Scholarly article on topic 'The Identification of “Author” and “Addressee” in the Discourse of the Representative of Volga Germans of Siberia'

The Identification of “Author” and “Addressee” in the Discourse of the Representative of Volga Germans of Siberia Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Peter Kostomarov, Alexander Ptashkin

Abstract The present article deals with the field of German studies and is devoted to the actualization of the category “author” and “addressee” in the context of the study of the most important component of anthropocentric paradigm of linguistics – language personality. The actuality of the article is the need to study the language of individuals – representatives of Volga Germans who retain ability to produce texts in the native form of the language.

Academic research paper on topic "The Identification of “Author” and “Addressee” in the Discourse of the Representative of Volga Germans of Siberia"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 206 (2015) 103 - 107

XV International Conference "Linguistic and Cultural Studies: Traditions and Innovations", LKTI

2015, 9-11 November 2015, Tomsk, Russia

The Identification of "Author" and "Addressee" in the Discourse of the Representative of Volga Germans of Siberia

Peter Kostomarov*, Alexander Ptashkin

National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia

Abstract

The present article deals with the field of German studies and is devoted to the actualization of the category "author" and "addressee" in the context of the study of the most important component of anthropocentric paradigm o f linguistics - language personality. The actuality of the article is the need to study the language of individuals - representatives of Volga Germans who retain ability to produce texts in the native form of the language.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of LKTI 2015.

Keywords: Author and addressee; language personality; Volga Germans; discourse; communicative process.

1. Introduction

The beginning of the XXI century is marked in linguistic science by fundamental changes that are in the transition from considering language as system which is an independent from person to describe it as "an anthropological phenomenon" (Pjataeva, 2006, p. 136). We can observe the shifting of linguistic research to a new paradigm - an anthropocentric paradigm. J.V. Dorofeev believes that "linguistic change priorities, the development of new strategies and linguistic searches led to the transformation of the existing system of views on the language and principles of linguistic research and development of a new scientific paradigm in linguistics" (Dorofeev, 2000, p. 302). Anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics is explained by scientists with the change of perspective studies, the formulation of a new research object - the language personality - a person - a native speaker, who represents his /

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: petrkost@yandex.ru (P. Kostomarov).

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of LKTI 2015.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.10.036

her personality in the language that is based on the reflection set of social, national, psychological, philosophical, behavioral characteristics. One of such person under analysis is Jacob Kondratievich Damm (hereinafter - J.K.), who is Volga German born in 1920 in Volga region and lived most of his life in Siberia. He is the representative of the people's spoken speech culture, has coherent and expressive speech characteristics, the ability to build his verbal behavior based on various thematic and genre relatedness.

One of the most important areas of consideration of the text production of this language personality is the actualization of his communication model, the main structural features that are thinking-text-audience. The feature of speech contact analysis between the author and the addressee across the text, which is interpreted by means of the anthropocentric paradigm as the result of cognitive-verbal interaction communicants, lies at the heart of this model. The first element of this model actualizes peculiarities of mental activity of the speaker and typing his speech activity characterized by active, creative, dynamic and purposeful reflection of facts. During the deployment of text production presented features of thinking begin to function as a kind of reference point of generation and postulating main components of the communicative act on the basis of transfer of meaningful units prevailing in the linguistic consciousness of subject's mentality. The result of this thinking becomes vector of explication of "conceptual systems or knowledge which helps create text or model of the world that is compatible with the text" (Fillmor, 1983, p. 111). Nuclear component of interaction model of the author and the addressee is the reflection of type of texts postulated by speaker. Such kinds of texts can be identified as narrative, argument and description. The Narrative, which is a story about the events, stands as the important places of the features in construction progress of the text. The Subject pays attention to a number of events and phenomena that occur in the life of the country and society, and they are directly related to the personality of J.K. In addition, the narrative has a distinct time perspective of event reflection referring the recipient to commit at this period. Argument represents a form of presentation of ideas in a logical sequence form on specific topics. Argument is one of the dominant units in the construction of texts of personality. Affecting in his arguments any problem or question, speaker clearly and logically tries to move the addressee to imagine the postulated action. Thematic arguments are primarily associated with the personality of the speaker, illustrating his individual characteristics. Description in the text production of J.K. has a distinct temporal characteristics reflected in the presentation of historical facts that had occurred in the life of the speaker and of relevance to various aspects of public life. The collected material showed that the description as a kind of text building is also one of actualized in the speech of the speaker. Recorded data presented numerous descriptions of childhood and youth of J.K., collectivization and industrialization process in the country, the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the deportation of Volga Germans to Siberia and the activities of domestic and foreign politicians. The third element of the model affects the orientation of the dialogic speech on interpreters of language consciousness of subject including except of the author of the present article also a wide range of individuals who are active and equal participants in the communicative process. Such approach helps to reveal features of valuable world of the speaker, his worldview, and to identify perspective reflecting individual standpoint in the addressee 's consciousness. This model of verbal behavior has highlighted one of the problems of this article - the determination of the characteristics of communicative interaction between the author and the addressee in the context of the study of speech activity of J.K.

2. The combination of the author and the addressee in the text production of Volga German

In our opinion, the speaker is revealed by manifestations of explication of creative approach and reflection of the cultural identity. These characteristics of the individual speech production fit into "new, anthropocentrical, authorcentrical linguistic paradigm of thinking when sentences, phrases and text are not regarded as have been said by somebody or nobody (as in the old "pure grammatical paradigm") but said by the "speaker" and so even today -by language personality" (Kopytov, 2010, p. 11). Of course, the collected material shows that the author is considered by the addressee as a person possessing the construction of texts built with creativity and author charm. T.V. Shmeleva stresses that "the author's charm is the semantic part of the text, which appears in the verbal behavior of the author and his reflection on his text" (Shmeleva, 2006, p. 39). A striking example of a creative approach to construction of the text as the first component of the communicative model is the story of the speaker reflecting the architecture of the individual understanding of text postulation. Na, du fragst mich, deutsche Sprache, Norm, должно соответствовать норме, die Menschen sollen sprechen moglich richtig, ohne Fehler, aber ich spreche auch Deutsch, vielleicht mit Fehler, schon alt bin ich, aber meine Sprache ist meine Sprache, nicht andere,

lese in Bucher, wer wie sagt, ich spreche auch so, aber nutze andere Regel, Zeit, Themen, die andere wollen das nicht, Politik, Sport, Religion, kaum alle nutzen diese Themen, weiss nicht, fur mich interessant sind andere Sachen nicht. Commenting "right" structure of the text subject tries to allocate sequence explication of main theme's postulation, highlights the importance of "dominant language", which provides communication and identifies thematic confinement of produced text. Of course, certain signs give the speaker's speech creative flavor of text building. Creative approach of J.K. is to focus the attention of the speaker on issues related to the difficulties of preserving the younger generation of knowledge about the culture, language and history of the Volga Germans, which is expressed by explication of narrative affecting emotions and anxiety of subject. Viele Jahre zind vorbai..., manchmal interezant Enkel tsu fraken, wie lernen zie die Sprache, ain Wort - Dialekt, anderes - aus Literatur, aus ander Dialekt, auch Menschen sprechen, interezant, wie andere verstehen das, aus anderen Dorf, Rekion. Glauve, Sprachkod ... Die Menschen haven Schlizel, verwenden diezer Schlizel, er ist Kod, с помощью которого люди могут общаться друг с другом ... Daitsch, unzer Daitsch ist auch Schlizel fir uns, ohne Schlizel kann nicht verstehen ich andere, в нашем доме мы без него никак не могли общаться ... Unzere Kindr mizen haven Kod ... mizen verstehen Kultur, Sprache, Geschichte, was war frier, Intereze macht Daitsch. Complexity and ambiguity of setting goals for saving the language of Volga Germans expresses the necessity to find the "key" embodying the unifying principle and mechanism of interaction between younger and older generations. The main aspect of interaction is a reflection of the dominant role of the German language, which serves the essential basis for the preservation and transmission of culture of the Volga Germans.

The actualization of cultural identity is an extension of the explication of creativity and creative approach that reflects an individual analysis from the side of author associated with the life of the Volga Germans. Cultural components of communicative behavior represent peculiarities of language personality. Personal transfer vector of most important features of communicative consciousness of J.K. is carried out in a trinity of "nationality-language-religion". Descriptions of subject about belonging to a German national community suggest the confident identification of the speaker with a German cultural ethnic group. Wir zind Daitsche, nicht richtike Daitsche, ausgeziedelt vor 20 Jahren aus Daitschland, wir levten in Zovietunion, wir zind Daitsche von Powolschje, unzer Rekion ... Diezer Kraij fir misch ist zehr wichtik, fiir uns, fir alle, wer levte in Rekion, in Schillink, viele Jahre war dort, kannte alles wusste ... das ist Ort, wo wir geboren, wo unzere Eltern, Oma und Opa waren, wo unzer Haus und Hof waren, alles, was war gut fir uns, zehr traurik tsu verstehen, dass wir wekgehen von dort musste, konnten in Schillink nicht mehr leven, arvaiten, lernen .

Self-identification of subject is formed not only by the explication of the cultural component, but also in the importance of the allocation of the German language. Ну, ich glauve, vor allem diezer Kod ..., wie Zie das nennen, das ist daitsche Sprache, unzer Daitsch, die Sprache, die wir sprechen, reden, kommunizieren ja, haite kann ich viel Intereze an Daitsch zehen, daitsche Sprache, aver auch viel bescheftiken zich mit Dialekten, nicht Daitsch in schener Form lernen, Literatursprache, aver Dialekte, alzo, Art der Sprache unzer Vaader und Muuder, zie waren aus verschiedenen Rekionen, Lender Daitschaland, zie waren ausgeziedelt nach Russland, Ruzischer Raich von unzerer Kaizerin, Landstick gegeven ... Wir verstehen ainander zehr gut, wenn wir zind im Ruzisch-Daitsch-Haus, aver wir verstehen auch, dass jeder von uns zaken, sprechen zain Dialekt in der Form kann, wie war es Hundert Jahre vor, aver haite Daitsch ist fir uns ainik, das ist unzere Muudersprache, die Sprache verainikt uns, givt Kraft. Undoubtedly, the importance of the German language for the Volga Germans is high. For the language personality phrase "German" incorporates not only the interpretation of its special role, but also to identify forms of the language, especially its use of speaker in different communicative situations. Various description of the functioning of the German language is represented in the verbal behavior of J.K. as "cultural slice" of the thoughts of the people's spoken form of the German language in the context of individual interpretation of this language.

The indisputable fact is that the religious discourse is regarded as an integral part of the national cultural consciousness of representatives of popular culture and shows, as E.V. Bobyreva remarks, "structure with complex genre peculiarities, rich system of values and concepts, as well as a number of specific features found on the linguistic level" (Bobyreva, 2008, p. 167). Main dominant sign in the context of religious discourse of J.K. is highlighting and focusing attention of addressee on necessary "parts" and "participants" of religious cult. Nomination of subjects of religion is accompanied by postulating the basic narrative of the distribution and medium of the Lutheran faith to the individual understanding of its in life of the speaker. Daitsche zind лютеране ... Wir geheren tsur diezer Relikion, unzer Tsahl aver wenik als Katholiken, zie viele Tsahlen haven in Airopa ... aver diezer Glauven, dieze Relikion war in Daitschland. Das war von Martin Luther, ain Pastor aus Daitschland ... er

hat gegrindet dieze Relikion ... Wir zind die Nachfolke ... In Schillink haven wir lutheranische Kirche, dieze Kirche zehr sehen war, zehr schenes Gebaide, ich erinnere in Kirche an Dienste, an Pastor bai uns in Schillink, er war zehr kluk, alle Gebete und Lieder wusste aus dem Buch, war zehr aufmerkzam fir Bezucher ... Als ich Kind war, gink ich mit Eltern in Kirche. Mit Bruder. Ich hatte liev tsu diezer Welt, diezer Relikion, Kostime, в которые одеты пасторы в церкви, wie lezen zie die Gebete, sprechen mit Menschen, das war interezant. Feste wichtiker Tail waren auch bai uns ... Bezonders, die in der Kirche waren ... Когда находишься в этом здании, то ощущашь дыхание Бога, тепло помещения.

It is a sequence of deployment of texts helps subject to send a better idea of value chain of religious discourse, which "establishes, maintains and reproduces the basic foundations and canons of religion in the semantic-cognitive form, it is the key rule of formation of individual experience according to enjoined religious teaching order of social life, worldview and self-development" (Kozhemjakin, 2011, p. 15).

Detailed attention to the bright and distinctive personality of the author is focused on the identification of the role of the destination in the study of text production of J.K. Because the addressee is "is also a fundamental representative and "reflector" of linguistic consciousness of the speaker through the postulated texts" (Kostomarov, Ptashkin, 2015, p. 408).

It should be noted that the verbal behavior of the language personality focuses on communicative dialogue with the addressee of the text, which from the standpoint of pragmatics understood as a set of ideas and stable cognitive structures, coordinating and regulating the behavior of the author of the text. Communicative contact of speaker and the addressee assumes the character of a confidential conversation, the tactic of which is aimed at creating a favorable atmosphere between the author and the addressee. Im allgemeinen war ich gastfreundlich, andere sagen so, im unseren Deutsch-Russischen Haus, je,amd fragt, fahr zu ihm, Jacob, er ist gut, begrusst immer jeden Tag, sein nicht schein, geh und sprache mit mir, erzahl alles uber das Leben, vermutlich interessant kann er das sagen. The addressee in the context of speech production of J.K. often appears as a personality, which, according to the subject, has a comparable social status with the speaker. This method of communication provides a factor of rapprochement of subject as an active participant of speech production with addressee, whose main function is adequate perception of incoming information. The characteristic of the author leads to the analysis of third element of the model of language personality, which expands "field" of communication partners who are close relatives. Thus, the type of information for the recipient to whom a postulated text, often is transformed in the minds of the addressee as reflection of the narrative of the antinomy "good" - "bad" due to actualization of those themes that are of great interest for addressee. Ich muss sagen, die Enkel радуют mich oft gut. Lernen gut, Interesse haben, sag ihr, was gut in der Schule, ja, gut, keine schlechten Noten, wie Fisch im Wasser in Schule, das freut mich, es ist wirlich nicht leicht, lernen gut, wie meinen die anderen. Involvement in the discourse of close relatives is one of the favorite tactics of building speech communication where the positive and negative refraction of characteristics enables successful conversation. However, extension of the number of recipients is not limited to close relatives. Often zone of communicative process is "added" with people that worked at a certain period of time with the subject. Ich erzahle dir schon, bei Kapitan war ich in der Datscha, bauten wir viel, gab uns Brot und anderes Essen, sagt mein Freund, was fir Leben fir uns, kaum kann glauben, uberall kein Essen, Krieg war, Hunger, Hunger und wir essen gut, не жаловались, er sagt, das ist nichts nur nickte, verstand alles, das war wirklich schwer mit dem Essen.

Concerning the characteristics of narrative we should say that "qualifications" of the addressee play an important role that is verified by the speaker due to creating background of historical events and phenomena. Certainly one of these events is the Great Patriotic War, the image of which is captured by dark tones in the memory. Focus on such vector of conversation makes the addressee trace not only the mood of the speaker in the description of events, but also pay attention to the extralinguistic factors of communication. Reflection in the text production of representatives of Russian-German House as communication partners is also of great interest. Isolation as a communicative partner of his fellow citizens pushes the addressee to the idea of "internal" needs to build his argument so that the addressee could differentiate produced text and mentally divide it into thematic blocks, as well as to monitor the progress in the deployment of arguments. Wir sassen vor allem im Deutsch-Russischen Haus in Krasnoarmeiskaja, einmal kam zu uns Gast, erzahlt uber Deutschland, Leben dort, Merkel, Kontakte, wir waren froh erfahren, das war gut aus Leben in Deutschland, hor weiter, er sagt uns, fahren sie nach Deutschland, schaue weiter, sie konnen noch viel, eben, aber niemand wollte es, wir sind alt, junge mussen fahren.

3. Conclusion

The analysis of "author and "addressee" in the context of studying the text production of individual speaker is based on the model of verbal interaction representing the communicative process in various communication situations. The main unit of communicative interaction of language personality and other participants of conversations is the text considered as a multi-level speech phenomenon, which has a sense sequence of statements of the speaker due to the impact on the recipient, completed volume and is characterized by a set of text attributes. The interpretation of the meanings of conceptual systems coded in the structure of verbal behavior of J.K is key to establish an effective model of the communicative interaction that is required for the disclosure of the phenomenon of language personality.

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