Scholarly article on topic 'Identification of Indicators Influencing Sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency'

Identification of Indicators Influencing Sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Devina Rahma Raissa, Rulli Pratiwi Setiawan, Dian Rahmawati

Abstract Lamongan is known as one of minapolitan area in East Java Province. The concept of minapolitan was introduced in order to overcome the equal development in small cities that has potential in fisheries sector. The minapolitan areas in Lamongan are located in Brondong and Paciran District. The efforts to foster the development of minapolitan area are still fostered by the central government as well as the local government in the context of sustainable development. The method used to identify the indicators influencing the sustainability of minapolitan area in Lamongan Regency is Delphi technique. The results showed that the selected indicators are categorized into three aspects, i.e. social, economy and environment.

Academic research paper on topic "Identification of Indicators Influencing Sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 135 (2014) 167 - 171

CITIES 2013

Identification of Indicators Influencing Sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency

Devina Rahma Raissaa, Rulli Pratiwi Setiawanb, Dian Rahmawatib*

aGraduate Student, Department of Urban and Regional Planning,Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember bTeaching Staff,Department of Urban and Regional Planning,Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Abstract

Lamongan is known as one of minapolitan area in East Java Province. The concept of minapolitan was introduced in order to overcome the equal development in small cities that has potential in fisheries sector. The minapolitan areas in Lamongan are located in Brondong and Paciran District. The efforts to foster the development of minapolitan area are still fostered by the central government as well as the local government in the context of sustainable development. The method used to identify the indicators influencing the sustainability of minapolitan area in Lamongan Regency is Delphi technique. The results showed that the selected indicators are categorized into three aspects, i.e. social, economy and environment.

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.This is anopenaccessarticle under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Cities International Seminar Committee. Keywords:Minapolitan; sustainable development; sustainability index

1. Introduction

The concept of minapolitan was designed to develop small and self-reliance cities as well as to slow down urbanization to large cities in Indonesia. Minapolitan is a cycle of dynamic process that involves the role of integrated multisectors to realize a small town with sustainable fisheries-based (Wiadnya, 2011). It is understood that the development of minapolitan area has intention to improve the social and economy aspects of the community, without neglecting environment aspect.

* Rulli Pratiwi Setiawan. Tel.: +62-31-5922425; fax: +62-31-5922425. E-mail address:rulli.setiawan@urplan.its.ac.id

1877-0428 © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Cities International Seminar Committee. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.342

Based on the Decree of the Marine Minister No. 32/Men/2010 on Minapolitan Zone Determination, Lamongan was designated as one of the 197 districts Minapolitan Region. The decree is considered appropriate because Lamongan Regency is leading in the fisheries sector. Moreover, Lamongan is the largest producer of fisheries in East Java Province (East Java in Figures, 2012). Lamongan has 2 minapolitan areas, those are Brondong as the fishery port and Paciran District as the hinterland. The development of minapolitan area in Lamongan has been 4 years since it was set as one of minapolitan areas in East Java Province. However, the sustainability of the minapolitan area is not yet known. The sustainability is important to be evaluated in order to achieve the sustainable minapolitan area. This study has intention in determining the suitable indicators influencing the minapolitan area in Lamongan Regency. This article is part of a study about sustainability development in minapolitan area of Brondong, Lamongan Regency.

2. Sustainable Minapolitan Region

2.1. Purpose and Characteristic of Minapolitan Region

The purposes of Minapolitan area development as the concept of the Blue Revolution are 1) to increase production, productivity, and quality of the marine commodity, fisheries cultivation and dairy products, 2) to develop a system mina-business, 3) to develop a centre of economic growth in Minapolitan region and 4) to increase revenue and welfare in a fair and equitable society, particularly fishermen, fish farmers, and fish cultivators (Agropolitan and Minapolitan, 2012). In addition, Minapolitan has specific characteristics, such as 1) has production centres, processing, marketing and other business activities, such as services and trade, 2) has the infrastructure to support the economic activity, 3) accommodate and employ human resources in Minapolitan area and the surrounding area, and 4) has a positive impact to the economy in the surrounding area.

2.2. Concept of Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is broadly known as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (United Nations, 1987). It has been realized that economic growth alone is not enough: the economic, social and environmental aspects of any actions are interconnected (Strange and Bayley, 2008). Moreover, the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries - developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned. Interpretations will vary, but must share certain general features and must flow from a consensus on the basic concept of sustainable development. Sustainable development is seen as three components, i.e. 1) a conceptual framework: a way of changing the predominant world view to one that is more holistic and balanced, 2) a process: a way of applying the principles of integration - across space and time - to all decisions, and 3) an end goal: identifying and fixing the specific problems of resource depletion, health care, social exclusion, poverty, unemployment, etc. (Strange and Bayley, 2008).

2.3. Indicators of Sustainable Minapolitan Region

In order to obtain indicators of sustainable development of minapolitan region, several literatures have been reviewed. The literatures are Indicators of Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2007), Measuring Coastal Sustainability (2012), Integrated Management of Coastal and Sea Area (Dahuri, 2004), Coastal Planning and Management (Kay and Adler, 2005). In 2013, the study on Concept of Minapolis Settlement Development has been completed (Rahmawati et.al, 2013). This study proposed concepts that are related to the three aspects of sustainable development, i.e. social, economy and environment. The previous resources were used to formulate the initial indicators that will be distributed to the corresponding respondents. The indicators used in this research are categorized into three aspects that should be taken into account in the context of sustainable development. The indicators for social aspects are level of community education, percentage of community with access to primary health services, proportion of under welfare population road condition, proportion of community with access to electricity, proportion of community with access to clean water, government support and community support. In the

economic aspect, the related indicators are volume and value of fisheries production, contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP, ratio of working community, number of unemployment, number of mina-business units, number of supporting facilities to mina-business and number of people working on mina-business sector. The indicators to determine the environment aspect areproportion of land use, number of community live in coastal area, proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limit and waste disposal method.

3. Methodology

The type of this research is a kind of qualitative research. The method used to determine the indicators influencing the sustainability of the Minapolitan Areas in Brondong and Paciran is Delphi technique. The Delphi concept was originally developed in early 1950's in the spinoffs of defence research (Dalkey and Helmer, 1963). The objective of the original study was to obtain the most reliable consensus of opinion of a group of experts, by a series of intensive questionnaires interspersed with controlled opinion feedback (Linston and Turoff, 2002).

The respondents of the Delphi technique were selected by using purposive sampling. There are three groups of respondents, those are governments, fishermen entrepreneurs and fishermen community. For the purpose of purposive sampling, a set of criteria to select the respondents was formulated for each group of respondents. The Delphi process involves several steps, such as exploration and iteration.

4. Results and Discussions

The analysis to determine the indicators influencing the sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency started with building a series of questionnaires. The result of exploration process is shown in table below. At this step, the respondents expressed their agreement and disagreement. In this case, the respondents were asked to state their rationale concerning their answers.

Table 1. Delphi Exploration Result - Step 1

Criteria Indicators Respondents

R1 R1 R3 R4 R5 R6

Education Level of community education V X

Health Percentage of community with access to primary health services X V V V V V

Poverty Proportion of under welfare population V V V V V V

Infrastructure Road condition V V V V V V

availability Proportion of community with access to electricity V V V V V V

Proportion of community with access to clean water V V V V V V

Economic Volume and value of fisheries production V V V V V V

performance Contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP V V V V V V

Labour Ratio of working community V V V V V V

Number of unemployment V V V V V V

Land use Proportion of land use V V V V V V

Coastal area Number of community live in coastal area V V V X V V

Fishery Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limit V V V V V V

Waste disposal Waste disposal method V V V V V V

Mina-business Number of mina-business units V V V V V V

Number of supporting facilities to mina-business V V V V V V

Number of people working on mina-business sector X V

Note: V : Agree

X : Disagree

From the exploration process, it is known that the respondents have not yet reached a consensus on the indicators that are considered useful in the sustainable development of minapolitan area. In addition, there are two new indicators obtained from the exploration process. Those indicators are shown in the Table below.

Table 2. Indicators that need to be iterated

Indicators Note

Level of community education

Percentage of community with access to primary health services Not reach a

Number of community live in coastal area consensus yet

Number of people working on mina-business sector

Government support New

Community support Indicators

The second step after the exploration process is iteration process. In this step, the respondents received a questionnaire that includes the indicators and judgments summarized by the researcher in the previous step. The respondents were then asked to revise their judgments or to specify the reasons for remaining outside the consensus. This step could give the respondents a chance to make further clarification of both the information and judgments of the relative importance of the items. The result of iteration process is shown in the table below.

Table 3. Iteration Process

Criteria

Indicators

Respondents

R1 R1 R3 R4 R5 R6

Education Level of community education

Health Percentage of community with access to primary health services V V V V V V

Coastal area Number of community live in coastal area V V V V V V

Mina-business Number of people working on mina-business sector V V V V V V

(New indicators) Government support V V V V V V

Community support

After the first iteration, the consensus was achieved. The two new indicators have been agreed by the respondents as well. The selected indicators influencing the sustainability of minapolitan area in Lamongan Regency identified through the Delphi technique are shown in table below.

Table 4. Selected Indicators Influencing the Sustainability of Minapolitan Area in Lamongan Regency

Aspects Selected Indicators

Social Level of community education

Aspect Percentage of community with access to primary health services

Proportion of under welfare population

Road condition

Proportion of community with access to electricity

Proportion of community with access to clean water

Government support

Community support

Economic Aspect Volume and value of fisheries production Contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP Ratio of working community Number of unemployment Number of mina-business units Number of supporting facilities to mina-business Number of people working on mina-business sector

Environment Proportion of land use

Aspect Number of community live in coastal area

Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limit Waste disposal method

5. Conclusion

Sustainable development is not only a concept, but it is also a dynamic process and an end goal. Therefore the government should consider implementing this in all kinds of development. The idea to foster the development in small and medium cities should be also followed by the awareness that development must consider the environment aspect, not only the economy and social aspects. This research concludes that the indicators that influence the sustainable development in minapolitan area in Lamongan are categorized into three aspects, i.e. economy, social and environment. The indicators for social aspects are level of community education, percentage of community with access to primary health services, proportion of under welfare population road condition, proportion of community with access to electricity, proportion of community with access to clean water, government support and community support. In the economic aspect, the related indicators are volume and value of fisheries production, contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP, ratio of working community, number of unemployment, number of mina-business units, number of supporting facilities to mina-business and number of people working on mina-business sector. The indicators to determine the environment aspect are proportion of land use, number of community live in coastal area, proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limit and waste disposal method.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember for any support that has been given during the course of carrying out the research.

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