Scholarly article on topic 'Anacreontea in the Art of М. N. Muravyov'

Anacreontea in the Art of М. N. Muravyov Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Biological sciences, author of scientific article — Liliana B. Prokopieva, Liliya Т. Leushina

Abstract Anacreontic reception in the poet's art of M. N. Muravyov of the XVIII century is considered in this article. It also analyzes the translation of the anacreontic ode “The Underside and the Top of the Earth” by M. N. Muravyov. As a result of comparative analysis of the source and translation it was found that overall the translation is identical to the original as M. N. Muravyov conveyed the meaning of the ode, the mood, and the key images. Deviations from the original, lexical, artistic, syntactic additions are explained by the translation strategy of M.N. Muravyov who was aiming to accurately convey the main idea of the author's anacreontic ode.

Academic research paper on topic "Anacreontea in the Art of М. N. Muravyov"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 200 (2015) 526 - 530

THE XXVI ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC CONFERENCE, LANGUAGE AND

CULTURE, 27-30 October 2015

Anacreontea in the Art of M. N. Muravyov

Liliana B. Prokopievaa*, Liliya T. Leushinaa

aTomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russia

Abstract

Anacreontic reception in the poet's art of M. N. Muravyov of the XVIII century is considered in this article. It also analyzes the translation of the anacreontic ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth" by M. N. Muravyov. As a result of comparative analysis of the source and translation it was found that overall the translation is identical to the original as M. N. Muravyov conveyed the meaning of the ode, the mood, and the key images. Deviations from the original, lexical, artistic, syntactic additions are explained by the translation strategy of M.N. Muravyov who was aiming to accurately convey the main idea of the author's anacreontic ode.

© 2015Published byElsevierLtd. Thisis anopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of National Research Tomsk State University.

Keywords: Anacreon; antique literature; Russian literature of the XVIII century; M. N. Muravyov; translation

1. Introduction

Ionian Anacreon Teossky (second half of the VI century BC) was the last classicist of solo melik, who lived in the courts of tyrants, who wrote songs of humorous content for their performance on the feasts, therefore the main topics of his works were love, wine, fun. Hiding behind the mask of a cheerful old man, Anacreon laughs at his old age and is not willing to give up the pleasures of life. The songs of Anacreon differed because of their extraordinary simplicity, naturalness, playful, ironic and meanwhile the depth of the self-disclosure. Anacreon's poetry was appreciated yet by his contemporaries, among whom was Plato, who called the poet "wise" in dialogue "Phaedrus"(Plato, 1970). Anacreon had so many late antique imitators that their poems were called anacreontic (Anacreontea) and they were believed to be a true poetry of the author for a long time.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7-906-957-0445. E-mail address: lilianaprokopeva@sibmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of National Research Tomsk State University. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.015

The term "anacreontic" appeared in the Russian literature of the XVIII century and it was used for denoting translations of Anacreon, his late classical imitators, and also for original poems of Russian poets, containing Anacreontic reception. The very XVIII century is considered to be the prosperity of Russian anacreontea. In 1736 in London, A.D. Kantemir translated 55 anacreontic poems, but these translations were published only in 1867. M.V. Lomonosov translated anacreontic songs as well. Besides the famous "Conversation with Anacreon", where four anacreontic translations of poems are given, M.V. Lomonosov translated "By the Dark of the Night" and "Dear Grasshopper". A.P. Sumarokov in his "Epistle of Poetry Writing" (1747) mentioned Anacreon alongside Homer, Sappho, Sophocles and Euripides and in 1755 he published his own anacreontic odes "Be Jealous of Me - Roses" and "She is amiable for her dancing".

M.N. Muravyov is one of the key figures in Russian literature of the XVIII century, whose art reflected the process of dialogue between the two major literary trends of the time: classicism and sentimentalism. These two systems have converged in his original art and translating activity, showing the evolution process of Russian literature of the XVIII - XIX centuries.

The aim of this article is to research the reception of anacreontic motives in the original art of M.N. Muravyov and identification of the poetry of translation of anacreontic ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth" in terms of the traditions of classicism and new trends of emerging sentimentalism. In accordance with the aim the following tasks are defined:

1) To indicate the influence of Anacreontea on original art of M.N. Muravyov by means of comparative-match analysis of the most representative parts of works;

2) To analyze the semantics, stylistics, rhythmical-metrical measurements of M.N. Muravyov's translation of Anacreontic ode;

3) To identify artificial diversity in M.N. Muravyov's translation of the ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth", bold and 10 pt. Here follows further instructions for authors.

2. Research methodology

The methodological basis of the research consists of works on the problems of comparative translation studies and dialogue of cultures of M. M. Bahtin, Y. D. Levin, J. M Lotman, V. N. Toporov, works on the history of Russian literature of the XVIII century by G. A Gukovsky, N. D. Kochetkova, O. B. Lebedeva, P. A. Orlov and works on ancient literature by M. L Gasparov, T. G Malchukova, A. A. Tahoe-Godi, I. M. Tronsky, V. N. Yarho.

The comparative-matching analysis of the source and the translation is the main method of research in linguistics translation. In the process of this analysis the poetry of translation is revealed as well as the identical units, and also the changes are investigated which occur when replacing any equivalent units to the original translation ones. Also, comparative-matching analysis enables us to work out how to overcome typical difficulties of translation related to the specifics of each language, and what elements of the original remain not transmitted in the translation.

3. Anacreontic reception in the original works of M. N. Muravyov

M. N. Muravyov was one of the first in Russian literature to refer to the art of Anacreon; in 1773 Muravyov translated his ode "There Are Wrinkles On My Forehead" and the anacreontic ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth". This attention of M. N Muravyov to Anacreon is not accidental: antiquity generally attracted the poet of the XVIII century as a source of cultural, historical, philosophical and literary values. Besides that, the future creator of light poetry in his youth was interesting in the naturalness of creativity, freedom in the expression of feelings, closeness to nature, all of this M. N. Muravyov found in Anacreon's poetry. For example, in one of his iconic works "The Experience of versification" in 1775 and the 1780s, M. N. Muravyov wrote that there is no soul and delight in poems if they do not have naturalness, and insists on writing with the soul, calling the name of Anacreon, which, according to M.N. Muravyov's opinion, "was singing" with love and heart (Muravyov, 1967).

M. N. Muravyov's respect for Anacreon is so great that while mentioning the name of Anacreon, M. N. Muravyov puts this seemingly unserious and frivolous poet on one line with his beloved ones, the great Homer and Virgil: "The pet of the painting, before dare to brush his experience in writing with nature, exercises the

long copying it over the samples and the study of antiquity. The same path is ordained to the poet. Does not it suffice this variety of samples for him? And against Raphael, Titian and Correggio does not have the right to put the versification of Homer, Virgil, and Anacreon? " (Muravyov, 1847)

The stability of this attention is noted by the fact that in the original art of M. N. Muravyov there is reception of anacreontic poetry. So, in the ode of "Spring" of the year 1775 it is noticeable the explicit role with motives of Anacreon's poetry: after describing the features of coming spring M. N. Muravyov finds the connections of awakening nature with a human life, noting with regret that there occurs a cycle in the nature, every year everything wakes up to life with the coming of spring, and the young in the human life is irrevocable. In the middle of the ode M. N. Ants describes how nature responds to the coming of spring: under the bark of the trees moisture begins to move and the leaves become green. After this picture an element of opposition of the life of nature and human life is introduced (even at the syntactic level through adversative linking word "a"): life comes back to the trees every year, and there is no return to the human days; spring (i.e. youth) happens only once in a person's life. And if the trees can look younger, even ancient oak trees, then gray hairs do not disappear; people forever wither (Muravyov, 1847).

Anacreon's motive of the regret about lost youth and the fear of imminent death is one of the main motives. In the ode "Thinned, whitened" the poet sadly describes the signs of his age: he has thinned and his hair, that once had been his pride, has turned gray. His teeth are already unsteady, and the fire in his eyes went out. Anacreon understands that the fun life is almost gone and soon he will die. The ode ends with regret that the kingdom of death is waiting for all of us, where the entrance is open and there is no escape (Pushkin, 1955).

In the poem "The Vision" (1770s), M. N. Muravyov describes his journey to the ideal fantasy world in which there are favorite and recognized writers (Euripides, Rasin, Shakespeare, Aeschylus, Boileau, Homer, Virgil, Pindar, Lomonosov), very distinguished ancient philosopher, grammarian, historian Dionysius Cassius Longinus (213-273 BC) is seeing the hero off. In this wonderful world the lyrical hero among the great poets of all times and peoples sees Anacreon as well, and as evidence he speaks about it with a big respect and sincere love (Muravyov, 1967).

4. Analysis of the translation of ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth"

In this connection a natural step in the development of the poetic experience of one of favorite writers of antiquity is the translation of his works. Translation of anacreontic ode "The Underside and the Top of the Earth" was published in the first collection of young M. N. Muravyov in 1773 (Muravyov, 1773), that once again underlines the importance of the anacreontic traditions for poets of the XVIII century.

Before M. N. Muravyov this ode was translated only by A. D. Kantemir, but this work was published only in 1867. This traditional and Anacreontic playful ode is written from the face of the lyrical hero, who is crowler and wit, and he justifies his penchant for drinking by laws of nature:

The lyrics of the ode: 1H yn ^sXaiva nivsi 2nivsi Ss SsvSps' a'uxfv. 3nivsi 9aXaaaa S' a'upaq, 4o S' fXioq 9aXaaaav, 5Tov S' fXiov asXfvr|. 6Ti ^oi ^&%sa9', sxaipoi, 7Ka'uxro 9sXovxi nivsiv; (Anacreon, 1984)

Word for word translation: 1Black ground is drinking, 2its trees are drinking. 3The sea is drinking windows, 4and the Sun is drinking the sea, 5and the Moon is drinking the Sun.

6What are you quarreling for with me, friends,

7and with this very who is eager to drink? (translation by L.T. Leushina)

Translation by M. N. Muravyov: The underside and the top of the Earth

Is feeding water;

And on the wide field the forest Is feeding the Earth juice; And its air is drinking And the Sun is overpowering;

By water, that is throwing Phebes,

The light is feeding his month; Who can forbid

Me to drink as well? (Muravyov, 1967)

Overall, M.N. Muravyov follows the author in the logics of humorous discourse, in the mood, having handed the figurative painting of the works, the image of the protagonist, boozer, joker, wit are recognizable. However, being at the beginning of his artificial career, and therefore mostly following the traditions of classic translation, M.N. Muravyov conveys the idea of the script also with its lexical and imaginative means, which increases the size of the translation compared to the capacious original poem.

The text can be divided into several meaning parts:

The lyrics of the ode: 1H yn ^sXaiva nivsi 2nivsi Ss SsvSps' a'uxfv.

Word for word translation:

1 Black ground is drinking,

2 its trees are drinking.

Translation by M.N. Muravyov: The underside and the top of the Earth

Is feeding water;

And on the wide field the forest Is feeding the Earth juice;

It is said that everything in nature is interconnected in the first sentence of the script: the earth feeds with moisture, and the trees take water from the ground. This process is described concisely, almost exclusively using the grammatical basics (subject and predicate), only the earth receives certain definition ^sXawa «black». M.N. Muravyov conveys the idea of the sentence, adding details, and due to this the passage has increased twicely. Thus, according to M.N. Muravyov, not only Underside drinks, but also the top of the Earth, and the author specifically refers to the fact that everything is drinking water. Verb nivsi "is drinking" has been replaced by two more evaluative verbs which are is feeding and is making himself stronger, that updates the importance of moisture for all life. In addition, in anacreontic ode SsvSpsa "trees" just nivsi "drink", but M.N. Muravyov gives us deeper idea where more clear and figurative picture arises: SsvSpsa "trees" become forest, which is located in the wide ... field. Apparently, these additions were necessary for the translator in order to convey the meaning of the concise source more accurately.

The lyrics of the ode: 3nivsi 9aXaaaa S' a'upaq, 4o S' fXioq 9aXaaaav, 5Tov S' fXiov asXfvq.

Word for word translation: 3The sea is drinking windows, 4and the Sun is drinking the sea, 5and the Moon is drinking the Sun.

Translation by M.N. Muravyov: And its air is drinking And the Sun is overpowering;

By water, that is throwing Phebes,

The light is feeding his month;

In the second sentence of the ode develops the topic of the first one: the author, using the metaphor, paints a picture of the interconnection of natural phenomena, which feed each other. This deep and wise idea is still transmitted in the syntax and artistically simply and succinctly: with a single predicate ffivsi "is drinking", three subjects 9aXaaaa "sea", fXioq "Sun", asXfvr| "Moon" and three direct additions a'upaq "winds" 9aXaaaa "sea", fXiov "Sun". Repeating in different functions 9aXaaaa "sea" and fXioq "Sun" are to show the picture of the unstoppable cycle and interconnections of all the phenomena in nature that is marked yet with the help of particles with opposing value Ss "a" which start the poems number 4 and 5. M.N. Muravyov follows the semantics of the script, having passed it, mainly by his own lexical means. So, the idea of the cycle of the phenomena of nature is reflected in the images of the air, the Sun and the month associated with water: And its air is drinking and the Sun is overpowering, and then from the top it overthrows Phebes, according to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks, thrower of the lightings during a thunderstorm (By water, that is throwing Phebes), the light of the lightning, in its term, feeds ... the month. M.N. Muravyov's using of the name Phebes, perhaps is not surprising in this context, as the epithet of Apollo Phebes OoiPoq "radiant" comes from the Greek adjective with the meaning of "bright, shining". Thus, the lexical additions of the translator called for more accurate convey of the meaning of source, adorning the picture, led to an increase in the translation to one line. Syntactically, M.N. Muravyov tried to follow the simplicity of the source: in this passage, in addition to foundations and direct supplements it contains fewer secondary parts of the sentence: up water, its.

The anacreontic ode ends with a playful rhetorical question, which arises from the previous observations of nature: why the author cannot drink when all nature is drinking (in the Greek language ";" is a question mark). We can speak about a special expressiveness of the ode's ending, since besides itself actively receiving a rhetorical question the author uses the reinforcing particle Kai with the pronoun auxro (Ka'uxro "with itself'), appeal sxaipoi "friends". M.N. Muravyov also increases the effect of the rhetorical question, using the reinforcing particle u, and besides that more active verb ban instead of ^&%sa9' "arguing" source. However, without attention remains the meaning accent of the anacreontic ode in the last stanza (lyrical hero "will" to drink): 9sXovxi "willing". The translation of the last passage, this time is more concise than the original.

5. Conclusion

In general we can speak of the identity of the translation to the original source, as M. N. Muravyov conveyed the meaning of anacreontic ode, the mood of playfulness, humor, peculiar to Anacreontea, the key images of the work. Art, morphological deviations from the original source, the addition of his own language and syntax means is explained, apparently, by M. N. Muravyov's desire to convey the movement of thought and mood of the source, the idea of the author as more accurate as he can. Also the desire to follow the original source in terms of contain and conciseness is noticeable (translation is bigger than original work only on three stanzas). Furthermore, revealing the fact that the traditional for Anacreontic size of iambic trimeter M. N. Muravyov conveyed by 3 -stop pentameter, that is resistant formal sign of Russian anacreontea and light poetry in general. This size, light, rhythmic, reflects the emotional space of the original very well.

All this allows us to say that M. N. Muravyov began to leave the classic tradition of translation, when too free treatment of the primary source was allowed. In this translation of anacreontic ode there is the already noticeable strategy of M. N. Muravyov as a translator, outlined here and developing by him throughout the whole creative way: attention to semantic, artistic original, the desire to follow the author in the transferring of not only the main idea of the poem, but also in the use of lexical, syntax and morphological resources.

References

Muravyov, M. N. (1973). Perevodniye stihotvoreniya. SPb. Muravyov, M. N. (1967). Stihotvoreniya. M. Platon. (1970). Soch. v treh tomah. T. 2. M. Pushkin, A. S. (1955). Stihotvoreniya. T. 3. L. SochineniyaMuravyova. (1847). T. II. SPb. Carmina Anacreontea. (1984). West. Leipzig.