Scholarly article on topic 'Synthesis and Characterization of Urea-formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxanes'

Synthesis and Characterization of Urea-formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxanes Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Hafeez Ullah, Khairun Azizli, Zakaria B. Man, Mokhtar B. Che Ismail

Abstract Self-healing anticorrosive coatings require healing agents with hydrophobic properties and low glass transition temperature. Polydimethylsiloxanes are group of compounds with high degree of hydrophobicity and very low glass transition temperatures. The nature of functional group of core material highly affect the properties of resultant microcapsules. Therefore, in this work, three polydimethylsiloxanes with different functional groups were successfully encapsulated in urea-formaldehyde microcapsules for self-healing applications through oil-in-water (OIW) emulsion polymerization. The resultant microcapsules were analyzed via Fourier transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for structural confirmation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the thermal behaviour, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for size and morphology, and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for the elemental composition. For OH and vinyl terminated PDMS, microcapsules had diameters in the range of 100 to 500μm while for Epoxy terminated PDMS microcapsules diameters were in the range of 50 to 100μm. Thermal degradation behaviour was also different for all kinds of microcapsules, showing that nature of core materials affect the properties of microcapsules.

Academic research paper on topic "Synthesis and Characterization of Urea-formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxanes"

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Engineering

ELSEVIER Procedia Engineering 148 (2016) 168 -175 ;

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials

Synthesis and Characterization of Urea-formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxanes

Hafeez Ullaha, Khairun Azizlia*, Zakaria B Mana, Mokhtar B Che Ismailb

aDepartment of chemical engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak Malaysia bCenter for corrosion research University Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak Malaysia

CrossMarl

Abstract

Self-healing anticorrosive coatings require healing agents with hydrophobic properties and low glass transition temperature. Polydimethylsiloxanes are group of compounds with high degree of hydrophobicity and very low glass transition temperatures. The nature of functional group of core material highly affect the properties of resultant microcapsules. Therefore, in this work, three polydimethylsiloxanes with different functional groups were successfully encapsulated in urea-formaldehyde microcapsules for self-healing applications through oil-in-water (OIW) emulsion polymerization. The resultant microcapsules were analyzed via Fourier transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for structural confirmation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the thermal behaviour, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for size and morphology, and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for the elemental composition. For OH and vinyl terminated PDMS, microcapsules had diameters in the range of 100 to 500 ^m while for Epoxy terminated PDMS microcapsules diameters were in the range of 50 to 100 ^m. Thermal degradation behaviour was also different for all kinds of microcapsules, showing that nature of core materials affect the properties of microcapsules.

© 2016 The Authors.Publishedby ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICPEAM 2016

Keywords: Urea-formaldehyde; microcapsules; polydimethylsiloxane; thermal stability; core contents

1. Introduction

During the last 10 to 15 years, the smart self-healing composite systems have been the major area of research for material scientists and researchers. The main goals and objectives are to design smart polymeric self-healing system

Corresponding author. Tel.: +605-368 7629. E-mail address: khairun_azizli@petronas.com.my

1877-7058 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICPEAM 2016

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.519

with inborn ability of self-reparation, reinstating the physical and mechanical properties of the composite structural materials rapidly after being subjected to injury. The self-reparation property of materials is a unique and valued characteristic because it increases the chances of longer service and shelf lives of materials which in turn contribute towards the financial and human safety attributes. In thermosetting polymer applications, various kinds of healing triggering mechanisms have been proposed and virtually applied [1, 2].

Mechanical, thermal and photo-initiated self-healing mechanisms are the most commonly applied repairing techniques [3, 4]. Microencapsulated self-healing approach is the most common type of mechanical stimuli which is superior to other self-healing techniques owing to the simplicity, ease of microcapsules synthesis, robustness, and simple use in coatings systems. Generally speaking, microcapsules are small spheres in the range of micrometres encircling liquid materials (core material), with in various types of shell walls. Solids, liquids and gasses could be easily encapsulated inside these polymeric walls depending upon the required applications [5]. The synthesis and final structure of microcapsules perform a vital part in the performance of the self-healing coating. Preferably, microcapsules should be stable towards acids, bases and moisture, should poses non-leaky shell wall, should be able to contain the core materials for longer period of time, and only release the core contents whenever required [6]. Commonly, polymer and polymers composite systems are treated at elevated temperature and higher shear stresses. Epoxy group of resins and other thermosetting polymers are usually cured in the range of 100-200°C.Thermoplastic polymers are extruded above 1500C as well as at higher shear stresses. The requirements of polymers in such harsh environment necessitate further improvements in stability of microcapsules for applications in polymer composite systems [7]. A strong shell wall is one of the key factors that determine the robustness of microcapsules. However, some critical aspects like the chemical behaviour of the core material towards shell wall material, processing conditions of synthesis, viscosity of the healing agent and possible dissolution of shell polymer are the major deciding factors as well. The chemical and physical properties of shell wall material are very crucial. Unlike classes of healing chemistries cannot be encapsulated in alike shell wall or identical shell wall for dissimilar type of compounds do not perform in the same way [8]. The storage capabilities of microcapsules is an important aspect, yet no proper research has been conducted to find out the appropriateness of unlike core materials with different polymeric shell walls. This study aimed to find the suitability of urea-formaldehyde shell wall for different PDMS cores.

Although epoxy resins have very good properties for the protection of a number of materials, yet for corrosion prevention some hydrophobic part should be introduced into epoxy backbone. Polydimethylsiloxanes can be used for this purpose. The group of silicon containing compounds containing dimethylsiloxane moiety as the building block and known as Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) have low viscosities, are stable at both end of temperatures, oxidative stable, and highly compressible. PDMS based compounds also have high dielectric stabilities. Their main constituting elements are silicon, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. A variety of functional PDMS compounds can be produced through hydrosilation reaction implying platinum and palladium catalysts [9]. PDMS group of compounds have the lowest glass transition temperatures, as the energy barrier required for the rotation of PDMS is virtually zero [10]. Looking at all these characteristics, different functionalized PDMS compounds were chosen for encapsulation in urea-formaldehyde shell wall to see the effect of functional groups on the encapsulation efficiency and properties of microcapsules.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Materials

Urea and formaldehyde (UF) were used as the shell wall forming monomers; gum Arabic (GA) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were used as emulsifiers. Vinyl end polydimethylsiloxane (V-PDMS), hydroxyl end polydimethylsiloxane (OH-PDMS), and Epoxy end polydimethylsiloxane (E-PDMS) were used as core materials. Sodium hydroxide and citric acid were used for pH adjustment. Dried potassium bromide (KBr) was used for FTIR analysis. SDS was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. V-PDMS, OH-PDMS, and E-PDMS were purchased from Gelest Inc., USA. Remaining chemicals were purchased from Merck. All reagents were used without further purification. Figure 1 represents the chemical structures of functionalized PDMS taken from the catalogue "Reactive

Silicones" of the Gelest Inc. USA while Table 1 lists some of the physical properties of the selected PDMS core materials. Distilled water was used throughout the encapsulation for the preparation of aqueous solution of surfactant and for the washing of the capsules during filtration.

CH3 /CH3 \ CH3 H2C=CH-Si-oj-Si-oj-Si-CH=CH2 CH3 \CH3 /nCH3

Vinyl PDMS (V-PDMS)

fHj / <pH3 \ <pH3 HO"Si—o—|—Si—O-j—Si—OH CH3 \ CII3 In CH3 SLlanol PDMS (OH-PDMS)

çh3 ,ch3 v ch3 h2c- chchjo(ch2)3—Si —OfSi—o4-Si -(ch,)30ch2ch-ch2 ch3 \ch3 /ncn3

Epoij PDMS (E-PDMS)

Figure 1. Representative chemical structures for the three different functionalized PDMS

Table 1. Some of the physical properties of PDMS functional fluids used in this study PDMS type Company code Viscosity ( cSt) Molecular weight (g/mol) OH/Vinyl/epoxy-eq/kg Density (g/ml)

V-PDMS

OH-PDMS

E-PDMS

DMS-V22 DMS-S42 DMS-E12

200 18,000 20-35

77,000

1000-1400

0.21-0.24 0.023-0.025 1.6-1.9

0.97 0.98 0.98

2.1. Microencapsulation method

For urea formaldehyde (UF), the method of [11-13] was used in which 20 ml functionalized PDMS reagents were was added into 100 ml surfactant solution in a 500 ml flask and agitated at 700 rpm with an overhead mixer IKA RW 20 digital driving a four bladed propeller (50mm diameter) for 20 minutes to stabilize the emulsion. The concentration of surfactant was 2.5 wt % and core amount was 20 ml for all cases. To this emulsion, 2.5 g urea, 0.25 g ammonium chloride, and 0.25 g resorcinol were added. The pH was kept between 3.2-3.5 by adding citric acid and sodium hydroxide. After pH adjustment, 6.3 ml of 37 wt% formaldehyde were added. Temperature was slowly increased up to 60 0C and was maintained for 4 hours to complete the reaction.

Specifically for epoxy end PDMS, the process was a little bit changed. Epoxy-PDMS was added after 50% the urea and formaldehyde monomers were added to water and the pH of solution was kept at 3.5. After one hour, the remaining urea, ammonium chloride, resorcinol and formaldehyde were added while continuously maintaining the pH at 3.5. The reaction was stopped after 3 hours.

For both kind of reactions, during emulsification, 1 -octanol was used to eliminate the surface bubbles. In both cases after the reaction was terminated, the mixture was neutralized with sodium hydroxide to pH 7, allowed to cool to room temperature, filtered, and washed several times with distilled water.

3. Characterization

During the course of reaction for the confirmation of microcapsules, a microscope by Meiji Techno, Japan model MT4300L was utilized. The size and morphology of capsules were determined by using SEM with EDS facility. FTIR was used to analyse the chemical structure with Perkin Elmer Spectrum One, FTIR spectrometer. For the analysis of pure liquid PDMS compounds, initially KBr pellets were prepared and then one drop of PDMS liquid was spread over the KBr pellet. The thermal behaviour of capsules was traced with thermogravimetric analysis

(TGA) using STA 6000 (Perkin Elmer, USA) instrument. Approximately 5-6 mg of microcapsules were put in an alumina crucible and analysis was done at a heating rate of 200C/min from room temperature to nitrogen atmosphere. For core content analysis a known amount of microcapsules was taken in a 20 ml vial, crushed with a glass rod and 15 ml of solvent were added. The mixture was filtrated and washed several times with the solvent. The filter paper with solid residue was dried at 70 0C for 24 hours. The weight of the filter paper before and after extraction was used to calculate the core content of microcapsules with the below given formula [14].

Wic - Wfc

core contents =-— * 100

Where Wic is the initial weight of the microcapsules and Wfc after washing with toluene. The core contents and yield are given in Table 2.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. FT-IR analysis

The structural conformation was done by FT-IR analysis. FTIR spectra of pure PDMS and encapsulated PDMS in UF microcapsules was done and are presented in Figure 2. In the resultant spectrum of Vinyl-PDMS the band at 3050 cm-1 is due to vinyl group, however, this band disappears when the vinyl concentration is too low [15]. Similarly, for OH-PDMS a strong peak appears at 3200-3300 cm-1. For all PDMS reagents the overlapping peak at just below 3000 cm-1 is due to -CH3 asymmetric stretching vibration .The peak at 1000-1100 cm-1 is due to -Si-O-Si stretching present in all spectra. A very strong Si-C stretching is present at 800 cm-1 [16]. For epoxy PDMS -C-O-C stretching vibrations of ethers is present at 1030 cm-1. For oxirane ring the peaks at 920 and 839 cm-1 are very characteristic. The overlapping peaks at 3000 to 2850 cm-1 can be assigned to the CH/CH2/CH3 stretching of epoxy [17]. For UF polymers, the peak 1115 and 1015 cm-1 corresponds to -CN stretching and -CO stretching of Methylol group and N-H bending around 1550 cm-1, and C-N absorption band around 1350 cm-1 are all perceived. From the FT-IR results it can be concluded that all PDMS functional fluids have been successfully encapsulated.

Figure 2. The FTIR spectra of microcapsules and pure PDMS compounds

4.2. Thermal analysis

Thermal analysis of microcapsules is useful in finding the right range of application, because different coating systems are cured at different temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis was accomplished in nitrogen atmosphere with a heating rate of 20 0C/min from room to 900 0C Figure 3. UF microcapsules show three main mass loss stages (a) at 40- 2000C, 2-5% weight loss is due to residual water and free formaldehyde in V-PDMS and E-PDMS, while for OH-PDMS the weight loss at this temperature is approximately 20% (b)

PDMS and E-PDMS is due to degradation of shell wall polymer, while for OH-PDMS the weight loss is only 6-10% and then after 500 0C the main loss starts. The higher temperature required for the degradation of OH-PDMS containing UF microcapsules shows that the shell wall may be modified by the hydroxyl end-groups of the OH-

'-PDMSyF

E-PDMS UF

tOO 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature °C

too 200 300 400 500 600 700 Temperature °C

......рн,ррмриг......

л ^ Л

Л ГТ

О 100 200 ЗОО 400 500 600 700 800 900

Temperature С

Figure 3. TGA an DTG of microcapsules containing functionalized PDMS

2-5% weight loss until 2000C indicated that microcapsules of V-PDMS and E-PDMS in UF shell wall have good thermal stability. For UF capsules of OH-PDMS the different behaviour after 450 0C may be due to the reaction between shell wall polymer and core material. A difference can be seen in the degradation pattern of all the three functionalized polydimethylsiloxanes. For V-PDMS and OH-PDMS, there are two weight loss stages, while for E-PDMS the there is one main weight loss stage as shown in Figure 3.

4.3. Core contents

Core contents of microcapsules for self-healing purposes is very important, because it decides the amount of deliverable healing agent to a specific location. Core contents and yields were almost comparable for all of the batches of microcapsules produced with either method except of UF microcapsules with OH-PDMS as core material. The core contents were quite low. The reason may be the OH of PDMS took part in the urea and formaldehyde polymer cross linking. Highest yield and core contents were observed for UF capsules with V-PDMS as core material.

Table 2. Core content and % yield of microcapsules

Core material OH-PDMS V-PDMS E-PDMS

Shell material UF UF

Core contents 50 77 68

% Yield 75 88 77

4.4. SEM and EDS analysis

The SEM images were recorded after one week of synthesis in order to see the morphology of resultant microcapsules (Figure 4). UF microcapsules for OH-PDMS were a bit agglomerated but no liquid material was present on the walls of capsules. The capsules are irregular in shape and the shell wall is rough. For V-PDMS, the capsules are different as compared to OH-PDMS. The capsules are spherical and were not irregular in shape like OH-PDMS. They are free flowing and non-sticky. For E-PDMS, the capsules converted into thick waxy mass just after 3 days. When observed under microscope, no capsule could be seen intact. So capsules were analysed on the same day. The diameters of OH and V-PDMS were in the range of 100 to 500 ^m while the diameter of E-PDMS

E-PDMS Microcapsules

I ■ I fS> -lOO*

Figure 4.SEM images for the synthesized microcapsules with PDMS as core materials

microcapsules were in the range of 50 to 100 |m.

The capsules were agglomerated and sticky showing that core material was coming out of the capsules. Their outer shell wall is smooth and capsules are spherical. The results of SEM images is also supported by EDS analysis as shown below.

Table 3. The elemental composition of microcapsules analyzed by EDS

UF microcapsules with OH-PDMS as core

14 Si Silicon 3.0 5.6 4.5

8 O Oxygen 34.8 39.5 34.5

6 C Carbon 23.0 24.1 24.7

7 N Nitrogen 39.2 30.8 36.3

UF microcapsules with E-PDMS as core

14 Si Silicon 34.2 20.5 18.3

8 O Oxygen 36.3 39.7 36.1

7 N Nitrogen 21.4 20.7 30.3

6 C Carbon 16.2 17.5 13.8

UF microcapsules with V-PDMS as core

14 Si Silicon 6.5 5.0 5.5

8 O Oxygen 42.1 41.2 40.0

6 C Carbon 23.7 20.0 21.7

7 N Nitrogen 27.7 33.9 32.8

In table 3, it is clearly evident that the percentage of Si on the surface of E-PDMS microcapsules is far high than on the surface of either V-PDMS or OH-PDMS microcapsules. This reveals that either encapsulation efficiency for E-PDMS is little or after encapsulation the core contents are continuously leaching out of capsules.

5. Conclusion

This study evaluated the suitability of urea-formaldehyde shell wall materials for 3 different functionalized PDMS reagents. These PDMS reagents can be used in different cure systems for the self-healing applications. From TGA results, it is clear that UF is suitable for all the 3 reagents with respect to thermal stability. SEM and EDS analysis showed that UF is a better choice for V-PDMS and OH-PDMS because the product was non-agglomerated and non-sticky with non-leaky shell walls, while for E-PDMS further modifications or other shell wall materials are recommended. Future studies will be conducted to optimize the encapsulation process parameters and then test again the suitability of shell walls for E-PDMS especially, because of its importance in thermoset resins. This study will enable us to select suitable shell wall for specific core materials.

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