Scholarly article on topic 'Feasibility as a Potential Substitute for Natural Sand: A Comparative Study between Granite Cutting Waste and Marble Slurry'

Feasibility as a Potential Substitute for Natural Sand: A Comparative Study between Granite Cutting Waste and Marble Slurry Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Sarbjeet Singh, Anshumantiwari, Ravindra Nagar, Vinay Agrawal

Abstract One of the most challenging problems of 21st century is solid waste management and stone slurry is a prime shareholder in this waste. The paper aims at assessing the feasibility of utilizing the two different types of stone waste generated globally in huge quantities i.e., Granite cutting waste and marble slurry as a replacement for fine aggregate in concrete manufacturing. The paper reports the similarities and highlights the contrasting behaviour of GCW and MS concrete in terms of durability, compressive and flexure strength, abrasion, permeability and ultra-pulse velocity. The strength and durability of concrete is determined by a number of factors including the physical and chemical composition of constituent ingredients as well as the microstructure of ingredient particles. Explanations for the trends observed have been derived from microstructural studies using SEM and EDS test and also the inter-particle behaviour of the ingredients within concrete matrix . It was found that neglecting minor variations the optimum replacement percentage for GCW and MS concrete were 25% and 15% respectively. Abbreviation: GCW- Granite cutting waste; MS – Marble Slurry; w/c – water-cement ratio.

Academic research paper on topic "Feasibility as a Potential Substitute for Natural Sand: A Comparative Study between Granite Cutting Waste and Marble Slurry"

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Procedía Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) 571 - 582

International Conference on Solid Waste Management, 5IconSWM 2015

Feasibility as a Potential Substitute for Natural Sand: A Comparative Study between Granite Cutting Waste and Marble

Slurry

Sarbjeet Singha,:, AnshumanTiwarib, Ravindra Nagarc, VinayAgrawald

a Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India bB.Tech., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India c Professor, Civil Engineering Dept., Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India d Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

One of the most challenging problems of 21st century is solid waste management and stone slurry is a prime shareholder in this waste. The paper aims at assessing the feasibility of utilizing the two different types of stone waste generated globally in huge quantities i.e., Granite cutting waste and marble slurry as a replacement for fine aggregate in concrete manufacturing. The paper reports the similarities and highlights the contrasting behaviour of GCW and MS concrete in terms of durability, compressive and flexure strength, abrasion, permeability and ultra-pulse velocity. The strength and durability of concrete is determined by a number of factors including the physical and chemical composition of constituent ingredients as well as the microstructure of ingredient particles. Explanations for the trends observed have been derived from microstructural studies using SEM and EDS test and also the inter-particle behaviour of the ingredients within concrete matrix .It was found that neglecting minor variations the optimum replacement percentage for GCW and MS concrete were 25% and 15% respectively.

Abbreviation: GCW- Granite cutting waste; MS - Marble Slurry; w/c - water-cement ratio.

© 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierB.V. Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

Keywords:Concrete, Strength, Microstructure, Granite Cutting waste , Marble Slurry;

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address:sarbjeetsinghsaluja@gmail.com

1878-0296 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.042

1. Introduction

With more and more economies undergoing massive globalization in the present context the pace of consumption of natural resources and subsequently the rate of scrap generation is on an all-time high in all sectors of manufacturing industries. Construction industry is not an exception to this trend. Over the years the consumption of concrete throughout the world has reached mind boggling scales. A study published by Berkeley University (2015) showedthat the annual global consumption of concrete is about 11.5 billion tons including 1.5billion ton of cement, 1 billion ton of water and 9 billion ton of aggregate. This generates about 1.5 billion ton of CO2 which accounts for almost 5% of the total CO2 production in the world. This by any means is a serious threat to the environment and demands immediate attention.

Sustainable Concrete is the need of the hour. Production of concrete with waste material as alternative ingredient reduces the overall carbon footprint of the manufactured concrete by addressing the problem of efficient waste disposal. For the past few years researchers have been struggling hard to ascertain the feasibility of a wide range of industrial byproducts like rubber, fly ash, coal bottom ash, blast furnace slag, and marble waste as a potential substitute for concrete ingredients. Hamza et al. (2011) DemirelBahar et al. (2010) Almeida et al(2007). Alzboon and Mahasneh et al. (2009) concluded that the concrete with marble waste performed satisfactorily on mechanical strength requirements. Rajgor and Pitroda et al. (2013) suggested utilization of waste stone slurry in the manufacture of ceramic and glass tiles, thermoset resins. Granite cutting waste got the attention of researchers quite recently and has invoked research for assessment of its potentiality to replace cement and natural sand in the concrete. The primary work of analysing granite as a substitute for natural sand in concrete was accomplished by Beretka and Taylor(1991).They utilized granite dust for making aerated concrete and ceramic products. Moreira et al.(2005)concluded that the adapted methodology of utilizing granite waste in ceramic bodies for manufacturing structural ceramics was mechanically as well as environmentally efficient. It was also inferred from the experiments of Saboya et al.(2007) , Bekir et al.(2009) ,Binici et al.(2008) Corinaldesi et al.(2010) and Hebhoub et al.(2011) that Granite waste could be substituted for natural sand thanks to the GCW(Granite Cutting Waste) concrete satisfactorily satisfying mechanical strength requirements. Further, work done by Flexikala and Partheeban(2010)concluded that Granite substitution fostered improved behaviour of concrete in terms of mechanical strength and drying plastic shrinkage properties with respect to the control specimen. Recently Telma Ramos et al.(2013) concluded with the fact that the granite sludge waste if finely powdered leads to a significant reduction in expansion due to ASR and simultaneously improves the chloride resistance of concrete.

When a range of byproducts are available at disposal it becomes critical to have a comparative study of the individual features. However any such comparative study bringing out contrasting properties and distinguishing characteristics of the byproducts is still lacking. This paper tries to bring about a comparison between marble slurry and granite cutting waste in terms of feasibility and efficiency as a potential replacement for natural sand aggregate in the concrete production.

2. Material-ingredients:

2.1 Cement

The ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 as per BIS: 8112-1989 was utilized for the experimental studies. The specific gravity of the Portland cement was 3.14 The cement had a compressive strength of 43 N/mm2.

2.2 Coarse Aggregate:

The coarse aggregates of maximum nominal size 20 mm & with basaltic origin were used. Particle size distribution analysis of aggregates used is presented in Fig. The mean specific gravity of coarse aggregates used was 2.65.

2.3 Fine Aggregate (River Sand, Granite Cutting Waste and Marble Dust) 2.3.1 Physical Properties

The Banas river sand was used in the experimental study. The sand belongs to Zone III as per BIS 383:1970 criteria.Physical properties of sand including specific gravity, water absorption, fineness modulus are encapsulated in Table 1.

The procurement site for the GCW waste were the Stone Processing industries in Shahpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.The GCW waste confirmed the Zone IV of sand as per BIS-383, 1970.Physical properties of the GCW waste are enlisted in Table1 .GCW waste had an in-situ moisture content of 1-2% and prior to testing it was dried at room temperature for 2 days. The waste marble slurry was procured from Kishangarh, Rajasthan. The marble slurry was adequately dried for 48 hours before it was utilized as replacement for sand.

Table 1:Physical Properties of fine aggregates

Ingredient Specific Gravity Water Absorption Fineness Modulus

River Sand 2.70 2.90 3.36

Granite Cutting Waste 2.622 4.36 2.573

Marble Slurry 2.72 6.25 --

2.3.2 EDS Analysis

The constituent elements of the fine aggregates (River sand, GCW & MS) were studied using EDS analysis. Besides giving the type of elements present their relative proportions can also be assessed through EDS test.The constituent elements as depicted by Energy dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) of river sand, GCW and MS are shown in figures 1. There is a glittering similarity between GCW and river sand for the chemical elements present (O, Si, Al, and K). GCW additionally had presence of Na. EDS for marble slurry indicated the presence of, Ca,Si,O and Mg elements.

2.3.3 Chemical Composition

The analysis for the chemical composition was carried out in CDOS Lab, Rajasthan. The amount of SiO2 present is highest in river sand followed by granite cutting waste further followed by marble slurry. Both GCW and MS were found to contain CaO which was absent in river sand. Significant amount of MgO was present in MS which was only a small fraction in case of river sand while GCW totally lacked it. River sand and GCW were found to contain considerable amounts of A^O3 & Fe2O3 respectively.

..........k |

A. River Sand

B. Granite Cutting Waste(GCW)

C. Marble Slurry (MS)

Fig. l.Energy Dispersive Spectra of River Sand, GCW and MS

3. Mix Proportions

The concrete mix design is compliant the guidelines and procedure laid down in the BIS-10262(1982). The oven dried banas sand , GCW and MS were used .The percentage of sand replacement was 0%,10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 40% in succession. These specimens were prepared for the water /cement ratio of 0.4. The Mix proportions for M-30 concrete are given in Table 3.

Table 2:Chemical Composition (%) of River Sand , GCW and MS

Compound Marble Slurry (%) Granite Slurry (%) River Sand

SiO2 10.41 73.19 84.73

CaO 31.33 20.14 -

MgO 20.91 - 1.33

Loss on Ignition (LOI) 37.20 0.53 -

Fe2O3 - 5.93 -

AI2O3 - - 10.66

Table 3. Mixture proportions (Kg/m3)

Material Quantities from Mix proportion( Kg/m3)

Cement 419

Sand 643

C.A.(20mm) 669

C.A.(10mm) 446

Water 168

Admixture 4.2

4. Experimental -Methodology:

4.1 Workability:In order to assess the workability of the concrete mix as per BIS-1199(1959) compaction factor test was conducted. Concrete is poured in the standard apparatus and weight of the gravity compacted i.e. partially compacted and vibrational compacted concrete or fully compacted concrete were recorded. Compaction Factor can be calculated as:

^ r , Weight of partially compacted concrete

Compaction factor =-

Weight of fully compacted Concrete

Compaction Factor is always <1 owing to the fact that the weight of fully compacted concrete is always greater than that of partially compacted concrete. The closer is the value of compaction factor to unity the more workable the concrete is.

4.2 Density -Measurement: Density of the concrete was measured with 150mm cube specimens. Each specimen was weighed and the weights of all the three specimens for each percentage of sand replacement were recorded. The density of the concrete can be calculated using:

t—» ■ , Weight of the Specimen in kg

Density of concrete =-

Volume of each specimen (150mmxl50mmxl50mm)

4.3 Compressive Strength Test: In order to assess the compressive strength, concrete cube specimens were subjected to the compressive strength test as per BIS-516 (1959).The compressive strength of the cured and dried specimens was measured at 7 days and 28 days respectively. 3 cubes of the dimension 10cm*10cm* 10cm were casted for

concrete with sand replacement percentages of 0, 10, 15,20,25,30 and 40% respectively and subsequently tested for

the compressive strength. The rate of loading was 140kg/cm2. Compressive strength can be calculated as:

Compressive Strength = -

Where P = Peak load at failure of the specimen A=Area of Cross section of the specimen

4.4 Flexure Strength Test:The test was performed in compliance with IS-516(1959) (3 point loading).The experiment involved testing of 3 standard sized beam specimens at 7days and 28 days. Dimensions of the specimen used were length of the beam= 500mm, breadth =100mm and height=100mm. The specimens were so placed that an overhang of 5cm on both sides was left .Load was applied on the top finished surface of the specimen at two points spaced 13.3 cm apart. The load was steadily increased till the specimen failed. Load at failure point was recorded. Flexural Strength can be calculated using:

Flexural Strength= -——

6 (Bd).d

Where P = peak load at failure in N L=length of the specimen in mm B=width of the specimen in mm d=depth of the specimen in mm

4.5 Water Permeability Test: Water permeability of the concrete was assessed in compliance with the procedure laid down in DIN 1048(1991)Part 5. Dimensions of the cube specimens used were 150mm* 150mm* 150mm. After curing the cubes for 28 days cubes were oven-dried for 24hours. Thereafter cubes were put in the DIN apparatus in a manner that a normal pressure of (0.5N/mm2) was applied on the top surface for 72 hours. The pressure was applied constantly throughout the test. After 72 hours cube specimen was removed from the DIN apparatus and split down .Maximum depth of penetration was recorded after splitting down the cube specimen.

Mean of the three observations was recorded as the final penetration depth (mm).

4.6 Abrasion Test:

This test was performed in compliance with the IS-1237(1980).After curing for 28 days the samples were dried in open air and subsequently kept in an oven at 1100C for 24 hours. Each specimen was weighed before the test and for each specimen initial thickness was recorded. For each replacement percentage 3 specimens were tested. 20gms of abrasive powder was uniformly spread on the abrasion machine disc. The specimen was then held fixed in the holding device and an axial force of 300N was applied at the centre. The grinding machine was then turned on. The abraded concrete powder and the used abrasive powder were removed periodically at an interval of revolutions.

Thereafter, fresh 20gms of abrasive powder was again applied on the disc. After every 22 revolutions the specimen was turned at 90° to the initial direction about vertical axis in clockwise direction. The experiment comprised 220 revolutions. The weights of the specimen were recorded at the completion of the abrasion. Abrasion can be calculated as:

.. . ^ W1-W2).V1

Abrasion thickness t=-

Where, t = average loss in thickness in mm, W1 = initial mass of specimen in gm, W2= final mass of specimen in

gm, V1= initial volume of specimen in mm , and A = surface area of specimen in mm2.

4.7 Ultra-Pulse Velocity Test:

The test methodology adopted was compliant with IS 13311 Part-1(1992).The objective of the test was to assess the homogeneity, voids, cracks and imperfections of the concrete. The cube specimens of edge 150mm were casted for the specimen. After curing the concrete specimens were dried and the ultrasonic pulse velocity was passed through the specimen using a transducer in contact with one of the smooth surfaces of the cube specimen. This pulse was received by an identical transducer installed on the opposite face of the cube. The transit time tt for the pulse to reach from one face to the other was recorded .The pulse velocity can be calculated as:

Pulse Velocity V= ^

Where L=Length of the specimen in mm T= tt = transit time

Based on the value of Pulse-Velocity quality of concrete can be appropriately assessed. A value of 4.5km/sec indicates excellent quality concrete while a value below 3km/sec indicates poor quality concrete with valid quality interpolations for other values between 4.5 and 3.0km/sec.

4.8 Morphology (SEM Analysis):In order to assess the particle shape, size and surface texture SEM (scanning electron microscope) test was carried out. Using SEM an electron beam is made to strike the specimen after which it is either absorbed or deflected and the response is captured in the form of a SEM image. This test

is carried out at various magnification levels for detailed analysis of morphological characteristics of the fine aggregate.

5. Results and Discussions:

5.1 Workability: This can be readily inferred from the graph that with increased percentage of GCW and MS replacement from 0% to 40% in the concrete there is a significant decline in the workability of the concrete. This may be due to the enhanced friction among the particles of concrete pertaining to the fact that particles of MS and GCW are relatively more angular and rough in texture when compared to those of river sand. It must however be noted that at a high replacement percentage of 40% marble concrete completely lost its workability and couldn't be mixed properly due to tremendous water absorption.

0.95-,

-■- MS GCW

% GCW and MS replacement Fig. 2. Compaction Factor v/s % GCW and MS content

5.2 Density:Density of the concrete specimens varies directly with the specific gravity of the constituents .With increasing replacement of river sand by GCW density of concrete goes on decreasing as the specific gravity of GCW is 2.62 which is lesser than 2.70 for river sand. The specific gravity of marble slurry is 2.72 which is greater than

that of river sand and which explains the increasing trends in density of MS concrete specimen with increasing percentage replacement of river sand with MS.

Table 4:Density of Different Mixes

Replacement (%)

Density (Kg/m2) (for GCW series)

Density(Kg/m2) (for MS series)

Control Mix (0) 10 15 20 25 30 40

2440 2439 2396 2370 2315 2313 2310

2440 2443 2475 2487 2491 2496

5.3 Compressive -Strength:The compressive strength at 7d and 28d exhibited similar trends. The 7d compressive strength of GCW concrete and MS concrete initially increased with increasing percentage of replacement and ultimately exhibited a declining trend .The optimum percentage of replacement as far as initial 7 days strength and final 28 days strength is concerned were observed at 25% and 15% for GCW and MS respectively. The enhanced strength of the GCW concrete and MS concrete may due to relatively more rough texture when compared with natural sand. However once the optimum replacement was achieved further addition of replacement had negative impacts on strength pertaining to the fact that now instead of acting as a filler material the increased GCW content and MS content would have led to the increased surface area thus demanding higher cement content. Since the cement content was kept constant for all the percentages of replacement it might be responsible for decrease in the strength.

m 33 "

& 27 H S

« 24 •S 21A

15 20 25 30 % GCW and MS

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % GCW and MS

Fig. 3. Compressive Strength v/s % GCW and MS content

5.4 Flexure Strength: The flexure strength of the GCW and MS concrete exhibited similar patterns as compressive strength. As shown in the figure both GCW and MS recorded increasing strength initially with increasing percentage of replacement however once the optimum content was achieved both GCW and MS concrete recorded similar declining trend in flexure strength. The optimum percentage of GCW and MS content were found to be 25%and 15% respectively. The GCW concrete however exhibited marginal strength improvement even at 40%. The initial rise in strength up to optimum GCW and MS content can be attributed to their morphologically rough texture and in turn improved adhesion amongst concrete particles. Moreover these particles are finer than natural sand and thus densify the concrete matrix. However once the optimum percentage of GCW and MS content is achieved a sharp decline in flexure strength was recorded thanks to the fact that after the optimum content the increased GCW and

MS content in concrete increases the specific surface area of concrete and do not contributes any longer as an efficient densifying filler agent.

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 % GCW and MS

5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0

15 20 25 30 % GCW and MS

35 40 45

Fig. 4. Flexure Strength v/s % GCW and MS content

5.5 Permeability Test: The durability of a structure has an inverse relationship with permeability of concrete used. More is the permeability lesser is the durability. It can be inferred from the fig. that permeation characteristics for both GCW and MS exhibited similar patterns. With increased percentage of replacement remarkable decrease in the permeability of concrete was recorded. The fig sows that the optimum permeation characteristics were recorded at 30% replacement for both GCW and MS. At all percentages of replacement the permeability of the GCW and MS concrete was found to be lesser than the control concrete. This can be attributed to the fact that the addition of these GCW and MS content being finer densified the concrete matrix and reduced the number of voids and capillaries within the concrete matrix domain.

Fig. 5.Water Permeability v/s % GCW and MS content Fig. 6. Depth of wear v/s GCW and MS content

5.6 Abrasion Test: The abrasion resistance of GCW concrete outperformed MS concrete for which abrasion resistance was even lesser than the control concrete specimens. Maximum depth of wear was recorded at 25% for MS concrete while for GCW concrete it was observed at 40% replacement. Minimum depth of wear were recorded at 15% and 10% replacement for GCW concrete and MS concrete respectively. The abrasion resistance of concrete is a function of interplay among various parameters including, compressive strength, hardness, surface texture, matrix density etc. Marble slurry being a sedimentary rock derivative is less hard when compared with the Igneous GCW counterpart which might be one of the reasons for poor performance of MS concrete as far as abrasion

resistance is concerned. It may however be noted that for all percentages of replacement for GCW and MS concrete depth of wear satisfied the norms laid down in BIS code IS:1237:1980.

5.7UPV (Ultra Pulse-Velocity)Test:This test assists in determining the status of internal structure of concrete cubes, internal cracks and flaws etc. as any such discrepancy is adequately reflected in the apparent velocity of the ultrasonic pulse. The more compact and firm the concrete specimen is more is the velocity of ultrasonic pulse while more are the flaws in the specimen structure lesser is the ultrasonic pulse velocity. The optimal results were obtained at 10% replacement for MS and at 25% replacement for GCW. For the same path length, shape& size of concrete member, % reinforcement, temperature and moisture content the UPV is a function of strength, surface and texture of the concrete particles and compaction. The result obtained above may be due to the combined positive effect of compressive strength, degree of compactness and adhesion of concrete specimen at abovementioned replacement percentages.

Table 5: Result of Pulse Velocity replacement of sand with GCW and MS

Pulse Velocity by Pulse Velocity by Replacement (%) Cross Probing (Km/sec.) Cross Probing (Km/sec.) _(for Granite Cutting Waste)_(for Marble Slurry Waste)

Control Mix (0) 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.5

10 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7

15 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5

20 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.5

25 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4

30 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5

40 4.5 4.7 - -

5.8 Morphology (SEM Analysis):SEM analysis involves detailed physical analysis of particles of aggregates using scanning electron microscope at various magnifications. The shape and surface texture of the particles as depicted by SEM analysis assist in understanding and analysing workability of fresh concrete and strength and durability of hardened concrete. As shown in the images [ ] sand particles are relatively more rounded than marble and granite particles. Sand particles have smooth texture. Marble exhibits rough texture and angularity when compared to sand.SEM image of granite particles depict sharp, angular and elongated surface texture. Generally, GCW particles are more angular and elongated compared to river sand particles which are predominantly round in shape.

(a) Sand (b) Marble Slurry

(c) Granite Cutting Waste Fig. 7. SEM image of Fine Aggregate particles

6.Conclusions:

From the above studies it can be readily inferred that both GCW concrete and MS concrete serve as a potentially feasible solution to the problem of global stone waste generation .The quality of concrete produced was remarkable and this comment is subjected to the following observations:

• It was observed that the value of compaction factor decreased continuously with increase in percentage of granite fines (GCW) and marble slurry(MS) in the mix due to the increased water demand of rough and angular GCW (at constant cement content) particles . This decline in workability can be made up by adding super-plasticizer and hence workability should not be a major issue in use of concrete mix with optimal GCW and MS content.

• The optimum compressive strength was observed at replacement percentage of 25% and 15% respectively with GCW and MS content. This increment in strength of concrete qualifies these materials as appropriate substitutes for natural sand.

• The flexural strength of concrete specimens was also enhanced with the addition of GCW and MS. The optimum percentage replacement was found out be 25% and 15% respectively for GCW and MS respectively. Thus an overall increase in the mechanical strength of concrete was observed reassuring the feasibility of GCW and MS as potential substitutes for natural sand in concrete.

• Both GCW and MS exhibited lesser permeability than control concrete specimens. This promises greater durability in the long run as more is the depth of penetration higher is the probability and susceptibility of the specimen to sulphate, chloride and acid attack. The minimal depth of penetration was observed for both GCW and MS at a replacement percentage of 30%.This suggests that such a durable concrete may have applications in structures built in coastal regions.

• UPV test reflected that best compaction and minimal flaws and cracks occurred in GCW and MS concrete at replacement percentages of 25% and 10% respectively.

• Performance of GCW was remarkable and better than natural sand when it came to abrasive resistance .The optimum percentage replacement was found out to be 40% for GCW. Such a concrete may be utilized in places where concrete structure is exposed to high wear like pavements.MS however o the other hand behaved bit poorly than natural sand. The depth of wear was however within prescribed standards which implies that MS can be used in place of sand provided such a replacement percentage is chosen that it performs well on other grounds like mechanical strength and durability.

• SEM analysis showed that the particles of GCW and MS were more rough, elongated and angular relative to the natural sand. The roughness and angularity of the aggregates were assumed to be the important factor deciding the strength and durability of the concrete specimens. Besides, EDS analysis was performed to study the chemical composition of the different types of fine aggregates used in the experiment.

Thus it can be concluded that neglecting some minor trade-offs and keeping the provision for the addition of super plasticizers & admixtures the optimal replacement percentages were found out to be 25% and 15% for GCW and MS respectively. The concrete produced was found to be efficient on grounds of stability. trength and durability. Thus it can be concluded that both the materials at some optimum replacement percentages can be utilized as appropriate substitutes for natural sand in the manufacturing of concrete thereby providing efficient methodology to cater to the need of efficient and effective solid waste management.

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