Scholarly article on topic 'ROAD TRANSPORT BARRIERS ENCOUNTERED BY PEOPLE WITH TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES IN JAPAN'

ROAD TRANSPORT BARRIERS ENCOUNTERED BY PEOPLE WITH TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES IN JAPAN Academic research paper on "Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)"

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{"Person with travel difficulties" / "Visually impaired person" / "Wheelchair user" / Barrier-free / "Understanding handicaps"}

Abstract of research paper on Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music), author of scientific article — Katsumi TOKUDA

This study looks in detail at specific barriers encountered by people with travel difficulties in Japan, and the barriers encountered by the visually impaired and wheelchair users in particular. These barriers include vehicles parked on sidewalks or textured paving blocks for the visually impaired, bicycles ridden on sidewalks, bicycles left on the sidewalk, uneven sidewalks, obstacles on sidewalks, undulating sidewalks, steep slopes, barging pedestrians, textured paving blocks that have been improperly laid, buttons on traffic lights for persons with disabilities that have been set up in inappropriate locations, etc.

Academic research paper on topic "ROAD TRANSPORT BARRIERS ENCOUNTERED BY PEOPLE WITH TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES IN JAPAN"

ROAD TRANSPORT BARRIERS ENCOUNTERED BY PEOPLE WITH TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES IN JAPAN

Katsumi TOKUDA

AssociateProfessor Facultyo1Education,Universityo1Tsukuba Ibaraki.aaaan

(ReceiveEkonavsyn,2001)

This studylooks indetailatspecific barriersencounteredbypeoplewith travel difficulties inJapan,andthe barriersencountered by the visually impairedandwheelchairusersin particular.These t^arnsi^viun^L^ds eea^c^o^^ber^edou oibewaiaaortextnredpoeiogblnckafor the visually im-aairee, bicycles iJedeoonsidewalks.Cicsklds leftes ^J^^uitdete^f^inissi^j^^ns^dssb^^ii^s^, eko^i^c^^^ on sidewaiessueduldtinosiaewalks.sreep slopes, Carging pedesrtianSiraxtsreepaeingbiokksthatncbbbeenlmprcpeJiyiaibikoaoup entrafflo llbSrofer ^PJ^euc Usabilities thatuaeebeenset up in inapproptiareleeatlees, eUc.

Key Words: Pussos with tuneee PirricuirleSi Viauciiyimpaitedpersoh|Whoelchair uueri Bamer-feee, UueetnUandingUasdicaps

1. INTRODUCTION

There isanincreasing c^mot^nlr^fi^^i^e^c^rchEind dis-cussionworldwideonthesubjectofidentifying ml elimi-oatiog S^^i^rif^i^^^ioLC^t^^i^r^isrCrci^raat^ng barrier-free environments. IniaaanOoo,researchisendanwao into pe-hestriao enviroimlenicfgipirsons wiihUisabiiiIivsfrom a numberog difgeceatpercc>evtives.

Persons dli^llt^^rsa)ilitifr^llhtiic^^ famiUcioften relate stories aOeutthemnnybamerstheyeucounter. Fujikada1 c^i^dhi^m2, bohlvieuana impvigeOifebeclted the advantages^! oftexturaUtaging

blocks fromnvIsouaiepperience.TsxSngedpaving blocks, theyrry, eredommimss nnlyCC adntimetars in length comparedtotheurual 30cdnCimcteri n^tlthere is alwaystnapossibilltothal ivisnallaimpairenperson might l:dkolowinglysCanovrrnncoC tdesmallrjblocks. They aisorrythaCtextig•adblockpathscra ofaimost no help andtUatCheya1"rsnmetimeswsanpln positloned in such a wruthatnaopiacanbeiedstraiunt intoa post or wall. ButtonsonsonanSlraCficsignaic arelehelfd "for the visuallylmUaired' '.Yet, itisanuious thsipeisons dith visuailmuaidnant eseubabletoreadtbe iadlls and, unless anv1'sokrnlowrthetShe nuttohisrhece,rbe function isounrable.

"The ЗOcmUcCeryZone'lbllbiisnibocdmmntee3, Ceatureh ldearfrdm nisualidimpeiran nrrsons Unrigying texturel pavingblbcnsrearlu,gpnp<sih1LeU out thet the texturel i^i^^l^r^iil^rbcf^^iiiL ^cor^"t oh Chiba Orarlonnnt only

serve noerpnic c forvirurlldimgalredpersaxsbul also present aUarrivrtoCdem.

PcopIc withdirabiliticrhavenacnlnrveyed and researches carriedellt toi0eorlfonVeiriirectylervnuire-ments. E &P surtc^^t4 isvcvey 2n27i vilnally

impairehpersonsonChamcvnoenictlfesrheyrxcouniered in dally lininabothinsiUaandohCsidethdhgme1 Their result indicalestUafontiidolhfhnmffgcaOi anf side-dalks are parnicurarUaavgns inalrafCicenvidonment. Nagamatsu5 conducCedauawerenesssvrrroofvrsnally impaireh persons ontneusc ofengrynab lasiiitiaj, aacili-ties designedfsr the visuallylmuaicgditexSugedvading blocks andsouanStrcfClahinlts.TXvsurveyirldicetes that sonant trccfic liohIranntextugaUpaginobtoaksuiay an importantroieiniocatinghedestricnfIossingr.Trt;dyama anlOno6 or aCsct-Chi0aIxsui•nroofror0 con0itronjaffect-ing visualln lmpairednfpplanntethalapeguagunder-stanhing amongtnnca rrounOCfexrauallyimngiren is of more lmportancetUan imnrooioufaciliIiesmjhecreation oc aUarrive-fceeenglrodment.Yamamoto,SUiU ada and Masuin conducted c ^^t^t^y So idanriey i^Cc^im^inmation neeheh to wlkbby ^^miliariaiog sighCedsbUtcctdwithChe use <cf ccanegndrhenhiindfolding them. The study re-vealeh thai, wCad walking alone witllfhense ofacane, the designahdinraarialion oftegfhrenblpfknattls are of crucial lmportance.

Yonehara andehiUata8 surveyedjenooirforChe blinh andchnvrCaailiCicsforlhcvrsnallyrmngiraU that teach visuallylmuaifgPpeoniedowtumaketdeir way arounh onfoot.ThesvrrvycevegieU nndtrnmanycases,

a gge diffi-

iscluOeO wearingbrishn eictd^i^ri^ei showcCooereOroads auO g^^^^^^j-^i^iei^i^sur^ t^^iPes^c^s^ntlpa^j^j^^oecl^Cr^g ve-Ciclen. Inslructlonseodme1SlogsПorimprooing ide environment onsnhw-ecerredpedertoianthOTceghfanes were nonuexistent.

An mentionedabcee^esecrch en-

cirddmedtn foruпrsотlswiOtdirabilltiasandbereiпrifree edcirodmedtn isUeioncпeriedouidromocripuspeaspec-ticen: identifyIngOпrriпns,enhjronmeot eicevefopment noce astowkoiannInc.dumeosupport onOundersCand-idc gfOeodifaps.O]Wwever,tnc sceieoftirereseerch to Oate hasueen small:typ1callC;thcstdgyortile nteds of tCe visuallylmoaired;reseccchroufloedto entremely narrow fleidseodresecccningoluInu yniyagecrf1cbarriers. A fotgO resecrchceoeeisodhait witO creatidgberrier-gree enviroImienttfrom aha8dwaaeparapectivesoeh as elimidatidc sSairseocl impronInctOeaooieof indie on ildpei. However,tUпrehasOeco ygrпlittierпaearen into imprdcidc iheodbiic'sundeIStanOIng cf Ihetecfficlssues gacidc Chose wiif P1rabilities.

dCoi, aglor asthettafelgsafetonepOc oadisabled peOeitriadi andrUeiraceldeotaupericilPes creconcerned, tCii reportCncpse sontnecpmprehevsiotlaonavstive ituOiei in whicntheacohcrhasyleoeuaney role9,10,11 soO attempistoldentifytha darriprspresent in a traggic encironmentasoeaeIeiuedbernose witndisabliiSipsas fur-tCer otSomlationto augmentrepprts receiveO fromdisabled memders gforlrsociaeicthefinOingsdfsmalies studies anO iheresultstheauihor'suwnongoingficiVsurveys.

2. EFFORTS FOR CREATING A BARRIER-FREE ENVIRONMENT

dCe firstsfroOargfora barrier-freeedviromnent in Japan wasesSabiisOedid 1983 wheothe "UN Decade for Persons wish Disabilitlrs]'commencedrnd Me Mimsgry of dranspoпt formdiatedouiuenoeg forfacillties for aisabled persons idOdbli efranspeettdrminalSlFollowinotnis in 1915, Che ^Iis^^tto of Opdsaructionissded guiOeipcпsfor lay-inc pavingblnekprrgsfvruisually1morireddereons, and inl991,iiie MinistrgofOranlport formuictldes:edeimes for installinc esca1atorsmeallwaystetiPds.Fcrldermотe, in 1995, ae-usarsieeIeg8wasfoonulrteOaeaptiorityimple-menIaIionprojectfor ahewIpdgdetm gom forda Us abled to oidfromfisc TMsItrpleey pro-

poseO ereUcoelPdmedi pUoedпs1rianarees cud thetieppidg

up of methodstofacilitatemovement andi^ran^i^jtc^r^ation.

In 2000 , nnewlawwniantrotOiced,f oanmonly re-terreO ^ods^t^eiOJatoi^i^ot^teeLaht, to facilitatrtheunhin-OeoeO nac^\^^m^t^1;ofi^tieeoe(taodc^ifi^O^^dun pdblic irenspari and wornbeganoninsidlllnceocalatoroin rail-Loy ^^ai^c^t^sidOf- iotroducinnbusLS'hithotltstent and iuaea wittluoudsseO tlc^oting toalfowyeoo aaoars for p^pls id wUeelтnai)•s.

MeenLhile, madyrmndP niadnmgprplects c^^ coming totendswiihtne barrier-sseect>dcepi. Maun munici-pel governmentsinJapanhsvanowdrawnupby"laws Oar townpiddninglhftmeke roomSt welCareconiider-eilans. ThefidsttointroOufedniowao Meohida City in Takya. IcintroUosedwoiUereenviroIUdetltdehplnumedt oIousss fprUditdiddoaddpthersSrautdseswithinitl mu-nlclpellfy.

Fram theueanbevindglg,tllef splratipot dOdisebled resiOents fprwndpniadnidn wilOacariuopessc>estive hems beentobeabietoenjpylneramdllhing chnditions es ableibpdledcitieddoanhthppppотttlyity fored inde-penOent life .TUdSddewbyllawt Ogldgreat protare for chenges to liciduedoirpnmedtsblitelnginowaot of improving exisfinoeocilitieoandcOrcking Osedevetppment hOneLOccllitlds ifarask hettoOedddressdd.Rfsidents' hrgenlzeflhns mdstUeeotabiisheh toidspesidesigds for campliencs withУyliswoaddpopraisedew racliisiтswhed chmplefeO. Attedfame time,mOTebn lawrareoeeded11.

3. WHO ARE PERSONS WITH TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES?

Peisons wiihlrcogi giCCicuitieseaepepplewhp, wCile dsidgiooroao ooemofoc ngilicie,IaiedChddter pCasical barrlers,(21 erendsooderstood OTinosrad by tCose arpuddiOdm,(3lareshut poO frompriged information (4)hrencouolerpbs1rtclesto ^ritnclioo oue to in-stitotional thedefidrtfonepvers

tCose wishehpsisalhanalcaps towdpmsteps, slairs, and SOOTS, eCc.dresenrbocsiere (idciudIhgwhce1chliru2ers); visoally lmpaireduorsunstowdpmpOareeleshcerhead or undetfoetpresehtbarriees;th8sewltkimpaired^lear-inc whpfco e gifficeltypicniop uglddprmetfodby ear socCasioespung paadoroarOCfg carsотuonodncements; precnant wpmen wnncaIdiotmopcsuddaely; theelderly who haverestrietePcighr;Oeerinh ^rmoi^^^i^^ct^^intel-lectoally handicapped wnorinIlitdiflieulttoadeuuately onOerstanO rpadпilesandg)aCfkIbeheviот•guidc dpg users whoseodmOors ererecaricfeO poplanec, etc.

This ^^p^t^rrlndWfoer,wiilCxfdsmahrlyonnhe visually lmpairedahdwhecichvirilsersann tjltpcdbiems then faceonChtroad.

3.1 Visually impalredpersons

There arevnvз300,000vifunlldiripainan inCapan. This istCandmbec pCpeodlewhd hnldccrtificftes for the whiyhidenllfoCdemasbeingvlsnally im-

paireh. ManyeoandrincioUadinthisbomber: Ore eld-erlr whdsuCCerfrdmrebcc fdvlsign duetv fctsracts or some othere] cdiseaseltnoiewhdruCfer fromshdrt sightehness ordistortev disidbnr0 do hvlhavc fosses or contactlanccs.Thesenaop1ilida ina sldtevimilar to that c>fvisualih impeiredpersdns.Indtdtrwdrds, there are moretUaU awewpeoole ouiwaiklngonthestreets who camtdScefvemwell.

People whdfaorDs wee til all arecalladbiind, and then areacsilgrecdgn1zaClebarccselhev wwlk with a white canesr erecfddmoanlan t>gi^nuis^e; goo•Those with reducedvislonicgcjecCedeyesighterdun0 0.03-0.3) are aisovisUalln impeiredbut,becaurelhooddndt use canes drxiilCcddgscbCbeceurelbao cab refnsrv visual iocosmation tdSdmeeorent(naopleerdUhCdremoften fail to ndticetTatChey0evex1auaidisabililies.

Both biindctppiaandpersdds wiChrcnufedvision are ndtoergrood wtwaikino This may

not pose aproniemwCiieleieurWU walkingthestseet but when gdingxiifdraparlicu iar pnrnose,such as to school, ^i^t^^it^i^i;,grtofhfhospitel,tnennfed ito move euickle, scfelyahdwithdut ctsess.Howeveriinreality, there are makOdbljaciestlnShcsidewaikjlblcsstias that speed aldngtnc cidewclblearstllatwlllnoi clow down even invarrww roadv,cpU perkedcarsbioakingChe sidewalk. Walkinofgf disualidimpeiraC 10080111 isashress-CuI experiencecsCheyntgvtiateShcsidewaiksrsnlng to avoid paocSuifollislons.

3.2 Wheelchair users

Wheelchairs are toooahianlmeans dfmoving 110X00 formic ewithnnys1calUisabiiiticr cffaatioo ^e lower ilmbs.Wnev eresomdtimesused as atemporary aih bytndcewhoaraunenle towelkcroperivbecause oi injury iaoU sObbo thosowlroare wiorw^o are debilitated byace.OClaranocnfdisabilitietdependron the cause andtpct vi affliotion. Madowhee1chcirilsers suf-cer fromiп•axu1arbodotemperatcreojlnconrmence. For them, findingtoiletc foiCheUisehled avdgaivingaccess to themivawheeifhair isumajoiproblem.

Mann wheeichairdcers inaao ai^tOoi^i^ivecars. Gaining aVrivinglicenieohddsldomodiCiad c^i^sis now

one ofthemostimportantfactors ini^n^jp^rov^ingt^cî quality of Oha fftthesepenple.NeverthslfiSithceeare many pcoblemt assodated \p/ithc^rin^o^htanh parO^oie one issue inhartiuuiarlhathaodstoberesotvoauryently.

4. CASE STUDIES OF ROAD TRANSPORT BARRIERS ENCOUNTERED BY PERSONS WITH TRAVEL DISABILITIES

This sectioncifcskeyreiearchintoroadttansport barriers carriedxiitinpac iritodate9,10,13,14,15,16,1n and lists iCemstVasshouid berafolveU aiamaileioCurgency.

4.1 Illegal andmusoneeparOing

In a mates snotey9 conducCedinl990l0lm0people were asked wnetnertheyheOever bpmned intoor col-liheU withvspncbcclt.Tne ^^rT/^^oa^^^l^ti tbotibout 80% hadxpcericbccp oroClems wiirifarpAoprovimetely 20% <if wneelyUairuscrortporte0 daing seriousiyincon-venienceh byfass10.

The majorilyoPpeoc1esoikegedrespondeU bres cars parkeh onsi0ewalniwere amgnolhegcennajtinconve-

Photo 1 Parked cars on the sidewalk

nientet (Photol).Even inploceiwhvreihesidpwalk is tontihecably hiiVterthantharoad,manahsiverspask their tact withthepassengeoaeldewheelt tn ihecihewalk so at nottoobctrutl ihestreet.AOV<tughthis ac-

tiondemonsSratesaonsihkra1non forotheroatiilihrf tents a majorb0slpcletooatsinhpedertrians.

Cact parkedonteulnaedrítiObgPlorks ato elao major obsiacles(Vnono a).Thititoehsehbekoivessnot re-alizino the aioaiiirapneoftOe seblpcksi nioense tanhihatet recervendmainstruanion inrelationtoeisu-ally tmpairedhahostrians.Wemutiutshma, l^^^et^^j^t that

Photo 2 A truck parked on textured paving blocks presents a major hazard and can break the blocks

Photo 3 Pedestrians must use the road to walk around vehicles on the sidewalk. This is a major cause of accidents and traffic congestion

cery fewdrioiopschoeisdrofiOeadequ cne mitraction conceroino parkingto allowfraspaospdo Cortnlvilually impaireOoriUeoigniC1cancp ofIiotopedpaoingbk>cks.

DisadleO personseodtheeldarlyrisU OhecrHces every tmieioaehave SowainaoookdeparkeOceiCPhoto 3). 90% gfblioppersonsrn0 80% ofwncaionelrusers report havinctowelnoctheshadweydtsome rime or other9,10. Wheeichairpsпrsandeldarlupedestrianscush-ino handsartirigk feilInvohecwhenaliuntindecom the sifewalb ontoSUпroadeddmusiigok Ooop remp to do so inspfety.Frequegtll,etheohadcihgo Oackeiong the patC Sheyhcooju clmoine tnfinO arampi once on the roaOway, Shey magfind ^l)tt^i^llei^lItDOct oeenouto the sifewalb and maoneeo toirayel somediitaneeaiong the roaf. Ine0ditludtoSh8t,whac1chcirusersereuneble to Iet backinto aaepsle8dwhac1chair gr^dgt^i^^iC^^^ have

occorreO becausegftУos.Thip1o pasSlcgleriy Sinect night when a wueelchairocthesoeOig c^^lifl^u^tOo see.

4.2 Bicycles onthe sidewalk

For people withtravelPiClicultias1УicucllsrlIshing past Shemnii theslhewaiUmsmiikeflyinoprojectiles. Oyclists musrOcconeciout pfpeohlewitctseggidifficul-ties c^i^di^iocc^c^ji^r^e^c^u^11.

do beloccific.fiIstly,thdymusttravelonihe correct sidegftheslhewaioand nottpeed.Pne8pan; where tCere arene speslaiblcycielanes, a wioteiine oothe side-walb separatesbicnglaandoedecSrianP•affia. Ufeeoing dicycles frightennoioniydaople wilhtravgi dCffifplties, tCey aisofriehtenyoungcOildrsnandordinprspedestri-ans. Theoisoally impolsedoennot seewhere tCewhite line iseod,becauicthere ere numirous obstacieson the siOewaib, Sheyfeooothlwayswaln cuttm edna.A]icidents csoooI bedrefente0uo1elccyciistraoo1d0enger0y stay-inc alertcrc yisualldimpeireO peosonswithlheirwhite canes and wUeeichairuoeos.

SeconOly, cyclists mpstngiforgetto iwitchlheir lioCIs onintheeoenioo orwhenit iscaimdg. Some people with reducedvislonfind itdifCleulttoIecatclcsn when the hiSrOcginstofede.Fcrdhsm.anapproachingbicУcle witC no Heltts l^r^clicl^i^lOi^ersr^^ ledmomenSend can ie astartlioyinsident. C^lci^i^im b^^lc^^ little uoise and witCoot i^ICits,SUao erealmosiinvislbia. Opedastrions are aware Chat a nlcyfleiladpaoaoOing,t1lauseuSakaille appropriate actlon(Snch a^^oo^Ing^oa nslttowait for the dicycle roo^ss.

ForlCeomore, cyciistsridinoon rec-

oonize ShatoeOestr1enshavepriorito.WcmuciOrioe the point homethatsldeweikoaremaiplhforpedsstrieos and tCat in0enoorops siSuaiionl:Cyciistsshoold ggtoff their dicycles ratherthenmaketkepedestrianllolt1Cyclists sCoolf i^^^^ci^nl^s^msio^I^ge^^i^t peosonswithdisabiilties, the eiderly:dOdnacl1ilUrenrkdnregn8niwomenon their dicycles (Photo4).

4.3 Bicycles teftunattenhed

Bicycles leftsiuttoreoon streeSsanPinergnt of doil0incs pose dmejorybstagle forihevisudllyimoaired anf for wUee1chairuoeot.Waikihgirounduoetteoded bicycles takes ^^mai^ndis ^r^remp^ii perilouslWe gien find dicycles parkednaarsIaiions, inOroptofshuoraIlbbanks, anf otherrhafes, dlocninoudroadsendan1rances but tCese ao^^^lsp oiacgo frcooentanbydisabiedderrocs(Pho-tos 5,6).

ManysnpptdunoShavabicyale-darCCko spaces. In tha1sese,wesnoul0 road

Photo 4 A cyclist and a wheelchair user come to a halt on a narrow sidewalk. The cyclist must wait to pass

Photo 5 Abandoned bicycles litter the area around railway stations and obstruct visually impaired persons

Photo 6 On wide sidewalks, wheelchair users can travel side by side even when there are abandoned bicycles and shop display signs

by a wall ot by ihejgiandrtli so as nolSoblocktne passage ocpedestrlans.

Neehless toiey,weshoul0 rnutpark bicycles over textureh pavingblbcOтandshouldieavedOcm oneither sihe oftna01oclcsVvnx1sua1lyimpcired people tovsss. Mann pav-

ing blocks .Wna bicyc ienundltsprxCrudeoeerlncblocks presenting theUancer uctco1fdioo(Photo 7).

Photo 7 If positioned parallel to and at least 50 centimeters away from the textured paving blocks, it is unlikely that the handle will snag passing visually impaired persons

Photo 8 A shop front with products stacked on top of the textured paving blocks

Photo 9 Some cases have been recorded where people with disabilities have fallen onto the roadway when trying to negotiate past display signs on narrow sidewalks

4.4 Steps, unevensufnaees,siunboards,mctnenndise and iitteruneidewalks

A suciey10 ShaSeskohwiieaichalruserswCe0herthey CaO everOeekpreveotedfrom oeioingeecesstoa loca-tionbecausegfstepsreoealedthaiaronn8P0%freqnently gace Shisdrhbldm.28%0pd f^i^e^^^ffaieos^i^ei^ sic^ewalks tryino iodoOoapeoole oro0lrecles. Inrnanocesos, narrow sidewaikshrobs1afiesocthesldewa10 hadfeused wCeelcCair usersiggaiifromthesldewalk whlleirying to getoestperkedblcyclesandcaos, end shopslgoPoards rPCotos 8,9).

die followingпremajorybs1acles porpeohie with tracel d%ficuities:oucoentldeweiksceutan Oo rgoid from roaOsife drees )lCohrtliesShaShave come onsiPch, sub-

Photo 10 Corrugations on the sidewalk are a major obstacle to wheelchair users

Photo 11 Wheelchairs get their front wheels caught in grating grids and users need help to get free

Photo 12 Wheelchairs get their front wheels caught in broken blocks

Photo 13 Residential areas often feature undulating sidewalks. This one undulates every 10 meters

sifence, prolisiding mecgolacoveerjdsonenIlhtoaedpav-ino blocks ,^r^tini5SSi^i; taepsthefrhctwneplsofwheel-cCairs, e1c.(Cgotolla,ll, H).

4.5 Undulating sidewalks

SiOewalbs slopepoandhownwUere therearedrive-ways, enlrancescorshoppiOedeetri ancrl^scii^l^^ end so

corth linvrCerto rlimlnate nyighl0ifferebce betwoen the sihewalk andtneroadS-Hcnce, thciwdewalVs around shopping andocslCantlal ereeshhduiato(Pnnto 13). Furthermore, ti^^^lC^^^li^^^its^c^'^^i^i^^ these places. WheeichairsUacetrou0letfevaliugaionvplaces where thereiianangie weCweon OcslaClandrlght sides. Structuralln too itCebcanonix ir^i^la^nac^i^ta^nw^ngle of incline berweentneisftcndyiohCsiberVefyre iTay cap-siae. Theangia isgreaterlhenarrowerlUesldcwalk is. Traveling alongdhUu1atinvandtiltedoidawclksgver a long perlodfrrlocssCrcisundfatigua, andit ic under these conhitions thatfsoelcssncsl coeeps inand incidents of wheelchairs faliingontv roadsnrsur. lb ,0x1,80111 inci-Uents haveocsulCcdin fa1aliSies.InNdvember2i)У0, the Ministry of Constractioncamewp w1ShactauUtrd to fix sihewalk heightt5 5cm asasoiutiontotOa croOiem of unhulation.

Photo 14 Sidewalk gradients are steep

4.6 Inappropriately installedramrs

The resultofChesacktd vnircffic taCeCyneeds10 revealed thata0xlhhc]УCdewhcy1c1leicuyerfhave been to places wheretnerampsweretootteepfortnsmto go up. Apart fromtUat,Chereweretisocaseswhyrelhere were steps aroundtnerampen0•cnces(Pnot4r 14,15, 16).

4.7 Pedestrians

Visually impairedcersons c^C^c^nci^lli^e o^ithi^ther pehestrians. Thethnetpcrsonoflapapglnoicts f°r the collision whenntoioCtmiCicoo ^l^^^^l^ec^an^.Cases seem to0eqt]ilerommwiw]eareccdaiCiianstoeso en-gulceh infoooerlatlonthstCkco do notnotic atde blind person's whiCevane.

In addition,bimPpcrsonsfreodektly hit smoil chil-

Photo 16 A ramp was added at the request of wheelchair users. When ramps are constructed in a confined space, the gradient is extremely steep

Photo 15 Unable to brake on a sharp gradient, the wheelchair careered on to the road

Photo 17 Children playing on the sidewalk often run out in front of visually impaired persons

Photo 18 A visually impaired person nearly collides into the back of an elderly citizen who has suddenly come to a halt. Suddenly stopping on textured paving blocks in crowded areas is extremely hazardous

0renbelowSUgmwiICthetrstichsocafsidentailsSogk them. AooonO haifgfthe OOpO personsrctewlewedgommented tCat Sheyhruehacl similar experiences9 (Photol7).

Collisions betweenvisoally impnifedpersphsand the eiderlyarethemostswhwaodiPhato 18i Acurvgy9 recealef Shateo estoms0mg50%cf1lhebilnP pgrsons had deen insocOgoliisions. tnmostsaIeSltnlvlcuglly impaireO pgrsonseoUeOuo inlurIngSheothgrdersonl Collisions onstaire instetidhsandfuotbridoas sao lead to serioos injuries.rnrushnhurs,eyeryone isin a hsory and the visuallylmoaire0 006 00 6x^3^^ OOwrg wasa case wCere avisoally impolsgdpgrson gollidedlntoeugldgrly person atsdmespggniCeiIsIngthgpgrsontoCWi Oown a flicCtgCslairs.ThgpgrsunSroke cthighbnonrsd required lonoiterm hospitalization .TUпrehavgalrobggnsasgs wCere ^l^i^i^iOo^i^lcl^i^vetriooaU^

WCeelcCair userrfrruuentlncolllde witUpgdgstri-ans onslOwwainstoo.TOegeusemayioficOwthgwhggl-cCair userотpedeotriannotiounlnhrtweere hg or she is coinc, Shg wUegichairusgrsoUOgnldemgroinogrom a crowf, theoeUestrisnsuddenlyshcyuiooOiIectioc, the wCeelcCair norOgmgictkepgclgstrienSsimgoC iight because itisonlow-lyinhorouoU]Tedestrians fini id difficult tonotis wwOigaighnirsOeceusgthgomsnenosound wCen they mcue.oomewUeelshairusersUovgrgsortgd to playing mpsiconlow odluwewhgnIhavrceoпl in or-Oer Soli^ti^e^oo^ea^ruoi^i^m^^hncw tCet theyere there to avoidcollisluns.

St iegpportsptПortklpublis curtesy inor-

Oer toensnrethesafetg oCpgohigwithSsaggl difgicolties. dobg mora ureclie IIiIsOivoIvcs Shg following: * Do not walhabreestonthesldewrlk,dy notsit down on Shestreets cr sitawdweik ieamaihierthaSodstrugts

* Do notstsodon streglstaicing enddgovt ieave bag-cace ontUe otrggtlasoggialiyoveotcxtorey ocving dlocbs) in wwaclharobslieictsothgrpedestrians.

* Know siSuatlonsthatmaypossdanyers todisedlgd persons andoffer ecsistange inthysgsitostions. wisWhen crossino slreets .ingonggstgdareas, onconrtrostion sites, whgretUgre 1salgtofnoipe,inplaces whgre there are obsOnaitionithal giuoiut OeUaterSgd usioge cene, on rainy days.snwwodays orwindydeor. etc.

4.8 Impuopeuly laideefUueePpaeingblaeks

die mostpgfagtio forvisually

impaireOpgrsonsisthetgxtureOpeoinobiogk3. RgggnSly, concern fordisabledpgouignasinsreesgd andbarrier-gree uj^iic^nOyoelp^iTe^tslr^t^i;ne^c^i^^ c^^^rron. deotoreO pavingblostcs srebeinglпiPrapid1yecross Japan6. Howgvgr ,SUaprogrecs ictheir inslalistionoarigs grom regiontnregioneiiCoUere areoiwges mhere even dosy roadssod sldgweiksyeuenotOgenlnstallgd with tCese pavingblocks.TecOusedyaviugOiocCsshowOlind people with whltacaneswhere to waiO end stop, end are vitally imporlantinensuringtheir 00:^.60(00^ of prodlems inersnrtainmhwherethgOlocks areiecding tCem toibliodpeoplesrenottotallyrelianton these dlocbs. Nongthglgss, msngfggiiurcnurg weiking in places whgretUore erenotcxtopgdpacingSiogks9.

die blogksaregspgflalidimpohant onstreetintgr-sections. SomgtoxSiiredpanIngblscksinOifate tCsOthere is anintnrsagtlunahgad(tneu in0ifetgnenoes and are calleO warninggloctis).Thesihewalkoftenslypei onto street intgrsggtionssohwithodttgxtusaOpscingbiogks,

Photo 19 Texture blocks have been provided on a pedestrian crossing but they are lifting and visually impaired pedestrians using these to cross the road will lose their bearing in the middle of the road

blind peopceSac e;tl^e;danr^er(^][ unwittinglywandering onto iherood.

In reaii1;y lOgweneimmanntextcirefpaeingblocks arc i^cttfiiidiii^^J^^r^lei f^ai^cfi^cate^M-anei^OUfli^tia^l^y im-pfiicd ^fa^it im^^ficta moen^^m^o^tclfc^c^c^use

ihcoc biocksпocfadanxer2 (Photol9).

Itcmo pfacedonSof hf ^b^el^lo^^lcic^^fieinadiing dif-fiadlt a^dulce oCSeo,dangedous.nnmk visnaПesmpaired ecojlc preferIgwalkaivogsideCdxCdredpavinokiocks ahcaking ihednmoswithChe ^i^ic(^:f^lie^rsbca^sl0ccause wfllinv overmani ^¡ti^^i^ti^g. Assireadymentioned, to en-fblc Ihemeodosgc mdmnstieavekClebtt 50cm either sidc Curtice Пk>cetfreeaSobsCacles.Blcosios anПmotor-analcs areinamosIaommdnaпПmostenmПarcome ob-stfalcs. ManyneepieparkCheienienkiesccltПebioeks withodt ahine vfguilt.Shop ilemrandmerrhandise, dis-nlfy boards.stobПdarOSlliCterdint,babd cartSi endxther chines areofCanleftonthebk>ckstoo(Photo 20).

4.9 Textured pavingblocksposeobstacles toeeheel-

chair users

TexturedpavingblbaOsShstaretoiIxportexC for the eisdflla tmpairedInmetnnkspoIeobstacles towheelchair dscrs. Adxecny10 ihaSkanogwhebk:hailuserc idCse have cecr beenibconnsnisbcobbntexturedpavinoblocks re-ecslcd ihaSaIddohhelC feitnceyhavic Thebumps on the bloaks deflecCinefrogtwlleatsmaeing itdifficnlito move fOTWdrd, ihednmnyridemeOe isthardSo adntmue on a direat courseccsodanhcne nerdflneivibrationsinduce fstivde

Photo 20 The visually impaired risk colliding with the safety barrier if they use these textured paving blocks

Even so,roughly40%repliedthatalthough the blocks areawkwaidforwheelchaioslheewereenelement that hadtobeeoduied.Quilenbhmhrrrephehtllat even though lheyrnmetimssreellbeblocOstobeanobstruc-tion, Sheyrcauonieed thiie imdorichca toe theciiually impcided. Osherviawslneiudedeonhnentssuckdcwheel-cdcid usersheehedtocoexisCbeeauselkeywarenot the oniy ones wise disabilitiea,eadalthoughonromaincon-venience to whe^loCi^^tudara, an anesscnaieiatdto visu-ciiu in^p^a^i^^dh^srods OeoturePvioingbfoeksthduld demain.

Mcny obstaeiessealeonaroktwheek:heisuscei can be avoidedifOeuliiedvílvibgblockr cie HP m appiopii-cte waysmappropeieiepleces.A 1]ypicaiepampleof im-piopeily iaidhlbcdh isrdcaeialO cnramfis. Visuciiy impciiee personsdteallousdChestairseeseusethey do not needeemds.GdiOingvituyiieimpairedpersoniulong icmps uslngtext:urePpaoina; io noaoInypcinSiesteut may

Photo 21 When wheelchairs travel on textured paving blocks, the front wheels are deflected as shown here. This makes it difficult to maintain a straight course

Photo 22 Textured paving blocks on slopes are a major obstacle to wheelchair users

sISO triggeraпoldar пronmmп coiiisionsneCweenwheel-ahsir usersaodChevisuailnjmpairedIPhoto 22).

4.10 Unsuitable positloningoftroiOicOghibuitons for

people wilhdisbbilitios

Crossinv iherood fsfdanocrobs ectinitycOTpeople with d^í^<^tcliit^^s.Vidd^lie^ ie^lэt^ir^clпel^i^Se csebnaOle to distinvdish lhedlfCaranScokcredlightsatsSfndardpndes-trisn erossingtsaffieiigOClShat see nocditteh wish audio slerts. They mosldeoidewnentocrt>as bniistening for the earsstonnindaodfrom the ectivifenfcnepeople srndnd ^Jcc^m.Ti^^s kisonpdiiestoneoniewit0guidk dogs who alsorelnohCПemovemeetnfcnepexnieoccnпd them rsther Than osisln fromihedog.

Wheelahsir usersaonpeodle wiShphbsioel dis-sbilities needtlmetoeroistOfrfad inOit ic snmetimes diffiadlt formam ekrossOefore thetsafaie light

ahsnves. EideriydenpifandnnbeeSantmntOfrr are also

Photo 23 Because of a step, wheelchair users are unable to reach the button on a traffic light for people with disabilities

Photo 24 Because of the steep gradient of the curb ramp, there is a danger of falling onto the road when pressing the button on the traffic light

fsaed wilhlnk mmeiboblem.

Msnn trefficliтhke thftesecnmneSibie will the needs efneepiewiihdieabiliticshave nowbaoninstalled. When lhebuttokfforpeopte Tithdisebililia soothese Crfffia iighOsarepushed,che "Waik"sfgnalsemeins on for aloennrperiohtnak usuai.Howevcrinnitv fraqnently the iocationxrpoeiIion oT OhescbuttonsisuhtuiIable. Then arelnmetlmksklceiednxere sIaposifdoeand out of reachnrpeodia inwhscSchaTs;hidden fromvliually imnsired peopiedsccorecheyareklcosenaway from the textdred biockdeving;coverebby chrbbberycr sur-rodnded bydaadob bicycies;oositinoed m thsrooc side of 11^(5X^11^1^^10 iighI sycnetnooyfeheveSosteponto the rosd Ionresschebutton;kroken enO ^o^^ erisko! injury to a:^ient^l^; отnnveredm grimewhichisthencransferred to lhefinnasandontoSheperson;scioIher orbeivogings (Photos 23,24).

5. CONCLUSION

This reporthos cetciuttns maio dbscoclssthat exist in a i^c^c^iSe^^^s^^m^niboc^l^s^i^e asamehn cther ex" smnles whichhenanotdaenmoluded.SnJanah,many obstsales aisoxxistwhenriding VioK^li^i^l^.i^OT^unately, Jsnsn is wellohcgewaoctn termtoCsystamsenb public sentiment, todsпnmindabeп"ierlfrke snciety.

Trsffia safetylxr Oftadiedпnoplfcannnt bemea-

thsn inventdaddk Iloganr'Scпnoneoads mnatiook to see whathanbednhsanУwhdtmnstbe dooanand con-men llti^Io (lrivkssondpedestsianт Tnismechs Hat we mist lmproveldelevel oПcnmтreheпsionofdisebiiities in ournedufation18.

First, itis impi-Sanl toseaiice SПaconditidbrfaced by Those wilhtnavoldiiabililis saol theirnceds.By un-derstsndinv whaSdlfficuitikspeodie wishdiiabiiitfas and wheelshsir ^60 1116^11:111161^6X1111010111 aso and wTsC lheylliikk,we wiiiilnOessSanTwneCneeds to be done byldagovamment,lпПooiSlnrivosysпhot>il, ^s^hicle msndffatdrers, famliieS'aobeommuniCics.

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