Scholarly article on topic 'Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the Sasak tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia'

Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the Sasak tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Biological sciences, author of scientific article — Kurniasih Sukenti, Luchman Hakim, Serafinah Indriyani, Y. Purwanto, Peter J. Matthews

Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of Sasak tribe in Lombok Island was carried out, as a kind of effort of providing written record of culinary culture in some region of Indonesia. The cuisine studied included meals, snacks, and beverages that have been consumed by Sasak people from generation to generation. Objective The aims of this study are to explore the local knowledge in utilising and managing plants resources in Sasak cuisine, and to analyze the perceptions and concepts related to food and eating of Sasak people. Methods Data were collected through direct observation, participatory-observation, interviews and literature review. Results In total 151 types of consumption were recorded, consisting of 69 meals, 71 snacks, and 11 beverages. These were prepared with 111 plants species belonging to 91 genera and 43 families. Fabaceae contributed the highest number of species to the cuisine. Cocos nucifera had the highest Index of Cultural Significance value and highest number of reported uses. Apparently traditional social and cultural values are still closely associated with Sasak food and eating. Conclusion Sasak people interpret their food not only as a material for supporting life, but also as a means to maintain a good balance between humans, environment, and spiritual needs.

Academic research paper on topic "Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the Sasak tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia"

J Ethn Foods ■ (2016) 1-12

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Journal of Ethnic Foods

journal homepage: http://journalofethnicfoods.net

Original article

Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the Sasak tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Kurniasih Sukenti a' *, Luchman Hakim b, Serafinah Indriyani b, Y. Purwanto c, Peter J. Matthews d

a Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mataram University, Mataram, Indonesia b Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia c Laboratory of Ethnobotany, Division of Botany, Biology Research Center-Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia d Department of Social Research, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan

ARTICLE INFO

Article history: Received 4 April 2016 Received in revised form 1 August 2016 Accepted 8 August 2016 Available online xxx

Keywords: ethnobotany local cuisine Lombok Sasak tribe

ABSTRACT

Background: An ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of Sasak tribe in Lombok Island was carried out, as a kind of effort of providing written record of culinary culture in some region of Indonesia. The cuisine studied included meals, snacks, and beverages that have been consumed by Sasak people from generation to generation.

Objective: The aims of this study are to explore the local knowledge in utilising and managing plants resources in Sasak cuisine, and to analyze the perceptions and concepts related to food and eating of Sasak people.

Methods: Data were collected through direct observation, participatory-observation, interviews and literature review.

Results: In total 151 types of consumption were recorded, consisting of 69 meals, 71 snacks, and 11 beverages. These were prepared with 111 plants species belonging to 91 genera and 43 families. Fabaceae contributed the highest number of species to the cuisine. Cocos nucifera had the highest Index of Cultural Significance value and highest number of reported uses. Apparently traditional social and cultural values are still closely associated with Sasak food and eating.

Conclusion: Sasak people interpret their food not only as a material for supporting life, but also as a means to maintain a good balance between humans, environment, and spiritual needs. Copyright © 2016, Korea Food Research Institute. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

Culinary culture includes all knowledge related to the production and consumption of food. The foods prepared reflect the development of peoples' knowledge of plant and animal resource management around them, including knowledge of methods for hunting, gathering, husbandry, cultivation, conservation, and utilization. Written records of culinary culture in some regions in eastern Indonesia are scarce, in any language. Ethnographic and biological studies can support the preservation and development of local knowledge of food plants and animals [1—3]. Written knowledge can never completely replace oral communication of culinary culture, but can support innovation, new forms of oral

* Corresponding author. Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mataram University, Jalan Majapahit Number 62, Mataram 83116, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

E-mail address: kurniasihsukenti@yahoo.com (K. Sukenti).

communication, and efforts to preserve the genetic diversity of food resources [1].

Lombok is one of the two biggest islands in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, and is located between Bali and Sumbawa Island (Fig. 1). Sasak people, the original tribe of Lombok, have the physical characteristics, language, and culture of Malayo—Polynesian people, and are closely related to peoples on the nearby islands of Java, Bali, and Sumbawa [4].

Lombok Island has a total population of 3,352,988 people [5], and about 80—90% are Sasak people who are distributed in four districts and one municipality. Most Sasak people live in villages, in predominantly Sasak or in mixed communities. Some predominantly Sasak communities live in desa tradisional (traditional villages).

Regarding the study of the food culture of Sasak people, there is still limited ethnobotanical research. The form, function, and serving of several Sasak dishes were reported in 1986 by Wacana

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2016.08.002

2352-6181/Copyright © 2016, Korea Food Research Institute. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

J Ethn Foods 2016; 1-12

et al [6]. Previous studies also recorded the plant utilization in the Senaru village in North Lombok and detailed several typical dishes of West Nusa Tenggara with recipes and brief explanations of cultural aspects and plant diversity for food and medicine in Jeruk Manis village, East Lombok [7-9]. The present paper reports the diversity of plants used in Sasak cuisine and records the local cuisine and use of natural resources. This research is also expected to have significance for regional and national discussions of traditional cuisines, diets, and cultural heritage. Food allows us to make connections and move across geographical boundaries, and can be a medium for understanding the world [10].

2. Methodology

Field research, from September 2014 to May 2015, was conducted with a purposive sampling method [11]. Data were obtained through direct observation, participatory observation, interview, and literature review [12,13]. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were directed to 120 informants (72.5% women and 27.5% men) chosen from 42 villages in 26 subdistricts of four districts and one municipality in Lombok Island (West Lombok, East Lombok, North Lombok, Central Lombok, and Mataram city). Villages from where the information was taken are areas of 5-10 acres, with populations of 100-1,000 people. Research areas and villages where informants and information came from are shown in Fig. 1, indicated by symbols for "village" and "traditional village.". Informant selection was based on the snowball method [14], with the restriction that informants should have competence and information related to the research. The age range of informants was 20-79 years, and their occupations included local cook (ran), farmer, housewife, local food-seller, local leader (kepala dusun, pemangku, pemekel), government employee, and others.

Information was obtained on ethnobotanical aspects of traditional cuisine such as dishes prepared, ingredients, preparation method, and cooking techniques. Particular attention was given to the utilization of food in daily life, for physical needs and cultural rituals. The "traditional cuisine" described in this study includes meals, snacks, and beverages that Sasak people themselves consider to have been known, made, and consumed in their family or community for a long time. Information was recorded regardless of whether or not people still made and consumed the food described.

Index of Cultural Significance (ICS) by Turner in Hoffman & Gallaher [15] and Purwanto et al [16] was calculated to assess the cultural importance value of all plant species, with use categories are dishes in Sasak cuisine:

ics = j2 (q x i x e)ni i = 1

ICS = Index of Cultural Significance q = quality of use i = intensity of use e = exclusivity of use n = use category (1 to n)

3. Results

3.1. Food categories in Sasak cuisine

Sasak people distinguish their cuisine into three main categories: daharan (meal, main dishes, and their complements), jaje (snack), and ineman (beverage; Fig. 2).

Most daharan dishes are served as daily food; some are served in rituals and ceremonies. In the case of famine caused by disaster, drought, and crop failure, people may eat emergency food. These

Fig. 1. Map of Lombok Island. Research areas and villages where informants and information came from are indicated by symbols for "village" and "traditional village."

Kakenan, daharan (food, cuisine)

Darurat (emergency)

Bilang jelo (daily)

Begawe (ceremony)

Bilang jelo (daily)

Begawe (ceremony)

Bilang jelo (daily)

Begawe (ceremony)

Fig. 2. Food categories in Sasak cuisine. The three main categories in Sasak cuisine based on the form of the cuisine are meals, snacks, and beverages. Note. Source: field notes 2014-2015.

are generally substitutes for pare or rice (Oryza sativa), such as jagung (Zea mays), ambon (Manihot utilissima), ambon jamaq (Ipo-moea batatas), and other root crops. Jaje (snacks) are served abundantly during ritual or ceremonial events, but also consumed and served in Sasak households especially for entertaining guests (Fig. 3). For beverages, people usually consume water, tea, or coffee in daily life, either for personal or ceremonial needs.

Based on the time of serving, people identify meals as nye-nyampah (breakfast), ngelemak (eating before noon, or lunch), and ngebian (dinner). Breakfast has been a new trend in the Sasak community since many of them went to school or worked as office employees [6]. There are almost no differences in menu composition for ngelemak and ngebian, because people usually cook once for the whole day. Breakfast usually containes a simple menu and may consist of leftover food from the previous dinner.

In addition to the ordinary O. sativa, Sasak people have a local rice variety called pare bulu (O. sativa var. japonica) that was believed to be the first rice grown by their ancestors and is only served in ceremonies or rituals. Morphologically, pare bulu has a round shape and bigger grain, fluffier texture, and has a more delicious taste than ordinary rice. The cultivation of pare bulu is especially dedicated to meet the needs of ceremonies or rituals. The obligation to provide pare bulu for ceremonial needs to some extent has been an important contribution in pare bulu conservation.

3.2. Food preparation and consumption

According to the family size or wealth, Sasak households may or may not have a kitchen [17]. When the number of family members increases, people may separate the kitchen area from their main

Fig. 3. Kinds of Sasak's snacks. (A) Abuk, steamed glutinuous rice-flour mixed with grated coconut and caramelized palm sugar. (B) Kelepon kecerit, steamed glutinuous rice-flour filled with caramelized palm sugar. (C) Poteng and jaje tujak, fermented glutinuous rice snack served in Lebaran ritual. (D) Pelemeng, steamed glutinuous rice wrapped in banana leaves.

house. There are three kinds of kitchens in Sasaknese called dapuh (inside the house), ampik (attached in the house-porch), and pawon (separated from the house). The main function of the kitchen is a place for daily cooking, dining, and receiving close friends of the housewife. Cooking for celebrations or ceremonial events is usually held outside the house, or at the berugak. Berugak is an opened foyer built next to the house as a means for gathering with family, neighbour, guests, and for doing daily activities. The main component in the kitchen is a jangkih (stove). Jangkih is made of pottery, but sometimes is just stones arranged as a stove. Kitchen equipment is usually made of pottery, woven bamboo, wood, and stone, which are put in sempare (wooden racks). Common techniques in cooking are steaming, boiling, frying, stir-frying, roasting, and baking. People also use fermenting techniques for eggs, soybeans, and beverages. Housewives usually prepare and cook food while squatting on the floor. People in rural areas still use firewood collected from their surroundings as cooking fuel, such as bamboo, Cocos nucifera, Lannea coromandelica, and other available dry plants.

Daily food includes daharan (meals), jaje (snacks), and ineman (beverages; Fig. 2). Most people have meals three times a day and others have meals twice a day. A complete menu consists of staple food, a main dish (vegetable and meat), side dish, and condiments. Daily cooking is undertaken by women. They usually cook once for the whole day and left-over food may be eaten for breakfast the following morning. Jaje (snacks) are generally served for guests in daily or ceremonial events. Most snacks contain C. nucifera, O. sativa, O. sativa var. glutinosa, Saccharum officinarum, Arenga pinnata, and Manihot esculenta. Tea (Camelia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea sp.) are consumed daily and in ceremonies. Drinking coffee can even be a means for interacting with neighbors.

Ceremonial food can be offered or used as food served for guests and participants in rituals or ceremonies. Offerings act as a prayer introductory and as a serving for ancestors or spiritual matters. Ceremonial food usually has special qualities and ingredients, and is provided abundantly because Sasak ceremonies usually take place over several days. In a begawe (ceremony) such as marriage, circumcision, and death, cooking is done by ran (usually a male cook). Ran is a hereditary profession, and has the responsibility for the whole process of cooking, ranging from selecting materials, preparing, seasoning, and cooking. Women are only allowed to assist in simple and basic preparation such as washing vegetables, cooking rice, preparing offerings, making snacks or beverages, and washing the dishes. Before the cooking procession, ran will read a spell which aims to ensure that all activities will run well. This hereditary spell is obtained from his predecessor who also works as ran, that will then be passed down to succeeding generations.

Sasaknese have a traditional banquet adopted from Bali called begibung that is a way of eating together on one big plate called janggel. Begibung was first introduced by Karangasem kingdom soldiers when they occupied Lombok in 1692. For hygienic reasons, sometimes janggel is replaced by individual plates. Begibung is still carried out in some villages in Lombok.

There is a ritual for destroying the stove 1 day after begawe, called Rebak Jangkih. People will recook the rest of the food, and invite the villagers and traditional leaders to pray and eat together. They also provide some offerings like coconut milk mixed with Curcuma domestica contained in a white bowl. After the praying, the coconut milk will be sprinkled around the house and poured onto the stove. The stove will then be destroyed using a wooden pestle. The implied meaning of rebak jangkih ritual is a wish to avoid family conflict, a wish for having children, and a warning for people to be well behaved. It is also an opportunity for the whole family to gather together and honor each other.

In total, there are 151 types of consumables divided into 69 meals, 71 snacks, and 11 beverages, as shown in Tables A1.1, A1.2,andA1.3 in Appendix 1. The percentage of consumable types using each functional group as an ingredient are vegetables (32.46%), spices (29.82%), sweeteners and confectionaries (10.53%), legumes (9.65%), root crops (7.02%), cereals (4.39%), fruits (2.63%), oils (1.75%), and others (1.75%). The typical characters of most Sasak meals are spicy and tasty. Generally, meals contain plain staple, a main dish (vegetable, meat, or mixed), side dish, and condiment. Sambel (chili sauce) is a condiment that must be available for most people. People recognize four basic types of spice composition, namely ragi beleq (complete spices used for curry), ragi rajang (usually use C. domestica and Tamarindus indica), plecingan (dishes with stir-fried chili sauce), and pelalah (used in mild-curry, less spicy than ragi beleq; Fig. 4). Some dishes have similarities with those from Java and Bali that may be related to the historical background of Lombok.

3.3. Plant utilization in Sasak cuisine

There are a total of 114 plants (111 species) belonging to 91 genera and 43 families, as shown in Table A2.1 in Appendix 2. Table 1 below provides a summary of the plant utilization in Sasak cuisines, containing five to 10 species with the highest ICS scores for each category (functional group).

Species with the highest ICS value for each category are: O. sativa (cereal), Manihot esculenta (root crop), Vigna radiata (legume), Sola-num melongena (vegetable), C. nucifera (oil), Arenga pinnata (sweetener and confectionary), and C.frutescens (spice). Based on Table A2.1 in Appendix 2,10 species with the highest ICS values for total categories and reported uses are: C. nucifera, Elaeis oleifera, C.frutescens, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Arenga pinnata, O. sativa, O. sativa var. glutinosa, Saccharum officinarum, and Manihot utilissima.

Below is a chart describing the flow of food plants from their habitats to the consumer (Fig. 5).

People can get food plants from their own fields (bangket), house yard, gardens (pekarangan, kebon), or buy from farmers (petani) or field owners. Farmers or field owners also sell food ingredients to sellers of traditional markets (dagang peken), or to wholesale traders (bandar) that will distribute the plants to markets. People can also get the plants from their nearest market or from resellers (inaq or dagang) who sell around the village.

Several villages are located near the edge of the forest. In some particular conditions, people can find food plants in the forest, such as young shoots of bamboo, or edible fungi Pleurotus ostreatus. Some vegetables are wild commensals in ruderal habitats, either on a private or public land, called rerebu gamang. Rerebu gamang could be Limnocharis flava, Centella asiatica, Marsilea crenata, Xanthosoma violaceum, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., and Cleome viscosa. Ipomoea aquatica can also grow wildly as the seeds spread easily throughout the rivers.

Based on growth form, the percentage of herbs, trees, shrubs, vines, and others are 44.7%, 26.3%, 17.5%, 8.8%, and 2.63%, respectively. Most plants are cultivated species (79.8%), others are semi-cultivated (9.65%) and noncultivated (10.53%). Compared with Table A2.1 from Appendix 2, the first 52 species with the highest ICS values are cultivated species. Most semicultivated species are species that are rarely used. Noncultivated species are usually used for minor or temporary usage.

4. Discussion

4.1. Perceptions and concepts

Lombok has a historical background of drought and famine during Dutch's half century occupation in Lombok in 1897—1945. The

combined result of rapid population growth, heavy taxation, and a high level of rice exports from Lombok to Europe had severe consequences for the increasingly impoverished Sasak population. The last period of widespread hunger occurred during 1966—1967 when large areas faced severe crop failure [18]. These conditions more or less influenced the perceptions and concepts of food and eating habits of Sasak people. Food was perceived as something edible that gives a sense of satiety, and is associated with life sustainability. People's priority was to consume foods that provided satiety and energy to do daily activities, such as carbohydrate sources contained in meals. Jaje or snacks were perceived as secondary food that were rarely scheduled in the daily menu, and usually served at special events. These concepts also underlie the people's tradition with always providing a large amount of food in ceremonies, as they want to provide their best. In general, food is used as a medium for communicating and respecting their ancestors, expressing joy and gratitude, as well as interacting and socializing with the community. Ritual is a kind of mechanism for maintaining ecological balance in the local environment and/or for redistributing food [19].

Changes in daily life influenced the people's food habits. The frequency of eating that had turned from twice to three times a day was a result of more people being educated to start the day with an adequate breakfast. Another thing that can influence food habits is colonialism, such as in begibung. Begibung is a tradition introduced by the Karangasem kingdom during their rule in Lombok in the 17th to 19th century. Today, this tradition still exists between people, especially in rural areas. Local genius had an important role when people faced a condition that they should choose between maintaining their original culture or receiving a new one and adjusting it to their culture [20]. The existence of begibung today is proof that people had filtered and considered that begibung has appropriate values that can be adjusted to the Sasak culture.

As an agrarian community, Sasak people have a lot of agricultural rituals and give high appreciation to rice as a staple food. This is indicated from the series of rituals related to rice, such as pre-planting and planting rituals, rainmaking ceremonies, harvesting, storing rice in the barn, and treating rice before being cooking. Respect for rice is so great that the management of rice is implemented emphatically as if treating humans [6]. Rice has been the mainstay of people for thousands of years, and plays a significant role in many South East Asian rituals [21]. For Sasak people, rice is also used as a thanksgiving medium for the success of agricultural products, as in the Perang Topat ritual. The people have a rice goddess known as Inaq Sariti, similar to whom Javanese and Bali-nese called Dewi Sri, which symbolizes fertility. According to Piper [21], rice gods have been known in most South East countries, including Thailand and Malaysia. The ritual of rice is also a form of homage to the rice goddess, and is intended to support the fertility of the people's agricultural land.

Living as agrarian on land that often had long droughts and famine led Sasak people to be careful in managing their crops, especially rice. People in rural areas (such as Central and North Lombok district) stock their rice in a rice barn or granary, called alang, sambi, geleng, or lumbung, based on its form and size. A granary is usually located in people's homeyards, and may be a personal or communal property. It also has a social—cultural role, because the bottom part can function as berugak—an open foyer used for gathering and socializing with people or family, and doing daily activities. The roof shape is like a hat, with a small door as an entrance, intended to protect the rice from rat attacks and flood. The size of a granary can also indicate the social-economic status of the owner, as it shows how vast the rice fields the owner has. In Sade village, Central Lombok, only married women can enter it for picking up the rice. People assumed that only married women

Table 1

Summary of plant utilization in Sasak cuisine.

Category Species Family Growth form Part used Use context RU ICS

I. Cereals 1. Oryza sativa Poaceae Herb Seed DC 29 1170

2. Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Poaceae Herb Seed DC 26 1040

3. Triticum aestirum Poaceae Herb Seed DC 7 280

4. Zea mays Poaceae Herb Seed D 7 222

5. Oryza nivara Poaceae Herb Seed D 1 40

II. Root crops 1. Manihot esculenta Euphorbiaceae Shrub Leaf, stem D 28 820

2. Ipomoea batatas Convolvulaceae Herb Tuber D 9 148

3. Colocasia esculenta Araceae Herb Leaf, corm D 4 72

4. Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae Herb Corm D 5 64

5. Xanthosoma violaceum Araceae Herb Leaf, corm D 4 48

III. Legumes 1. Vigna radiata Fabaceae Herb Seed DC 20 596

2. Vigna sinensis Fabaceae Herb Fruit,seed D 19 596

3. Glycine max Fabaceae Herb Seed DC 16 436

4. Arachis hypogaea Fabaceae Herb Leaf, seed DC 14 300

5. Lablab purpureus Fabaceae Herb Fruit,seed D 12 264

6. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Fabaceae Herb Fruit D 11 252

IV. Vegetables 1. Solanum melongena Solanaceae Herb Fruit DC 14 256

2. Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae Herb Leaf D 12 224

3. Lagenaria siceraria Cucurbitaceae Vine Fruit DC 9 224

4. Ocimum basilicum var. anisatum Lamiaceae Herb Leaf D 9 213

5. Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae Herb Leaf, stem D 9 184

6. Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Tree Fruit DC 8 176

7. Momordia charantia Cucurbitaceae Vine Fruit D 8 168

8. Sauropus androgynus Euphorbiaceae Shrub Leaf D 6 158

9. Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae Vine Fruit D 11 148

10. Moringa oleífera Moringaceae Tree Leaf D 8 146

V. Oils 1. Cocos nucifera Arecaceae Tree Fruit DC 85 3324

2. Elaeis oleifera Arecaceae Tree Fruit DC 61 1830

VI. Sweeteners, 1. Arenga pinnata Arecaceae Tree Sap DC 45 1190

Confectionaries 2. Saccharum officinarum Poaceae Shrub Stem DC 32 955

3. Pandanus amaryllifolius Pandanaceae Herb Leaf DC 11 267

4. Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae Herb Seed DC 2 80

5. Dracaena angustifolia Ruscaceae Shrub Leaf DC 2 60

6. Camellia sinensis Theaceae Shrub Leaf DC 1 40

7. Coffea sp. Rubiaceae Tree Seed DC 1 40

VII. Spices 1. Capsicum frutescens Solanaceae Herb Fruit DC 50 1422

2. Allium sativum Amarylidaceae Herb Corm DC 46 1336

3. Allium cepa Amarylidaceae Herb Leaf, corm DC 44 1250

4. Capsicum annum Solanaceae Herb Fruit DC 27 756

5. Alpinia galanga Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome DC 26 690

6. Citrus amblycarpa Rutaceae Shrub Fruit DC 21 630

7. Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Vine Seed DC 23 627

C, ceremonial; D, daily; DC, daily and ceremonial; ICS, Index of Cultural Significance; RU, reported used.

Fig. 5. The flow of food plants from habitats to the consumer. Food plants can be obtained from fields, houseyards, and gardens. People can also buy from farmers, wholesale traders, sellers in the market, or resellers who sell around the village. Note. Source: observational result.

really know the amount of rice required for the family. Generally, women pick up the rice for 1 week or 2 weeks of consumption, and then put it in a container made of woven bamboo called raru or selau, and store it at paon (kitchen). Rice is also allocated for seed supply for the next planting season, and is also reserved for

unexpected circumstances, such as disasters or deaths. In addition to the teachings of downsizing and appreciating rice, the use of a granary with all of its regulation is also a kind of food security mechanism to ensure that food supply will be maintained throughout the year.

4.2. Food preparation and consumption

Basically, kitchen function for the Sasak people is similar to those throughout the South East Asia countries. The kitchen is used for daily cooking and receiving close friends of households who sometimes also come to help with cooking for celebration [22]. The kitchen for Sasak people is an area for women for daily cooking, dining with their daughters or younger kids, and interacting with relatives. The placement of the kitchen inside the house also had a positive impact on the wall made from woven bamboo, as the smoke coming from the jangkih prevents the walls from weathering by termites. Smoke is also used for drying fresh onions hung above the stove so people can stock enough spices for daily cooking.

The tradition in using a male cook (ran) in several important ceremonies is closely linked to a Bali Hinduism tradition in which the preparation of dishes in ceremonial events should be a man's responsibility. This is not only because of the strenuous work involved, but also based on historical background that the earliest public kitchens were in temples for serving and worshipping gods [23,24]. Ran is responsible for the entire process of cooking, and has the power in making spiritual things run well. Currently, ran still exist among Sasak people, especially in predominantly Sasak villages. People's dependence on ran is part of the cultural influence of Islam Wetu Telu—an ancient belief of Sasak people. Islam Wetu Telu was a syncretism between indigenous Sasak belief Bodhaism, Bali Hinduism, and Islam that came later [4,25]. Rebak jangkih ritual is also another kind of people's belief for hoping good things and avoiding negative matters in life. The destruction of jangkih after being used during the celebration reminds people to be a useful human for others before they die.

Tables A1.1, A1.2, and A1.3 in Appendix 1 shows that there were 151 types of consumables divided into 69 meals, 71 snacks, and 11 beverages (see Appendix 1). In meals, C. frutescens has the highest ICS score, followed by C. nucifera, A. sativum, A. cepa, and E. oleifera. C. frutescens also has the highest reported use in more than 70% of the total types of consumables in meals. This was also indicated in Table A2.1 (Appendix 2), in which C. frutescens had the third highest of ICS score in total category, after C. nucifera and E. oleifera. Based on the percentage of consumable types using each functional group as an ingredient, spices had the second largest percentage (29.82%) after vegetables (32.46%). Table A2.1 (Appendix 2) also showed that almost all spices are at the first half position based on ICS score. These data describe the general profile of Sasak meals, which is characterized by its spicy and tasteful flavor. Apparently, the categorization of four basic seasonings is a kind of cooking technique to simplify the cooking activity because people use many kinds of spices. The four basic seasonings are also provided in local markets in paste form.

Some types of consumables presented in Appendix 1 are rarely made or consumed due to various reasons. It may be related to its function as a ceremonial dish, the complicated ingredients and preparation, or due to the limited stock. Ares and ebatan are two kinds of Sasak typical dishes which are usually served in ceremonies or special occasions, and they have a complicated preparation using more than 20 ingredients (Fig. 6). Dishes containing Pleurotus ostreatus are not regularly made as this plant only grows in the rain season. Some species are hard to find because of their limited availability, such as Centella asiatica and Cleome viscosa. The decrease in population of these plants means that some dishes are hardly made today. The similarity of some dishes to those from Java and Bali is related to historical and geographical factors. Lombok is near Bali and has even been colonized by Bali kingdoms. Sasak cuisine might also be influenced by Java due to its historical background that Sasak people were allegedly derived from the Javanese that sailed to Lombok in the past. Colonialism, more or less produced some of practices, recipes, and taste preferences adopted by people in the colonialized region [26]. The impact of colonialism is also indicated in a banquet style called begibung, as an influence of Karangasem kingdom in the past.

Most Sasak snacks contain Cocos nucifera, O. sativa var. glutinosa, O. sativa, Elaeis oleifera, Saccharum officinarum, and Arenga pinnata, in which C. nucifera has the highest ICS score and reported uses are shown in Table A2.1 (Appendix 2). Most Sasak snacks are prepared by frying, and this is indicated by the high ICS score of E. oleifera. Teh (tea) and kupi (coffee) are common beverages in households, other than plain water. They can be served either for private needs or honoring their guests. Coffea sp. has been planted in Lombok since the Dutch-East Indies government took power on Lombok from Karangasem kingdom in the late of the 19th century. At that time, the Dutch-East Indies government whose previous experience in Arabican coffee cultivation in Java, began to introduce coffee cultivation in eastern and northern Lombok. In addition to enjoy the taste and effects of caffeine, it might be possible that in the past, drinking coffee was an effort to camouflage the color and the taste of plain water that might have been turbid due to long drought.

4.3. Plant utilization in Sasak cuisine

In cereals, O. sativa and O. sativa var. glutinosa (glutinuous rice) have the highest ICS values mainly due to its high use frequency in snacks. Table A1.2 (Appendix 1) shows that there are 23 types of consumption for snacks using O. sativa of 71 snacks reported. As staple food, the cultivation and the availability of rice are always made available, therefore rice is always chosen as main ingredient in making snacks. According to people, glutinuous rice symbolizes hope for fertility and an abundant harvest. Therefore, although glutinuous rice cultivation is limited in Lombok, its high ICS value is

Fig. 6. Sasak typical dishes containing more than 20 plants ingredients. (A) Ares. (B) Ebatan.

related to its function as an expression of gratitude and hope for the success of agricultural products.

Manihot esculenta Crantz is the most popular root crop because it is easy in cultivation, abundantly available, affordable for most people, and can be cooked as a snack. Solanum tuberosum was referred to as "new plant" as it was thought to have been known by people after the Dutch occupied Lombok in the early 1900s. Faba-ceae contributed the most species, with 16 species used in meals, snacks, and beverages. The sprout of Vigna radiata is a common ingredient in most Sasak meals, as well as the fruit of Vigna sinensis. Sasak people utilize almost all seeds of Fabaceae. In several dishes, such as pereseng and kelak sia, seeds from the fruit that are too old will be taken and cooked with other vegetables (Fig. 7). Seeds can also be fried and consumed as snacks. Legumes are well grown in people's fields or yards, and are common comodities that are usually stocked in households for a few months. Glycine max is popular for its processed products consumed in the daily menu, called tempe and tahu (tofu).

In vegetables, there is no significant difference in ICS scores and reported uses for the 10 species shown in Table 1. This indicates that there are not any vegetables that are more dominant in use than others, as their ICS components (quality, intensivity, and exclusivity) and number of reported uses contribute to a balanced value. Table A2.1 (Appendix 2) shows that although Ipomoea aquatica has been well-known as the most popular vegetable for Sasak people, it was only used in nine meals and therefore the ICS score is low (Appendix 2). In general, East Lombok district is the production center for most vegetables and fruits [5]. Its territory covers an area of northern and southern parts of the island. The northern part is a fertile volcanic area mainly due to the presence of Mount Rinjani,

Mount Sengkor, and Mount Nongi. Having a fertile land with a suitable climate has led this district to be the production center for most vegetables and fruits.

The high ICS score of C. nucifera is not mainly due to its function as a cooking oil but also because it has many reported uses, high frequency utilization, and cannot be substituted by other plants in some dishes. In addition, the fruit of C. nucifera is frequently used as santan (coconut milk) in both meals and snacks. In the past, cooking oil was mostly produced from C. nucifera, and this was done in the households. Nowadays, Elaeis oleifera oil is frequently used for practicality reasons. E. oleifera oil provides a more neutral aroma, not as rancid as C. nucifera oil. There are some C. nucifera oil producers that are still found in several villages, but in a very limited number.

In sweeteners and confectionaries, Arenga pinnata has the highest ICS score. One of brown sugar production areas is Kekait, a subdistrict in West Lombok. A. pinnata sap is also taken for making a local beverage called tuak. Another sweetener is Saccharum offi-cinarum, which is always used when serving tea, coffee, and many beverages. Cane sugar is imported from other areas as there is no data about sugar cane plantation in Lombok. Although tea and coffee are almost consumed every day, Camellia sinensis and Coffea sp have a low ICS value due to their single reported use.

The high ICS score of C. frutescens is clearly an indication of the profile of Sasak cuisine which is dominated by hot and spicy flavors, e.g., pelecing kangkung and pelecingan (Fig. 8). A spicy flavor also improves appetite so people do not need to prepare various meals. A. sativum and A. cepa are two main spices that are used in almost all of meals, and are usually used together. A. cepa is also used for its leaves as flavoring and an aroma enhancer.

Based on total ICS score of 114 plants shown in Table A2.1 (Appendix 2), 20 species with the highest ICS score are used as cooking oils, spices, plain staple, and sweeteners. A high ICS score indicates that a species has a high cultural importance for people, high frequency of use, and may be irreplaceable with other species. C. nucifera and E. oleifera are two species with the highest ICS score, and are commonly used as cooking oils. The presence of C. frutescens in the daily menu of Sasak people is a must in most Sasak cuisine because of people's taste and flavor preferences. O. sativa is a staple food, while O. sativa var. glutinosa is commonly used in snacks. Arenga pinnata and S. officinarum are irreplaceable sweeteners in snacks and beverages, and Manihot esculenta and Musa sp are popular as snacks. The rest of the plants are spices in daily cooking.

Most species are cultivated plants, others are sometimes got from public areas, or are accidentally found in forests. In general, people get their food mostly from cultivation areas, either of their own or by buying from others (Fig. 5). Dagang peken (sellers at traditional market) and inaq dagang or bibiq dagang (resellers at villages) have an important role in delivering food plants to people. They are also the ones that know exactly the kinds and the quality of plants that people ask for. Traditional markets also provide food plants brought from other areas of Lombok, as some areas might have a lack of some items. The importance of traditional markets are the social, economics, and cultural roles in the communities [27]. Traditional markets are a kind of way for the exchange of goods and knowledge as people from many areas interact with each other.

Referring to the list that was released by the Indonesian government in Government Rule number 7/1999 about protected plants and animals, there are not any plant species in this research that are included in that list. All species are also not listed in the Appendices I, II, and III of Convention on Trade in Endangered Species data in 2014. Among the 114 plants, data on 36% of planted areas and production volume are listed in West Nusa Tenggara in Figures 2015. Several species with high ICS scores as shown in Table A2.1 (Appendix 2) such as E. oleifera, O. sativa var. glutinosa, and S. officinarum are imported from outside Lombok, especially from Java and Sumatera, partly due to the limited production in West Nusa Tenggara.

Overall, it could be concluded that Sasak people interpret food not only as a medium for supporting their life, but also as a tool for

maintaining a good balance between human, environment, and spiritual aspects. A historical background affected the perceptions and concepts of food and eating in Sasak people, and also influenced them in how to manage food. There were 151 Sasak types of consumption consisting of 69 meals, 71 snacks, and 11 beverages. These were prepared with 114 plants (111 species) belonging to 91 genera and 43 families, and Fabaceae was the family with the highest number of species. C. nucifera has the highest ICS score and the highest number of reported uses. Based on the functional groups (cereals, root crops, legumes, vegetables, oils, sweeteners and confectionaries, and spices), species with the highest ICS values are respectively: O. sativa, Manihot esculenta, Vigna radiata, Solanum melongena, C. nucifera, Arenga pinnata, and C. frutescens. There is a lot of local knowledge contained in the food and eating habits of Sasak people. These are a natural and cultural wealth that should be preserved so that the important things contained in it cannot be eroded by the advancement of ages, and could be inherited by the next generations.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the following: BPPDN Scholarship (Indonesia Postgraduate Education Scholarship) by Directorate General of Higher Education of Indonesia (Grant No. 1014/UN10.14/ KU/2013); PKPI Scholarship (Sandwich-like Program) by Directorate General of Higher Education of Indonesia (Grant No. 162.4/ E4.4/2015, September 1, 2015); National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan for providing all kinds of support; and all institutions, informants, and knowledge providers who participated in and supported this project.

Appendix 1

Tables of types consumption in Sasak meals, snacks, and beverages.

Table A1.1

List of types of consumption in Sasak meals.

No. Meal No. Meal No. Meal No. Meal

1. Urap/serebuk 21. Ragi rajang 41. Sate pencok 61. Ayam Taliwang

2. Timun kedantuk/urap timun 22. Kelak/bumbu kuning 42. Sate daging (rembiga) 62. Ayam Rarang

3. Beberuq 23. Pelecingan 43. Rarit 63. Ayam julat

4. Lelasuk 24. Nasi putih 44. Sit-sit 64. Manoq seraten

5. Rusuh 25. Nasi kuning 45. Timbung jangan 65. Soto Sasak

6. Beberuqpaoq 26. Nasi rasun 46. Pindang 66. Kime-kime daging

7. Ebatan 27. Sambal limo/trasi 47. Saur 67. topat

8. Lawar 28. Sambel tomat 48. Antap repes 68. kerupuk

9 Pecel 29. Sambal kenangu 49. Bebetok 69. Kering tempe

10. Plecing kangkung 30. Sambal sia' 50. Kelak empol

11. Olah-olah/jejeruk 31. Sop 51. Tai lale

12. Kelak sia'/kelak motoq 32. Bebalung 52. Kelak lik-lik/kelak tetamput

13. Kelak dadar/pedis/bageq/pereseng 33. Reraon 53. Teloq pekasem

14. Pedis panas/pangkes 34. Berengkes 54. Kelak santen (biasa)

15. Kelak minyak 35. Bubur (beras) 55. Tempe tahu

16. Sayur lebui 36. Bubur (reket) 56. Sate kosong

17. Kelak santen ragi beleq 37. Sate pusut 57. Ayam merangkat

18. Pelalah 38. Sate luh-luh 58. Kelak moren (Nyale)

19. Kelak santen 39. Sate bulayak 59. goreng

20. Opor 40. Sate ampet 60. bakar

Table A1.2

List of types of consumption in Sasak snacks.

No. Snack No. Snack No. Snack No. Snack

1. Peyek 21. Ambon rebus 41. Lupis 61. Dodol buah

2. Aling-aling 22. Jagung goreng 42. Pelemeng 62. Ladran

3. Keciput 23. Jagung rebus 43. Celilong 63. Jaje peria

4. Tarek 24. Ambon jamaq grg 44. Kedebrak 64. orok-orok

5. Cucur 25. Ambon jamaq rebus 45. Gegodoh 65. Manisan kenyamen

6. Tikel 26. Kacang goreng 46. Urap jagung 66. Tombek

7. Abuk 27. Kacang rebus 47. Tempani 67. Ceker ayam

8. Poteng 28. Kedele goreng 48. Olah-olah/rujak 68. Sepit

9 Tujak 29. Kedele rebus 49. Iwel 69. Kembang kopang

10. Bangat 30. Pangan 50. Talam 70. Lempok

11. Opak-opak 31. Serabi 51. Kelaudan 71. Gegulik

12. Ore 32. Kelepon 52. Cenil

13. Kare-kare 33. Wajik 53. Jaje sisuk

14. Renggi 34. Pesor 54. Pisang nare

15. Jaje rook 35. Nagesari 55. Apon-apon/jaje kaok

16. Medarii 36. Kuping gajah 56. Temerodok

17. Cerorot 37. Apem 57. Sarimuka

18. Pisang goring 38. Kerepek 58. Gegolok

19. Pisang rebus 39. Timbung 59. Ongol-ongol

20. Ambon goring 40. sumping 60. Tigapo

Table A1.3

List of types of consumption in Sasak beverages.

No. Beverage No. Beverage No. Beverage No. Beverage

1. The 4. Kenyamen 7. Tuak (toaq) 10. Air sepang

2. Kopi 5. Brem 8. Kolak 11. Kopi kedele

3. Air tebu 6. Tuak manis 9. Air jeruk

Appendix 2

List of plant used in Sasak cuisines, with ICS value and reported uses.

Table A2.1

List of plants used in Sasak cuisine (meal, snack, beverage) based on Index of Cultural Significance rank.

No. Species Family Meal ICS Snack Bev Total Reported use Meal Snack Bev Total Category Growth form Cultiv. status Used part

1 Cocos nucífera L Arecaceae 1,324 1,880 1 80 3,284 35 47 2 84 Oil Tree C Fruit

2 Elaeis oleifera Jacq. Arecaceae 900 900 0 1,800 30 30 0 60 Oil Tree C Fruit

3 Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae 1,368 24 0 1,392 48 1 0 49 Spice Shrub C Fruit

4 Allium sativum L. Amarylidaceae 1,234 72 0 1,306 42 3 0 45 Spice Herb C Tuber

5 Allium cepa L. Amarylidaceae 1,220 0 0 1,220 43 0 0 43 Spice Herb C Tuber, leaf

6 Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. Arecaceae 349 735 132 1,216 15 26 4 45 Sw/conf Tree C Sap

7 Oryza sativa L Poaceae 210 920 0 1,130 5 23 0 28 Cereal Shrub C Seed

8 Oryza sativa L var glutinosa Poaceae 120 960 40 1,120 3 24 1 28 Cereal Shrub C Seed

9 Saccharum officinarum Poaceae 0 780 205 985 0 26 7 33 Sw/conf Shrub C Stem

10 Musa sp. Musaceae 286 482 40 808 14 14 1 29 Fruit Herb C Fruit, stem

11 Manihot esculenta Crantz. Euphorbiaceae 188 596 20 804 10 16 1 27 Corn Shrub C Tuber

12 Capsicum annum L. Solanaceae 726 0 0 726 26 0 0 26 Spice Shrub C Fruit

13 Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. Zingiberaceae 660 0 0 660 25 0 0 25 Spice Herb C Rhizome

14 Citrus amblycarpa (Hassk.) Ochse Rutaceae 630 0 0 630 21 0 0 21 Spice Shrub C Fruit

15 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae 597 30 0 627 22 1 0 23 Spice Vine C Seed

16 Vigna sinensis (L.) Fabaceae 600 20 0 620 18 1 0 19 Legume Herb C Fruit

17 Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek Fabaceae 392 200 0 592 14 5 0 19 Legume Herb C Seed

18 Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae 576 0 0 576 21 0 0 21 Spice Herb C Rhizome

19 Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. Euphobiaceae 537 30 0 567 20 1 0 21 Spice Tree C Seed

20 Curcuma domestica Val. Zingiberaceae 567 0 0 567 21 0 0 21 Spice Herb C Rhizome

21 Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae 521 30 0 551 18 1 0 19 Spice Tree C Fruit, leaf

22 Coriandrum sativumL. Apiaceae 477 0 0 477 18 0 0 18 Spice Shrub C Seed

23 Piper retrofactum Vahl Piperaceae 450 0 0 450 15 0 0 15 Spice Vine C Fruit

24 Solanum lycopersicum L. Solanaceae 428 0 0 428 17 0 0 17 Spice Herb C Fruit

25 Glycine max (L.) Merr Fabaceae 300 80 40 420 12 2 1 15 Legume Herb C Seed

26 Kaempferia galanga L. Zingiberaceae 360 0 0 360 15 0 0 15 Spice Herb C Rhizome

27 Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae 168 120 0 288 10 3 0 13 Legume Herb C Seed

28 Triticum L Poaceae 40 240 0 280 1 6 0 7 Cereal Herb C Seed

29 Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Pandanaceae 87 150 30 267 5 5 1 11 Sw/conf Herb C Leaf

K. Sukenti et al / Study on local cuisine in Indonesia

Table A2.1 (continued )

Species

Family

Reported use Category

Meal Snack Bev Total Meal Snack Bev Total

Growth form

Cultiv. status

Used part

30 Brassica oleracea L. Brassicaceae 256 0 0 256 12 0 0 12 Vegetable Herb C Leaf

31 Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet Fabaceae 248 0 0 248 11 0 0 11 Legume Herb C Fruit, seed

32 Solanum melongena L. Solanaceae 240 0 0 240 13 0 0 13 Vegetable Herb C Fruit

33 Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) Craib Apiaceae 240 0 0 240 8 0 0 8 Spice Herb C Seed

34 Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C. Fabaceae 236 0 0 236 10 0 0 10 Legume Herb C Fruit, seed

35 Zea mays L. Poaceae 72 150 0 222 3 4 0 7 Cereal Herb C Seed

36 Ocimum basilicum var. anisatum Benth. Lamiaceae 213 0 0 213 9 0 0 9 Vegetable Herb C Leaf

37 Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) Myristicaceae 210 0 0 210 7 0 0 7 Spice Tree C Seed

38 Nigella sativa L. Ranunculaceae 210 0 0 210 7 0 0 7 Spice Herb C Seed

39 Sindora sumatrana Miq. Fabaceae 210 0 0 210 7 0 0 7 Spice Tree C Fruit

40 Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. Lythraceae 210 0 0 210 7 0 0 7 Spice Shrub C Flower

41 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Poaceae 189 0 0 189 7 0 0 7 Spice Shrub C Stem

42 Amomum compactum Soland. ex Maton (1811) Zingiberaceae 186 0 0 186 8 0 0 8 Spice Herb C Seed

43 Cinnamomum verum J. Presl Lauraceae 183 0 0 183 7 0 0 7 Spice Tree C Stem (bark)

44 Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae 183 0 0 183 7 0 0 7 Spice Herb C Seed

45 Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walpers Myrtaceae 183 0 0 183 7 0 0 7 Spice Tree C Leaf

46 Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Convolvulaceae 180 0 0 180 8 0 0 8 Vegetable Herb C Leaf, stem

47 Alyxia stellata Roem. & Schult. Apocynaceae 180 0 0 180 6 0 0 6 Spice Tree C Stem

48 Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill & Perry Myrtaceae 180 0 0 180 6 0 0 6 Spice Tree C Flower

49 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Moraceae 120 56 0 176 6 2 0 8 Vegetable Tree C Fruit

50 Citrus aurantifolia Swingle Rutaceae 129 0 32 161 5 0 1 6 Spice Shrub C Fruit

51 Sauropus androgynus Merr. Euphorbiaceae 68 90 0 158 3 3 0 6 Vegetable Shrub C Leaf

52 Momordia charantia Descourt. Cucurbitaceae 152 0 0 152 7 0 0 7 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

53 Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbitaceae 144 0 0 144 10 0 0 10 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

54 Moringa oleifera L. Moringaceae 142 0 0 142 7 0 0 7 Vegetable Tree C Leaf, fruit

55 Ipomoea batatas L. Convolvulaceae 60 80 0 140 6 2 0 8 Corn Herb C Tuber

56 Solanum melongena L. Solanaceae 124 0 0 124 8 0 0 8 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

57 Cucurbita moschata Durch Cucurbitaceae 116 0 0 116 6 0 0 6 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

58 Brassica rapa convar. parachinensis Brassicaceae 116 0 0 116 6 0 0 6 Vegetable Herb C Leaf

59 Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fabaceae 108 0 0 108 4 0 0 4 Legume Herb C Fruit

60 Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Cucurbitaceae 208 0 0 208 8 0 0 8 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

61 Bambusa sp. Bambusaceae 76 30 0 106 5 1 0 6 Vegetable Shrub SC Stem

62 Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae 64 40 0 104 2 1 0 3 Fruit Tree C Fruit

63 Carica papaya L. Caricaceae 76 20 0 96 7 1 0 8 Vegetable Shrub C Fruit

64 Daucus carota L. Apiaceae 92 0 0 92 3 0 0 3 Vegetable Herb C Fruit

65 Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. Fabaceae 92 0 0 92 5 0 0 5 Vegetable Tree C Leaf

66 Capsicum annum var. annum L. Solanaceae 90 0 0 90 6 0 0 6 Spice Herb C Fruit

67 Cleome viscosaL. Capparaceae 88 0 0 88 7 0 0 7 Vegetable Herb NC Leaf

68 Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Fabaceae 88 0 0 88 5 0 0 5 Legume Herb C Fruit, seed

69 Amaranthus sp. Amaranthaceae 80 0 0 80 4 0 0 4 Vegetable Herb C Leaf, stem

70 Averrhoa carambolaL. Oxalidaceae 80 0 0 80 2 0 0 2 Vegetable Tree C Fruit

71 Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae 0 80 0 80 0 2 0 2 Sw/conf Shrub C Seed

72 Artocarpus camansi (Parkinson) Fosberg Moraceae 72 0 0 72 6 0 0 6 Vegetable Tree C Fruit

73 Solanum tuberosum L. Solanaceae 64 0 0 64 5 0 0 5 Corn Herb C Tuber

74 Citrus x hystrix DC Rutaceae 30 30 0 60 1 1 0 2 Spice Shrub C Fruit

75 Pleurotus ostreatus Champ. Jura. Vosg. Tricholomataceae 60 0 0 60 5 0 0 5 Others Fungi NC Others

76 Dracaena angustifolia Ruscaceae 0 60 0 60 0 2 0 2 Sw/conf Shrub C Leaf

77 Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Araceae 60 0 0 60 3 0 0 3 Corm Herb SC Tuber

78 Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Athyriaceae 52 0 0 52 3 0 0 3 Vegetable Fern SC Leaf

79 Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. Cucurbitaceae 48 0 0 48 2 0 0 2 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

80 Oryza sativa L. (m) Poaceae 0 40 0 40 0 1 0 1 Cereal Herb C Seed

81 Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz Cucurbitaceae 40 0 0 40 3 0 0 3 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

82 Camellia sinensis Theaceae 0 0 40 40 0 0 1 1 Sw/conf Shrub C Leaf

83 Coffea Rubiaceae 0 0 40 40 0 0 1 1 Sw/conf Tree C Seed

84 Xanthosoma violaceum Schott. Araceae 36 0 0 36 3 0 0 3 Corm Herb NC Leaf

85 Limnocharis flava Alismataceae 36 0 0 36 4 0 0 4 Vegetable Herb NC Leaf

86 Allium fistulosum L. Amarylidaceae 30 0 0 30 1 0 0 1 Vegetable Herb C Leaf

87 Apium graveolens (Mill.) Pers. Apiaceae 30 0 0 30 1 0 0 1 Vegetable Herb C Leaf, stem

88 Averrhoa bilimbi L. Oxalidaceae 30 0 0 30 1 0 0 1 Spice Tree C Fruit

89 Hibiscus tiliaceus L. Malvaceae 30 0 0 30 1 0 0 1 Sw/conf Tree NC Leaf

90 Pangium edule Reinw. Achariaceae 30 0 0 30 1 0 0 1 Spice Tree SC Fruit

91 Theobroma cacao Malvaceae 0 30 0 30 0 1 0 1 Sw/conf Tree C Seed

92 Pterospermum javanicum Malvaceae 0 0 30 30 0 0 1 1 Sw/conf Tree NC Stem (bark)

93 Dysoxylum parasiticum Meliaceae 0 0 30 30 0 0 1 1 Sw/conf Tree NC Stem

94 Benincasa hispida Thunb. Cucurbitaceae 28 0 0 28 2 0 0 2 Vegetable Vine C Fruit

95 Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Apiaceae 28 0 0 28 4 0 0 4 Vegetable Herb NC Leaf

96 Syzygium aqueum Myrtaceae 0 20 0 20 0 1 0 1 Fruit Tree C Fruit

97 Cryptocarya massoia (Oken) Kosterm. Lauraceae 18 0 0 18 2 0 0 2 Spice Tree SC Stem (bark)

98 Dioscorea alata L. Dioscoreaceae 16 0 0 16 3 0 0 3 Corm Herb SC Tuber

99 Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Dioscoreaceae 16 0 0 16 3 0 0 3 Corn Herb SC Tuber

100 Dioscorea sp. Dioscoreaceae 16 0 0 16 3 0 0 3 Corn Herb SC Tuber

101 Gnetum gnemonL. Gnetaceae 16 0 0 16 1 0 0 1 Vegetable Tree C Leaf, fruit

102 Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. Zingiberaceae 12 0 0 12 2 0 0 2 Spice Herb C Flower

(continued on next page)

J Ethn Foods 2016; ■ : 1-12

Table A2.1 (continued )

Species

Family

Reported use Category

Meal Snack Bev Total Meal Snack Bev Total

Growth form

Cultiv. status

Used part

103 Inocarpus fagifer Fosberg Fabaceae 12 0 0 12 3 0 0 3 Sw/conf Tree NC Seed

104 Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Vegetable Tree C Leaf, seed

105 Clausena excavata (Lour.) Skeels Rutaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Vegetable Shrub NC Leaf

106 Eucheuma cottonii Solieriaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Others Algae SC Others

107 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr Anacardiaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Vegetable Shrub SC Leaf

108 Marsilea crenata C. Presl Marsileaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Vegetable Herb NC Leaf

109 Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Alismataceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Vegetable Herb NC Leaf

110 Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fabaceae 12 0 0 12 1 0 01 Spice Herb C Seed

111 Caaesalpinia sapan Fabaceae 0 0 12 12 0 0 11 Legume Shrub C Stem

112 Solanum torvum Swartz Solanaceae 8 0 0 8 1 0 01 Vegetable Herb C Fruit

113 Phaseolus lunatus L. Fabaceae 4 0 0 4 1 0 01 Legume Herb C Seed

114 Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Red) Fabaceae 4 0 0 4 1 0 01 Legume Herb C Fruit

Bev, beverage; C, cultivated; Cultiv., cultivation; NC, not cultivated; SC, semi cultivated; sw & conf.,sweetener and confectionary.

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