Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.'

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L. Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

Share paper
Academic journal
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
OECD Field of science

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L."

BJM 871-10


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx



Environmental Microbiology

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

Neyser De La Torre-Ruiza, Víctor Manuel Ruiz-Valdiviezob, Clara Ivette Rincón-Molinab, Martha Rodríguez-Mendiolaa, Carlos Arias-Castroa, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Micelib, Héctor Palomeque-Dominguezb, Reiner Rincón-Rosalesb'*

a Plant Biotechnology, DEPI Instituto Tecnológico de Tlajomulco, Carretera a San Miguel Cuyutlán, Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, Jalisco, Mexico b Laboratory of Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico

article info


Article history:

Received 4 June 2015

Accepted 11 February 2016

Available online xxx

Associate Editor: Ieda de Carvalho






16S rRNA

The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylo-genetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, AC0-40 and AC0-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubi-lize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

© 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is

an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (


The use of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is an important alternative to

replace chemical fertilizers for the cultivation of agricultural 26

plants. 27

The search for PGPB as well as research on their biologi- 28

cal properties are increasing at a rapid pace because efforts 29 are being made to exploit them commercially as inoculants.

* Corresponding author. E-mail: (R. Rincón-Rosales). http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.bjm.2016.04.010

1517-8382/© 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

JM 871-10


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx

Significant improvement on the growth and yield of crops in response to microbial inoculation has been reported by many workers.1-3 Studies confirm that inoculants formulated with PGPB have shown positive effects on the agricultural yield and crop quality.2,4 Regarding the effect of PGPB on plant growth, it has been reported that Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings inoculated with PGPB (Pseudomonas sp. strain AK-1, and Bacillus sp. strain SJ-5) demonstrated enhanced plant biomass and that the plants had a higher proline content than control plants.5 In another study, the efficiency of Mesorhizobium, Azo-tobacter, and Pseudomonas on the growth, yield, and disease suppression in chickpea plants (Cicer arietinum L.) was evaluated. Pseudomonas showed positive IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani compared to other strains.6 Martinez-Rodriguez et al.7 also reported that cultivable endophytic bacteria from the leaf base of Agave tequilana Weber var. Blue have the potential to enhance plant growth.

Scientific evidence supports that the agave genus includes several species of economic, social and cultural importance for people around the world.8 Agave plants are greatly relevant to Mexico because this country is considered to be the point of origin of the evolution and diversification of this genus.9 Approximately 163 species grow in Mexico, and 123 species are endemic.10

Agave americana L. has successfully adapted to climatic and edaphic conditions and proliferated in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, where it is an important source of natural fibre, medicine, fructans, and traditional alcoholic beverages for the local community. Due to the economic significance of this plant, several commercial plantations have been established in the state of Chiapas to produce sufficient raw materials for agro-industrial use. However, when the plantlets are transplanted to the field, their growth and development is slow, and consequently, 5-7 years are required to obtain mature plants for industrial use.11 An alternative for obtaining mature plants for industrial use is the application of plant growth-promoting bacteria, but it is necessary to assess the possible effects of PGPB on A. americana to increase the survival and growth of plantlets. PGPB are rhizosphere bacteria that enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms, such as phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, antifungal activity, induction of systemic resistance, promotion of beneficial plant-microbe symbioses, and so on.12,13

Many aspects of the microbial community associated with agaves are still unknown and only a manuscript related to14 suggests that the hypothesis that PGPB inoculation significantly increases the growth and sugar content (mainly inulin) in A. americana is true. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PGPB inoculation on plant growth and sugar accumulation in A. americana.

Materials and methods

82 Bacterial strains

83 The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140 were

84 chosen subsequent to a study of approximately 235 strains

previously isolated from the rhizosphere of A. americana. These three strains were selected based on their capacity for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, P-solubilization and biosynthesis of IAA (Table S1) and were provided by the Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, while the reference strain Azospirillum brasilense Cd was provided by the Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Cuernavaca, México. All strains were grown in yeast extract-mannitol (YMA) medium15 at 28 ° C and preserved at 4 °C until use.

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of strains

The cell morphologies of the strains isolated from A. americana were examined by light microscopy (Zeiss® PS7, Germany). The Gram reaction was determined using a kit (Merck®, Germany), according to the manufacturer's procedure, and colony morphology was determined with cells grown on YMA plates at 28 °C for 5 days.16

Bacteriological and physiological characterization of strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140 were performed with isolates from YMA medium. Salt tolerance was evaluated at 28°C with 0.5,1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0% (w/v) NaCl and pH levels of 4.0, 5.0, 9.0 and 11.0. Acid or alkali production was determined on the same medium supplemented with 25mgmL-1 bro-mothymol blue as a pH indicator.16 Antibiotic resistance was tested on YMA plates following the process recommended by Martinez-Romero et al.17. In addition, the Al and Cu tolerance of the strains were determined on solid YMA medium.18

16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis

The strains were grown in 2.0 mL of YMA medium overnight. Total genomic DNA was extracted using a DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche®, Switzerland), according to the manufacturer's specifications. PCR was performed with the bacterial universal 16S rRNA primers fD1 (5'-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3') and rD1 (5'-AAGGAGGTGATCCAGCC-3'), which amplified products of approximately 1500 bases, and procedures were performed as described by Weisburget al.19. The PCR products were purified using the PCR Product Purification System Kit from Roche® and sequenced (Macrogen®, Korea). All sequences were compared with the reference sequences obtained by a BLAST search.20 The sequences were aligned using the CLUSTAL X (2.0) software with the default settings.21 Minor modifications in the alignment were made using the BIOEDIT sequence editor. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were performed with MEGA v5.2.22 The phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene sequences from type strains was constructed by Neighbour-Joining23 and a Bootstrap analysis with 1000 pseu-doreplicates using the Tamura-Nei model.24 The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140 were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KM349967, KM349968, and KM349969, respectively. Additionally, strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140 were deposited in DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), Germany as an open collection under the deposit numbers DSM 101606, DSM 01771 and DSM 01784, respectively.

100 101 102

120 121 122


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx 3

Measurement ofPGPB efficiency

Quantification ofIAA production

Bacteria were grown in conical flasks containing 50 mL of YMA medium composed of mannitol (0.25 gL-1), K2HPO4 10% (5 mLL-1), MgSO4 10% (2 mLL-1), NaCl 10% (1mLL-1), CaCO3 (1gL-1) and yeast extract (3gL-1) at a pH of 6.8, supplemented with 100 mgL-1 of L-tryptophan. After incubation at 30 ±2 °C on a rotary shaker for 48 h, the culture medium was centrifuged at 5000 x g for 10 min, and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.22-^m membrane filter. The IAA levels in the filtered supernatants of each strain were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a PerkinElmer model series 200A equipped with a Supelco LiChrosorb RP Ci8 column (5 ^m; 4.6 by 150 mm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile-50 mM KH2PO4 (pH 3) (30/70) at a flow rate of 1mLmin-1. Eluates were analyzed with a diode array detector at 220 nm, and IAA was quantified by integrating the area under the peak; authentic IAA (Sigma) was used as a standard. The IAA produced by each strain was measured in triplicate.25

Estimation of phosphate solubilization in broth assay by PGPB

The isolates were individually grown in YM broth medium overnight, and the OD600 nm was adjusted to 1.0. The cells were washed twice in 0.85% sterile Ringers solution before inoculating in National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP) growth medium containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2).26 The pH of the NBRIP medium was adjusted to 7.0 before autoclaving. The strains were inoculated in 20-mL vials containing NBRIP medium and incubated at 30 °C on a shaker (150 rpm) for 5 days. After incubation, 5.0 mL of each strain was taken and centrifuged, and the pH of the supernatant was recorded. The available phosphorus content in the culture supernatant as well as the control (supernatant obtained from medium not inoculated with bacteria) was estimated using the vanado-molybdate colorimetric method27 by measuring the absorbance at a wavelength of 420 nm. Each treatment was replicated three times.

Assay for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) The nitrogen fixation ability of the PGPB strains was determined by the acetylene reduction activity.28 The tubes were sealed with rubber stoppers after inoculation and then incubated for 24h in NFB medium.29 Ten percent of the air was removed from each tube, and an equal volume of acetylene was injected using a syringe, before incubating the tubes at 30 °C for 24 h. A parallel uninoculated control tube was prepared. A 100-^L air sample was taken, and the amount of ethylene produced from acetylene was determined by gas chromatography (Perkin Elmer, USA). The ARA value was reported to as [ARA nmol C2H4 per culture h-1].

Plant inoculation assay

The PGPB strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140 isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere and the reference strain A. brasilense Cd were evaluated in a biofertilization test. A. americana plantlets obtained by micropropagation were planted in polystyrene trays that contained peat as the substrate (the pH

of the peat was adjusted to 6.7 using 35 g Na2CO3 for each 100 g of material) and covered with a polyethylene sheet to maintain the humidity and prevent dehydration. Plants were maintained in a growth chamber at 28 °C and 38% relative humidity (RH) with a 14 h light/10 h dark photoperiod. Lighting was provided by fluorescent lamps with 50 ^Em-2 s-1.30

After two months (60 days after transplantation), the plants were transferred to pots containing peat moistened with free N Fahraeus medium [CaCl2,0.1 g; MgSO4-7H2O,0.12 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; Na2HPO4-2H2O, 0.15 g; Fe citrate, 0.005 g; Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Mo traces; dist. water, 1000 mL; pH 6.5] as a nutrient source31 and placed in a greenhouse at 25 ±2 °C (natural illumination). The plants were inoculated with 2 mL of a suspension of each PGPB strain at a concentration of 1 x 106UFCmL-1.30'32 Uninoculated plants and others treated with 30 mg of KNO3-N per plant served as controls. Four replicates were used per treatment, and the plants were arranged in a completely randomized design. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 90 days. Measurements of the plants, the dry weight, the diameter of the stem, the number of leaves, and the length of the roots were made on the plants during the transplantation phase (mi) and after 90 days (m2) in the greenhouse. The data used for statistical analysis were the difference between the m2-m1 measurements.

Extraction and quantification of carbohydrates The carbohydrates were extracted and quantified from the dried leaves and roots, which were washed with ultrapure water. The samples were crushed and placed in a water bath at 80 ° C for 40 min, the supernatant was removed by centrifu-gation at 16,000 x g for 15 min at room temperature, and the precipitate was removed. Samples were adjusted to pH 7.0, filtered through 20- and 45-^m nylon membranes, and stored at 8 °C until use. Carbohydrates were identified with a previously described modified method.33 Briefly, thin layer chromatography was performed using propanol-butanol-water (12:3:4) for the mobile phase and Merck® F254 silica gel plates for the stationary phase. Spots were developed with a solution containing 45% (v/v) aniline (4% v/v in acetone), 45% (v/v) diphenylamine (4% (v/v) in acetone) and 9.1% (v/v) of 85% phosphoric acid. The developing solution was applied to the plates and allowed to dry. The plates were heated to 80 °C for 5, 10, and 15 min until a clearly defined colour appeared. The aldoses had a blue-grey colour, and the ketoses and sucrose were red or a mixture of both colours.

For the quantification of carbohydrates, samples were adjusted to pH 7.0 and filtered through 20- and 45-^m membranes before being placed in 2-mL vials. A 10-^L sample of plant extract was injected into a HPLC-IR (Thermo Finnigan®, Ontario, Canada) equipped with a Rezex RCM-monosaccharide Ca2+ column, with water as the mobile phase at a temperature of 85 °C, a flow rate of 0.3mLmin-1, and a pressure of 300 psi. Inulin from chicory root, fructose (Sigma®, USA), sucrose, and glucose (Baker®, USA) were used as standards.33

Statistical analysis

All of the data obtained in the tests for inoculation, P-solubilization, IAA production, acetylene reduction activity

JM 871-10


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx

253 (ARA), and carbohydrate quantification using different PGPB

254 strains were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance

255 (ANOVA), and the means were compared by TUkey's test

256 (p <0.05).34

Results and discussion

257 Investigation of PGPB strains from different plants with the

258 potential to be used as inoculants has increased in recent

259 years, and many are commercially available.12,13,35 Taxonomic

260 polyphasic studies are commonly used to analyze bacterial

261 diversity and include morphological, physiological, biochem-

262 ical, metabolic, and principally, phylogenetic studies.36-38

263 The morphological and physiological characteristics of the

264 bacterial strains isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere

265 that have potential as inoculants are shown in Table S2. The

266 strains evaluated were aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped,

267 and grew rapidly in YMA medium. The cells grew at 37 °C and

268 had an acidic reaction. The ACO-40 strain formed circular,

269 lightly opaque yellow colonies from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in diameter

270 with a mucoid appearance. On the other hand, the ACO-140

271 strain formed circular, creamy beige colonies with regular

272 borders, measured approximately 3-4 mm in diameter, and

273 had no observable pigmentation. Finally, strain ACO-34A was

274 characterized by the formation of circular, semitranslucent

275 creamy colonies that were 1.5-3.0 mm in diameter with a

276 mucoid appearance. These three strains could grow in a pH

277 range from 4.0 to 9.0. As for NaCl tolerance, the AC0-140

278 strain grew in 5.0% NaCl, but the AC0-34A and AC0-40

279 strains tolerated no more than 2.0% NaCl. The AC0-34A

280 strain was resistant to ampicillin (100 ^gmL-1), carbenicillin

281 (20 ^gmL-1), chloramphenicol (100 ^gmL-1), and kanamycin

282 (100 ^gmL-1). The AC0-40 strain showed a greater sensitivity

283 to the antibiotics assessed. The strains grew in the presence of

284 Al3+ (500 ^gmL-1) and Cu2+ (100 ^gmL-1). These results indi-

285 cated that some of the biological qualities that distinguished

286 these strains included their capacity to grow in a wide pH

287 range, as well as their ability to tolerate different NaCl con-

288 centrations and heavy metals, such as Al and Cu. For example,

289 strain AC0-140 managed to grow in 5.0% NaCl. This outcome

290 is of great significance because salinity is one of the harshest

291 environmental factors that prevents a high crop yield, and

292 most agricultural plants are sensitive to a high salt concen-

293 tration in the soil. Therefore, plant growth promoting bacteria

294 (PGPB) act as one of the most effective tools for the alleviation

of salt stress. Azospirillum lipoferum JA4, a genetically tagged strain, was capable of colonizing the roots of wheat seedlings in the presence of a high NaCl concentration.39 Puente et al.40 reported that strains of Azospirillum halopraeferens and A. brasilense survived in seawater and were capable of colonizing the root surfaces of black mangrove seedlings. In light of this, the AC0-140 strain could be an alternative to promote A. americana growth under salt stress conditions, as has been previously demonstrated with barley and oats.41,42 Additionally, this study demonstrated that these three strains could grow at low pH and tolerate high concentrations of aluminium and copper. PGPB, such as Pseudomona fluorescens, can produce oxalic acid, which also might be a possible mechanism for reducing Al toxicity.43 Rhizobium sp. strain BICC 651 produced a threefold higher level of siderophore in the presence of 100 ^M Al3+, which could be a mechanisms to relieve Al stress,44 suggesting that the application of such bacteria may be an efficient approach to alleviate aluminium toxicity and eventually improve soil fertility. Strain AC0-34A was resistant to various antibiotics, which could be important because it could protect the plant against phytopathogens and establish an area in the rhizosphere with a greater capacity to assimilate soil nutrients.45

We used a polyphasic approach in this study that combined the phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial strains with a phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the taxonomic status of strains isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere (Fig. 1). Strain AC0-40 had a sequence size of 1381 bp, was affiliated with members of the genus Acinetobacter, and showed a 99.1% genetic identity with the type strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCCB22016T (Table 1). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain AC0-140 was 1387 bp and was classified in the genus Pseudomonas, with a 100.0% genetic similarity to Pseudomonas mosselii CIP 105259T.46 Finally, the strain AC0-34A sequence was 1333bp and clustered with members of the genus Rhizobium; its 16S rRNA gene sequences had a 96.1% similarity with Rhizobium daejeonense L61T.36

The highest amount of IAA was produced by the P. mos-selii strain AC0-140 (15.7 mgL-1), followed by the R. daejeonense strain AC0-34A and A. calcoaceticus strain AC0-40 (Table 2). The reference strain A. brasilense Cd also produced a significant amount of IAA (10.4 mgL-1), according to Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The capacity of the rhizobial strains to solubilize phosphate was evaluated with a colorimetric method using NBRIP growth medium that contained insoluble tricalcium phosphate. All

Table 1 - Molecular identification of the PGPB strains isolated from Agave americana L.

Strain Closest partial 16S rRNA gene sequence Accession No. 16S rRNA seq. (bP) Closest NCBI match/species identity Reference

ACO-34A Rhizobium daejeonense KM349967 1333 R. daejeonense L61T (AY341343) 96.1% Zhe-Xue et al.36

ACO-40 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus KM349968 1381 A. calcoaceticus NCCB22016T (AJ888983) 99.1% Unpublished

ACO-140 Pseudomonas mosselii KM349969 1387 P. mosselii CIP 105259T (AF072688) 100% Dabboussi et al.46


BJM 871-10

Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx

76 ACO-40 (KM349968)

100p-Acinetobactercalcoaceticus D10 (JQ031270)

'-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus B9 (JQ579640)

—Acinetobactercalcoaceticus NCCB 22016T (AJ888983)

i-Acinetobacter baylyi B2T (AF509820)

—AcinetobactersoliB1T (EU290155)


-Acinetobacterradioresistens DSM6976T (X81666)

—Acinetobacterbaumannii DSM30007 (X81660) —Acinetobacterjunii DSM69641" (X816649) -Acinetobactergerneri 9A01T (AF509829)

-Acinetobacterlwoffii DSM2403T (X81665)

-Acinetobacterparvus LUH4616T (AJ293691)

—Acinetobacterbeijerinckii LUH 4759T(AJ626712)

-Acinetobacterhaemolyticus DSM6962T (X81662)

-Acinetobacterjohnsonii ATCC 17909T (Z93440)

i-Acinetobacterschindleri LUH5832T (AJ278311)

—Acinetobacterbouvetii 4B02T (AF509827)

97|ACO-140 (KM349969)

Pseudomonasmosselii CIP 105259T(AF072688) Pseudomonas taiwanensis BCRC 17751T (EU103629) Pseudomonas monteilii CIP104883T(AF064458) —Pseudomonas plecoglossicida FPC951T(AB009457)

Pseudomonas japonica IAM 15071T(AB126621) Pseudomonas putida IAM 1236T (D84020) Pseudomonas oryzihabitans IAM 1568T (D84004) Pseudomonas asplenii ATCC 23835T(AB021397)

Pseudomonas fluorescens CCM 2115T(DQ207731) Pseudomonas mohnii IpA-2T (AM293567) Pseudomonas jessenii CIP105274T(AF068259) 96| i—Pseudomonas koreensis Ps9-14T(AF468452) ■Pseudomonas reinekei MT1T (AM293565)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145T(X06684)

54— Rhizobium loessense CCBAU 7190B (AF364069)

971-Rhizobium gallicum R602spT (U86343)

-Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844T (U89817) -Rhizobium suiiae IS123T (Y10170) -Rhizobium etli CFN 4? (U28916)

-Rhizobium indigoferae CCBAU 7104? (AY034027) 92 I-Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T (U89832)

-Rhizobium hainanense I66T (U71078) Rhizobium huautlense SO2T (AF025852)

■Rhizobium galegae ATCC 4367^ (D11343)

95 |-Rhizobium undicola LMG11875T (Y17047)

'-Rhizobium larrymoorei AF3-10T (Z30542)

Rhizobium giardinii H152T (U86344)

76 |-ACO-34A (KM349967 )

-Rhizobium daejeonense R2-60 (JQ659582)

Rhizobium daejeonense NBRC 102494 (AB681831) Rhizobium daejeonense L61T (AY341343)

Fig. 1 - Neighbour-joining phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. (A) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain ACO-40 (1381 bp), (B) Pseudomonas mosselii strain ACO-140 (1387 bp) and (C) Rhizobium daejeonense strain ACO-34A (1333 bp). Only bootstrap values > 50% are shown. Type strains are indicated by the superscript T. The accession numbers for the sequences are indicated within the parentheses. Those generated in this work are shown in bold.


341 four strains had the capacity to solubilize phosphate after

342 2-4 days of incubation. Strain AC0-140 exhibited the high-

343 est phosphate solubilizing activity (37.8mgL-1), followed by

344 strain AC0-40 (29.8mgL-1) and strain AC0-34A (24.7mgL-1)

345 (Table 2). The pH value of the culture medium decreased from

an initial pH of 6.8 to 4.5 as bacterial growth progressed, 346

suggesting that the bacteria might secrete organic acids to 347

solubilize the insoluble phosphorus. 348

Recently, endophytic bacteria belonging to the genera 349 Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas with a capacity for 350

Table 2 - Phosphate solubilization, IAA production, and acetylene reduction activity (ARA) in the PGPB strains isolated from Agave americana L.

Treatment IAA production (mgL-1) P-solubilization (mgL-1) ARAb nmol C2H4 per culture h-1

Pseudomonas mosselii 15.7 Aa 37.8 A 167.1 B


Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 8.5 C 29.8 B 106.1 B


Rhizobium daejeonense 10.3 B 24.7 B 627.4 A


Azospirillum brasilense 10.4 B 24.2 B 821.3 A

MSDc (p <0.05) 1.65 7.63 224.39

a Mean values of four replicates. Means followed by the same letter do not show any significant differences (p < 0.05). b ARA, acetylene reduction assay (^mol C2H4 per culture fresh weighh-1). c MSD, minimum significant difference.


BJM 871-10

Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx

Table 3 - Growth parameters for Agave americana plants inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria.

Treatment Plant dry weight (g) Stem diameter (cm) Number of leaves Root length (cm)

Pseudomonas mosselii 2.44 B* 0.48 A 3.0 A 11.3 CD


Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 1.23 D 0.27 CD 2.7 AB 11.3 CD


Rhizobium daejeonense 3.41 A 0.37 B 4.0 A 26.6 A


Azospirillum brasilense Cd 1.65 C 0.34 BC 1.5 BC 16.2 B

KNO3-N 1.07 D 0.23 D 1.5 BC 14.3 BC

Uninoculated 0.76 E 0.18 D 1.2 C 9.8 D

MSD? (p <0.05) 0.2975 0.0994 1.4510 3.1339

* Mean values of four replicates. Means followed by the same letter do not show a sig ® MSD, minimum significant difference. nificant difference (p < 0.05).

351 nitrogen fixation, auxin production and phosphate solubi-

352 lization were isolated from blue agave plants (A. tequilana)

353 from Nayarit, Mexico.7 Pseudomonas putida M5TSA, isolated

354 from an endemic cactus Mammillaria fraileana that grows

355 in the Sonoran Desert, solubilized inorganic phosphate and

356 demonstrated rock-weathering capacity.47 These pseudomon-

357 ads are characterizedbybiochemicalmechanisms and specific

358 enzymes that facilitate rock degradation, as well as the biosyn-

359 thesis of important secondary metabolites, under varied biotic

360 and abiotic stress conditions.48

361 Inoculation of plants with PGPB enhances the assimilation

362 of essential nutrients and plant-associated biological nitrogen

363 fixation.13,49 In this study, nitrogenase activity was assessed

364 with the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to determine the

365 ability of PGPB to fix nitrogen. A. brasilense Cd and R. daejeonense

366 AC0-34A strains showed maximum nitrogenase activity (821.3

367 and 627.4nmol C2H per cultureh-1, respectively) compared

368 to the other strains evaluated (Table 2). Thus, the three strains

369 showed the potential to produce IAA and solubilize phosphate,

370 as well as nitrogen-fixation capacity. These results are impor-

371 tant because nitrogen and phosphorus are key elements for

372 the growth and metabolism of agave plants.

373 Furthermore, inoculation with PGPB had a positive effect

374 on the growth of A. americana plants (Table 3). A. calcoaceticus

375 strain AC0-40, P. mosselii strain AC0-140, and R. daejeonense

376 strain AC0-34A all had positive effects on the plant dry weight,

377 stem diameter, number of leaves, and root length compared

378 to uninoculated control plants and to those with added KN03.

379 0n average, plants inoculated with R. daejeonense strain AC0-

380 34A weighed 2.65 g more than uninoculated plants at 90 days

381 post inoculation. The stem diameter of plants inoculated with

382 P. mosselii strain AC0-140 differed significantly (p <0.05) from

383 that obtained in the other treatments. Plants treated with the

384 PGPB strains AC0-40, AC0-140, and AC0-34Aexperienced sim-

385 ilar effects for the number of leaves compared to uninoculated

386 plants according to analysis by Tukey's test (p <0.05). Plants

387 inoculated with strain AC0-34A showed a significantly higher

388 root length compared to other treatments (p <0.05). Bashan

389 et al.,50 reported that the inoculation of pachycereid cacti

390 species (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi and Lopho-

391 cereus schottii) enhanced the establishment and development

392 of the cacti that were inoculated with A. brasilense and trans-

393 planted into a disturbed urban desert soil. Puente et al.,51

demonstrated that an association between the giant cardon 394

cactus P. pringlei and endophytic bacteria helped the seedlings 395

become established and grow in a soilless environment. It has 396

also been reported that Enterobacter sakazakii M2PFe, Azoto- 397

bacter vinelandii M2Per and P. putida M5TSA, isolated from the 398

rock-dwelling cactus M. fraileana, affected plant growth and 399

the mobilization of elements from rocks.52 In this study, simi- 400

lar results were found for R. daejeonense strain AC0-34A, which 401

significantly influenced A. americana growth, demonstrating 402

its potential as a PGPB due to its capacity for nitrogen fixation, 403

phosphate solubilization, and IAA biosynthesis. PGBP strains 404

such as A. brasilense and R. daejeonense are biological models 405

that may potentially contribute to the revegetation of eroded 406

soil. Similar results concerning the occurrence and diversity 407

of diazotrophic bacteria in rhizosphere soil and in root and 408

leaf tissues of Agave sisalana plants have been reported by 409

Santos et al.,53 as well as a test of their potential for plant 410

growth promotion. Therefore, PGPB strains investigated in this 411

study could be alternative A. americana inoculants that would 412

improve its growth and development. 413

The sugar content in the leaves, stems, and plant roots was 414

measured with a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Thin 415

layer chromatography (Fig. 2) showed that fructan synthesis 416

was different in different plant tissues and that bacterial inoc- 417

ulation influenced the degree of polymerization (PD) of the 418

fructans. Fructose and sucrose were detected in the leaves, 419

stems, and roots of A. americana plantlets inoculated with 420

the four bacteria. However, kestose was detected in A. amer- 421

icana plantlets inoculated with all of the bacterial strains, 422

except in plantlets inoculated with A. calcoaceticus strain AC0- 423

40 (Fig. 2B). Spots corresponding to sucrose were detected with 424

greater intensity in the leaves and the stems compared to roots 425

(Fig. 2B and C). Nystose and other spots corresponding to fruc- 426

tans with PD>4 were detected in the stems of A. americana 427

plantlets inoculated with P. mosselii strain AC0-140 (Fig. 2A). 428

Kestose was only detected in plants inoculated with P. mos- 429

selii. This result may indicate that the induction of kestose 430

and nystose biosynthesis is specific and depends on the inocu- 431

lated microbial species. Therefore, this phenomenon requires 432

further investigation. 433

In addition, the inulin concentration varied from 0.23 434

to 1.09 mgg-1 in the leaves and was higher in plantlets 435

inoculated with R. daejeonense strain AC0-34A (Table 4). 436


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2016)xxx-xxx 7

mM ♦

mM ♦


Kestosi Nystosi



seudomonas mosselii ACO-140^-


—f— Stem

Fructose Sucrose

Kestose Nystose

mM ♦

Fructose Sucrose

Kestos Nystos

mM ♦

'flcinetobacter calcoaceticus ACO-4^-

mM ♦

f ♦ »


» « 4»

'Rhizobium daejeonense ACO-34A •



Azospirillum brasilense C

Fructose Sucrose

Kestose Nystose

Fig. 2 - Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of fructan exohydrolase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FF1) enzymatic activity in extracts from leaves, stems, and root tissue of in vitro-cultured Agave americana plantlets inoculated with (A) Pseudomonas mosselli strain ACO-140, (B) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain ACO-40, (C) Rhizobium daejeonense strain ACO-34A, and (D) Azospirillum brasilense Cd. The markers represent the mobility of fructose, sucrose, kestose, and nystose.

437 Nevertheless, Tukey's test showed that the inulin concentra-

438 tion was not significantly different between the uninoculated

439 plants and KNO3 fertilized plants. This demonstrates the bio-

440 logical potential of the agave species to biosynthesize various

441 types of metabolites such as sugars despite unfavourable

442 growth conditions.54 In the roots, the uninoculated plants had

443 a greater inulin concentration than the plants inoculated with

444 the various PGPB.

445 Significant differences (p <0.05) in the sucrose content of

446 A. americana leaves were observed among treatments. Plants

447 inoculated with the PGPB strains had a greater sucrose con-

448 centration than the uninoculated plants and those treated

449 with KNO3. In the plant roots, no significant difference was

450 observed among treatments for sucrose concentration.

451 Similarly, the concentration of glucose and fructose in the

452 leaves was higher in plants treated with the R. daejeonense

strain AC0-34A and P. mosselii strain AC0-140, indicated by 453

Tukey's test (p <0.05). The glucose concentration in the roots 454

was significantly higher in plants inoculated with the R. dae- 455

jeonense strain AC0-34A, and the fructose concentration was 456

higher in plants inoculated with the A. calcoaceticus strain 457

AC0-40 compared to the rest of the treatments. These results 458

indicate that fructan synthesis is different in different tissues, 459

and with respect to the inoculated bacteria (Fig. 2). The sugar 460

content in agave plants was different amounts for plants of 461

different physiological ages.55 Cedeno11 reported that young 462

A. tequilana plants had higher levels of free monosaccharides 463

(glucose, fructose), than adult plants that accumulated fructan 464

from 8 to 12 years. The evaluation of sucrose, fructose and glu- 465

cose is important because Trevisan et al.56 reported that these 466

sugars act on the metabolism of fructans, such as kestose 467

and nystose. The concentration of fructose and glucose in the 468

JM 871-10


Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2 016) xxx-xxx

Table 4 - Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria on sugar accumulation in leaves and roots of Agave americana L.

Treatment Inulin Sucrose Glucose Fructose Inulin Sucrose Glucose Fructose

(mgg~ _1) Leaves (mg ;g-1) Root

Pseudomonas mosselii 0.99 A' 1.04 AB 1.97 A 0.561 A 0.35 D 0.17 A 0.02 D 0.031 B


Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 0.23 C 1.50 A 0.78 BC 0.054 C 0.84 B 0.16 A 0.19 B 0.040 A


Rhizobium daejeonense 1.09 A 1.59 A 1.43 A 0.856 A 0.76 BC 0.23 A 0.35 A 0.033 B


Azospirillum brasilense Cd KNO3-N 0.28 B 0.77 BC 0.91 BC 0.217 BC 0.43 E 0.15 A 0.08 C 0.032 B

0.44 AB 0.68 BC 0.63 C 0.131 BC 0.28 E 0.14 A 0.03 D 0.033 B

Uninoculated 0.63 AB 0.75 BC 0.84 BC 0.140 BC 0.93 A 0.27 A 0.08 C 0.012 C

MSD£ (p <0.05) 0.740 0.726 0.628 0.318 0.022 0.146 0.108 0.045

* Mean values of four replicates. Means followed by the £ MSD, minimum significant difference. same letter do not show significant difference (p <0.05).

stems results from the active hydrolysis of fructans by fruc-tanexohydrolase. Sucrose is biosynthesized via crassulacean acid metabolism in A. americana plants. This disaccharide is a precursor to the synthesis of fructans and is hydrolysed by the action of vacuolar invertase, generating glucose and fructose.57,58 The 1-FFT enzyme subsequently converts the fructose moiety to 1-kestose, which is synthesized by the 1-SST enzyme, causing glucose to be released.59 1-kestose is the precursor of all fructans.33 Detection of neo-kestose indicated 6G-FFT enzyme activity.60,61 Fructans with degrees of polymerization DP >4 that were found in stem samples from plantlets inoculated with the P. mosselii strain ACO-140 could be the result of microbial fructosyltransferase activity involved in microbial fructan levan, inulin, or fructo-oligosaccharide biosynthesis.

It is also worth noting that the concentration of inulin and other sugars was increased in plantlets inoculated with the R. daejeonense strain ACO-34A and P. mosselii strain ACO-140 primarily in the leaves but not in the roots (Table 4). In another study, bacterial endophytes isolated from A. tequilana leaves showed the capacity for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, and phosphate solubilization and also increased inulin production.7


The R. daejeonense strain ACO-34A, A. calcoaceticus strain ACO-40, and P. mosselii strain ACO-140 showed potential as PGPB due to their phenotypic characteristics as well as their capacity for nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and IAA biosynthesis. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the use of these bacteria for commercial application in A. americana culture to improve its growth and development and, most importantly, to increase its fructan and inulin contents.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


We thank the Laboratory of Ecology Genomics (CCG-UNAM) 501

for their technical assistance. The project was funded by 502 Tecnológico Nacional de México (TNM, Mexico) (5665.15-P and Q3 503

5663.15-P) from the project 'Infraestructura 251805' from the 504

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT, Mexico). 505

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, 506

in the online version, at doi:10.1016/j.bjm.2016.04.010. 507


1. Bashan Y, Holguin G, de-Bashan LE. Azospirillum-plant 510 relationships: physiological, molecular, agricultural, and 511 environmental advances (1997-2003). Can J Microbiol. 512 2004;50:521-577, 513

2. Bashan Y, de-Bashan LE. Bacteria/Plant Growth-Promotion. 514 In: Hillel D, editor. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment. 515 vol. 1. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2005:103-115. 516

3. Lugtenberg BJJ, Kamilova F. Plant-growth-promoting 517 rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:541-556. 518

4. Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT. Plant growth 519 promoting bacteria: applications and perspectives in 520 agriculture. Adv Agron. 2003;81:97-168. 521

5. Kumari S, Vaishnav A, Jain S, Varma A, Choudhary DK. 522 Bacterial-mediated induction of systemic tolerance to 523 salinity with expression of stress alleviating enzymes in 524 Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). J Plant Growth Regul. 525 2015;34:558-573. 526

6. Verma JP, Yadav I, Tiwari KN, Jaiswal DK. Evaluation of plant 527 growth promoting activities of microbial strains and their 528 effect on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in 529 India. Soil Biol Biochem. 2014;70:33-37. 530

7. Martinez-Rodriguez JD, De la Mora-Amutio M, 531 Plascencia-Correa LA, et al. Cultivable endophytic bacteria 532 from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant 533 growth promoters. Braz J Microbiol. 2014;45:1333-1339. 534


BJM 871-10

Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (201 б)xxx-xxx

535 8. Ahumada-Santos YP, Montes-Avila J, Uribe MD, et al.

536 Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antibacterial

537 activities of six Agave species from Sinaloa, Mexico. Ind Crop

538 Prod. 2013;49:143-149.

539 9. García-Mendoza AJ. Distribution of the genus Agave

540 (Agavaceae) and its endemic species in Mexico. Cact Succ J.

541 2002;74:177-187.

542 10. Delgado-Lemus A, Torres I, Blancas J, Casas A. Vulnerability

543 and risk management of Agave species in the Tehuacán

544 Valley, México. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:1-15.

545 11. Cedeño MC. Tequila production. Crit Rev Biotechnol.

546 1995;15:1-11.

547 12. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK. Plant growth-promoting bacteria

548 (PGPB): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol.

549 2013;28:1327-1350.

550 13. Bashan Y, de-Bashan LE, Prabhu SR, Hernandez JP. Advances

551 in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology:

552 formulations and practical perspectives (1998-2013). Plant

553 Soil. 2014;378:1-33.

554 14. Desgarennes D, Garrido E, Torres-Gomez MJ, Pena-Cabriales

555 JJ, Partida-Martinez LP. Diazotrophic potential among

556 bacterial communities associated with wild and cultivated

557 Agave species. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2014;90:844-857.

558 1 5. Vincent JM. A Manual for the Practical Study of Root Nodule

559 Bacteria. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific; 1970:176-189.

560 16. Toledo I, Lloret L, Martínez-Romero E. Sinorhizobium

561 americanum sp. nov., a new Sinorhizobium species nodulating

562 native Acacia spp. in Mexico. Syst Appl Microbiol.

563 2003;26:54-64.

564 1 7. Martínez-Romero E, Segovia L, Mercante FM, Franco AA,

565 Graham P, Pardo MA. Rhizobium tropici, a novel species

566 nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans and Leucaena sp. trees.

567 Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991;41:417-426.

568 1 8. Zhang X, Harper R, Karsisto M, Lindström K. Diversity of

569 Rhizobium bacteria isolated from the root nodules of

570 leguminous trees. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991;41:104-113.

571 19. Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ. 16S ribosomal

572 amplication for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol.

573 1991;73:697-703.

574 20. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. Basic

575 local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990;215:403-410.

576 21. Larkin MA, Black-Shields G, Brown NP, et al. Clustal W and

577 Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics. 2007;23:2947-2948.

578 22. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar

579 S. MEGA 5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using

580 maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum

581 parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2731-2739.

582 23. Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: a new

583 method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol.

584 1987;4:406-425.

585 24. Tamura K, Nei M. Estimation of the number of nucleotide

586 substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in

587 humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:

588 512-526.

589 25. Zakharova EA, Shcherbakov AA, Brudnik VV, Skripko NG,

590 Bulkhin NS, Ignatov VV. Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid

591 in Azospirillum brasilense Insights from quantum chemistry.

592 Eur J Biochem. 1999;259:572-576.

593 26. Nautiyal CS. An efficient microbiological growth medium for

594 screening phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. FEMS

595 Microbiol Lett. 1999;170:265-270.

596 27. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. A colorimetric determination of

597 phosphorus. J Biol Chem. 1925;66:375-400.

598 28. Burris RH. Nitrogen fixation assay - methods and

599 techniques. Methods Enzymol. 1972;24:415-431.

600 29. Döbereiner J, Marriel I, Nery M. Ecological distribution of

601 Spirillum lipoferum Beijerinck. Can J Microbiol.

602 1976;22:1464-1473.

30. Ruíz-Valdiviezo VM, Ventura-Canseco LMC, Castillo Suárez 603 LA, Gutiérrez-Miceli FA, Dendooven L, Rincón-Rosales R. 604 Symbiotic potential and survival of native rhizobia kept on 605 different carriers. Braz J Microbiol. 2015;46:735-742. 606

31. Fahraeus G. The infection of clover root hair by nodule 607 bacteria studied by a single glass slide technique. J Gen 608 Microbiol. 1957;16:374-381. 609

32. Bashan Y. Significance of timing and level of inoculation 610 with rhizosphere bacteria on wheat plants. Soil Biol Biochem. 611 1986;18:297-301. 612

33. Vizcaíno-Rodríguez LA, Rodríguez-Mendiola MA, 613 Mancilla-Margalli NA, Ávila-Miranda ME, Osuna-Castro JA, 614 Arias-Castro C. Biosíntesis in vitro de oligofructanos: inulinas 615 y neoinulinas por fructosiltransferasas de Agave tequilana 616 Weber var. Azul y A. inaequidens subsp. Inaequidens Koch. 617 Gayana Bot. 2012;69:66-74. 618

34. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Version 6.0. 4th ed. 619 Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.; 1989:3471-3487. 620

35. Sanchez AC, Gutierrez RT, Santana RC, Urrutia AR, Michiels J, 621 Vanderleyden J. Effects of co-inoculation of native Rhizobium 622 and Pseudomonas strains on growth parameters and yield of 623 two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes under Cuban 624 soil conditions. Eur J Soil Biol. 2014;62:105-112. 625

36. Zhe-Xue Q, Hee-Sung B, Jong-Hwan B, Wen-Feng C, 626 Wan-Taek I, Sung-Taik L. Rhizobium daejeonense sp. nov. 627 isolated from a cyanide treatment bioreactor. Int J Syst Evol 628 Microbiol. 2005;55:2543-2549. 629

37. Mulet M, Gomila M, Lemaitre B, Lalucat J, García-Valdés E. 630 Taxonomic characterisation of Pseudomonas strain L48 and 631 formal proposal of Pseudomonas entomophila sp. nov. Syst Appl 632 Microbiol. 2012;35:145-149. 633

38. Rincón-Rosales R, Villalobos-Escobedo JM, Rogel MA, 634 Martínez J, Ormeño-Orrillo E, Martínez-Romero E. Rhizobium 635 calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and 636 Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the 637 medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora. Int J Syst Evol 638 Microbiol. 2013;63:3423-3429. 639

39. Bacilio M, Rodriguez H, Moreno M, Hernandez JP, Bashan Y. 640 Mitigation of salt stress in wheat seedlings by a gfp-tagged 641 Azospirillum lipoferum. Biol Fertil Soils. 2004;40:188-193. 642

40. Puente ME, Holguin G, Glick BR, Bashan Y. Root surface 643 colonization of black mangrove seedlings by Azospirillum 644 halopraeferens and Azospirillum brasilense in seawater. FEMS 645 Microbiol Ecol. 1999;29:283-292. 646

41. Bacilio M, Mendoza A, Bashan Y. Endophytic bacteria of the 647 rock-dwelling cactus Mammillaria fraileana affect plant 648 growth and mobilization of elements from rocks. Environ Exp 649 Bot. 2012;81:26-36. 650

42. Chang P, Gerhardt KE, Huang XD, et al. Plant 651 growth-promoting bacteria facilitate the growth of barley 652 and oats in salt-impacted soil: implications for 653 phytoremediation of saline soils. Int J Phytoremediation. 654 2014;16:1133-1147. 655

43. Appanna VD, Hamel RD, Lévasseur R. The metabolism of 656 aluminum citrate and biosynthesis of oxalic acid in 657 Pseudomonas fluorescens. Curr Microbiol. 2003;47:32-39. 658

44. Roy N, Chakrabartty PK. Effect of aluminum on the 659 production of siderophore by Rhizobium sp. (Cicer arietinum). 660 Curr Microbiol. 2000;41:5-10. 661

45. Beneduzi A, Ambrosini A, Passaglia LMP. Plant 662 Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB): their potential as 663 antagonists and biocontrol agents. Genet Mol Biol. 664 2012;35:1044-1051. 665

46. Dabboussi F, Hamze M, Singer E, Geoffroy V, Meyer JM, Izard 666 D. Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., a novel species isolated from 667 clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002;52:363-376. 668

47. Lopez BR, Bashan Y, Bacilio M. Endophytic bacteria of 669 Mammillaria fraileana, an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of 670


JM 871-10

Brazilian journal of microbiology xxx (2016)xxx-xxx

671 the southern Sonoran Desert. Arch Microbiol.

672 2011;193:527-541.

673 48. Ali SZ, Sandhya V, Rao VL. Isolation and characterization of

674 drought-tolerant ACC deaminase and

675 exopolysaccharide-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas sp.

676 Ann Microbiol. 2014;64:493-502.

677 49. Calvo P, Nelson L, Kloepper JW. Agricultural uses of plant

678 biostimulants. Plant Soil. 2014;383:3-41.

679 50. Bashan Y, Rojas A, Puente ME. Improved establishment and

680 development of three cacti species inoculated with

681 Azospirillum brasilense transplanted into disturbed urban

682 desert soil. Can J Microbiol. 1999;45:441-451.

683 51. Puente ME, Li CY, Bashan Y. Endophytic bacteria in cacti

684 seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings.

685 Environ Exp Bot. 2009;66:402-408.

686 52. Lopez BR, Tinoco-Ojanguren C, Bacilio M, Mendoza A,

687 Bashan Y. Endophytic bacteria of the rock-dwelling cactus

688 Mammillaria fraileana affect plant growth and mobilization of

689 elements from rocks. Environ Exp Bot. 2012;81:

690 26-36.

691 53. Santos AFD, Martins CYS, Santos PO, et al. Diazotrophic

692 bacteria associated with sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine ex

693 Engelm): potential for plant growth promotion. Plant Soil.

694 2014;385:37-48.

695 54. Gobeille A, Yavitt J, Stalcup P, Valenzuela A. Effects of soil

696 management practices on soil fertility measurements on

697 Agave tequilana plantations in Western Central Mexico. Soil Tillage Res. 2006;87:80-88.

55. Arrizon J, Morel S, Gschaedler A, Monsan P. Comparison of 698 the water-soluble carbohydrate composition and fructan 699 structures of Agave tequilana plants of different ages. Food 700 Chem. 2010;122:123-130. 701

56. Trevisan F, Oliveira VF, Carvalho MAM, Gaspar M. Effects of 702 different carbohydrate sources on fructan metabolism in 703 plants of Chrysolaena obovata grown in vitro. Front Plant Sci. 704 2015;6:681, 705

57. Vargas WA, Pontis HG, Salerno GL. Differential expression of 706 alkaline and neutral invertases in response to 707 environmental stresses: characterization of alkaline isoform 708 as stress leaves. Planta. 2007;226:1535-1545. 709

58. Chen TH, Huang YC, Yang CS, Yang CC, Wang AY, Sung HY. 710 Insights in to the catalytic properties of bamboo vacuolar 711 invertase through mutational analysis of active site residues. 712 Phytochemistry. 2009;70:25-31. 713

59. Lüscher M, Hochstrasser U, Boller T, Wiemken A. Isolation of 714 sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) from barley 715 (Hordeum vulgare). New Phytol. 2000;145:225-232. 716

60. Fujishima M, Sakai H, Ueno K, et al. Purification and 717 characterization of a fructosyltransferase from onion bulbs 718 and its key role in the synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides in 719 vivo. New Phytol. 2005;165:513-524. 720

61. Ueno K, Onodera S, Kawakami A, Yoshida M, Shiomi N. 721 Molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA 722 encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase from 723 asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). New Phytol. 724 2005;165:813-824. 725