene fibers in concrete lining of water tunnels, Materials and Design 55 (2014) 274-279.

[9] A. Conforti, F. Minelli, A. Tinini, G.A. Plizzari, Influence of polypropylene fibre reinforcement and width-to-effective depth ratio in wide-shallow beams, Engineering Structures 88 (2015) 12-21.

[10] Recommendation TC 89-FMT RILEM, Determination of fracture parameters (Kic and CTODc) of plain concrete using three-point bend test, Materials and Structures 23 (1990) 457-460.

[11] Recommendation TC 50-FMT RILEM, Determination of the fracture energy of mortars and concretes by means of three-point bend tests on notched beams, Materials and Structures 18 (1985) 285-290.

[12] EN 12390-3, Testing hardened concrete: Compressive strength of test specimens, 2011.