Scholarly article on topic 'Art via Architecture ‘Lukisan Kajian’ Style in Hybrid Model ‘A+AGPD’: Observation ‘Garisan stroke line’ (gSLine)'

Art via Architecture ‘Lukisan Kajian’ Style in Hybrid Model ‘A+AGPD’: Observation ‘Garisan stroke line’ (gSLine) Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Maria Mohammad, Md. Nasir Ibrahim, Mohamad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Kasran Mat Jiddin, Mohamad Faisal Ahmad

Abstract This research explores production styles stroke line and pen hatching effects of free hand drawing in 3 dimensional 3(D) illustration drawing called lukisan kajian. The purpose of the study is to compare line hatching effects ‘Garisan stroke line’ (gSLine) between the Art painting drawing with Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing. Limitation of respondents from the artist's artistic and architectural illustration painter who actively produce illustration 3(D) drawing and reference art book at Malaysian. SIX experts respondents were used as limitation of the study. Issues ‘free hand’ drawing that is not proportion or ‘kejung’ among students of art and architecture ‘under-graduate’ often discussed in journals within and outside Malaysia started in 2007 to 2014. This qualitative research using a phenomenological study design with methodology through triangulation of observation, visual recordings and literature review. Phenomenon (gSLine) was analysed based on the elements of art: line, shape, form, texture and color in creating 3 (D) illustrations lukisan kajian in free hand drawing style. The findings in the literature, find artistic work known as lukisan pengkaryaan. The paintings drawing by artist illustration graphics architecture, graphics known as lukisan perekaan. The findings of the SIX respondents found that there are three differences (gSLine) between the two disciplines of visual art which in the proportion (visualization), emotion (emosi) and aesthetic (estetik) which are summarized as (dVEE). Research findings found that 4 difference in the quality of the line drawings lukisan perekaan. The findings of the study were collected in order to produce a hybrid model of researchers ‘Art + Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing’ (A + AGPD). The study used case study in order to production model process (gSLine) in explaining the ‘how’ a 3 (D) illustration lukisan kajian (dVEE) can be produced. Architectural Graphics Presentation Drawing(AGPD): Free hand drawing in architectural style by using the medium dry like wet ink pen or felt-tip pen charcoal pencil or water color tools. Lukisan Kajian’ or Study drawing. According to (Richard Box,Denis John-Naylor,Carole Massey 2012) study drawings is a type of drawings to study the shape of the object for research purposes. Custom drawings objects study examines the subject of plants and natural forms. Research will also explore the concept intensity of color and 3 (D) form with color tone of the concentration for the purpose of explaining the objects that are in the foreground or background setting in the middle of the back.

Academic research paper on topic "Art via Architecture ‘Lukisan Kajian’ Style in Hybrid Model ‘A+AGPD’: Observation ‘Garisan stroke line’ (gSLine)"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015) 473 - 479

World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Art via Architecture 'Lukisan Kajian' Style in Hybrid Model 'A+AGPD': Observation 'Garisan stroke line' (gSLine)

Maria Mohammada, Md.Nasir Ibrahima , Mohamad Rusdi Mohd Nasira Kasran Mat Jiddinb, Mohamad Faisal Ahmadab*

aUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris(UPSI), Fakulti Seni,Pengkomputeran dan Industri Kreatif, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan

bInstitut Perguruan Ipoh,Perak (IPIP), _abUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia(UKM), Fakulti Pendidikan, Bangi,Selangor Darul Ehsan_

Abstract

This research explores production styles stroke line and pen hatching effects of free hand drawing in 3 dimensional 3(D) illustration drawing called lukisan kajian. The purpose of the study is to compare line hatching effects 'Garisan stroke line' (gSLine) between the Art painting drawing with Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing. Limitation of respondents from the artist's artistic and architectural illustration painter who actively produce illustration 3(D) drawing and reference art book at Malaysian. SIX experts respondents were used as limitation of the study. Issues 'free hand' drawing that is not proportion or 'kejung' among students of art and architecture 'under-graduate' often discussed in journals within and outside Malaysia started in 2007 to 2014. This qualitative research using a phenomenological study design with methodology through triangulation of observation, visual recordings and literature review. Phenomenon (gSLine) was analysed based on the elements of art: line, shape, form, texture and color in creating 3 (D) illustrations lukisan kajian in free hand drawing style. The findings in the literature, find artistic work known as lukisan pengkaryaan. The paintings drawing by artist illustration graphics architecture, graphics known as lukisan perekaan. The findings of the SIX respondents found that there are three differences (gSLine) between the two disciplines of visual art which in the proportion (visualization), emotion (emosi) and aesthetic (estetik) which are summarized as (dVEE). Research findings found that 4 difference in the quality of the line drawings lukisan perekaan. The findings of the study were collected in order to produce a hybrid model of researchers 'Art + Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing' (A + AGPD). The study used case study in order to production model process (gSLine) in explaining the 'how' a 3 (D) illustration lukisan kajian (dVEE) can be produced.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof IstanbulUniveristy.

Keywords: Architectural Graphics Presentation Drawing, 'Lukisan Kajian'.

* Corresponding author. Tel.:00245 2102211 E-mail address: mariafaisal2001m@gmail.com, kasran@ipip.edu.my, mam_1177@yahoo.com.my

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Istanbul Univeristy.

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.490

Architectural Graphics Presentation Drawing(AGPD): Free hand drawing in architectural style by using the medium dry like wet ink pen or felt-tip pen charcoal pencil or water color tools.

'Lukisan Kajian' or Study drawing. According to (Richard Box,Denis John-Nay lor,Carole Massey 2012) study drawings is a type of drawings to study the shape of the object for research purposes. Custom drawings objects study examines the subject of plants and natural forms. Research will also explore the concept intensity of color and 3 (D) form with color tone of the concentration for the purpose of explaining the objects that are in the foreground or background setting in the middle of the back.

1. Introduction

During the twentieth century, in the year 1919, design has been strongly influenced by the Bauhaus, a schools founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany. Working as inspired team, the Bauhaus brought together many leading artist, architects, and designers. They combined the study of fine arts such as drawing and painting with crafts, and developed an aesthetic based on visual structured and sound craftsmanship. The school's mission was to improve society through design, bringing humanistic and artistic sensitivity to industrial society (Preble 1994).

Later in 1920s, the school of Bauhaus attracted students from all over the world. Bauhaus was closed when Hitler degenerate political agenda in 1933. Some faculty in Bauhaus moved to the United States. The Institute of Design in Chicago was officially opened by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy to continue Bauhaus goals and objectives. The teaching of design in the United States continues to reflect the influence of the Bauhaus philosophy, with its emphasis on formal visual structure and functional simplicity. Impact, all-embracing design concepts of the Bauhaus diverse in specific disciplines as architecture, industrial design, textile design, typography and painting. The Bauhaus was not only a design movement but also a social movement as well (Ocvirk et al. 2013; Mohd Johari 2010; Preble 1994).

The nature of drawing has long been acknowledged as cognitive tool to stimulate an artist's creativity (Mayo 2012; Acton 2010; Woon 2008). According to (Carswell 2013)models of designed process have to be clear in order to create a virtual learning environment. In Art Drawing (AD) or Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing (AGPD) discipline encourages us to experience our lives more vividly by causing us to re-examine our thoughts and renew our feelings. Art is the quality, production, or expression of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance. In the visual arts, we seek awareness through or sense of sight and through the development of visual thinking (Mayo 2012; Preble 1994). As an art, architecture is concerned with the design of the space. Architecture is the art and science of designing and constructing building for practical, aesthetic, and symbolic purposes (D.K.Ching 2009). In these two design disciplines designing is a process basic to all the visual arts. A painter begins with a need to express a personnel idea or to fulfill a personally expressive mode. Architect is a professional designer's role to enhance living by applying a developed sense of aesthetics and utility.

This study aims to combine style 3 (D) drawings manually with two disciplines in the art of painting 'Art' and 'Architecture Drawing Graphic Presentation' to generate a process model 'A + GPD'. The 'lukisan kajian' drawing painting is a technique which an image is described, drawn on a flat surface. According to (Ben-Shalom & Ganel 2012), drawing painting is a line drawing, ink, pen, pencils, crayons, charcoal and chalk as the main media. In production drawings can be made with any combination of paint, dry media and dry media. This statement is supported (Potamianos 2009), statement that the painting contains the soul and spiritual values that will enable the production of works of art that can be appreciated.

According to (Ocvirk et al. 2013), a work of art is divided into two parts, namely the actual illustrations and artwork. Art illustration involves drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, graphic design and more. Real works of art, including the sculptures, architecture, metalwork, glass design, ceramics, fiber works, designs and other products. Illustration drawing painting even though it may be, but can exist in a 2 (D) and 3 (D) illustration by illustration artist (Zakaria 2013a). Flat surface is where the artists perform their image. Flat surfaces can also represent an imaginary reference plane where artists can create the illusion of space.

(D.K.Ching 2009) share the opinion with (Ocvirk et al. 2013) that as a component of art, design refers to the wording and order of the whole work of art. The principles of art is a work of art by setting elements of art or design element. These elements consist of line, shape, form, texture and color to develop in the form of illustrations and objects organic or geometric.

Worlds of art explore the human visual art skills naturally skills in drawing, processing, and has a multi-disciplinary work such as sculptors, architects, musicians, writers, sculptors and painters. Among the artists in the world who great natural skills in the work are Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo Buonarroti (14751564), Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn (1606-1669), JMW Turner (1775-1851) Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Claude Monet (1840-1926). The art of human history has been discussed in the literature (Zakaria 2013b; Wahiza 2011; Mitchell 1995; Preble 1994).

2. Literature Review And Hypotheses

This study aims to combine style 3(D) drawings manually with two disciplines in 'Art' and 'Architecture Drawing Graphic Presentation' drawing painting style to generate a model process 'A + AGPD'. This model contain with drawing painting 'lukisan kajian' with visualization, aesthetic and emotional style (dVEE). According to (Ben-Shalom & Ganel 2012) drawing painting 'lukisan kajian' is a line drawings, ink, pen, pencils, crayons, charcoal and chalk as the main media technique described, drawn on a flat surface. In production drawings can be made with any combination of paint, dry media and dry media. This statement is supported (Potamianos 2009) statement that the drawings contains the soul and spiritual values that will enable the production of works of art that can be appreciated.

In Malaysia, there is still lack of research on the issue of 3(D) objects illustration. Previous studies conducted stated that, there is still room for researchers to develop hybrid models to address this issue. In the year 2008, (Azahar Harun, Haslinda Abd Razak, Ariff Ali 2008) administered a survey to 110 respondents was conducted to students from the Faculty of Art, students of Digital Media Design, Fine Art and Photography. Issues were related to the potential of online media issues and self online- teaching. Result shows that 75% of the students watched, listen, compare, and contrast on the topics taught. Only 40% of the students watched and listen. (Harun et al. 2012) conducted study to find ways of solving an insulated line optimization for 3 (D) of objects from the 2 line of hidden dimensions.

Review the line stroke (gSLine) or impact point pen in the practice studio became the main focus of this study. The issue of the impact of currency effects scratch or pen style that the artist studied painting style building in (gSLine). Style pen eye can distinguish between seorag artists with other artists. The line style can also distinguish between painting style between the arts and other arts in their approach.

The issue with visual, aesthetic and emotional (dVEE) among artist 'pengkarya' and illustrator 'perekaan' in the Malaysian are two discipline in art have their own (gSLine). Exploration style consultant to implement 'how' good of symbiosis of two disciplines explored in drawing painting lukisan kajian style.

(Md.Nasir 2013) in his writings, considers the production and creation of a work of art in the drawing painting aspect of life, economy, religion and culture. Imagery paintings based on three components, namely visualization, aesthetic and emotional (Mayo 2012; Harun et al. 2012). Visualization component in the production of evaluated results audience visually shape and color with (gSLine) in art field. While the aesthetic power of art valued at the principal refined setting. There are three components of the emotion in the art will be evaluated based on the interaction swabs of color, line and effect linkages that can talk about something to the audience. Constraints one of these three components, will make the results of the drawing painting less attractive to viewers in Malaysia (Saedah Siraj & Faridah Abdullah 2005). (Abdullah 2012) states that instructional materials development tools need to be improved in order to produce students who are knowledgeable in practical work or 'hands-on' with (gSLine).

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Goal

In this study, researchers explore the comparison architecture drawings with artist (gSLine).

1. Identify and compare the (gSLine) between architecture and artist drawing to produce 3 (D) drawings painting 'lukisan kajian' with (dVEE).

3.2. Sample and Data Collection

This study used a qualitative approach to understand the phenomenon of the problem naturally without altering the existing location set. Design studies using phenomenology in the process model. The steps of this model's earnings follow the steps as proposed by Dick Carey and Carey Model. This model complements Organic Composite Model (Ocvirk et al. 2013; Ocvirk , Stinson , Wigg , Bone 2002) which discusses the concept of what, why and how. The scope of the research study is to explain the how or how the painting studies do not disturb visual literacy 'audience' is produced.

This model is intended for graduates in arts, especially architecture to help produce (gSLine) drawing painting 'lukisan kajian' proportion with have (dVEE). This knowledge will hopefully help to produce paintings art graduate study did not look stiff by using swabs strokes and perfect color to produce the form or forms within the scope of practice studio.

The findings also useful to erode the negative perceptions among the 'audience' to recognize all the graduates can basically paint (gSLine) 3(D) form aesthetic value. Two areas of innovation hybrid model is expected to serve as a guide for individuals who want to learn to paint 3(D) shape of the object with a force (dVEE).

3.3. Analyses and Results

The AGPD syllabus for students of Diploma in Architecture, Polytechnic is a core course of CA103 in Polytechnic, Malaysia. Students are taught using the medium of drawing tools, guidelines and specific techniques to create geometric objects and organic architectural style.(Rudy Adipranata et al. 2008) spell out that many students of Diploma in Architecture encounters problems to understand the basic process of painting in the style of architecture. They are influenced by the styles of painting in the school environment. (Abdullah 2012; Acton 2010) stated that many students studies CA103 are weak in the drawing skills from technical aspects, fundamental and basic process of creating a good drawing.

The Academic Committee of Architecture (ACA) in 2012, in the agenda of 7. 9 stated that "The meeting agreed that the students of Diploma in Architecture (DA) need to sit for drawing test and interview session before they are selected to the field of Architecture (Zhao & Chan 2010). This is due to the basic requirement of DA in the Polytechnic system for students to have a pass in English with five credits only including one credit from the science/technology/vocational subject without considering other requirement. These cause students to quit and change their course of learning when they realized that they are not able to draw drawing painting 'lukisan kajian' in CA103.

Based on researcher's experience after teaching the students of Polytechnic in Malacca for more than 9 years, it was found that these students were considered as less skilled in drawing painting using 'free hand' technique. (Aboalgasm & Ward 2014) added that these students were influenced by the drawing style from the secondary schools' techniques. Statistically, on session of January 2012-December 2014, 8-17% of the students will begin quit their studies. Among the reasons, they were not able to paint in the style of architecture, failure to manage time of studies, and unable to complete all assignments.

Both disciplines design and the employment of research drawing. In explaining how painting drawing 'lukisan kajian' with (dVEE) is still untapped. In the study (Mohd Zahuri 2011) argues, if two fields able to produce a multidisciplinary hybrid model that benefits both disciplines.(Zakaria 2013a) argues that organic work has an aesthetic and emotional and proportion summarized as aesthetic and emotional power of visualization is summarized as (dVEE).

Drawing in Architecture

Fig. 1. Summaries of conceptual framework study

4. Findings

The findings of observation from literature were synthesized artistic work known as lukisan pengkaryaan. The paintings drawing by artist illustration graphics architecture, graphics known as lukisan perekaan.

Table 1. Summaries of the (gSLine) observation

Item Tools/finding Item Tools/Finding

Gaya Stroke line (gSLine) Artistic drawing 'Lukisan Pengkaryaan' Gaya Stroke line (gSLine) Illustration graphics architecture drawing 'Lukisan Perekaan'

Line and shape. Felt-tip Pen -Rubbing technique (gSLine) discontinuities to visualized proportion 3 (D) object Line and shape. Feltip Pen -Continuous line, rhythm line, balanced line and cross line to visualized proportion 3 (D) object

Line and value

Line and color

Charcoal pencil

-Rubbing

technique

(gSLine)

discontinuities

to show aesthetic

Water color/brush line

-Brush Stroke to developed 3 (D) with emotional value.

Water Color

Line and value

Pencil/

-Continuous line, rhythm line, balanced line and cross line to show aesthetic value

Marker /feltip pen

-Line stroke with structure texture to developed 3 (D) object

Water Color/ Feltip pen

-The effect is more proportion and

emotional

5. Conclusion

The findings of the SIX respondents found that there are three differenced (gSLine) between the two disciplines of visual art which in the proportion (visualization), emotion (emosi) and aesthetic (estetik) which are summarized as (dVEE). Research findings found that 4 difference in the quality of the line drawings painting lukisan perekaan and lukisan pengkaryaan. The findings of the study were collected in order to produce a hybrid model of researchers 'Art + Architecture Graphic Presentation Drawing' (A + AGPD). The study used case study in order to production model process (gSLine) in explaining the 'how' a 3 (D) illustration lukisan kajian (dVEE) can be produced. The process model can be used by students, lecturers, and the public to improve their understanding of the drawings and independently. This study contributes to the 'how' or how the drawings has a 3 (D) illustration (dVEE) in the field of architecture and construction engineering drawing manually.

Acknowledgement

Deep appreciations are dedicated to everyone who is directly or indirectly involved in this study. The study was funded by the Higher Education Sector, Ministry of Education, Malaysia.

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