Scholarly article on topic 'Innovative Public Transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America: A Survey of Recent Implementations'

Innovative Public Transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America: A Survey of Recent Implementations Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Guido Di Pasquale, Alessandro Santiago dos Santos, Adriano Galindo Leal, Michele Tozzi

Abstract This paper presents some recent innovative solutions implemented in urban public transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America, as analysed and benchmarked in the context of Viajeo PLUS project, co-funded by the EC under the FP7. Viajeo PLUS is committed to identify promising good practices implemented in Europe, Latin America, China, and Singapore. This paper focus on the results gained from the sharing of good practices through case studies, showcases, and capacity building, fostering collaboration between the regions mentioned above and Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPC). The reported solutions deal with very different public transport related technologies or concepts, such as intelligent ticketing systems, inter-modality, mobility demand management, financing schemes, as well as cover almost all the public transport modes available in urban settings.

Academic research paper on topic "Innovative Public Transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America: A Survey of Recent Implementations"

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Transportation Research Procedía 14 (2016) 3284 - 3293

Procedía

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

6th Transport Research Arena April 18-21, 2016

Innovative public transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America: a survey of recent implementations

Guido Di Pasquale a,*7 Alessandro Santiago dos Santos b, Adriano Galindo Leal b, Michele Tozzi c

aPluService, S.S. Adriatica Sud 228/d, 60019 Senigallia, Italy bIPT, av. Prof Almeida prado, 532, Sao Paulo, 05508-901, Brazil, c International Association of Public Transport (UITP), Rue Sainte-Marie 6, B-1080 Brussels, Belgium

Abstract

This paper presents some recent innovative solutions implemented in urban public transport in Europe, Asia and Latin America, as analysed and benchmarked in the context of Viajeo PLUS project, co-funded by the EC under the FP7. Viajeo PLUS is committed to identify promising good practices implemented in Europe, Latin America, China, and Singapore. This paper focus on the results gained from the sharing of good practices through case studies, showcases, and capacity building, fostering collaboration between the regions mentioned above and Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPC). The reported solutions deal with very different public transport related technologies or concepts, such as intelligent ticketing systems, inter-modality, mobility demand management, financing schemes, as well as cover almost all the public transport modes available in urban settings.

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) Keywords: innovative urban public transport; smart ticketing; Viajeo PLUS; Smart Cities

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39-335-617-6924; fax: +39-071-799-9680. E-mail address: g.dipasquale@pluservice.net

2352-1465 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Road and Bridge Research Institute (IBDiM) doi: 10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.276

1. Introduction

In the last few decades, sustainable transport solutions have been developed and implemented in many cities across the world. These solutions are enabled by new technologies, particularly with the rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies, or are driven by policies or by innovative concepts, design and planning. These transport solutions not only improve quality and the efficiency of transport in a city, but they also reduce significantly local air pollution and greenhouse emissions, making a positive contribution to citizens' quality of life. This work is one of the results of initiatives from project Viajeo Plus, which is co-funded by the EC under the FP7. The goal of Viajeo PLUS is to produce a benchmark of outstanding solutions for innovative and green urban mobility in Europe, Latin America, China and Singapore and subsequently facilitate the uptake of these solutions across different cities in these regions, and Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs).

To achieve this goal, Viajeo PLUS consortium is currently developing a 'Virtual Solution Book' to provide a detailed description of each initiative on the following five topics:

• effective mobility management;

• deployment of clean vehicle solutions;

• innovative public transport solutions;

• enabling infrastructure;

• sustainable city logistics solutions.

This paper presents the results of the survey on innovative implementations in the public transport domain.

2. Methodology

A significant amount of literature has been written on the concept of 'best practice' under which a 'solution' would naturally come, so these terms have been used interchangeably here (Evans, G.D., et al., 2013). A best practice (or solution) is a technique, methodology or programme which has been shown (through previous research, experience or recommendations) to deliver a desired result for an organisation, be this for a private company or public authority (Rouse). The idea of 'best practice' has a certain degree of ubiquity and is quite a loose term in itself. It has been applied across a diverse range of sectors to achieve many different purposes and objectives.

Within Viajeo PLUS a methodology has been defined by the Newcastle University, as leader of the Technical coordination task, in agreement with the relevant consortium's partners, to select and analyse promising solutions already implemented in urban areas in the four project's regions: Europe, China, Latina America and Singapore. Since the main aim of the project is to facilitate the uptake of such solutions across different cities worldwide, the first stage of this process was to examine the needs and reasons behind a potential adopter wanting to invest resource in learning about a possible new public transport technology or solution for their city. Moreover, it was determined that any candidate solution to be put forward as an eventual 'Best Solution' must illustrate a level of innovation and/or deliver a proven increase in effectiveness or efficiency.

Accordingly, the following domains have been selected to guide the information gathering and analysis of the candidate best solutions:

• Why the existing solution was initially implemented by the host location, to mainly identify the key drivers behind the implementation.

• How, why and when the solution was implemented. Information on the actual process developed in bringing a solution to fruition is needed to help potential adoption cities in identifying how such solutions could fit with on-going strategic plans.

• Benefits of the solution, to provide the potential adoption cities, on one hand, with information about the solution's ability to deliver actual results and, on the contrary, to recognise any significant problem originally encountered and overcome by the host location.

• Interest of host location for participating in activities and sharing, the consortium agreed that it is important to identify existing solutions that had a host location willing to share knowledge and participate in relevant activities.

• Optional items to make the solutions more attractive to potential adopters, when further available information has been collected, namely:

o any targets set by the host location and to what extent such targets have been achieved; o figures and statistics on the uptake, usage or improvement of the PT system affected by the solution's

implementation; o end users' feedback.

To do so, a specific data gathering template has been elaborated and addressed to several researchers in different parts of the world who are either members of the Viajeo PLUS consortium or experts selected by the Project partners. In Table 1 the key information collected for each candidate solutions are shown.

Table 1. Key information gathered in the Best Solutions Data Gathering Template.

Where and when the solution/practice was initially implemented

Key drivers/rationale behind implementation

Timescales involved in initial planning stages

Timescales involved in implementation stages

What funding mechanism(s) were required for implementation

Was this solution/practice implemented as a stand-alone initiative, or was it delivered as part of a wider package of solutions/practices?

What degree of co-operation was required between different stakeholders? (e.g. joint effort between individual departments within Government authorities; different transport providers collaborating as one etc.)

* Main benefits to host location (innovation, improvement in efficiencies etc.)

Any significant problems/issues to host location?

What are the future plans of the host location for this solution/practice?

Will host location be interested and willing to participate in the V+ knowledge sharing programme?

Are there any other existing examples of the solution/practice which V+ should also consider?

Will the solution/practice be demonstrable at one of the V+ City Mobility Weeks?

Were there any targets set by the host location, and if so, were these achieved? (opt.)

• If not, what was achieved and are there any indications as to why this might be?

Any available

facts/figures/statistics etc. on uptake, usage, improvements (opt.)

End user feedback on solution/practice (opt.)

Other key points/issues that need to be considered in the final selection process (opt.)

When the above information have been collected an iterative process based on cross analysis and discussion among the relevant project partners, allowed for the reduction of the initial round of solutions to those suitable for inclusion in the Virtual solutions book and demonstration during the city mobility showcases.

3. Results and best solutions

In total, 15 candidate solutions implemented in Europe, China, Latin America and Singapore have been considered to be discussed and/or demonstrated during the City Mobility Showcases (Tozzi M., et al. 2015). The complete list of solutions is shown in Table 2 and all of them are described in the following sections.

Table 2. Best solutions mapping.

Implementation Area

BIP Integrated Smart Ticketing

Public Transport Interchanges Plan

Metrobus BRT System

Traffic Density Map

Gondola Lift system

Eco-Frota Programme

BRT for large events

Intelligent ticketing systems in Brazilian PT Zaozhuang City BRT System Combined Rail and Property Investment Land Transport Master Plan Diversification of services Travel Smart

Piedmont Region (Italy) Madrid (Spain) Istanbul (Turkey) Istanbul (Turkey) Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Sao Paulo (Brazil) Brazil Brazil

Shandong Province (China)

Shenzhen (China)

Singapore

Singapore

Singapore

3.1. BIP Integrated Smart Ticketing (Piedmont Region, Italy)

In 2008 Piedmont Region (Regione Piemonte) started the Biglietto Integrato Piemonte(BIP) project (Integrated Ticket for Piedmont Region).

BIP is a region-wide integrated smart ticketing, fleet monitoring and video surveillance system whose primary objective is to develop a collective public transport system, improving accessibility through the introduction of an integrated regional ticket and fare integration. The new integrated approach aims at the interoperability among public transport operators involved, reduction of fraud, collection of ticketing and validation data to improve the quality of the public transport system, improve security on board of buses, rationalize the ticket sales network. The project foresees several implementation phases during which the subsystems at the provincial level and the central regional system will be implemented. The BIP project involves over 100 transport operators, the retrofitting of 3400 buses and 400 train stations for a total budget of 50 Million Euros. The core innovation of the BIP system is a double level clearing house: CSR (Centro Servizi Regionale) is the Regional Central Clearing System; subclearing systems at provincial level manage apportionments within the provincial area.

The entire system is work in progress and at this stage the central regional clearing house and two provincial systems have been implemented. The BIP project represents an innovative case of Integrated Fare Management (IFM) with various innovative aspects of policy and technological level. In 2009, the first step of the BIP project started with the provision contract for the Cuneo province BIP implementation. The project was bestowed to a venture formed by Pluservice and Thales and initially required developing a thorough understanding of the fare policies and rules at the regional level. The system was fully operative by March 2011, after assessment by Piedmont Region officials to ensure full compliance with regional interoperability standards. The total project budget was €5.4 million. The first step required a high degree of co-operation between all involved stakeholders, including local and regional authorities agencies, 18 different transport providers including bike sharing (operating within the Cuneo province), 315 retailers and 25 depots throughout the territory. Uniquely, all 18 transport providers used one common control centre for all activities and processes regarding ticketing, monitoring and video surveillance while maintaining their total autonomy in management of their own data and confidential information, to ensure confidentiality of specifications and data. This system allows useful data to be acquired, relating to such characteristics as the frequency and occupancy of each journey, the locations of residence of each user and the punctuality of the service performed. Furthermore, this system allowed a stronger relationship between PT operators and users, since the emergence of several online tools to aid public transport usage, in the guise of web-based tools and as smartphone applications.

The Piedmont Region has also launched a special card for young people called PYOU card. This card is interoperable with the BIP card, but it integrates additional services related to museums, cinemas, libraries, marketing and incentives for young people.

3.2. Madrid Public Transport Interchanges Plan (Spain)

Transport interchange stations are a crucial part of the PT system, allowing travellers to make multi-leg trips with ease and comfort. In Madrid, the core of the transport system is the Madrid metro, which is complemented by the urban bus network. To ensure transfers were made as simple as possible to increase the quality of public transport journeys, the Madrid Interchange Plan was developed, the planning of which started in the mid-1990s. It consisted in the construction of 5 main interchanges in the nodes where the metropolitan bus lines terminals linked to the Circular metro line (Moncloa, Principe Pio, Plaza Elíptica, Avenida de America and Plaza Castilla).

The process started in 1990 when there was a need for structuring the mobility in the territory and boost the potential of each mode to improve the system's efficiency. At that time the end of the metropolitan bus lines arriving in Madrid city where spread on the surface, with no connection or scarce information about them. The need for concentration of bus terminals into one single point and its good connection with metro and other modes gave birth to the Madrid Transport Interchanges Plan. This plan achieved an important improvement in the quality of the service, in the quality of the transfer and the increase of the demand. The location in the city, integration with the public transport system and concentration of terminals are the three basic elements in the Plan of Transport Interchanges for suburban buses. These interchanges have the following functional characteristics:

• To use as a point of confluence for radial buses lines that accede to the city of Madrid and are distributed by the city across the Metro network and of the urban buses network.

• To reduce the times of trip and to improve the quality of the service;

• To create nodes that simplify the conditions of transfer: shorter time and distances when transferring between modes (either public or private, motorised or non-motorised).

• To reduce the costs of exploitation of the transport services allowing to increase the journey frequencies.

The project was funded through a 30-year concession, to cover the construction and operation of the infrastructure, where private companies recover their investment by collecting a fare from each bus passenger getting on or off at the interchange. Cooperation between all relevant stakeholders (including the city council, the public transport authority and transport operators) was key to the success of the project. The interchanges have achieved their main objectives, including reduced journey times and an improved quality of service. Two further main interchanges are to be built (Conde Casal and Legazpi), with continued work to improve the intermodal in smaller areas of the city set to continue.

3.3. Metrobus BRT System (Istanbul - Turkey)

ISTANBUL is one of the largest cities in Europe with a population of over 14 million people who generate over 20 million trips per day. More than half of these journeys are made using motor vehicles, with 21% by private cars, causing significant levels of congestion during peak times. Like other megacities, Istanbul has to meet the challenge of satisfying rising demand for accessibility within a context of growing sustainability concerns.

Metrobus is a 24-hour BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) scheme, travelling from Beylikdüzü Tüyap in the west of the city to Sogütlüje^me in the Anatolian area of the city. This 52 km journey (constructed in four steps), which initially took 180 minutes, now takes an average of 100 minutes, with a frequency of 30 seconds. The buses utilise hybrid technology to help reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency. Daily ridership is approximately 800,000 -the system is highly popular as it provides a high-frequency connection across Istanbul especially on the weather that doesn't allow using the waterway. Moreover, the integration with other transportation modes and the implementation of "distance based fare" promoted the usage of the system. Numerous factors were considered during the conception phase of the Metrobus, including the current mobility patterns, future areas of growth within

the city and hence future trip generation, which helped define the route of the Metrobus network. The funding for the scheme was provided by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.

Fig. 1. Metrobus BRT System (source:the web).

3.4. Istanbul Traffic Density Map (Istanbul - Turkey)

The traffic density map is a web-based map application that shows real-time traffic density information, camera images and other important traffic information throughout the city. The solution has been implemented in 2006 mainly to: increase the safety of roads for all pedestrians, passengers and drivers; provide a more accessible urban traffic; set up and operate an efficie-nt traffic monitoring system in terms of time and cost. Users choose their Origin-Destination and receive the selected route traffic images and traffic information (estimated travel time, average speed, weather data, sensor points, and warnings about important accidents or road works). To answer the users' need to access to real-time traffic information via mobile devices, a dedicated mobile phone application has been developed. The average daily number of users is 100,000 (September 2014). Initial versions only presented data provided by the municipality, but in later versions data provided by other stakeholders is also used, which are being continuously added. Validated data from traffic management systems ensures car users are more aware of the current traffic situation, to allow for the increase in capacity across the network by more efficient route planning. At the same time, the data is used as input for development and future projects. Expanding the network area by increasing data sources is being planned. However, as with all smartphone applications, due to the variety of phones and operating systems, it can take a long time to ensure compatibility across all platforms.

3.5. Gondola Lift system (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia - Latin America)

The gondola lift system is commonly used for tourist purposes, although the utilization of this system for public transportation purposes is an important innovation and brings several benefits to the inhabitants of cities where the topography favours such a solution. Gondola lift systems integrated into the city's public transport network provide quick and safe transportation for those who live in the neighbourhoods situated on mountainous regions of the city's suburbs. Such systems have been already implemented in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Singapore and European countries. In Rio de Janeiro, a gondola lift system is operational and runs through the Complexo do Alemao connecting the residents of the neighbourhood to the city's rail network. In total, the line measures 3.5 km and includes six stations. The system appears to have social mandates similar to those implemented in Medellin and Caracas. Residents can apply for a RioCard, which grants them two free trips per day, thus they can access the same jobs and opportunities as those living elsewhere within the city. In Rio de Janeiro, the solution was founded as part of the Brazilian infrastructure development plan known as the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC, in Portuguese).

Fig. 2. Gondola Lift System Complexo do Alemao (source: the web).

3.6. EcoFrota Programme (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

The "Program EcoFrota" had its origin linked to the objective of meeting the requirements of the Law 14.933/09 Climate Change in the City of Sao Paulo in June 2009. It recommends that the entire system of public transport in the city should operate with renewable fuel by 2018 and, from 2009, gradually reducing the use of fossil fuels by at least 10% each year. The technologies to achieve this goal are varied, including biodiesel, ethanol, sugar cane diesel, electricity powered engines, hydrogen, hybrids and battery technologies. The diversity of technologies brings a number of advantages, such as better distribution of the energy matrix, further development of technologies, best option of choice due to the cost/benefit/use and, finally, lower costs due to competition.

The Programme was launched in February 2011. By February 2012, the Ecofrota already had more than 1,600 buses, divided into 200 lines, which corresponded to 11% of the total fleet of the municipality (15,000 buses). During this period, there was a 6.3% reduction in emissions of pollutants and a 6.7% in CO2 emissions The changes thus far in energy usage bring benefits to the city's economy, the quality of life of its inhabitants and the preservation of its environment.

3.7. BRT for large events (Brazil)

Cities often host large events, such as sport competitions, concerts, cultural festivals, demonstrations, religious pilgrimages and business conventions. Large events require major changes to the transport organisation of the host city since the existing transport infrastructure needs to cope with considerable additional traffic flows that are very intense and highly polarized. For the FIFA World Cup in 2014, 9 of the 12 host cities (Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Natal, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador and Manaus) chose to introduce or further develop BRT systems to ensure a high capacity public transport service.

The BRT systems already in place allow football fans much easier access to the stadia from the city centre; for example, in Belo Horizonte getting to the World Cup via BRT takes approximately 20 minutes, whereas travelling via car takes approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes. In Rio de Janeiro, two BRT corridors are already operational, with two more expected to be completed by the 2016 Olympic Games. These corridors will encircle the city and move 1.6 million passengers per day.

3.8. Intelligent ticketing systems in Brazilian PT

The first initiative of ticketing system in Brazilian big cities dates back 1970. The new generation (smart card contactless) started on 2000 in Salvador and Recife city. The biggest case (Bilhete Único) began in Sao Paulo Municipality around 2001. Nowadays, those core solutions are mature and towns and metropolitan areas are adding new features to improve security and governance. Most common features in this models are: multimodal integrated system; flexible fare policies according to the user type, journey duration and transport modality; integration with parking lot; biometric technology for control of special cards (elderly/student).

For example, since 2006, the Bilhete Único is multimodal, and its ticketing system integrates bus, metro system (municipality) and CPTM (Trains for the metropolitan area).

Regarding parking lots, since 2009, the integration near the Metro stations allows users greater ease in shifts in Sao Paulo(E-Facil). Upon access to the facility, a parking fee is debited and granted two trips on the public transportation system. These trips can be used in Metro, CPTM or Municipal bus from Sao Paulo and are valid during the period in which the vehicle remains in the parking lot. The value debited allows the permanence of the car for up to 12 hours; after the 12 hours is charged an additional amount for every hour spent. This system has more than 16,000 readers and 18,963,000 cards.

Another interesting feature is the control for reducing illegal use of special cards for elderly and students, since those users are eligible for reduced fare. Biometric solutions identify the legal user for the card. For example, Ilheus city (Bahia State) deployed facial recognition in 2012, and the results were 17% of 10,000 specials cards were blocked due to illegal use. Similar deployments are located in Fortaleza (220,000 cards), Limeira and Angra dos Reis. Managers and operators have a tool to compare the proposed transaction with held, help analyse the discrepancies and guide in formulating improvements. In summary, the electronic ticketing had a direct effect on the efficiency of the transport system and beneficial to all actors: managers, operators and users. However, undoubtedly, the pricing flexibility permits deriving the greatest benefit to users.

Fig. 3. Facial recognition for ticketing system.

3.9. Zaozhuang City BRT System (Shandong Province - China)

Zaozhuang is one of the first cities in China for planning and implementing BRT systems; Line B1 from Downtown Zaozhuang to Xuecheng was initially implemented on August 2nd, 2010. Today, the BRT lines in Zaozhuang have the longest distance in China and have formed a network: 65 km of dedicated BRT lanes and includes bus traffic signal prioritisation (133 km in total), which has allowed a greater connectivity throughout the city. Besides, other lines are still under construction. The construction of the first line (Line B1) was totally funded by the city government; from the second line, city government invested in designing the lines and purchase the buses, and the district governments invested in the construction of the roads, station and supporting equipment.

The system has aided the development of the whole city through greater accessibility for citizens and a more enjoyable and easy to use the system for tourists. However, there has been insufficient investment in the planning stages of the project, which has led to many BRT stations not having bicycle/car parking facilities.

Fig. 4. Zaozhuang City BRT System (source: web).

3.10. Combined Rail and Property Investment (Shenzhen, China)

In June 2008, Shenzhen Metro Group Co., Ltd. obtained the overhead land use rights for property development over QianHai Bay Depot, Metro Line 1, which launched Shenzhen's practice of "rail transit + property" development model. The goal of such a model is to integrate the construction of PT systems with underground and aboveground land use development, maximising the social and economic benefits in metro construction and operation and making full use of the along-metro and over-metro regenerated land space. Moreover, the introducing of social capital to participate in metro construction and property development is of utmost importance in order to enhance the financing ability, establish the safe fund chain and guarantee a beneficial cycle of investment enterprise's sustainable development. The main key drivers for the implementation can be summarised as follow:

• Previously, the financing model used by the government was burdensome to the government itself while also limiting the development of Shenzhen Metro.

• The great success of MTR in Hong Kongmade beneficial enlightenment to financing model innovation by Shenzhen Metro Group Co., Ltd.

• The Shenzhen's high prices of land and on housing made it suitable the implementation of Shenzhen Metro "rail transit + property" investment and financing model.

Shenzhen Metro financed the new metro project through bank loans, corporate bonds, medium-term notes and financial leasing. They designed the underground and aboveground space by combining metro and overhead property projects. Income from property development surrounding the metro systems is used to repay the loan and its interest for the metro construction. The scheme required collaboration between the Development & Reform Commission, the Urban Planning, Land & Resources Commission, the State-owned Assets Supervision & Administration Commission, the other relevant departments of the Shenzhen Municipal Government.

This "rail transit + property" development model has greatly reduced the pressure on the government's financial demand while intensively developing rail transit in Shenzhen City. It has also alleviated the shortage of land resources, expanded the space of urban development and stimulated economic growth along the new metro lines.

3.11. Land Transport Master Plan (Singapore)

Singapore is a city well known for its mobility master plan that is closely linked to the main urban development projects in the city. The mass transit system, including major bus lines, is used as the backbone for urban development. In 2013, the Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) published the new Land Transport Master Plan that sets out its vision for land transport in Singapore for the next 20 years. This vision is that by 2030, Singapore will have:

• 8 in 10 households living within a 10-minute walk from a train station;

• 85% of public transport journeys (less than 20 km) completed within 60 minutes; and

• 75% of all journeys in peak hours undertaken on public transport.

3.12. Diversification of services(Singapore)

Premium Bus Services (PBS) are bus services that offer more comfort versus other bus services or other forms of transport. They cater towards commuters who do not mind paying higher fares for a more comfortable and direct journey to their destinations.

Almost all Premium Bus Services concentrate on catering towards commuters heading to and from the Central Business District (CBD) during the morning and evening peak hours. The direct nature of Premium bus routes makes it more appealing than ordinary bus routes or taking a train, as passengers are assured of a seat onboard, plus it costs a lot less to travel by Premium bus than by taxi. Premium buses are operated by both public and private bus companies. Currently, a total of about 70 PBS operates from various major residential areas to the CBD (source: http://www.publictransport.sg/).

3.13. Travel Smart (Singapore)

Travel Smart is a programme addressed to commuters and companies to influence travel behaviours, to shift travelling commuters to off-peak periods, encourage a switch to more sustainable modes of travel (e.g. public transport, carpooling, car sharing, walking and cycling) or reduce travel demand altogether.

Travel Smart is based on the concept of travel planning, which is widely implemented by companies worldwide. Essentially, travel planning is a means of evaluating how the employees of an organisation currently travel to work, and during the day as part of their work. Based on the analysis of existing patterns and attitudes concerning travel, an action plan for improved transport efficiency and sustainability is prepared.

LTA is launching a new Travel Smart Network to intensify efforts and encourage more companies to implement measures such as flex travel arrangements to support employees who may wish to travel during off-peak periods. For a start, LTA will partner companies with a staff strength of more than 200 employees in major employment centres located near MRT stations and that are willing to trial travel demand initiatives (source: http://www.lta.gov.sg).

4. Conclusion

This references of the best solutions were promoted during the City Mobility Showcases in Europe, Brazil, China and Singapore. The 15 solutions chosen so far cover all the four Viajeo PLUS regions and comprehend almost all the public transport systems available in urban settings, including bus, metro systems and suburban rails as well as with private cars and soft modes (walking and cycling). The result of the analysis clearly shows that the need for innovative public transport solutions is a priority for all cities; integrated network and enabling infrastructure are relevant for most of them, while there are still few solutions addressing the clean vehicle focus area.

Cooperation between different countries and continents is possible, however several barriers need to be overcome, such as lack of knowledge on priorities in different countries. Due to difference in culture, social demography, political structure and economy in countries of the EU and Brazil (Latina America), different countries may have different roadmaps and priorities to achieve more sustainable urban mobility. On this regard, Viajeo Plus identifies mutual interests of EU and partner countries in urban mobility by bringing together experts from European and international organisations to exchange knowledge and to understand needs in different cities and countries.

Another barrier to overcome is the lack of standardization and interoperability. In general, the local integrated solutions work with few standardized components and ticketing systems are proprietary solutions. Standardization and Interoperability related to the public transportation may help better planning and reduce costs of investments and make up to chronic infrastructure deficit.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their deepest gratitude and appreciation to: Fernando José Gomes Landgraf, Carlos Daher Padovezi, Zehbour Panossian, Alais Antonio Telles, Maria Spidalieri, Pedro Chinelato, Dirce Rosaboni, Maria Aparecida Leal and Yasmin Quintino Santiago.

The authors wish to thank all the Viajeo PLUS partners who actively contributed to the results above reported and above all the contributing partners of WP5 - Innovative Public Transport Solutions and WP2 - Technical coordination, Methodology and Recommendations.

References

Rouse, M., 2007. "What is best practice? — Definition from WhatIs.com". http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/best-practice. Tozzi, M., Guida, U., 2015. Viajeo PLUs Deliverable 5.3 - Innovative Public Transport solutions for City Mobility Weeks preliminary set-up. Evans, G.D., Palacin, R., Timms, P., Chen, H., 2013. Viajeo PLUs Deliverable 2.1- Best Solution Selection Methodology.