Scholarly article on topic 'Cross-cultural Analysis of Factor Structures of Self-confidence of Different Groups of Students'

Cross-cultural Analysis of Factor Structures of Self-confidence of Different Groups of Students Academic research paper on "Clinical medicine"

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{self-confidence / "System-functional approach" / "Factor structures of confidence"}

Abstract of research paper on Clinical medicine, author of scientific article — V. Boyko Zlata

Abstract The article is dedicated to the analysis of the results of cross-cultural research of ethnopsychological specifics in the self- confidence of students from different countries. The article considers the specifics in the confidence structures of the students from Russia, China, Guinea-Bissau and Ecuador in the frame of system-functional approach to the research of the personality.

Academic research paper on topic "Cross-cultural Analysis of Factor Structures of Self-confidence of Different Groups of Students"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 86 (2013) 482 - 486

V Congress of Russian Psychological Society

Cross-cultural Analysis of Factor Structures of Self-Confidence of

Different Groups of Students

Boyko Zlata V.*

Social and Differential Psychology Department, Peoples1 Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6, Moscow, Russia,



The article is dedicated to the analysis of the results of cross-cultural research of ethnopsychological specifics in the self-confidence of students from different countries. The article considers the specifics in the confidence structures of the students from Russia, China, Guinea-Bissau and Ecuador in the frame of system-functional approach to the research of the personality.

© 2013The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionand/orpeer-reviewunderresponsibility ofRussianPsychologicalSociety Keywords: self-confidence, System-functional approach, Factor structures of confidence

1. Introduction

The actuality of the problem of self-confidence research is constantly growing today. The interest in studying personality has become universal recently. Being one of the most important personality traits, defining success and efficiency of human activity, confidence is one the most important basic personality traits. The problem of confidence generates more interest in foreign and Russian psychology [1], [2],[3],[4],[5]. The goal of present study was to compare ethnopsychological features of personal confidence of students from Russia, China, Ecuador and Guinea-Bissau. The results of our research were partially published in several articles [6], [7], [8].

2. Methods

2.1. Participants and procedure

232 students of Peoples" Friendship University of Russia: 69 students from Russia, 57 students from China, 43 students from Ecuador and 63 students from Guinea-Bissau took part in our study. All participants were from 20

* Corresponding author. Tel. +7-905-733-6479 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Russian Psychological Society


to 29 years old. Our research was carried out in 2005 - 2007. We based on the provisions of the multidimentional-functional organization of the personality and individuality traits developed by A.I. Krupnov

[9], [10].

We investigated confidence with the help of the paper-and-pencil test developed by A.I. Krupnov on the basis of the system-functional model of the analysis of the personality traits. The paper-and-pencil test makes it possible to diagnose various components of confidence: attitudinal-target, motivational, cognitive, result-meaning, dynamic, emotional, regulatory, reflective-evaluative (it means the difficulties in the realization of confidence behavior). There are 8 blanks in the test. Each of them contains 14 statements. The participants are given the instruction: "The following statements reflect your opinion in different situations. Please, read all the statements and choose one of seven possible answers, using the scale below indicate your agreement with each statement on the answer sheet (1 - totally disagree, 2 - disagree, 3 -partially disagree, 4 - neutral, 5 - partially agree, 6 -agree, 7 -totally agree). Don't miss a single statement. There are no correct or incorrect, bad or good answers here. Every answer is correct if it is sincere."

2.1 Statistical analysis of the study results

While processing the results of the study, arithmetic mean values as well as the standard deviations and reliability of distinctions between groups were calculated. The last indicator was calculated with Student's t-test. He data was processed with the help of computer-based statistical program "Statistics for Windows". The results also were made through correlation and factor analysis (with Varimax rotation).

2. Study results and their discussion

Analysis of quantitative expression of the components of confidence showed that confident behavior of students in all groups is highly motivated with a predominance of egocentric motivation over sociocentric motivation as well as personally significant over socially significant purposes.

The variable "energy" of the dynamic component predominates over the variable "inactivity in all groups except that of the Chinese. It means that dynamic manifestations of confidence are developed at the Russians, the Ecuadorians, and the Bissau-Guineans. The confidence behavior of these students is accompanied by sthenic emotions and the prevalence of internality regulation over the external regulation.

As for the students from China who are less confident in new and unusual conditions they can be often confused in different situations. The Chinese feel more confident if they have the support of the group. It has been found that there is a high level of external regulation and difficulties. The received data testifies to the fact that the Chinese students face great difficulties in the manifestation of confidence. Sometimes they consider themselves failures. Their shyness prevents them from manifestation of confident behavior.

In our research comparative analysis of confidence of students from Russia, China, Ecuador and GuineaBissau was carried out. We analyzed psychological features of the confidence structure of Russian and foreign students. The results revealed positive and significant correlations between attitudinal-target, motivational and result-meaning components of confidence and also profound knowledge (the variable of cognitive component).

Therefore, it means that the stronger manifestation purposes and motives are the higher profound knowledge about confidence is and hence the level of the results of confidence behavior becomes higher. It is necessary to note that in the result of the analysis of communications between various variables of confidence of students it has been found that they outnumber and they are selective communications. The correlation analysis between various variables of confidence showed that on the one hand there are general communications between the various components, providing its structural kernel, on the other hand, communications, characteristic of the concrete groups, reflecting specific features in confidence manifestation are revealed.

As a result of factor analysis variables confidence points to three factors in each group (see Table 1). As it can be seen from the table the first factor included variable of attitudinal-target and motivational components of confidence: socially significant purposes, personally significant purposes, sociocentric motivation and egocentric motivation in all groups of students. It indicates that socially significant purposes, personally significant purposes and motivation are united in the structure of confident behavior.

In addition, there is the variable of objectivity indicating that the targets and motives of confident behavior facilitate the success of this property in the various activities in this factor. In general, this motivational - target factor reflects general psychological pattern of communication motives, targets, and their efficiency in the structure of confident behavior.

The second factor of all groups of students has incorporated the data of difficulties and asthenic emotions. The factor of difficulties of two groups of students (the Ecuadorians and the Bissau-Guineans) also includes external regulation and two groups of students (the Russians and the Ecuadorians) also include inactivity. This factor is in opposition to the first factor and it testifies to the fact that negative emotions and lack of development of confident behavior reduces personal activity.

The most significant differences between the groups of students were detected in the third factor. This factor in the Russian students group named "regulatory-energy" included the data of profound knowledge, energy, sthenic emotions, internal regulation and external regulation. Overall this is a positive factor, indicating the correct understanding of the nature and purpose of confidence as personality trait, permanence and stability of confident behavior, display of positive emotions and confidence regardless of the circumstances.

The Chinese students' specificity of the third factor is that superficial knowledge, energy, internal regulation, external regulation were included there. This cognitive-regulatory factor shows the dependence of the manifestations of confidence on the external conditions and circumstances. In addition, the Chinese think that confidence is the congenital personality trait, which can not be developed. That understanding of confidence may affect the self-regulation of confident behavior. In other words, the confidence demonstration of the Chinese depends on the external circumstances.

The third factor in the group of students from Ecuador included the data of subjectivity, sthenic emotions and asthenic emotions. It can be assumed that the results of confident behavior correlate with emotional experiences (feelings of delight from confident actions, pride for confident acts and actions). But at the same time the Ecuadorian students feel a sense of wariness, if necessary choice, feeling of fear before starting a new business, a sense of confusion in front of a large volume of work. This emotional-subjective factor indicates that the Ecuadorian students' confidence is focused on self-development and self-actualization, which are related to the sthenic and asthenic emotions.

Finally, the content of the third factor of the Bissau-Guineans is related to the manifestation of energy, inactivity and internal regulation. Internality indicates that confidence of the students in this group does not depend on external conditions and circumstances. And it can be a turn in the active and in the passive phase. The Bissau-Guineans are ready to take risks; they do not like to concede to anybody. At the same time the Bissau-Guineans recognize their inability to accomplish anything, considering themselves incompetent, feeling lack of confidence in new and unusual circumstances. This factor can be interpreted as "internality-energy".

Table 1. Comparative analysis of factorial structures of confidence of various groups of students

Factors The Russians The Chinese The Ecuadorians The Bissau-Guineans


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 m

i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H i-H

o o o o o o o o _tD o _tD o

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 c3 C3


Socially Significant Purposes

Personally Significant Purposes

Sociocentric Motivation Egocentric Motivation Profound Knowledge Superficial Knowledge Objectivity Subjectivity Energy Inactivity Sthenic Emotions Asthenic Emotions Internal Regulation External Regulation Operational Difficulties Personal Difficulties

0,833 0,785 0,754 0,763 0,314 0,007

0,821 0,078 0,172 0,947 0,009 -0,011 0,775 -0,116

0,665 -0,014 0,181 0,897 -0,142 0,034 0,649 -0,036

0,855 0,031 0,025 0,751 0,258 0,306 0,535 0,408

0,878 -0,073 0,059 0,709 0,019 0,441 0,757 0,252

0,579 0,113 0,392 0,605 0,215 0,231 0,650 0,245

0,390 0,142 -0,023 0,270 0,097 0,294 -0,199 -0,037 0,044

0,105 -0,040 0,162

-0,030 0,027 0,283 0,423 0,523 0,271 0,354 -0,104 0,200 0,783 0,099

0,141 0,416 0,858 0,107 0,076 0,442 0,405 0,276 0,770 0,060 --0,038 0,467 0,734 0,074 -0,064 0,215 -0,113 0,774 0,745 ,

-0,152 0,700 0,207 -0,301 0,575 0,060 0,399 0,331 0,403 -0,159 0,687

0,604 0,448 0,021 0,373 0,695

0,107 0,269 0,108 0,275 0,721 0,623 0,139 0,174

0,698 -0,052 0,061 0,520 0,598 0,335 0,632 -0,073 0,876 -0,057 0,397 0,024 0,050

0,071 0,615 0,085

0,093 0,794 0,620 0,810 0,226 0,318 -0,195 0,524 0,052 , 0,108 0,696 0,111 0,486 0,773 0,836

0,912 „ 110-0,163 0,118

0,885 0,059 0,089

0,154 0,158 0,269 0,108 -0,052 0,061 0,876 -0,057 0,665 0,540 0,221 0,158 -0,012 0,043

0,078 0,193 0,769

0,519 -0,306 0,257 0,789 0,112 -0,246 0,859 0,202 -0,162

0,652 0,138 0,785 0,272 0,800 0,103

Note: significant distinctions are marked with the grey background

Thus, differences in the content of the third factor, probability, determine the ethnopsychological specifics of confident behavior.

Basing on these data, we can say that confidence is a complex functional system, and its structure contains instrumental-dynamic and motivation-meaning components. System-functional approach to the study of personality traits and personality enables us to study confidence more fully as multidimensional, holistic education, to implement a holistic analysis of the psychological structure and identify ethnopsychological specificity in the expression of its components. The results of our research allow us to speak about the existence of a specific ethno-psychological manifestations and structure of confidence in students from Russia, GuineaBissau, China and Ecuador.

4. Conclusion

In all groups of students the goals and motives that contribute to confident behavior, are directly related to the

effectiveness of such behavior, it can be the general regularity of realization of this property.

Comparison of factorial structures of confidence of the Russians, the Chinese, the Ecuadorians and the Bissau-

Guineans allows us to conclude that ethnopsychological specificity is manifested not only in degree of

expressiveness of various variables of confidence, but also in their psychological structure.

The Russian students comprehend confidence as an active state of the individual. They are willing to take risks,

to get down to business, knowing, that they do not completely versed in the details, to consider themselves right

in various disputes and discussions, maintain their own opinion. They also seldom concede to other people and

feel satisfaction in winning the dispute. The Russians feel pleasant experiences making risky acts and feeling of

optimism performing various initiatives.

The students from China in manifestation of confidence are characterized by desire to get social approval and to be approved by group. They note that they start working only when they are completely convinced of their ability to execute it. The Chinese feel more confident when they find support. If they have to make a choice, they provide spare options. They can become puzzled in a variety of situations and feel insecure in new and unusual conditions.

The confident behavior of the students from Ecuador is connected with an external locus of control. The efficiency of their confident behavior is connected with emotional experiences (feeling of delight and pride from their sure actions and acts). But at the same time the Ecuadorians have a feeling of vigilance if necessary to make a choice, feeling of confusion before large volume of work. They also insufficiently possess the skills of confident behavior.

At the heart of confident behavior of the students from Guinea-Bissau there are egocentric motives: the desire to express themselves and to prove their abilities, the desire to gain independence and realize themselves. The Bissau-Guineans wish to develop strong-willed qualities and aspiration to be independent. They also consider that the confidence will help them with career growth, with achievement of public recognition, acquisition of bigger life experience and expansion of social contacts.


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