Scholarly article on topic 'Fleet Management Cooperative Systems for Commercial Vehicles'

Fleet Management Cooperative Systems for Commercial Vehicles Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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{"Intelligent Transportation Systems for Commercial Vehicle Operations" / "the platoon" / "trip evaluation" / "mobile communication" / "Vehicular ad-hoc network."}

Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Maria Claudia Surugiu, Ion Nicolae Stancel

Abstract This paper addresses the development of a system that facilitates the formation of a road train by informing in real-time the drivers of commercial vehicles, especially trucks with cargo, with information about position-related data, the speed of a road train and the necessary conditions to become part of such a train. By collecting information from fleets of trucks, the communication interface between the vehicle and the fleet monitoring server will be extended. The server will receive data from the vehicles and after a specific processing stage, a extended map will be generated with real-time information collected from the cars in traffic. The optimal route generation algorithm will be also extended, by using data received in real time. The data collected by the fleet monitoring server will be provided through a communication protocol to the ITS traffic server.

Academic research paper on topic "Fleet Management Cooperative Systems for Commercial Vehicles"

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

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Procedía Technology 22 (2016) 984 - 990

Procedía

Technology

9th International Conference Interdisciplinarity in Engineering, INTER-ENG 2015, 8-9 October

2015, Tirgu-Mures, Romania

Fleet Management Cooperative Systems for Commercial Vehicles Maria Claudia Surugiua'*, Ion Nicolae Stancef

aUniversity Politehnica of Bucharest, Transport Faculty, Remote Control and Electronics in Transports Department, 313, Splaiul Independentei,

JE 008, RO 060042, Bucharest, Romania

Abstract

This paper addresses the development of a system that facilitates the formation of a road train by informing in real-time the drivers of commercial vehicles, especially trucks with cargo, with information about position-related data, the speed of a road train and the necessary conditions to become part of such a train. By collecting information from fleets of trucks, the communication interface between the vehicle and the fleet monitoring server will be extended. The server will receive data from the vehicles and after a specific processing stage, a extended map will be generated with real-time information collected from the cars in traffic. The optimal route generation algorithm will be also extended, by using data received in real time. The data collected by the fleet monitoring server will be provided through a communication protocol to the ITS traffic server. © 2016 The Authors.Published byElsevierLtd. Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the "Petru Maior" University of Tirgu Mures, Faculty of Engineering

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems for Commercial Vehicle Operations; the platoon; trip evaluation; mobile communication; Vehicular ad-hoc network.

1. Introduction

Operating systems for commercial vehicles (CVO) applies the features of traffic and travel management systems (TTMS) in the commercial vehicle sector. The services provided refer to automatic localization, classification and weigh-in vehicles to collect taxes. Also, the emissions produced by them can be monitored. All of this can be carried out while the vehicles are traveling on the highway [1]. Some of the most important aspects in the development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are those involving the realization of mobile communications between vehicles

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +4- 0788-388-173

E-mail address: claudia.surugiu@upb.ro

2212-0173 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the "Petru Maior" University of Tirgu Mures, Faculty of Engineering doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2016.01.122

(V2V) and between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle data processing on board. Commercial vehicle operation requires the individual identification of commercial vehicles. New technological solutions developed for transport are: navigation systems mounted on the vehicle; accident notification systems; electronic payment systems; Sensors embedded in the road; video technology for traffic control; weather information services; Variable message signs; vehicle fleet tracking and vehicle weight measuring on the move technology [1].

2. Ongoing Projects

In this section, we will discuss about projects that develop and integrate communications technology that enable vehicles to drive in platoons, as seen in Figure 1. One of these ideas is brought by the SARTRE project [2]. SARTE is a European Commission FP7 project that seeks to make e change in transport usage. The main idea of the project is to allow vehicles, and mainly, commercial vehicles to drive in a platoon formation. In compliance with SARTRE, a road train (or a platoon), is a number of vehicles led by a human driven lead vehicle followed by all kinds off vehicles (passenger cars or commercial trucks) in an automated way (laterally and longitudinally) [2],[3], The control of an individual following vehicle is partly external, in this case, partly controlled by the lead vehicle.

№ SAVINGS

Fig. 1. Wireless Truck Communication [15]

Unlike the PATH project, from the United States, which we will discuss about later in the paper, vehicles may join or leave the platoon in a dynamic fashion (leave on arrival at the desired destination) [2]. The road train forms a cooperative system, where the vehicles that form the train are considered sub-systems. By using the vehicle-to-vehicle communication in addition to local sensors in each vehicle, the longitudinal and lateral instability of the platoon can be avoided [3]. Without vehicle-to-vehicle communication, vehicles from the platoon cannot "look ahead", namely, the local sensor measurements are only based on the adjacent vehicle. By using vehicle-to-vehicle communication, the leading vehicle, can inform, in real-time, the following vehicles of any commands and movement. The key of this logical scheme is the reliability of the vehicle-to-vehicle communication, for example, all the following vehicles are in real-time contact with the lead vehicle and that they receive the same information [2].

The concepts of platooning and related issues have been researched in several projects. Commercial truck platooning and driver assistant functions where investigated in a European project called PROMOTE CHAUFFEUR. KONVOI was a German national project where the focus was on platoons formed only by trucks. The PATH project, from the United States requires some changes to the infrastructure, where as SARTRE does not. PATH vehicles use dedicated lanes of the highway or follow transponders that are embedded in the road [2], [3].

3. Theoretical background /Research problem

The paper presents a group pattern of a number of commercial vehicles organized in a road train and the how they communicate with each other and the central traffic control (also called Central Station).

The considered road train consists of a main vehicle (MV) led by a driver and the following vehicles that form the rest of the platoon, which have automatic speed control and direction. Through this process, the drivers of the vehicles that make the road train can perform other activities, such as talking on the phone, reading, managing the next shipment etc. All vehicles are equipped with specific V2V communications equipment, control units for vehicles in the platoon, HMI, position sensors (GPS), radar and camera [4].

Remote ïtwveler Support

Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communication!

Vehicle Tranzit Vehicle

Camercial Vehicle

Maintenece & Construction Management

Transit Management

Service Provider

Fixed Point - Fixed Point Communications

Commercial Vehicle Check

Fig. 2. National ITS Architecture CVO Subsystems [4]

National Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) architecture terminology is used as follows [4]:

• Subsystem - The main element in terms of structural architecture. The subsystems are grouped into four classes (centers, land, vehicles, and passengers).

• The package of equipment - equipment packages is the cornerstone of the subsystems of the physical architecture. These packages grouped similar processes of a particular subsystem in "implementable packets ".

• Terminal - Terminals represents the limit of the architecture. National ITS Architecture terminals are the people, systems and general environment as the interface of ITSs.

• Flow architecture - information that is exchanged between systems and terminals in the physical architecture.

4. V2V Communications

Intelligent Transport Systems are seen as an area of increasingly important research. These systems are based on a level of communication that enables data exchange between vehicles and between vehicles and the road infrastructure. This level is known as Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) and is a form of mobile ad-hoc network that combines solutions by communication types: vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-type-infrastructure (V2I) [5]. Among the first applications of VANET, there were the systems that ensure road safety ( eg, potential collision warning applications using cooperation between road users). They were followed by applications designed to improve the use of road infrastructure, reducing traffic congestion and could provide faster [5] and safer routes for drivers. Road safety assurance applications can be grouped into three main categories: assistance (navigation, collision avoidance through cooperation, lane change assistance), information (on speed limits) and warning (on such potential accidents, of obstacles on the road or providing warnings on traffic conditions) [6]. They require solutions for direct communication between machines, due to the need of a quick transmission of information, with minimal delays.

5. Approach / Research methodology

In order to collect information, mobile communications are used at vehicle level, or inter-vehicular communications, which allow a "map" to be updated in real-time with the locations and the directions of travel of the road trains. Thus, through this "map" one or more trucks can be part of a already created road train [5],[6], The reasons for achieving such an organized travel system for commercial vehicle are varied, including: with the surge in the number of cars per capita, the infrastructure has not adapted to those needs, so the intelligent transport systems are required in order to maximize the available road infrastructure; by integrating and organizing trucks into road-trains, fuel costs will decrease, the amount of pollutants emissions will be reduced and the lap times of routes will shorten.

The models currently used in Romania, in an operative way, to calculate the concentrations of pollutants are those based on Gaussian solutions of diffusion equation. These models can be applied to the following types of sources: instantaneous and continuous point sources, linear source and surface sources. The models are applicable to one or more sources. There are still used models that take into account the reactions of pollutants into the atmosphere [7]. Also they are not commonly used in meso-scale models due to a lack of meteorological data required. Restrictions on selecting patterns that can be used commonly in Romania are required by these existing circumstances [7]: meteorological data are not available in a automatized manner, real-time, height meteorological data can be found only in three stations, complex topography of the country limits the possibility of extrapolation of data.

These limitations require, for the current problems, not the research, using models based on standard meteorological data on Earth's surface [7]. They should be placed in a format that does not require a permanent connection with meteorological network. The models used consider the same form of analytical equation for the concentration equation of a type of source, which are diversified by modeling the following input parameters [7]: super elevation, wind speed profile, standard deviations, and stability classes.

Input parameters modeling depends on the geometry of the source and the surface topography. For road traffic, in simple methodology, the emission could be calculated [7] with the following formula:

Et =£ FEt • Nt ■ CCt (1)

Where:

FEi - emission factor corresponding to the pollutant and the category of the vehicle, Ni - number of vehicles, CQ - specific fuel consumption for vehicles, S02 emission estimation is done with the relationship [7]:

Esn = 2 • A ■ S

so2 yy

Where: A - Fuel consumption, S - the sulfur content in the fuel, in %.

Regarding VANET networks they are a special case of mobile wireless networks and therefore have properties that distinguish them from traditional mobile wireless networks [8], [9]. First mobility is restricted by the size of road vehicles, the movement of other vehicles and traffic rules. At the same time these networks are subjected to external factors, such as weather conditions, or other factors such as the time and the vehicle position and the data packet transmission time. From the study on the mobility of vehicles it was noticed that they tend to group forming clusters of machines [9]. This network is partitioned and no single point-to-point connection between the source and destination exists, often when sending a message. All of these factors make existing solutions in classic wireless ad hoc networks may not be viable in VANET networks [10]. Due to the large number of vehicles taking part in a VANET network, it appears that, in general, routing protocols must be based on factors including location of vehicles at a time, something that ensures scalability protocol operation [9], [10]. So routing vehicles will make decisions based only on local information received from vehicles in their surroundings. Exchange of information based on beacon messages is a fundamental part of routing protocols described in the literature.

Usually vehicles can get position information from positioning systems, both local (LPS - Local Position System) and the global systems like GPS or Galileo. There are solutions based on routing a specific geographical area or heuristics-based protocols "greedy heuristics" they choose the next hop [11], a neighbor who has the greatest feed to the destination. Other protocols try to improve on performance routing by large geographic areas using digital maps, topology maps that have information on streets, and the fact that cars change location information [12], [13]. This creates a list of nodes source junction to be crossed for the message to reach the destination. To reach every node junction geographic protocol applies on every street.

All solutions are based on the premise that there is a point to point way between the source and destination when transmitting the message [12], [14]. This is not a common case scenario for VANET networks since the vehicle networks are formed by groups of vehicles that move on dynamic trajectories.

There are also some protocols which are based on prediction of the trajectory followed by the vehicle instead of using routing by large geographic areas. The vehicle transfers the message to the vehicle whose trajectory is more useful, as a measure of performance, than the vehicle that stores the message [12].

6. Operational scenarios

The purpose of the truck platooning system is to enable two or more trucks to link up. A few scenarios are being explored, including the following:

a) Commercial trucks leave the terminal together

This idea is more commonly available for less than truckload shipping and parcel carriers. In the LTL/parcel carrier example, once freight sorting is complete, trucks with similar routing/dispatching activities can be paired at the terminal [13]. These trucks would then manually drive to the highway and proceed to whatever initial portion of the highway is appropriate for linking. Once in a linkable stretch of road, and in the correct order, they would engage the link and continue down the road until either they arrive at their exit, or leave the linkable zone.

b) Commercial trucks find each other on the road

Trucks (either from within a fleet or between fleets) can be driving over the road and automatically discover other linkable trucks. When each truck chooses to link, the other driver is warned. Once they have both selected to link, they manually coordinate to be near each other [13], [14]. The driver of the front truck can reduce his speed, or the driver of the rear truck can increase his speed if within available limits.

c) Truck stopplatform

Truck stop platforms could represent an ideal scenario for ad hoc linking. These facilities could concentrate trucks that share similar routes and often experience waves of arrivals and departures; such concentrations could facilitate ad hoc linkages among willing participants.

While the DATP systems could "see" other DATP installed trucks, a more efficient approach might be to use platform where truck drivers could input their routes and departure times, and the platform could generate pairings (and notify the appropriate drivers) [13], [14].

7. Results and contributions

In this paper, the following aspects are put out: reducing the cost of road transport by organizing trucks into road-trains; optimizing traffic How; reducing waiting and stop times (breaks for the drivers).

Air pollution of transportation has the most direct environmental effects: local air pollution, global atmospheric pollution, etc. The air emissions considered here include C02, NOx, CO, and PM10. In the figures 3-6 are presented the impact of speed on emissions: PM10, NOx, CO, and C02, [16].

Platooning can contribute to energy saving in two aspects: one is the reduction of aerodynamic drag especially during high speed driving, and the other is the increase of the road capacity to provide larger room to surrounding traffic. The former is microscopic contribution, and the other is macroscopic contribution.

The contribution of the paper refers to the necessity of creating a network of trucks, locally and nationally (global), namely the implementation of a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Any participant truck will become a wireless router, which will give information to the truck next to it. Each truck will be equipped with a GPS

navigation system, and when communication is needed globally, it can call on the mobile communication network (cellular).

? # # <$> ,

V' V' W «?' S?' i3' «f" Speed (km/honr)

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Speed (Km/hour)

Fig. 3. Impact of speed on PM10 emissions

Fig. 4. Impact of speed on NOx emissions

. ¡S> . # . # a? . # . # . # . # . # . # . # . # A V V V V to5* V' «>■ ^S5' jy'

Speed (Km/hour)

Speed (Km/hour)

Fig. 5. Impact of speed on CO emissions

Fig. 6. Impact of speed on C02 emissions

8. Conclusions

The road train can form in a common point of commercial vehicle routes according to the destination. This follows mainly a reduction in travel time, pollutant emissions and optimizing the mileage. Vehicles that are to be integrated in the road train will be grouped in color strips depending on the destination. The upcoming phase of international research will build on present knowledge to tackle the challenges of automating lane changing, merging, as well as joining and leaving the platoon. Means must be developed, for example, so that truck caravans in the right lane do not hinder merging for other motorists or present a barrier to general traffic flow. Other drivers must be made aware of the truck convoys in a timely and safe manner, and to stay out of them, so on- and off-road signs/indicators and local V2V broadcasts will be necessary. The truck operators face special challenges. Overcoming drivers' discomfort with operating a vehicle with a short, disconcerting gap in front while overcoming the very limited sightlines forward will be difficult. And dealing with the spray of rain water from the vehicles ahead may at times suspend in-line operations. Any success would seem to come down to building drivers' complete faith in the technology, which is inherently problematic. Following vehicles may also be pelted constantly by small stones and debris from up ahead, which will slowly chip, abrade, and crack windshields.

And if convoys do mix cars and trucks, the latter must go only at the front to accommodate their longer stopping

distance. New trucks must insert in the middle—a maneuver that requires training—whereas cars can attach more

easily at the tail.

Acknowledgements

The work has been funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013 of the Ministry of European Funds through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/159/1.5/S/1323 97.

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