Scholarly article on topic 'Analytical Path on Voice BAPNE® Method Handling Attention Levels Using a Voice-music-movement Association'

Analytical Path on Voice BAPNE® Method Handling Attention Levels Using a Voice-music-movement Association Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"music education" / circlesongs / voice / "body percussion" / "Voice BAPNE® method" / "BAPNE® method" / ethnomusicology / choralactivity}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Alberto Quarello, Elisa Pezzuto, Francisco Javier Romero Naranjo

Abstract One of the principal problems in the topical educational activity is related to the student's ability of keep the focus on what they’re training on maintaining high levels of attention during the work; in relation to this the research project reported here is incident to music education. This study aims to expose here the results of an analyse is conducted on attention levels in a particular choral activity called “circle singing”; from this analyse is highlighted a number of factors that support the thesis that the circles ingoing activity can produce a significant increase of the rapidity in learning and an extension of musical, vocal and choral singing skills, there's also an increase of the ability to work together; this results were observed in subjects with different backgrounds and entirely different interests so this kind of practice is intended for various fields, not just for music education. Furthermore the contribution of ethno musicological research is constitutive in the process of individuation of many correspondences between some musical-dancing practices of North Africa and Central America groups and numerous exercises developed by Voice BAPNE® method.

Academic research paper on topic "Analytical Path on Voice BAPNE® Method Handling Attention Levels Using a Voice-music-movement Association"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 152 (2014) 2 - 6

ERPA 2014

Analyticalpath on Voice BAPNE® method handling attentionlevelsusing a voice- music- movementassociation

Alberto Quarelloa, Elisa Pezzutoa, Francisco Javier Romero Naranjob*

a Ethonomusicology Department, "La Sapienza" University of Rome. Via Belluno 5, Rome, 00161, Italy b Department of Didactics Innovations and Studies, Alicante University, 03690 Alicante Spain

Abstract

One of the principalproblems in the topical educational activityisrelated to the student'sability of keep the focus on whatthey're training on maintaining high levels of attentionduring the work; in relation to this the researchprojectreportedhereisincident to music education. Thisstudyaims to exposehere the results of an analyseisconducted on attentionlevels in a particularchoral activitycalled "circle singing"; from thisanalyseishighlighted a number of factors thatsupport the thesisthat the circlesingoingactivity can produce a significantincrease of the rapidity in learning and an extension of musical,vocal and choralsingingskills, there''salso an increase of the ability to work together; thisresultswereobserved in subjects with different backgrounds and entirelydifferentinterests so thiskind of practiceisintended for variousfields, not just for music education. Furthermore the contribution of ethno musicologicalresearchisconstitutive in the process of individuation of manycorrespondencesbetween some musical-dancing practices of North Africa and Central America groups and numerousexercisesdeveloped by Voice BAPNE® method.

© 2014 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the ERPA Congress 2014.

Keywords:music education; circlesongs; voice; body percussion; Voice BAPNE® method; BAPNE® method; ethnomusicology; choralactivity

1. Introduction

Analysis conducted on the observation of several didactic activities revealed that numerous individuals (with

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +3496 590 3400; fax: +34 96 590 3464. E-mail address:francisco.romero@ua.es

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the ERPA Congress 2014. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.015

different backgrounds, both adults and children/adolescents) have difficulty achieving and maintaining high attention levels while they are trying to focus on what they are doing. Therefore the Voice BAPNE Method proposes some exercises aimed at improving problems related to attention and memory (this analysis started from observations in the musical didactic and performing field). In combining circlesinging activity with body percussions all cerebral lobes are stimulated to obtain concrete increase in attention levels (according to Sohlberg and Mater and Michael Posner theories) and multiple intelligences (according to Howard Gardner theory).

2. Method

2.1 The instrumentsused in the Voice BAPNEdidacticmethod

The voice BAPNE methodisformed of some differenttechniques:circlesinging for choralaspects, bodypercussion to handlerhythm in music learning process and the work on voice and movementas a unified didacticelement. Moreover an importanttheatricalreferenceis the Ken Robinson educational theory so thatalso in the voice BAPNE didacticmethodthere's a particularattention to create an individuallearningprocess for eachstudentawakeningcreativitythrough alternative didacticprocesses.

2.2 Circlesinging

CircleSongs are a form of choralimprovisation. A conductor (oftenalsosoloist), through a free improvisationprocess, progressivelycreates and allots to the choristers - standing in a circle, grouped by section, specificrhythmicmodules - phrases made up of phonemes (without a sense of theirown) which are thenrepeated in loop; So the harmonicstructureiscreated on the interplaybetweenthesevariousphrases. Furthermore the conductormakes use of visualsignals to handle the polyphonic performance, shapingitaround the flow of his/her solo vocalimprovisation. The CircleSongexperiencenotonlyinvolves the vocaldimension, butalso the corporealsphere (movement, rhythm), the cognitive area (memory, attention, etc.) and socio-emotionalaspects (listening, tuning and coordination) between the varioussections. The ensuingexperienceisone of profoundabsorption in which the emotional and experientialdimensionsbecome the basis on which to facilitate in participants a new and more acute awareness of the rhythmic, polyphonic, performative and anthropologicalaspects of choral work.

2.3 Bodypercussion

Body percussionis the activity of hitting the body in order to produce varioustypes of sounds for didactic, therapeutic, anthropological and social purposes. Both in the field of musical cultures and in the world of shows and performances, body percussionhashaddifferentroles, which can be classifiedintotheirdifferentuses, meanings and purposes in each culture. The body isused for thesedifferentpurposesas an acoustic, rhythmic, dynamicinstrument with distinct timbre becauseitislinked to movement and dance.

2.4 Voice Bapne®

Prof. Francisco Javier Romero Naranjo and the master Alberto Quarello alias Albert Hera havebeenworking for the last twoyears to a common researchthatgavebirth to the Voice BAPNE® method. Here the voice,on a choreuticallevelthrough the CircleSongsstructure, the body and the body percussion technique, to relate the elements, take advantage of theirwholepotentials. The prosodicvocalaccent with a veryprecisemovement are the first elements to create a functional link between the Voice and the Body in the construction of the Voice- BAPNE®; laterall of theseturnsintoseparation, mostly on a kinaesthetic level. Whatmakes the Voice BAPNE® a peculiarmethodis the cognitive stimulation of the multiple intelligence as for Howard Gardner theory, on the basis of pedagogicalelements from biomechanics, anatomy, vocalphysiology, psychology, neurology and ethnomusicology. The methodapplicationprovides the use of a wide range of exercisesboth in the circle and in the couple with the "mirror" function. Here the motionalaspect and the vocalaspect are directed to destabilize the proprioception of one's singing voice so thatitispossible to deconstruct the mechanismsbrought by a bindingvocaltechnique (as long

asitconcerns the artistic use of the voice). Thisresearchcomes from the PROEL methoddeveloped by Dr. Alfonso Borraganwhoobtained a goodquality of vocalemissionthank to the destabilization of the postural balance. The Voice BAPNE® applies the concept of destabilization on the VAK (visual, auditive, Kinaesthetic) didactic model instead of working on the postural balance.

2.5Definition of "attention" and related categories

Cognitive psychology defines attention as the ability to concentrate strong mental focus on a specific subject. It is quite important to underline the selective quality of attention, which can extrapolate a specific stimulus from a given context through precise mental processes. In particular, cognitive psychology itemizes this kind of research with the concept of multi-compositive attention (Posner, 1971) and multidimensional attention (Sohlberg and Maater, 1987). Multidimensional attention is composed of several elements, ranked according to a hierarchic principle and broken down as follows:

- Selective attention: ability to selectively pick out specific information from a mixture of messages elaborated by our sense organs

- Focused attention: ability to further analyze the information elaborated

- Sustained attention: (or vigilance) is the ability to keep high mental focus for the duration of a cognitive task - performance usually worsens as time goes by

- Alternating attention: ability to keep strong mental focus while switching between activities

- Divided attention: ability to pay adequate attention to different tasks simultaneously and respond to multitasking

3. Results:

3.1 Attention management in the voice BAPNE method. Practical aspects and theoretical proposals

The work on sustained attention is organised in the exercises of the Voice BAPNE Methods, at several levels -i.e.:

- Musical-rhythmic element

- Use of phonemes

- Intonation

- Basic motor coordination

- Bio-mechanical aspect.

This essay examines, in particular, the type of attention stimulated in exercises connected to basic motor coordination in relation to the musical-rhythmic element. The exercise aims to build up sustained attention through the alternating motion of the singer's body from right to left, with a 60-bpm rhythmic rate (marked by a metronome). Attention in this exercise aims to build up fluid motion with proper support on the two fundamental rhythmic elements: beat and upbeat.

The evaluation of this exercise primarily focuses on the ability to make the movement fluid and constant, and, as such, rhythmic. Fluidity is expressed in making movement without forced accents on lower limbs (especially beat), in harmonic biomechanics between upper limbs and lower limbs, and consists in postural stability that may also be useful if combined with vocal movement (postural stability means craniosacral realignment that allows for direct breath flow in relation to phonation).

Divided attention in the Voice BAPNE Method is mainly in the relationship between bodily movement, body percussion elements and sung vocal expression within circlesongs. During performance of circlesongs, the singer is

urged to build up a significant level of divided attention, as this type of musical practice requires high focus on basic motor coordination (mainly linked to rhythmic rate) and on phonemes, as well as on the degree of voice focus (hence attention on intonation handling). Regarding selective attention, the Voice BAPNE Method primarily uses ear training exercises (execution of specific musical intervals). In circlesongs, it is strictly necessary to pay attention to correct intonation, so as to build up a well-functioning polyphonic vocal set. At the same time, circlesongs require ability to focus on own specific vocal line autonomously managed despite simultaneous listening to other vocals.

Within the Voice BAPNE Method, alternating attention is used as to all of the evaluation parameters (musical-rhythmic element, phonemes, intonation, biomechanics, and basic motor coordination). The facilitator will propose sample exercises such as specific movements associated with vocal articulation, immediately reproduced by choristers antiphonally. The exercise (as well as that relating to sustained attention) will be supported by a metronome in order to maintain adequate rhythmic rate throughout the performance.

The Voice BAPNE Methods assesses attention levels as per the following parameters:

- Musical-rhythmic element

- Phonemes

- Intonation

- Biomechanics

- Basic motor coordination.

The Voice BAPNE Method also largely includes exercises aimed at simultaneous stimulation of various types of attention. Through ad-hoc exercises, it is possible to work on the various types of attention and, at the same time, on the cerebral lobes involved in handling the rhythmic-musical component (repeated rhythm patterns through body percussion elements or melodic cells performed simultaneously with rhythmic elements always produced without the aid of tools).

The Voice BAPNE Method also largely includes exercises aimed at: articulation of phonemes (melodic lines assigned to choristers), intonation associated to basic motor coordination (alternation of body weight on right/left side) combined with the need to focus on signals by the facilitator during the execution of circlesongs (functional signals to rhythmic-melodic-harmonic changes and thus supporting the architecture of improvised tracks), as well as possible stimulation of cerebral lobes also for alternating management at the level of body planes and axes (biomechanics).Consequently, it is possible to stimulate the degree of attention on the motor system through odd rate (e.g. 5/8) produced alongside regular rate (3/4, 4/4, ...), or attain an extremely high degree of attention (maintained) by working on the intonation (specific melodic patterns assigned by the facilitator) and, at the same time, polyrhythms created between the motor and the melodic element (e.g. 5/8 motor aspect; and 4/4 melody). In this case, attention will be paid to managing articulation difficulties due to polyrhythms combined with attention on intonation.

4. Discussion and conclusion:

In the Voice BAPNE® method, thanking to the influence of all the disciplinesthat are the basis of thisdidactictheorical-practicalapproach (circlesinging, bodypercussion, Ken Robinson didactictheory, attentionlevelsPosner, Sohlberg and Maaterthory), there's a greatstimulation of the creativity in a free spacethatis just "organized" with some directions of the facilitator.

Thismethodologicaltheoricalresearchgaveus the possibility to observe an increase in the quality of the vocal and musical skills of ourstudents. Furthermoreisimportant the stimulation of a learningprocess with no hierarchiesbut in circle, in cooperation with a great benefit in the musical, vocal, psychological-emotional and body (motor) field. Thanking to allthis the teacher can use a new way of workingthat can help him in the cognitive stimulation and in the work on attention levels

References

F. J. Romero Naranjo. Body PercussionTheoreticalPractical Foundation, Vol. I,II,III. (8th edition).

P.E. Dux, R. Marois. The AttentionalBlink: A review of Data and Theory. In " Attention, Perception&Psychophysics". 71, pp. 683-700.

L. Davidson, P. McKernon, H. Gardner. The acquisition of a song: a develop-mentalapproach. In "Documentary Report of AnnArbor Symposium".Music Educators National Conference, Reston (Virginia) 1981.

Aboutlinksbetween music and language (phonems use): F. Lerdahl, R. Jackendoff. Toward a FormalTheory of Tonal Music. In "Journal of Music Theory" (Spring) 1977, pp. 111-171 e B. Lindblom. Generative Theories in Language and Music Descriptions.in "Cognitions", 4 (1976), pp. 99-122.

Aboutbiomechanical human system: K. D. Hunt. The evolution of human bipedality: ecology and functionalmorphology. In "Journal of human evolution". 26 (1994), pp. 183-202.

J.A. Anderson. Cognitive and psychologicalcomputation with neuralmodels. IEEE Transactions on systems, Man and Cyber-netics. 13 (1983), pp. 799-815.

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