Scholarly article on topic 'Fair Value Measurements (FVMs) Rejection and Reconstruction: A Phenomenological Study of Internal Accountant Response towards FV Accounting and Reporting'

Fair Value Measurements (FVMs) Rejection and Reconstruction: A Phenomenological Study of Internal Accountant Response towards FV Accounting and Reporting Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Fair Value" / Noise / "Transcendental Phenomenology" / Response / "Internal Accountants" / " Ruwatan Sukerto " / "Four Dimension Financial Statements"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Roekhudin, Iwan Triyuwono, Eko Ganis Sukoharsono, Rosidi

Abstract This study aims is to investigate phenomenon, namely the response of internal accountants toward fair value (FV), to uncover the meaning of the phenomenon, and to reconstruct FV financial statements. The research methodology used is transcendental phenomenology and ruwatan sukerto as a method of reconstruction. The study was conducted in Indonesia by employing in-depth interview with internal accountants. The results showed that there was rejection towards fully FV implementation, which is essentially FV noise rejection. By employing the method of reconstruction, the noise can be eliminated. This was done by reconstructing the FV financial statements using Four Dimensional Financial Statements.

Academic research paper on topic "Fair Value Measurements (FVMs) Rejection and Reconstruction: A Phenomenological Study of Internal Accountant Response towards FV Accounting and Reporting"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 211 (2015) 880 - 889

2nd Global Conference on Business and Social Science-2015, GCBSS-2015, 17-18 September

2015, Bali, Indonesia

Fair Value Measurements (FVMs) Rejection and Reconstruction: a Phenomenological Study of Internal Accountant Response towards

FV Accounting and Reporting

Roekhudina*, Iwan Triyuwonob, Eko Ganis Sukoharsonoc, Rosidid

a,b,c,dAccounting Department, Economics and Business Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aims is to investigate phenomenon, namely the response of internal accountants toward fair value (FV), to uncover the meaning of the phenomenon, and to reconstruct FV financial statements. The research methodology used is transcendental phenomenology and ruwatan sukerto as a method of reconstruction. The study was conducted in Indonesia by employing in-depth interview with internal accountants. The results showed that there was rejection towards fully FV implementation, which is essentially FV noise rejection. By employing the method of reconstruction, the noise can be eliminated. This was done by reconstructing the FV financial statements using Four Dimensional Financial Statements.

© 2015 The Authors.Published by ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the 2nd GCBSS-2015

Keywords:Fair Value, Noise, Transcendental Phenomenology, Response, Internal Accountants, Ruwatan Sukerto, Four Dimension Financial Statements

1. Introduction

This study aims to reveal the meaning of fair value (FV) basis for internal accountants. The motivation behind this study is the controversial transformation of the historical cost (HC) basis towards the FV basis, although this has been

Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-8123-399-1295; fax.: +6-341-553-834. E-mail address: roynajam@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the 2nd GCBSS-2015 doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.116

a long debate in the past (Zeff, SA. 2007). The controversy is not only related to the FV concept itself but also because of the inconsistencies of previous findings.

Conceptually, Ijiri (1975) suggests that the HC-based accounting system is designed to facilitate accountability function, while the FV-based accounting system is designed to provide useful information for economic decision making for various stakeholders. Therefore, the supporters of the FV base claim that the HC base has lost its relevance and should be replaced by FV base (Francis and Schipper, 1999; Jenkins, 1994; Rimerman, 1990; Barlev and Hadad, 2003; Lev and Zarowin, 1999; Hitz, 2007).

Hitz (2007) states that the paradigm shift towards FV was driven by the view of the relevance of market based measurement. Barlev and Hadad (2003) also state that the FVM measures and disclose the market price of an asset or liability and therefore has a relevance value, full disclosure, and high transparency. Choy (2006), quoting from various sources, explicates that the FV supporters claim that the FV provide better information about the economic conditions of a company, more in-depth information to investors regarding the prevailing market value, and also has better power predictive than HC method. However, Ball (2005) believes that these conditions can be achieved if the two requirements can be met. First, there is a market price that is not influenced by the company management. Second, the market price can be observed independently so that it becomes an accurate estimator for illiquid markets.

The problem arises if the market price is unobservable. In such conditions, the company is required to use various inputs and the model is developed based on the best information available in a variety of situations, including the availability of data and estimates of the company. As a result, management actions can lead to noisy information as a consequence of errors of measurement (noise models) or bias measurement (Ball, 2005). Carpentier et al. (2008) gave the example of the application of FV when most securities and stocks do not have an active market, although FV can be used to measure correctly the shares are illiquid, historical cost is a reasonable method and consistently assess the value of shares that are not in active market.

Likewise, the results of research on the relevance and reliability of FV are not consistent. Bernard et al. (1995), in his research, using secondary data banks of Denmark, found that the fair values or mark-to-market accounting (MTM) produce information that is more relevant when compared with the HCA (Historical Cost Accounting). Meanwhile, Barth and Clinch (1996), by using data from 350 public companies in Australia, and also by using the two models, namely price and rate of return, find relevance value for financial assets and intangible assets, but the results vary for intangible assets. Furthermore, related to the adoption of SFAS 107, two banking research conducted by Barth et al. (1996) and Nelson (1996), by using data from the same period, found varying results depending on the design of the study.

Other studies, for example in the case of asset valuation, by citing the findings of Sloan (1999), Choy (2006) explain that symmetrical relationship assumption between the stock price of the underlying asset relies on the assumption of an efficient market. In fact, Bignon et al. (2009) revealed that the use of the principle of FV can cause volatility problems in accounting numbers. FV is even blamed for the financial crisis that occurred in 2007. The use of FVA does not help to prevent the crisis, but rather worsen the situation.

The debate around the concepts and research results about FV as mentioned earlier, proves that the noisy information generated by FMV not only lead to questioning the relevance of FV information, but also a reflection of the weakness of impact of information reliability of FV resulting from noise models (Ball, 2005; Sloan, 1999). That is, FV is not a panacea for the decline quality financial statements (Swagerman, 2003).

The question is why the phenomenon [controversy] still happening? Is FV base in exchange for HC base not considered to provide more relevant, up-to-date, and transparent information? We found the adoption of FV base in exchange for base HC is not just a mere change in the calculation basis. More than that, it involves a change of purpose financial statements. If the relevance of information is regarded as a more important quality that must be achieved at the expense of reliability of information, the impact on the internal accountant's role changes are significant. That is, the role of internal accountant in charge to build accounting system to ensure the reliability of information also becomes unimportant (Ijiri, 1975). In this case, the next question is what is the meaning FVM for internal accountant? Are the internal accountants most responsible to implement the FV basis?

Sanders (2001) explain that in order to answer the questions mentioned above, more effort is needed than to use ordinary observation or normative paradigms. In other words, revealing the meaning of the phenomenon cannot be

done simply by using quantitative measure or indicator that places more emphasis on the relation between the numbers of accounting and indicators of the market only. Based on this argument, this study was designed as a qualitative empirical research in Indonesia by using the approach developed by Husserl, namely transcendental phenomenology. Furthermore, this methodology is described in the following sections.

2. Transcendental Phenomenology as Methodology

The steps that must be done in a transcendental phenomenology research are: (1) determining the observed object (what?), and informants (who?), (2) data collection, and (3) data analysis (Moustakas, 1994; Creswell, 1998; and Sanders, 1982). The core of all the stages and analysis is to study the conscious experience of an individual or individuals (phenomena), then move towards an analysis of the meanings constructed in the process of awareness and lead to critical individual reviewing (Sanders, 1982).

Stage 1: What and Who? According to the view classical phenomenological theory, the structure of the experience we have regarding something will be displayed again through concepts, thoughts, ideas, imagination and others. In such a manner, the meaning or content of experience (nature) that is different from anything that is intended or represented will be obtained. In other words, the phenomenon reflects the direct experience of a person (Kuswarno, 2009). That is, the point of phenomenology is to get straight to the pure and unencumbered vision of what an experience essentially is (Sanders, 1998).

Investigations conducted in this method places more emphasis on the awareness of intentionality without supposing conceptual presuppositions (epoch) of empirical science (rationalism and empiricism). For Husserl, science must always be grounded in 'the experiential' (that is the experiencer). For him, the relationship between the perceptions of the objects is not passive. Husserl argues that human consciousness (noesis) actively containing objects of experience (noema). Citing the opinion of Polkinghorne (1989), Creswell states that a researcher phenomenology task is to explore the structure of consciousness within human experience (Creswell, 1998). This principle should be the basis for any qualitative research on practices and behavior that form the reality of (Holstein and Gubrium, 2009).

Phenomenology should depart from the human subject and his/her consciousness and attempt to return to pure consciousness. Phenomenology teaches' go back to the thing itself "free from all presuppositions (prejudice)", because it is itself an object of consciousness directly in pure form or pure knowledge. To arrive at these qualities, Husserl emphasizes one important thing: postpone presupposition by putting in brackets (bracketing) knowledge of the observed phenomena. Presupposition should be postponed so that the phenomenon reveals itself.

In summary, the object of this study is phenomenon whose essence is the consciousness of the internal accountant who will produce a response to the adoption of FV as the basis of accounting and the financial reporting. The internal accountants are chosen as informants because in phenomenological approach, the source of information should come from individuals who have relevant experience with the phenomenon under study (Creswell, 1998).

Stage 2: Data Collection Methods. Phenomenology is a science without a preposition. Therefore, we do not assume to know the meaning of FV for the internal accountants investigated, namely Binto, Eko, Agus, Hady, Edu, and Sitty. This was done in order to maintain the purity of the relationship between the intentionality of consciousness of the subject with the object under study.

The researchers have tried to get into the conceptual world of the subject (informants) were examined to understand what and how an understanding is developed by informants around events in everyday life (profession) (Moleong, 1999). In summary, phenomenologist himself becomes data collection instruments to record all in-depth interviews with the informant to grasp the meaning of the phenomenon under investigation.

Stage 3: Data Analysis. Data analysis was done by adopting a model developed by Sander (1982). This model is considered to be simpler because Sanders only proposes a four-step analysis, that is: (1) Description of data using the media transcription of the results of interviews with informants. (2) Identification of important themes is revealed in the description. (3) Analysis of the data through the development correlates between noema to noesis (Noetic/noumatic correlates) through subjective reflection researcher. (4) Abstraction of correlate.

According to Chamberlain (1974) the core of all stages and the analysis in the phenomenological research is to study the conscious experience of an individual or individuals (phenomena), then move towards an analysis of the

meanings constructed in the process of awareness and the lead to critical individual reviewing (Sanders, 1982). Nevertheless, the success of a researcher in unraveling the meaning of phenomenon is seen not enough to resolve the issue. Critical attitude toward the meaning of a phenomenon researchers provide opportunities for him to reopen the epoche which from the beginning has been built into a stance.

Therefore, as a follow-up to unfold the meaning of the adoption of FV, the next step is to attempt to reconstruct the meaning behind the phenomenon revealed by adopting the local wisdom that is ruwatan sukerto. In Javanese culture, Ruwatan sukerto is a reconstruction model that is used to liberate people from sufferings or sukerto due to a variety of circumstances. To conduct of Ruwatan, Javanese society held leather puppets by taking the story Murwa Kala. As told in the play, of Ruwatan sukerto described as a ritual of purification or liberation of evil without having to eliminate the existence of the nature of evil itself. In the of Ruwatan, Kala as the carrier evil nature is not killed, but purified from the evil nature by way of weakening the evil nature carries. Thus, the threat from the Kala that cause unrest will disappear and thus the life of mankind wills Slamet (Rusdi, 2012). The aim of the adoption of this methodology is to provide criticism and to suggest alternatives or solutions to the phenomenon by analyzing informant's response to the adoption of FV as a measurement of financial accounting and reporting.

3. Result and Discussion

Various responses to FVM expressed by internal accountants that were successfully interviewed in this study. After going through the phenomenological analysis, there are several important topics (major issue) that are interesting to be explored further to get the meaning behind the phenomenon. The first issue is the attitude of conservatism and opportunistic motivation. The second topic is the benefits and costs of FV information, and the fourth is tax and the distortion of information resulting from FV implementation.

3.1. Conservatism and the Motivation Opportunist

Financial statements are information intended to serve the interests of external parties. They are those who do not have access to information directly into the company's accounting records. Therefore, they are fully dependent on the financial statements published by the management (accountant). If this is attributed to the discretionary choice of the HC or FV basis, as stipulated in the IAS 16 in paragraphs 29 (IASB, 2008), then FV should be chosen as the normative basis of accounting measurement and the preparation of financial statements. However, King (2009) reminded that the information required by external parties is not always good for internal control and measurement of managerial performance.

Dietrich et al. (2001) in the investigation on the management's discretion to the choice of on FV-based accounting method, found that managers choose among a variety of accounting methods to report higher earnings performance, the changes are more subtle (smooth), and to boost the FV of assets for purposes obtaining credit. Likewise, the results found by Song (2008), show that FVO (fair value option) causes unwanted effects. FVO provided by standard would lead to moral hazard for management. This is done by utilizing the FVO to report higher profits and avoid losses, for example by performing earnings management and through the restructuring of the portfolio.

In line with the study of Song and Dietrich et al. the application of FVM is thoroughly rejected by the Indonesian company's internal accountants that were successfully interviewed in this study. Eko, for instance, states that the application of FV for fixed assets is very scary. Profit of companies could rocket sky-high. Therefore, he prefers the application of HC for fixed assets. Other informants, Binto also doubted the existence of the market price of assets in different areas of the company that are spread from cities to villages. Furthermore, Sitty also explained that the HC base is correct. With HC, companies are more cautious (conservative).

Furthermore, the discussion about the conservative attitudes shows, as Agus explained, that PT. Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk. still apply the revaluation method though limited for the financial assets, whereas for the fixed assets, the cost method is still applied. However, its application was limited for the purposes disclosure in the notes to the financial statements. Conservative principles are also applied in PT. Jasa Tirta when addressing the application of the FV. Sitty explained that FV is applied to financial assets only and HC is still fully applied for the fixed assets. He also

stated that the application of FV for the fixed assets is very scary because corporate profits could rise sharply without being followed by cash inflows.

Conservative practices also occurred in PT. Indo Aluminium. As a private company, PT Indo Aluminium is not bound to apply the method of FV. Therefore, as Hady explained, that the company has implemented FV limited for the financial assets, whereas for the fixed assets still using HC. He suggested that it is better for the measurement of assets or liabilities on the basis of FV are used only as a disclosure.

In contrast to the practices applied in some of these companies, the application of FV in PT. Bentoel International Investama Tbk. has been done when it was acquired by PT. BAT Indonesia Tbk. in 2010. As explained by Eko, starting in 2011, PT Bentoel already applies IFRS using FV basis for the reporting to the owners in the UK. However, for the reporting to the Securities Control Board (BAPEPAM) still used Indonesia standards, namely the SAK. Thus, the financial statements prepared by the company come in two models. The first model is using IFRS, and other models are using SAK as basis. The model used discloses three columns information, which are HC, adjustment, and FV ".

Results of the research that has been presented indicates similar phenomenon among the company's internal accounting in response to the application of FV base, that is resistant to the total change of HC to FV bases. They still apply FV method in bits and pieces. FV applied limited for the financial assets, whereas for the fixed assets still apply HC basis as set out in IAS 16. In fact, they suggest if FV should be applied to fixed assets, it should only be limited for the purposes of the disclosure in the notes to the financial statements.

The reality is interesting to be questioned. Why there is rejection of the application of FV thoroughly? Responding to the results of this research, there are at least two arguments put forward by the informant. The first argument is that accounting standards still allow the application other than FV that is HC base. The second argument is regarding the interests of management. Application of FV base thoroughly considered bad consequences to the interests of management that relates to a system and tax preparation fee to be paid and distortion of information.

3.2. Benefits and Cost of Fair Value

Indonesian Accountant Magazine Issue No. 16 / Year III / 2009, in the main report, discuss the application of fair value controversy in Indonesia. The controversy is particularly related to the implementation of PSAK-50/2006 on Financial Instruments, Presentation and Disclosure, and PSAK 55/2006 on Financial Instruments, Recognition and Measurement. It must be known that the two PSAK were adopted from IAS fully; including already adopted FV. The controversy arises because of the lack of internal readiness of banks in terms of infrastructure and technical terms. It also required an expensive investment costs for the purchase of information systems and technology for the financial reporting applications.

The high costs of the application of FV are also recognized by Binto, internal accountant of one of the bank owned by the government, which expressed concern over the level of the bank leaders. They are worried that the application of FV may interfere with the performance of the company. The main reason is the transformation of the old system into the new system that is based on FV is costly, especially related to the change of IT and preparation of human resources. However, despite the perceived costs of implementing FV that is burdensome for many companies, he acknowledges that the effects of the application of these standards are able to raise the company's profit. This is also recognized by Agus, internal accountants of state-owned enterprises, in terms of the application information, the FV provides clearer information to the stakeholder, the measurements and disclosure become clearer, so that the users can make decision with more certainty, fraud -fraud that more could be eliminated again.

In ssummary, the explanation points to the fact that the issue of the application of FV methods is not only lies in the high cost of information. Therefore, investment costs are only felt during the initial setup of the infrastructure needed to convert from the HC-based system into a system FV base. Although the perceived high costs, they will continue to pay. Indeed, they are more afraid of the impact of the application of FV in term of the distortion of accounting and tax information that is considered burdensome to the company.

3.3. Tax and fair value information distortion

The management is very concerned about the economic performance of the company. Bell and Edwards (1961) explains that the economic performance of the company essentially describes the result of management decisions. Therefore the application of a standard should provide balanced benefits for both the internal and the external party. However, sometimes there are frequent demands from external parties to the need for accounting information contrary to the interests of management.

In the context of the application of FV, an indication of such a conflict of interest is considered by Gwilliam and Jackson (2008) who found an asymmetry of interest between the management for the recognition to mark to market gains through the income statement with the desire to avoid the recognition of mark to market losses. Some results of these studies indicate that of FV becomes the object of manipulation (Dechow et al., 2010), or earnings management to avoid earnings volatility (Quangli and Ricciardi 2010; Fiechter, 2011). Fiechter (2011) explained: "... higher levels of earnings volatility are associated with lower market values (Easton and Zmijewski, 1989; Hodder et al., 2006), are perceived as riskier (Graham et al., 2005), and increase of the likelihood of bankruptcy (Kim et al., 2001; Guariglia and Garcia-Vega, 2007).

High earnings volatility associated with a low market value, is considered risky, and increases the likelihood of bankruptcy. That's why one thing feared by Edu in the adoption of FV is that the profit of the company could explode. He said: ''How much will we get from selling the adjacent building [meaning BRI Tower I]? What a high resale values. You got billions of dollars. In fact, the book value stays small. If it should be revalued, how much income should I report? And how much tax should be paid?"

Profit as a measure of performance, by taking the example of a case that occurred in the BRI branch offices in Solo that received BOT building of a third party, Binto recognized that earnings rose sharply due to the revaluation does not depict the actual performance of managers. According to him, it is not fair if such income is used to assess the performance of the head of the branch office manager. The company decided to accept BOT profit recognition is presented in the central office. This is done to avoid distortion of performance measurement for branch offices.

Another informant, Sitty, internal accounting of PT. Jasa Tirta, admits that his company is already implementing FV limited to financial assets and fixed selecting measurement methods of acquisition of fixed assets. He recognizes that human resources, information systems, and the cost of appraisal is the reason that burdensome if you have applied the method revaluation of fixed assets. However, he argues that the real fear is not the costs that must be borne by the company in order to implement FV basis but the impact of the increase in profit. In this context Eko states that if all assets were revalued using FV basis, the value of assets will rise dramatically and this will impact on the tax to be paid. Though profit seems bulging, there is no cash flow at all. He saw the application of FVM still faces many obstacles.

3.4. Reflection

The Company is a party that is responsible for the application of accounting standards as the basis for the preparation of financial statements. That role has been undertaken with very well by the internal accountant with sticking to conservative principles into the doctrine from HC base. The principle of conservatism led him to conduct denial of all transactions or events before realized though intrinsically a material effect on the financial statements. Such an attitude now should be abandoned along with growing demands on the usefulness of accounting information for capital providers. The situation is then led to the transformation of the preparation of financial reporting objectives that cannot be avoided; that are a shift from accountability approach into decision-oriented approach.

In a decision-oriented approach, the obligation of management is to present financial information that is relevant and honest (faithfully presentation). If so, FV accounting is basis which should be chosen and applied completely to the preparation of financial statements. FV base requires companies to measure and recognize the increase or decrease in the value of assets or liabilities, with reference to the 'market price', although it has not been realized. This means that all the economic changes that have the potential to affect the assets and liabilities should be measured and reported in the financial statements.

However, FV basis as a means to achieve this conception is still constrained by a number of weaknesses that led to the standard constituent bodies into the trap that is demands to produce financial statements that are relevant and honest in conflict with the demands of reliability (reliability trap). Therefore, the accounting standard setter's body does not impose FV as the sole measurement basis of accounting and financial reporting.

Consistent with this argument, the study found that internal accountant with various arguments refuses to implement FV especially in fixed assets. This refusal arises because it is influenced by conservative attitudes are formed from experiences in the past (awareness) when they implementing HC base. Although, in fact they also realize that the implementation of the overall FV will produces more relevant, up-to-date and transparent information for users of financial statements.

Indeed, awareness of personal self-contradictory in the internal accountant described as restlessness; in the Java language called sukerto. Moreover, if we look more deeply, the meaning behind the rejection of FV is a form of expression of consciousness arising from the changing role of internal accountants themselves. We believe that this role changes caused by changes in the fundamental purpose financial statements of accountability approach into decision-usefulness approach. A fundamental change is shaping internal accountant into a slave or servant of capital providers, which is to meet the information needs for decision making; no matter how.

In such circumstances, it is normal that within the 'slave' arise opportunistic motivation that is utilizing every opportunity as much as possible to choose the basis of accounting and financial reporting makes it possible to be able to avoid losses and maximize its interests. Thus, in conditions of such suffering, it is not wrong if the internal accountants choose HC to be implemented for fixed assets as long as it is allowed by the standard. Such a situation cannot be left without a solution. Sukerto is suffered by the internal accountant should be released. To do so, a ritual namely ruwatan sukerto should be done.

3.5. Ruwatan Sukerto: the reconstruction of Four Dimensional Financial Reporting

In the context of the adoption of FV, liberation efforts from the unrest due to noise it creates can be done by doing the reconstruction of the financial statement presentation as a form of Ruwatan. This is done by bringing back the HC-based financial statements coupled with the financial statements FV base in a new format called 'Four Dimensional Financial Statements'. It is believed that, by conducting Ruwatan Sukerto, internal accountant can avoid the opportunistic nature of motivations. Thus, the financial statements as an instrument of accountability and as a tool for measuring the performance of of management preserved its function. Meanwhile, the idea to provide more useful information to users of financial statements is also met.

Application of the FVO as set forth in Current GAAP (IFRS and IAS) will produce financial statements with a mix of attributes, the combination of FV with HC. This is the result from the mixing between realized and unrealized gains and losses. As a result, the volatility of the information resulting from the application of such FV does not fully reflect all the changes in the market price of the asset or liability. The consequences from this condition is believed by Abdel-Khalek (2008) will lead to asymmetry of information, and lower transparency, misinterpretation of failure as success, and conversely success as a failure, and can lead to errors asset distribution as dividends.

Based on this argument, Abdel-Khalek (2008) proposed a new form of financial statements which he called: Two Sets of Financial Statements. That is, the comparison between the financial statements HC base to the financial statements full FV base. In this way, the volatility of accounting information will describe all the information FV asset or liability.

We appreciate the proposal Abdel-Khalek (2008), but it is not yet complete. The disadvantage is no explanation of the differences between HC information and information FV. Explanation of this information is important to determine the cause of the differences between them and the changes that occur over these differences. In addition, to facilitate the reader of financial statements required a brief explanation as markers of the qualitative aspects FV measurement.

With such an argument, we propose four-dimensional comparative financial statements as improvement to the proposals of Abdel-Khalek (2008). The new form of the financial statements are no longer two columns, but in four columns as shown in the following table.

Table 1. Four Dimensional Financial Reporting

Account Titles HC Financial Statements Difference FV Financial Statements Qualitative aspects of FV

Asset XXX VVV ZZZ label

Liabilities (XXX) (VVV) (ZZZ) label

Equities XXX VVV ZZZ label

Explanation of the Table

Column 1 is the title of the account balance (that is, assets, liabilities and equity). The second column (2) is a HC-based financial statement presentation. As applicable today, presenting the accounting numbers reported in the Balance Sheet or Statement of Financial Position based on actual transactions. The third column (3), is presenting a difference, which is to accommodate the change in value of an asset or liability due to the revaluation on the basis of FV. The difference values are temporal or temporary. If at a later date difference is realized, as a result of a transaction or because of certain events, the realized amount is recorded in the historical financial statements as an increase or decrease in an asset or liability. Without exception, all aspects surrounding the change should be disclosed briefly in the notes to the financial statements in accordance to IFRS or other relevant standards.

The fourth column (4) is the presentation of financial statements to full FV based. That is, if in some IFRS still allow for HC, FV financial statements presented in this column should be prepared on the base FV applied in full. The last column that is the fifth column (5) is a brief description that serves as a marker of quality of FV measurement of an asset or liability. Label or mark that is loaded on this column as a marker of two things: (1) the degree of quality measurement of FV, and (2) the cause of the difference. Besides functioning as two things, the sign is contained in the column to 5 can be interpreted as a signal that serves as a warning that must be considered by the reader of financial statements with respect to the quality of the information presented. The higher degree of quality information indicates the validity and reliability of measurement also high. Conversely, the lower the degree of the quality of information demonstrates the validity and reliability of measurement is getting low. Its meaning is, the lower the degree of the quality of information required higher attention. Conversely, the higher the degree of the quality of information needed attention lower

Referring to the explanation, Four Dimensional Financial Statements is believed have several advantages for internal accountants that are: the first from the stewardship approach, it is provide useful information to assess the performance of management. Second, the Financial Statements Four Dimensions can reduce information asymmetry and to avoid internal accountant from opportunistic behavior motivation. In addition, the Four Dimensional Financial Statements provide more relevant information, reliable, up-to-date and transparent so that more useful for investors or creditors as a basis for decision making.

It was inevitable; Four Dimensional Financial Statements is flawed. First, the cost of preparation is more expensive when compared to HC's financial statements. The costs are associated with the price of the technology for the processing, presentation and delivery costs to the users of financial statements. However, as time passed, benefits will be higher than the cost to be paid to take care of him. Second, it takes a very detailed disclosure in the notes to the financial statements. Consequently, it takes a more detailed interpretation of IFRS as well. Surely, it cannot be avoided the more interpretations issued would infringe the principle base declared by the standard setters body

4. Conclusions and suggestions

In summary, the results of the study conclude that the application of the FVM can cause sukerto for internal accountants that are actualized in the form of opportunistic motivation. They refuse to implement FV thoroughly and still choose to implement the HC for assets with different arguments underlying various interests, that is: first, FV contains information distortion and therefore there is no benefit if it should be used as a basis for performance

measurement and reward. Secondly, it is objected to the requirement for companies to pay taxes in cash based on earnings due to revaluation. The third argument, the standards that govern the application of FV is not mandatory.

We propose that sukerto liberation effort should be made by reconstructing the presentation of the financial statements as a form of Ruwatan. This will take a form of 'Four Dimensional Financial Statements'. It is believed, by doing such Ruwatan Sukerto, opportunistic motivations of internal accountants can be avoided.

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