Scholarly article on topic 'Optimization of the New Generation Multichannel Cyclone Cleaning Efficiency'

Optimization of the New Generation Multichannel Cyclone Cleaning Efficiency Academic research paper on "Chemical engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Chemical engineering, author of scientific article — Pranas Baltrenas, Mantas Pranskevicius, Albertas Venslovas

Abstract Cyclone Dust Separators are devices often used to filter solid particles from flue gas. Such cyclones are supposed to filter as much particulate matter from the gaseous stream as possible. At the same time, they should only introduce minimal pressure loss to the system. Hence, collection efficiency has to be maximized and pressure loss minimized. Both the collection efficiency and pressure loss are heavily influenced by cyclone geometry. In this paper, we optimize inner geometrical construction of multichannel cyclone to up cleaning efficiency parameter. This study shows how geometry involves cleaning efficiency. At air flow rates from 12 m/s to 18 m/s after researches the optimal cleaning efficiency achieved in the three level cyclone at 16 m/s average air flow rate in cyclone channels, when the treated air is polluted with 20μm size granite particles and flow distribution ratio is 75/25. For low density particles (wood ash) for the 20μm diameter top efficiency established in 6-channel cyclone at the 16 m/s air flow rate in the channels and flow distribution ratio 75/25.

Academic research paper on topic "Optimization of the New Generation Multichannel Cyclone Cleaning Efficiency"

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Energy Procedía 72 (2015) 188 - 195

International Scientific Conference "Environmental and Climate Technologies - CONECT 2014"

Optimization of the new generation multichannel cyclone cleaning

efficiency

Pranas Baltrenas*, Mantas Pranskevicius, Albertas Venslovas

Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Environmental Protection Institute, Sauletekio Ave 11, 2503, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania

Abstract

Cyclone Dust Separators are devices often used to filter solid particles from flue gas. Such cyclones are supposed to filter as much particulate matter from the gaseous stream as possible. At the same time, they should only introduce minimal pressure loss to the system. Hence, collection efficiency has to be maximized and pressure loss minimized. Both the collection efficiency and pressure loss are heavily influenced by cyclone geometry. In this paper, we optimize inner geometrical construction of multichannel cyclone to up cleaning efficiency parameter. This study shows how geometry involves cleaning efficiency. At air flow rates from 12 m/s to 18 m/s after researches the optimal cleaning efficiency achieved in the three level cyclone at 16 m/s average air flow rate in cyclone channels, when the treated air is polluted with 20 ^m size granite particles and flow distribution ratio is 75/25. For low density particles (wood ash) for the 20 ^m diameter top efficiency established in 6-channel cyclone at the 16 m/s air flow rate in the channels and flow distribution ratio 75/25.

© 2015Publishedby ElsevierLtd. Thisisan openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment Keywords: Air cleaning; cyclone optimization; cyclone efficioncy; particulate matter

1. Air pollution management by means of cyclones

Cyclones are incomparable leaders among other air cleaning equipment used to remove particulate matter (hereinafter PM) from contaminated air streams. Cyclones are relatively inexpensive to construct, have a rather simple design, and are easy to maintain. Cyclone separators will remain competitive in the market of air cleaning

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: pranas.baltrenas@vgtu.lt

1876-6102 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment doi : 10. 1016/j .egypro .2015.06.027

devices for a long time due to their relatively simple design, absence of moving parts and filtering surfaces that require regular service, comparatively low wind resistance, and high efficiency [1-2].

The main weakness in the performance of standard cyclone separators is insufficient removal of PM from the gaseous stream, especially particles smaller than 10 pm in diameter. However, there are high efficiency cyclones designed to be effective for particles less than or equal to 10 pm [3-7].

Cyclones have no moving parts and come in a variety of forms. Particles are separated from the gas stream by means of inertial force. Since the inertial force is created by rotating gas flow, the inertial force is often referred to as centrifugal force. Each particle in the separation process is affected by three forces: gravitational, centrifugal and frictional [8].

Major factors determining the efficiency of cyclone performance are particle size and density, the flow rate of gas in the cyclone, cyclone diameter and gas residence time in the cyclone. Since the particulate matter is separated from the gas flow by inertial force, the cleaning efficiency increases with bigger particle size and higher particle density as well as higher flow rate of gas in the cyclone. Centrifugal forces increase when cyclone diameter is smaller; therefore cyclones which are more narrow are more efficient than wider cyclones. Gas residence time is longer in cyclones, the cylindrical and conical parts of which are longer than cyclone diameter and therefore the cleaning efficiency of such cyclones is higher [9-10].

New generation cyclones presented in the database of patents differ by their application and effectiveness; however they all have a common feature of operation, namely a vortex flow. In 2005 German scientists in Stuttgart Scientific Centre designed an axial cyclone for internal combustion engines of vehicles. In 2007 Bologna Research Group (Italy) designed an axial cyclone with replaceable internal layout to separate contaminant microparticles from a gaseous stream [11-12].

Cleaning equipment with a closed-loop, for instance cyclones, also have a simple design, are easy to manufacture and assemble (Fig. 1). They are reliable, universal and cost-efficient. Their modules, in contrast to a number of cyclones operating in parallel, ensure high treatment effectiveness without undermining performance efficiency. Curved channels that create closed-loop systems are the basis of such equipment.

Dust-polluted gaseous stream is filtered through a few layers of ash and dust that circulate in closed loops. The combination of dust-polluted stream filtering and centrifugal cleaning is a new trend in inertial and gas treatment filters [14].

Closed loops of cylindrical shape in such new generation cyclones have different diameters and are located at the angle They are made of two cylinders of different diameter. Each pair of adjacent channels makes a closed loop. The number of channels depends on the number of cylinders in the device [13].

Closed loops connect channel outlets and inlets at the same level as the systems of other elements and as the entire system. Closed loops act as control mechanism of the connection created by distributed semi-cylinders, i.e. they stabilize the system. Spaces between semi-cylinders of different diameter can compensate the turbulence occurring in the channels. By changing these distances, it is possible to determine the optimal distribution of air streams without complicating the design of the equipment. Thus it is possible to effectively control such complicated processes as the movement of polluted air [13, 15]. The gaseous stream is divided into two parts at the outlet of each channel. The peripheral part of the circulating stream returns to the channel, while the main stream is directed to another channel. The air stream leaves the system through the central outlet. Particulate matter above the critical weight gets to channel 1 and is deposited in the hopper. Particulate matter below critical weight travels further with the air stream. Particulate matter of average weight is distributed in the channels of different diameters and circulates in closed loops [16-19].

When the particles moving in the system become smaller and lighter, they go to the higher number channel (from the cyclone wall to the centre) and are taken away with the air stream. When particle weight reduces as a result of coagulation, PM is carried to the lower number channel (from the centre to the cyclone wall). There they are mixed with a dusty air stream and deposit in the hopper. Both air cleaning opportunities are possible only in cases when PM remains in the system for a long time [20-21].

2. Methodology

Cyclones exist in different shapes but the reverse flow cyclone is the most common design in industry. The principle of cyclone separation is simple: the gas-solid mixture enters at the top section tangentially. The cylindrical body induces a spinning, vortex flow pattern to the gas-dust mixture. Centrifugal force separates the dust from the gas stream: the dust is moved to the walls of the cylinder and down the conical section to the dust outlet while the gas exits through the outlet pipe [22].

The experimental stand of new-generation cleaning device is constructed in the Institute of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU). The principal scheme of inner construction of multichannel (six-channel) cyclone is provided in Fig. 1. Two-phase airflow tangentially enters through the entrance hole and reaches the first cyclone channel, which is limited by the peripheral wall and first curvilinear half-ring. The two-phase air flow tangentially flows though inlet and enters first channel of cyclone that is restrained by peripheral wall and first curvilinear half-ring. The flow moving from the previous channel encounters half-ring wall and is distributed into two flows: peripheral and transitional. Part of the peripheral flow moves into repeated filtration in the cyclone; whereas, the transitional flow - into the following channel towards axis of the device and outlet of the cyclone. In this way the airflow is distributed evenly in channels with different curves and is filtered through the spaces between half-rings. The turbulent flow influences the activity of centrifugal forces, and additional filtration effect occurs in flow distribution zone. The overall effect of forces influences precipitation of particulate matter on the bottom of cyclone. The cleaned air which has gone through all six or eight channels of cyclone flows out of the system through the outlet. The dusty air is being filtrated in the active zone of channel spaces and in the result of particulate matter interaction when they coagulate.

Particulate matter of different dispersion was selected for the testing of air cleaning effectiveness in the new generation multichannel cyclone. The particulate matter contained particles with low (below 1000 kg/m3), average (1500 - 2500 kg/m3) and high (above 2500 kg/m3) densities.

Fig. 1. Multichannel cyclone inner construction principal scheme (a) and diagrams of flow distribution rates in a multichannel three-level

cyclone: 1 - curved semi-cylinders, quarter-cylinders (b).

Curved semi-cylinders on the cyclone level were placed in different positions: 50/50 - the flow coming from the channel is divided in curved semi-cylinders into peripheral (reciprocating) and transit (moving to the next channel) flows. Peripheral and transit flows make 50 % of the total incoming flow, i.e. flow distribution ratios are equal; in the case of 75/25 ratio the peripheral flow makes 75 % and the transit flow makes 25 % of the total flow incoming from the upstream channel; in the case of 25/75 ratio the peripheral flow makes 25 % and the transit flow makes 75 % of the total flow incoming from the upstream channel (Fig. 1).

6-channel and 8-channel three level cyclones were designed for the testing of air cleaning efficiency. Air flow rates of 17 m/s and 18 m/s were additionally used to determine the optimal cleaning efficiency parameters.

Particulate matter of wood ash with some of the lowest density (below or equal to 1000 kg/m3) and granite particular matter having the highest density (above 2500 kg/m3) were selected to determine the changes in air cleaning efficiency when the air flow is polluted with particles of different density.

Research goal: Determine the effect of new generation equipment design solutions, i.e. the number of cyclone levels and half-cylinders (quarter-cylinders), position, adjustment of half-cylinders and quarter-cylinders, change of air flow distribution ratios, the average air flow rate in the channel and particular matter of different origin as well as their dispersion, on the reduction of particle concentration in polluted air flow.

3. Analysis of the efficiency of different particulate matter polluted air treatment tests in three-level multichannel cyclone subject to the average air flow rate in cyclone channels

3.1. Treatment efficiency in the three-level 6-channel cyclone subject to the average airflow rate in the channels

Experimental tests with the three level 6-channel cyclone revealed the relation between the efficiency of cleaning the air polluted with different particles and the average rate in cyclone channels, when the ratio of peripheral and transit air flows is 50/50.

12 16 17

Average air flow rate in the channels, m/s

■ Granite particles from 0 ^m to 20 ^m ■ Granite particles from 0 ^m to 50 ^m

12 16 17

Average air flow rate in the channels, m/s

■ Wood ach particles from 0 ^m to 20 ^m Wood ach particles from 0 ^m to 50 ^m

Fig. 2. Relationship between the cleaning efficiency of granite particle (a) and wood ach particle (b) polluted air and the average flow rate in the channels of a three level 6-channel cyclone when the flow distribution ratio is 50/50.

In the case of peripheral and transit air flow ratio 50/50, the cleaning of the air polluted with granite particles is the most efficient in the flow separation zone when the air flow rate in cyclone channels is 16 m/s. The cleaning efficiency of the air polluted with 0 pm - 50 pm size granite particles at the average air flow rate of 12 m/s is approx. 5.2 % lower compared to the air cleaning efficiency at the air flow rate of 16 m/s.

The efficiency of granite particle separation is 94.8 % and 89.7 %, when the particle size is from 0 pm to 50 pm and less than 20 pm. At lower flow rates (12 m/s) in cyclone channels, the cleaning efficiency decreases and is 91.9 % and 86.7 % when the particle size is 50 pm and up to 20 pm, respectively (Fig. 2 a). At higher flow rates (up to 17 m/s) in cyclone channels the cleaning efficiency reduces by 1.5 % on average, compared to the cleaning efficiency at the air flow rate 16 m/s.

The test results showed that high flow rates (16 m/s) are the most effective for the cleaning of wood ash. The cleaning efficiency at the aforementioned air flow rate is 87.4 % when the particle size ranges from 0pm to 50 pm, and 79.5 % when the particle size is below 20 pm (Fig. 2 b). At the flow rate of 12 m/s, the cleaning efficiency decreases 5.7 % for particle size below 20 pm, and 7.9 % for particle size from 0 pm to 50 pm. The difference between the cleaning efficiency of particles of the tested sizes can be explained by the low specific weight of wood ash particles and the subsequent influence on the intensity of particle deposition. The cleaning efficiency reduced at the highest tested flow rate (17 m/s). The supposed cause may be increased turbulence preventing the appropriate depositing of particles that are removed together with the air flow.

In the case of fine particles, the cleaning efficiency at the average flow rate (12 m/s) is 1.8 % lower compared to the cleaning efficiency of particles from 0 pm to 50 pm. At high flow rates the difference in the cleaning efficiency increases 5.6 %. This difference can be influenced by filtration effect that occurs in the separation of fine particles. From the functions we may see that this process is more intensive at average flow rates and the difference between the cleaning efficiency of different size particles becomes insignificant. Flow rates above 16 m/s increase turbulence that prevents appropriate sedimentation of particles and they are carried away with the air flow.

Experimental tests with three level 6-channel cyclone, where peripheral and transit air flow distribution ratios are 75/25, revealed the relation between the cleaning efficiency of air polluted with different particles and the average flow rate in cyclone channels.

The relationship between the cleaning efficiency and the change of average air flow in cyclone channels was determined in the analysis of the air flow polluted with granite particles in three level 6-channel cyclone with prevailing peripheral air flow.

The highest 95.1 % efficiency of the separation of granite particles of the size ranging from 0 pm to 50 pm from the air flow when the flow distribution ratio is 75/25, was observed at the average flow rate 16 m/s. The trend of increasing cleaning efficiency subject to the average air flow rate in the channels was observed. When the air flow rate was increased from 12 m/s to 16 m/s, the cleaning efficiency increased 4.6 % and reached 90.5 % at 12 m/s air flow rate in the channels. When the air flow rate was increased to 17 m/s, the cleaning efficiency reduced by approx. 1.5 % compared to the cleaning efficiency at 16 m/s flow rate.

Experimental tests of the air flow polluted with fine granite particles up to 20 pm in diameter revealed that the biggest efficiency of 92.8 % is achieved at the highest 16 m/s flow rate in the channel. The change in cleaning efficiencies of the air polluted with different fractions of particles changes insignificantly with the change of the average air flow rate in cyclone channels and becomes almost the same at higher flow rates.

The highest 84.2 % cleaning efficiency of the air polluted with wood ash particles from 0 pm to 50 pm in size at air flow distribution ratio 75/25 was observed when the air flow rate in cyclone channels was 16 m/s.

The cleaning efficiency increased with higher average air flow rate in cyclone channels. At 12 m/s air flow rate, the cleaning efficiency of air polluted with wood ash was only 79.8 %. Fine particles that are smaller than 20 pm in diameter, are removed from the air flow not so effectively as bigger 0 pm- 50 pm particles of the same particulate matter. The biggest difference of 2.5 % was observed at the highest 16 m/s flow rate in the channels. This difference slightly decreases with lower speeds

The cleaning efficiency of air with different size PM does not change significantly with different air flow rates in cyclone channels and becomes almost the same at higher flow rates. Therefore it is possible to presume that turbulent flows develop at high flow rates and bigger particles are moved to the peripheral wall by centrifugal force.

This phenomenon explains the benefits of prevailing peripheral flow (flow distribution ratio 75/25) and the possibility of using this design case for effective cleaning of flows polluted with high density PM. The cleaning

efficiency reduces at the highest of the tested speeds (17 m/s). The presumable cause may be increased turbulence that prevents appropriate deposition of particles, which are carried away with the air flow.

3.2. Three level 8-channel cyclone cleaning efficiency subject to the average airflow rate in the channels

Experimental tests of air cleaning efficiency by means of three level multichannel cyclone with curved half-cylinders at peripheral and transit air flow distribution ratio 50/50 were made.

The obtained cleaning efficiency results show that the cleaning efficiency of 0 p.m to 50 pm size high density granite PM at high flow rates in cyclone channels (16 m/s) is 94.6 %. In case of lower flow rates when the average air flow rate in cyclone channels is 12 m/s, the cleaning efficiency reduces 6.1 % to 88.5 %. In the case of small particle size (0 pm to 20 p.m) the highest efficiency of 91.1 % is obtained also at the average air flow rate of 16 m/s. At 17 m/s flow rate, the cleaning efficiency reduces with PM of both sizes compared to the efficiency at 16 m/s flow rate.

The change in cleaning efficiency of the air polluted with fine particles with the change of flow rate from 16 m/s to 12 m/s is similar to the change in cleaning efficiency of the air polluted with coarse particles, namely from 91.1 % to 85.5 % (Fig. 3 a).

The cleaning effectiveness is related with the average air flow rate. The cleaning effectiveness increases 6.1 %, when the air flow rate in cyclone channels changes from 12 m/s to 16 m/s (particles from 0 p.m to 50 p.m); 5.6 % increase in the cleaning effectiveness is observed in the case of small particle pollution.

The experimental tests of cleaning the air polluted with wood ash particles of the size 0 p.m to 50 p.m and concentration measurement upstream and downstream the cyclone (inlet and outlet ducts) showed that the highest air cleaning efficiency 82.6 % is achieved in 8-channel cyclone with 50/50 air flow distribution and at 16 m/s air flow rate in the channels.

Fig. 3. Relationship between the total cleaning efficiency and average air flow rate in the channels of the three level 8 channel cyclone when the air is polluted with granite particles (a) and wood ach particle (b) the flow distribution rate is 50/50.

As seen from the values in Fig. 3 b, the cleaning efficiency increases with higher average flow rate in the cyclone, therefore at 12 m/s air flow rate the cleaning efficiency in separating wood ash particles is lower and reaches only 81 %.

The cleaning efficiency of particles less than 20 pm in size is poorer compared to bigger particles of the same type. The highest cleaning efficiency of 81.5 % was observed at 16 m/s air flow rate. It should be noted that in this case the difference between the separation efficiency of particle of different fractions is 1.1 %. Presumably, the effectiveness of small particle separation significantly increases at high speeds (16 m/s), and bigger size particles are also separated more efficiently. The said values are rather low compared to other values of polluted air cleaning efficiency. The tests of cleaning efficiency of granite particles with heavy specific weight showed that at 75/25 peripheral and transit air flow distribution rate the highest cleaning efficiency values are obtained at higher, namely 16 m/s, air flow rates in cyclone channels. In that case the cleaning efficiency of the air flow polluted with 0 pm - 50 pm size particles was 94.8 %, and in the case of fine particles up to 20 pm the cleaning efficiency was 90.8 %. However, at average flow rates of 12 m/s the cleaning efficiency was 92.1 %, i.e. 2.7 % lower. In the case of fine particles, the cleaning efficiency dropped 1.3 % from 90.8 % achieved at the air flow rate 16 m/s to 89.5 % recorded at the flow rate of 12 m/s. As in previously discussed cases, the cleaning efficiency reduces 0.9 % when the air flow rate in cyclone channels increases from 16 m/s to 17 m/s.

In summary of cleaning efficiency results in 8-channel cyclone, the highest efficiency is achieved in the cleaning of granite particles polluted air at 16 m/s air flow rate and 75/25 air distribution ratio.

Turbulent vortexes are formed in cyclone channels at 12-16 m/s flow rates, and centrifugal forces direct heavier particles towards the peripheral wall, whereas small size particles are filtered out at flow separation zone. This phenomenon explains the benefits of the prevalence of peripheral flow (flow distribution ratio 75/25) and proves that this design example can be used for effective cleaning of the stream polluted with high density particulate matter.

Air cleaning efficiency tests were made with the air flow polluted with wood ash in 8-channel cyclone at 75/25 flow distribution ratio. According to the obtained results we may see that, like in the case with granite particles, the most efficient cleaning (89.8 %) of air polluted with 0 pm- 50 pm size particles, takes place at high flow rates (16 m/s), whereas the cleaning efficiency of flow polluted with 20 pm particles is 84.9 %. Compared to pollution with granite particles of 0 pm- 50 pm size the cleaning efficiency is 5 % lower. When the air flow rate in cyclone channels is reduced to 12 m/s, the cleaning efficiency decreases 3 % (particle size 0 - 50 pm) to 86.8 %. The cleaning efficiency of air polluted with small size particles is 81.4 %, i.e. 3.5 % lower compared to the efficiency achieved at maximum flow rate. The test results lead to the conclusion that the air polluted with wood ash particles of 0 pm to 50 pm size is cleaned the most efficiently at 16 m/s air flow rate in the channels, and cleaning efficiently reduces at the flow rate of 12 m/s. In the case of fine particles the cleaning efficiency steadily increases with higher air flow rates in cyclone channels and the highest cleaning efficiency is reached at higher flow rates (16 m/s); the difference from the cleaning efficiency achieved at average flow rates is 2.9 %.

4. Conclusions

1. The highest air cleaning efficiency of 92.8 % is achieved in the three level cyclone at 16 m/s average air flow rate in cyclone channels when the treated air is polluted with 20 pm size granite particles, the 6-channel system is used and flow distribution ratio is 75/25. For particles of the size 0 pm - 50 pm the cleaning efficiency is 95.1 % at 16 m/s average air flow rate and peripheral/transit flow distribution rate 75/25.

2. Air cleaning efficiency in the analysed three level 6-channel cyclone increases with the increase of air flow rate in the channel from 12 m/s to 16 m/s. When the air flow rate increases from 16 m/s to 17 m/s, the cleaning efficiency reduced 1.2 % in average. The relationship between the flow rate and the cleaning efficiency of air polluted with up to 20 pm particles is best seen when the ratio of flow distribution is 50/50. The cleaning efficiency increase 5.2 % in average in the said range of flow rates. When the air is polluted with 0 pm - 50 pm particles, the biggest changes in cleaning efficiency are observed at the equal distribution of peripheral and transit flows 50/50; the average difference is 7.1 %.

3. The separation of low density particles (wood ash) in three level 6-channel cyclone is the most efficient at 16 m/s air flow rate in the channels. The air flow polluted with 0 - 50 pm particles is cleaned most efficiently at the

equal distribution of peripheral and transit flows 50/50; the achieved cleaning efficiency is 87.4 %. Low density small particles below 20 ^m are separated most effectively at the flow distribution ratio 75/25; the achieved cleaning efficiency is 82.7 %.

4. The optimal flow rate for the cleaning of the highest density particles, such as granite, in the three level 8-channel cyclone is 16 m/s. At 50/50 flow distribution ratio the air flow polluted with small-size particles is cleaned at 91.1 %. When the air flow is polluted with 0 to 50 ^m granite particles, the most optimal distribution of flows is 75/25; in such case 94.8 % cleaning efficiency is reached.

5. The most efficient separation of low density particles (wood ash) from the polluted air in three level 8-channel cyclone takes place when the average air flow rate in the channels is 16 m/s. The flow polluted with 0 - 50 p,m particles is cleaned most efficiently when the flow distribution ratio is 75/25; 89.8 % cleaning efficiency is reached. Low density small-size particles up to 20 p,m are separated more efficiently when the flow distribution ratio is 75/25; 84.9 % cleaning efficiency is reached.

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