Scholarly article on topic 'The Relationship between Pedagogical Content Knowledge and al-Quran Tajweed Performance among Students KKQ in Malaysia'

The Relationship between Pedagogical Content Knowledge and al-Quran Tajweed Performance among Students KKQ in Malaysia Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Azmil Hashim, Jahidih Saili, Mohd Aderi Che Noh

Abstract This study aims to identify the relationship between teachers (PCK) and the student achievement of al-Quran tajweed in Special Class on Reading and Memorizing Al-Quran Skill (KKQ) at Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. The study was implemented by involving a group of respondent which consist of 134 students in (KKQ). The data of the respondents was collected by using a survey as an instruments which verified by a panel of experts. The level of alpha Cronbach reliability for overall division of the survey was high (>0.7). The quantitative data for survey was analyzed in an inferential manner by using Statistical Package For Social Science (SPSS) v20 to get the relationship between the variable involved. The results of the study shows, there was a lower significant relationship between the teachers PCK and the student achievement of tajweed al-Quran in KKQ. Therefore, the KKQ teachers must know this knowledge because it is one of the factors that will determine the effective learning besides it will affect the students’ achievement in tajweed al-Quran subject in KKQ.

Academic research paper on topic "The Relationship between Pedagogical Content Knowledge and al-Quran Tajweed Performance among Students KKQ in Malaysia"

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ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 197 (2015) 1530 - 1537

7th World Conference on Educational Sciences, (WCES-2015), 05-07 February 2015, Novotel

Athens Convention Center, Athens, Greece

The Relationship between Pedagogical Content Knowledge and al-Quran Tajweed Performance among Students KKQ in Malaysia

Azmil Hashima*, Jahidih Sailib, Mohd Aderi Che Nohc

aSultan Idris Education University,35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia b Sultan Idris Education University,35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia c Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract

This study aims to identify the relationship between teachers (PCK) and the student achievement of al-Quran tajweed in Special Class on Reading and Memorizing Al-Quran Skill (KKQ) at Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. The study was implemented by involving a group of respondent which consist of 134 students in (KKQ). The data of the respondents was collected by using a survey as an instruments which verified by a panel of experts. The level of alpha Cronbach reliability for overall division of the survey was high (>0.7). The quantitative data for survey was analyzed in an inferential manner by using Statistical Package For Social Science (SPSS) v20 to get the relationship between the variable involved. The results of the study shows, there was a lower significant relationship between the teachers PCK and the student achievement of tajweed al-Quran in KKQ. Therefore, the KKQ teachers must know this knowledge because it is one of the factors that will determine the effective learning besides it will affect the students' achievement in tajweed al-Quran subject in KKQ.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. Keywords:Pedagogical Content Knowledge; al-Quran Tajweed

1. Introduction

Teaching is a process of delivering knowledge between a teacher to students. This process involves planning, implementation, evaluation and feedbacks (Shahabuddin, Rohizani and Mohd Zohir, 2003). It requires thorough

* Azmil Hashim. Tel.:+60137095119 E-mail address: azmil@fsk.upsi.edu.my

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.106

planning (Mohd Yusuf, 2000) in order to produce effective teaching which will lead to effective learning in the classroom (Al-Syaibani, 1991).

As a Muslim, we have to have faith in Prophet Muhammad PBUH as the greatest teacher of all time (Abdul Fattah, 2011). One of the purposes that the prophet sent to us is to educate mankind as mentioned by Allah himself;

"It is He who has sent among the illiterate a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom - although they were before in clear error" (Surah al-Jumu'ah 62: 2)

According to Abdul Fattah (2011), the method and technique that was being taught by prophet himself was easier to be understood and affected all students' hearts. The prophet did not have only one method and technique which can be adapted into every teaching process instead depending on the reality of the students that he was teaching (Mohd Yusuf, 2004). In addition, positive impact on one individual does not mean it will deal the same impact on another individual (Yusuf al-Qaradhawi, 2003).

The factors that the prophet would often consider a few points when conducting teaching process, mainly; time factor, situation, special occasion, students' readiness, teaching approach, students' thinking competence, content suitability and teaching method which is suitable to ensure that the teaching process can be taken place smoothly and effectively (Abdul Fattah, 2011). The approach that had been shown by the prophet was relevant to be set as example as he had the best model which includes his method of teaching (Ibrahim Mamat, 1997).

2. Background of research

The existence of teaching al-Quran tajweed as one of the most important component in Special Class on Reading and Memorizing Al-Quran Skill (KKQ) is meant to expose students various methods of words pronunciation and verses of al-Quran tajweed according to the rules of tajweed. Students that had learnt the skills will be able to read al-Quran correctly according to the rules and enunciation (Jabatan Pendidikan Islam dan Moral, 2005). Teaching al-Quran tajweed have to be done in the form of instructions, demonstrations and corrections of the students' mistakes (Shahbuddin, Rohizani and Mohd Zohir, 2003) as this form of education existed in the form of techniques (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 2004). The efficiency of teaching process in a lesson depends on the level of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) which a KKQ teacher has. A KKQ teacher had to equip himself or herself with the content knowledge of the subject besides being sensitive to the reality of the students and capable to adapt appropriate pedagogy in relevance to KKQ students' conditions (Shulman, 1987). The implementation of KKQ had took place since 27 years ago and still have its flaws and weaknesses which included the aspect of mastering PCK teaching of al-Quran tajweed among KKQ teachers. The research found out that these weaknesses did not just take place in religious schools instead it also occurred in all schools that offers KKQ in Malaysia (Mohd Aderi, 2011). This should not have happened as the role and effects of al-Quran is really important in muslims' daily life. KKQ teaching system, especially in the case of teaching al-Quran tajweed had to be restructured in order to increase students' acquisition of Quranic knowledge. Such goal can only be reached by upgrading the level of PCK among KKQ teachers in teaching al-Quran tajweed.

3. Problem Statement

Students' academic achievement is related to teacher's PCK level in the subject they are teaching which includes al-Quran tajweed. This statement was supported by many researchers such as Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J. S., & Borko, H. (1994) which according to him, PCK had great influence in knowledge development of the students in a subject taught. Whereas for Gudsmundsdottir (1990) thought that PCK contributes in the efficiency of the teaching process which increases students acquisition in understanding a subject.

In the context of teaching al-Quran tajweed, it is found that there are KKQ teachers still have not mastered content knowledge and the taught subject (Jabatan Pendidikan Islam dan Moral, 2005). This is also being proven in the research conducted by Mohd Safwan (2007) which he found out that there are a certain number of KKQ teachers

did not have deep enough knowledge about the lesson presented to the students. Some of the KKQ teachers did not carry out KKQ objective learning (Mohd Safwan, 2007). As a result, the objective drawn for KKQ including al-Quran tajweed cannot be achieved (Mohd Aderi, 2009).

In the context of pedagogical teaching of al-Quran tajweed, Mohd Abbas and Farihatun Nadia (2010) explained that the teaching method and strategy used had to be varied according to the content to attract students' interests. Under this situation, the attention put in developing method and strategy was low in conducting KKQ lessons and had not reach satisfactory level (Mohd Aderi, 2009). In the knowledge of students, there were some KKQ teachers did not consider the differences of cognitive and learning intelligence among students when conducting KKQ lessons. They found out that the content of the lesson taught to the students were too high for the students to learn in one lesson (Mohd Aderi, 2009).

The curriculum knowledge aspect as reported by Mohd Safwan (2007), a number of KKQ teachers did not prepare the Daily Lesson Plan (RPH) in a correct context. The teachers involved in preparing RPH only followed what they desired and did arranged according to the syllabus. In the context of conducting KKQ curriculum, there were some KKQ teachers could not carry out the KKQ curriculum which included al-Quran tajweed in the given time. Whereas for the aspect of recitation skills of KKQ teachers, some teachers could not enunciate according to Hafs' qiraat precisely (Mohd. Safwan, 2007).

4. Research conceptual framework

This research uses Content Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK) theory which had introduced by Shulman (1986), Ibnu Khaldun (2000) and al-Qabisi (1955). The theory from these three figures were selected because Shulman (1986) was the founder of PCK theory whereas for teaching theory was introduced by al-Qabisi (1955) which put more effort on al-Quran teaching model (Ghazali, 2001). As for Ibnu Khaldun (2000), he had not just discussed about al-Quran teaching, he also inserted educational issues such as teacher's knowledge components which involved in content knowledge of PCK elements, pedagogical knowledge, knowledge of students and understanding of the curriculum (Ghazali, 2001).

According to Chart 1.0, PCK teachers in KKQ are made up of five elements namely content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, knowledge of learners, curriculum knowledge and teacher's al-Quran skills. These five elements integrated to form PCK al-Quran tajweed teaching. The existence of high PCK level in among KKQ teachers resulted indirect positive impact towards teaching and learning process of al-Quran tajweed in KKQ. Shulman (1986) explained that, the existence of high PCK level formed effective teaching. This indirectly made the students to understand the subject when the subject was delivered in an easier manner. At the end of the day, this phenomenon effectively made the students to reach good achievements in the subject learnt especially al-Quran tajweed.

Curriculum Knowledge of learners

Knowledge

Dependent variables

Independent variables

Correlation

Fig. 1. The Conceptual Framework of Pedagogical Content Knowledge on the Teaching of the Quran Tajweed

5. Research objectives

This research aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' PCK level and students' al-Quran tajweed skills achievement in Reading and Memorizing al-Quran Skills Class (KKQ).

6. Research methodology

This research is a quantitative research in the form of inferential in survey method as the method of collecting data. This inferential research being used to explain the relationship between teachers' PCK level and students al-Quran tajweed skills in KKQ class. Survey method is used as the data collected normally is precise (Kerlinger, 1986). The survey used in this research is in the form of questionnaires. The researchers had chosen questionnaires which had questions which contained stimulus statement incorporated questions and reactions (Mohd. Majid, 2005). This form of survey also known as structured survey or closed survey.

In the aspect of collecting data, the researchers choose to use the Likert Scale of 5 Points as the data collection method to scale all statements in the questionnaire. This scaling method is suitable to measure each respondents' opinions in a controlled and continuous manner about the perception and attitude of the respondent (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2000). The respondents will be required to mark the value between 1 to 5 according to the explanation that had been set as Strongly Agree and until Disagree.

The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by expert panels to verify the content of the questionnaires. The reliability of the instrument in this research is based on the consistency of the items in the questionnaire (Gall, Gal and Borg, 2005). In the context of this research, the internal consistency value of the items in this instrument was obtained using the alpha Cronbach Value. The instruments had high level of credibility (>0.70), hence the instruments can be used in actual research.

Table 1. Credibility Classification Index

Indicator Alpha Cronbach value

Very High 0.90-1.00

High 0.70-0.89

Moderate 0.30-0.69

Low 0.00-0.30

Source. Brymen & Cramer (1999)

This research was conducted upon 134 KKQ Form 4 students in KKQ schools in Kuala Lumpur. These Form 4 students were selected from those who were considered having enough experience in tajweed al-Quran teaching and learning process and did not involve in public examination.

7. Content pedagogical knowledge (PCK) tajweed al-Quran teaching

The existence of PCK is the product of Shulman's (1986) idea through his research on teachers' knowledge declined as time goes on. He extended the knowledge with his colleagues in the project named The Knowledge Growth in Teaching (Shulman and Grosman, 1988; Grosman, 1987; Wilson et al., 1987 and Shulman, 1986). The findings of the research that had been done by Shulman (1986) concluded that 90% to 95% of teachers had to acquire any of the two sets of knowledge that is subject knowledge and fundamental general knowledge. The utmost thing that he wanted to research on was how to change a resourceful person in content knowledge and turned into a new teacher.

This had been answered in Shulman (1986) in developing a theoretical framework of research to evaluate new teachers. He used subjects knowledge, PCK and curriculum knowledge to evaluate new teachers' preparation in emphasizing problem based knowledge, case knowledge and strategy knowledge. According to Shulman (1986), problem based knowledge is the teacher's capability in determining content and pedagogical problems. Case knowledge refers to the teachers' method in dealing special cases which involves various students' behaviour and emotions in the classroom. Whereas for strategy knowledge refers to the capability that the teachers had in solving conflicts with their understanding of facts and cases.

PCK is able to clarify the teacher's field of knowledge regarding the subject's content and knowledge. It is the understanding of the teacher in helping students to understand the subject taught in detail which includes the understanding of topic, problems and issues, presentations and modifications done to suit students' interests and abilities in the teaching and learning process. PCK aids teachers in making analogies, metaphors, giving examples, conducting activities and helping students to achieve effective learning (Shulman, 1986).

PCK is formed by integrating two types of knowledge namely content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge in classroom teaching (Shulman, 1987). Gudsmundotiir (1995) viewed PCK as a form of content knowledge which had changed to a different shape than its initial. It is even practical and easier to be applied in teaching. The transformation process required teachers to expand the principles, classroom management strategies and organizing subjects in order to make it easier for the students to be delivered to the students (Mc Diarmid, G. W., Ball, D. L., & Anderson, C. A., 1989) other than just to determine understanding and misconception among the students (Bennet, 1993).

According to Shulman (1987), PCK is a form of topical knowledge in teaching a subject through understanding the specific method to teach specific topics, problems and issues according to students' interests and abilities. Many researches had been conducted and proven that PCK is important for the teachers. Gudmundsdottir (1990) had conducted research on four teachers excelled in teaching English and American History subjects for five months in a high school in San Francisco. The result form the research shows that teachers' perspective towards the subjects' contents influences their teaching and interpretation method. All of the teachers in this research stated that they were interested in the subjects that they were teaching and always make sure that they had taught meaningfully to the students in each lessons.

8. Research analysis

Table 3 shows the Spearman (r) correlation analysis between PCK level of teachers and students' al-Quran tajweed achievements in KKQ class. The results showed that there is low significant relationship between the five elements of PCK in KKQ teachers and students' al-Quran tajweed achievements in KKQ class. The KKQ teachers' PCK elements had the highest correlation value in the element of teacher's al-Quran skills (r=0.289, p<0.05) followed up with the content knowledge element (r=0.231, p<0.05). Next followed up by understanding of students elements (r=0.206, p<0.05), curriculum knowledge (r=0.200, p<0.05) and the least correlation value will be the

pedagogical knowledge (r=0.178, p<0.05).

Table 2. The Correlation Between Content Knowledge and Students' Achievements

r Sig. P

Content Knowledge * Students' Achievements 0.231 0.007

Pedagogical Knowledge * Students' Achievements 0.178 0.040

Knowledge of Student * Students' Achievements 0.206 0.017

Curriculum Knowledge * Students' Achievements 0.200 0.020

Al-Quran teachers' Skills* Students' Achievements 0.289 0.001

PCK (Total) * Students' Achievements 0.221 0.017

** Significant correlation level p<0.05 (2-tailed)

9. Discussion

The findings of the results, there is correlation between teacher's PCK level and students' al-Quran tajweed achievements in KKQ class. However, the details of the level of relationships across each elements of PCK involved were at low level. This context of learning al-Quran tajweed this also had the same results in other researches that correlates content knowledge and students' academic achievements. For the fact that, knowledge cannot be omitted as it is one of the most important factors to be considered when incorporating teaching process (Nik Mohd Rahimi, 2012).

In the aspect of pedagogical knowledge, previous researches showed that this form of knowledge had small influence towards students' academic achievements (Shaharom and Faridah, 2010). The research's implementations are similar to this research context. It is proven that pedagogical knowledge gave low relationship value to al-Quran tajweed achievement in KKQ class. In the context of comparing relationship value, pedagogical knowledge had the smallest influence towards students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed as compared to other PCK elements.

The level of relationship of the PCK elements among students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed as related to content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge had the same level as knowledge of learners, curriculum knowledge and teachers' al-Quran knowledge; all of them are at low level. Although these elements had low level of relationship, these elements cannot be neglected as it will give negative impact towards students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed. Knowledge of learners had to be apprehended by teachers as this form of knowledge is very important in planning effective teaching process (Abdul Fattah, 2011). Planned teaching process will incorporate students' background in order to make the students to understand the teaching of al-Quran tajweed content (Azmil Hashim, Tamuri, Mohd Aderi Che Noh., 2014).

Curriculum knowledge had to be apprehended by KKQ teachers as this form of knowledge is the main content of each subjects and also determine the subjects navigations (Hamizah, 1998). A good quality curriculum can develop students' potential and enhance the quality of the nation's education (Azmil Hashim, Tamuri, & Jemali, 2013).

A same level of emphasis should be given in the elements of teachers' al-Quran knowledge. Low level of relationship between al-Quran teacher's knowledge and students' al-Quran tajweed achievements is not a good explanation towards KKQ teachers neglected this form of knowledge. This is due to teaching method of al-Quran is different than any other Islamic religious teaching methods. Al-Quran required skills, orientated between instructions, demonstrations and correcting students' mistakes which also included al-Quran tajweed (Rohizani et al., 2005)

10. Research implications

According to the discussion as mentioned in previous chapter, it is clear that the pedagogical content knowledge had the relationship between students' al-Quran tajweed achievements. The survey towards different elements of PCK such as content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, understanding towards students, curriculum knowledge and teachers' al-Quran knowledge shows that not any one of the elements are of high or intermediate level of significant value. Such also approves that PCK is not the only factor influencing level of students' achievements in

al-Quran tajweed. Students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed learning are also influenced by other factors such as motivations, students' surroundings, students' interpersonal skills and parenting styles ( Mohd Shukari et al., 2012)

The research foundations in the context of level of relationship in each PCK elements shows that the elements of teachers' al-Quran skills and content knowledge had the most influence towards students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed learning when compared to other elements of PCK. Hence, these two elements had to be given emphasis by the teacher to ensure the KKQ students can obtain satisfied achievements in al-Quran tajweed learning.

The comparison of PCK levels among five elements of PCK in this research also found out that pedagogical knowledge element had the least. In this research, the pedagogical knowledge aspect did not contribute critically towards students' achievements in al-Quran tajweed. This does not mean that KKQ teachers do not need to be well equipped with various updated pedagogy knowledge as al-Quran tajweed teaching requires the teachers to do so. Teaching al-Quran tajweed involves skill teaching, thus teaching method which suits the best would be talaqqi and musyafahah as suggested by and had been practiced by religious academician in al-Quran education.

11. Conclusion

In conclusion, the PCK had the relationship between students' al-Quran tajweed achievements It would be appropriate if the responsible parties took suitable steps in increasing levels of PCK among teachers at all times. For KKQ teachers, they would have to receive with open hands and gave full commitment in any courses hold for them by authorities as an initiative to increase the level of PCK in teaching al-Quran tajweed.

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