Scholarly article on topic 'Expectation of Educators and Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Southernmost Provinces of Thailand'

Expectation of Educators and Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Southernmost Provinces of Thailand Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Charuwan Kritpracha, Ophat Kaosaiyaporn, Wasant Atisabda

Abstract This study aimed to examine the expectation of administrators, teachers, education officers, and students towards a distance learning model in southernmost provinces of Thailand. The samples of this study included 112 school administrators, teachers, and educational officers in five southernmost provinces of Thailand and 237 students who study in five southernmost provinces of Thailand. The process of this study was divided into two phases: the first phase was to analyze and synthesize literature and documents related to the expectation of distance learning management and the second phase was to collect data by questionnaires. Results reveled that the management of distance learning should be organized based on students’ needs and the lessons should be able to be accessed from anywhere, anytime. With varieties of instructional approaches and the opportunity for students to communicate, the learning system that allows teachers, assistant teachers, and peers to communicate without limitations of place and time will strengthen the capabilities of students in the southernmost provinces of Thailand to be more successful in higher educations.

Academic research paper on topic "Expectation of Educators and Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Southernmost Provinces of Thailand"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2349 - 2354

INTE 2014

Expectation of educators and students towards a distance learning model in southernmost provinces of Thailand

Charuwan Kritprachaa*, Ophat Kaosaiyapornb , Wasant Atisabdac

aDepartment of Medical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand bcDepartment of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the expectation of administrators, teachers, education officers, and students towards a distance learning model in southernmost provinces of Thailand. The samples of this study included 112 school administrators, teachers, and educational officers in five southernmost provinces of Thailand and 237 students who study in five southernmost provinces of Thailand. The process of this study was divided into two phases: the first phase was to analyze and synthesize literature and documents related to the expectation of distance learning management and the second phase was to collect data by questionnaires. Results reveled that the management of distance learning should be organized based on students' needs and the lessons should be able to be accessed from anywhere, anytime. With varieties of instructional approaches and the opportunity for students to communicate, the learning system that allows teachers, assistant teachers, and peers to communicate without limitations of place and time will strengthen the capabilities of students in the southernmost provinces of Thailand to be more successful in higher educations.

© 2015 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

Keywords: Expectation; Distance Learning

1. Introduction

People in Thailand's southernmost provinces possess unique cultures, lifestyle and traditions, which are different from other regions, mainly, due to different society, religion and culture. Majority of local people are Muslim and conserve Malay culture lifestyle, language in daily use and particularly in religion schools. The practice reflects the

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: charuwan.kr@psu.ac.th

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.899

importance of culture heritage in local people's value and beliefs. The Muslim youth education in these southernmost provinces, therefore, is influenced by local culture, traditions, and religion. Local education reflects the race and culture. Educational system in southernmost provinces was completely separated Traditional Islamic System from Secular System long time ago. Social modification has made a change in traditional knowledge, this process called "Islamization" which is a part of Islamic knowledge developing among cultural diversity, for example; adopting and opening more academic program, improving potential ability of human resources in a region. The ministry of education policy encourages educational system to serve community. (Khemkunasai, P., 1993, Fahrungsang, B., Uttayawalee, Kh., Sungthong, E., 2006 & Kaosaiyaporn, O, 2013)

Unfortunately, the unrest in southernmost provinces erupted more virulent in the past several years affects the quality of knowledge and learning achievement of students in this area. Distance learning technology through internet interactive has been proposed to be one of the main concept for solving these problems. Internet is an anytime anywhere communication media for teacher with learners, learners with learners, and learners with experts. It is learners' equity and provides opportunity to learn and share knowledge transforming the educational disadvantaged society to be the learning society.

The main purpose of this study is to determine the expectation of educators and students towards a distance learning model in southernmost provinces of Thailand in order to provide learners opportunity for higher education and lifelong learning process, particularly, among high school students.

2. Purposes of the study

1. To study the expectation of administrators, teachers, education officers, and students towards a Distance Learning Model in Thailand's Southernmost Provinces.

2. To be a guideline for distance learning model development in Thailand's Southernmost Provinces.

3. Scope of the research

Scope of this research is identified as follows;

1. To study the expectation of Educators and Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Thailand's Southernmost Provinces. The results of this study will be used as guidelines for strategic development and distance learning model.

2. Population and sample: There were 112 educators (administrators, teachers, educational officers) and 237 students working or studying in Thailand's five Southernmost Provinces; Songkhla, Satun, Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat. Educators participants were working in Education science, Information Technology, Education Management for cultural diversity, and Distance Learning. Students participants were high school students in these five Southernmost Provinces.

4. Research Methodology and Finding Conclusion

The fundamental information was studied. It included:

1. Review related literatures.

2. In-depth interviews with experts in education, cultural diversity, multicultural education, and psychology in the expectation of Educators and Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Southernmost Provinces, Thailand.

3. Distribution of questionnaires to administrators, teachers, education officers and students in five southernmost provinces, Thailand.

The finding a quality of the questionnaire for reliability by content validity and pilot study with using the Cronbach's alpha was 0.82.

This research is based on the distance learning model in southernmost provinces aiming to improve distance learning system of high school students in six subjects; Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, English, and

Thai, . Distance learning consisted of an origin classroom and distance learning classrooms in several locations. The origin classroom is in Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai campus due to well preparation including administrators, teachers, education officers, students, teaching tools, and broadcasting system to other provinces.

4.1 Expectation of Educators towards a Distance Learning Model in Thailand's Southernmost Provinces

The administrators, teachers and education officers who are familiar with the diversity of race, religion, society, norm, and culture of students in these five southernmost provinces agreed that main hindrance is the unrest situation that withdrawn education development in this region. This caused deficiency of educators and absentees which become main dilemma that led to the implementation of Distance Learning in this region by;

4.1.1 The preparation of teachers in each class for Distance Learning in Southernmost Provinces; this considered to be very important part because teacher is the major factor of education achievement. Teachers should be savant in his/her own subject or course, he/she should always be well prepared, not only in content, but also in strategy, teaching technique, and methods. Learning materials should be distributed before each class, so the learners shall prepare themselves. Regular attending the training course and seminar is required among teachers especially teaching technique and Distance Learning System to improve teachers' competency.

4.1.2 Teachers in each class for Distance Learning in Southernmost Provinces should possess years of experience of 6-10 years, because of the needs of experience in teaching skills that could adapt to apply into Information Technology and be proficient in his/her own content.

4.1.3 Teachers in each class for Distance Learning in southernmost provinces should graduate at least bachelor degree, Master and Doctorate degree may be more beneficial. Even the level of education is not guaranteed teaching achievement, but it improves the creditability of educator toward students and their parents.

4.1.4 Teachers in each class for Distance Learning in Southernmost Provinces should be always available to provide advice to learners, understand learners' education background, and comprehend learners' cultural diversity. Prince of Songkla University would be the mentor of teachers in academic collaboration and improvement.

4.1.5 Advisors are very important in giving suggestions to learners if necessary towards the operation process or other related questions. Furthermore, technician is also required for maintenance and service during teaching sessions. This is consistent to the research of Greenfield (1989) referred in Sumalee Chaijaroen (2008) stating that if the learner is below the Zone of Proximal Development, learners need help in learning process called Scaffolding. The characteristics of Scaffolding are; (1) to support learning, (2) to be templates of learning, (3) to promote a deeper level of learning, (4) to complete the compelling task, and (5) to help the student achieve his/her learning goal.

4.1.6 The distance classroom should be arranged in accordance with geography, demographics, and should be at least 3 satellite classrooms in each district to be more accessible.

4.1.7 There should be activity sessions in 3-7 months, the activities shall allow students to actively participate in the learning process by talking with each other and work as a team as stated by Hoffman (1977) regarding the motivation directed by friends' influence especially among closed friend or friends in the same group of interest. The learner who has interactive activities with friends or classmates would be able to improve his/her learning ability more than the lone learner.

In addition, the researchers pursued the management of distance learning in southernmost provinces related to the appropriateness of distance learning in southernmost provinces by the means, standards deviation (SD) as indicated in Table 1.

Table 1. Means, Standard Deviation (SD) of appropriateness of distance learning in southernmost provinces responded by administrators, educational supervisors, teachers, education officers.

Topic Means Standard Deviation Interpretation

1. Clear and continuous policy in distance learning for 4.29 0.89 Good

high school students in southernmost provinces

2. Subjects/ contents on distance learning should be 4.43 0.68 Good

congruent with learners' interest in entrance

examination of higher education.

3. Pre and post assessment of students' knowledge 4.37 0.71 Good

should be conducted.

Topic Means Standard Deviation Interpretation

4. Course or Video-on-Demands for students who 4.31 0.80 Good

cannot attend the live instruction are provided for

them to study at home or school.

5. Schools should be supported by computer 4.57 0.69 Excellence

6. Teachers in each subject are significant variables of 4.16 0.74 Good

students' success.

7. Necessity of mentor teachers at terminal schools. 4.05 0.84 Good

8. Mentor teachers' computer literacy. 4.22 0.83 Good

9. Tutoring classes are provided on weekend. 3.50 1.07 Good

10. Tutoring classes are provided on weekday. 4.03 0.97 Good

11. Instructional activities are design to support 4.31 0.82 Good

interactive instruction among students and

instructors.

12. Varieties of instructional activities based on online 4.29 0.76 Good

learning are provided.

13. Additional learning resources are provided at 4.33 0.71 Good

terminal schools.

14. Anywhere Anytime instructional supports. 4.17 0.91 Good

15. Application of external classroom experiences for 4.31 0.67 Good

for enrichment of classroom learning.

16. Design of instructional activities support mindful 4.31 0.73 Good

learning and self-responsibility in learning process.

17. Authentic assessment of learning outcomes. 4.25 0.73 Good

18. Students' needs in learning is priority; therefore, 4.85 4.84 Excellence

self-directed learning is significant in learning

process.

19. Accommodate diverse learning styles in distance 4.37 0.75 Good

learning for risk areas in southernmost provinces.

20. Emphasis of Instructional design on social 4.58 2.82 Excellence

cooperation among students in instructional, social,

and cultural aspects.

21. Design of tools for supporting the creative 4.32 0.64 Good

conversation on distance learning classroom for

planning and information supports and exchanges.

22. Provide channels for students to contact instructors 4.41 0.73 Good

all the time.

23. Self-disciplines in self-control and time 4.44 0.68 Good

management are required for distance learning.

24 Learning Management System/ Content 4.37 0.68 Good

Management System should be developed or make

use of open source software, e.g. MOODLE

25 The system is easy to use with clear objectives. 4.47 0.65 Good

26 Login and security system are provided. 4.50 0.64 Excellence

27 Varieties of learning resources are provided. 4.37 0.73 Good

28 New learning environment and virtual activities on 4.32 0.73 Good

distance learning are provided.

29 Users' statistical records are provided. 4.23 0.88 Good

30 Users' records of access to the system are provided. 4.26 0.72 Good

31 Users' records of learning progress and statistical 4.29 0.83 Good

illustration are provided.

32 Test Bank is provided for students to review/ 4.29 0.90 Good

practice.

33 Evaluation system is provided. 4.37 0.80 Good

34 Varieties of Instructional media, e.g.. still pictures, 4.45 0.69 Good

moving pictures, illustration are provided.

35 Supporting systems are provided for technical 4.42 0.75 Good

issues, academic contents, and social network.

36 Chatroom 4.19 0.86 Good

37 Webboard 4.15 0.87 Good

38 Reflection room 4.29 0.83 Good

39 Webblog 4.25 0.84 Good

40 Short message (SMS) can facilitate communications among instructor and learners, and learners and 4.17 0.90 Good

Topic Means Standard Deviation Interpretation

learners).

41 Technology of Video Conference supporting 4.24 0.93 Good

distance learning.

4.2 Expectation of Students towards a Distance Learning Model in Southernmost Provinces of Thailand Expectation of students towards a distance learning model in southernmost provinces can be classified as followings:

4.2.1 Students expected that before the tutoring class started, they should have prepared themselves by reviewing texts and students' manual.

4.2.2 Students preferred face-to-face orientation rather than online orientation (55.3%/44.7%).

4.2.3 Most students (56.5%) preferred a period of 1-3 months for distance learning of tutoring classes, then 28.7% for 3-7 months and 10.5% for 8-12 months.

In addition, the respondents' opinion on distance learning for southernmost provinces were identified in Table 2.

Table 2. Means, Standard Deviation (SD) of appropriateness of distance learning in southernmost provinces responded by students.

Topic Means Standard Deviation Interpretation

1. Subject/ content used in virtual classroom lesson should be congruent and beneficial to students for applying obtained knowledge for further studies in higher education. 4.11 1.07 Good

2. Tutoring system should be based on Online Course-on-Demand for students who cannot attend the regular class. 4.02 0.83 Good

3. Schools should support the computer and internet infrastructure. 4.16 0.86 Good

4. Tutoring teachers should have opportunities to meet students at schools. 4.35 0.69 Good

5. Mentor teachers for advising students at terminal classrooms should be teachers in local schools. 4.07 0.86 Good

6. Tutoring class on weekday (Mondayt-Friday). 3.91 0.88 Good

7. Tutoring class on weekend (Saturday-Sunday). 3.45 1.14 Fair

8. Design of instructional activities should facilitate 3.70 1.14 Good

learning interface, questioning, and consulting

teachers.

9. Varieties of learning activity design with support of peer conversation via online communication are provided. 3.95 1.11 Good

10. Additional library and learning resources are provided. 3.78 1.27 Good

11. More channels for students to communicate with teachers are provided anywhere anytime. 4.10 1.01 Good

12. Self-disciplines in learning and time management are important for students in tutoring program via distance learning. 3.80 1.27 Good

13. Books and printed materials are major resources for tutoring. 3.93 1.07 Good

14. Old test materials are major resources for tutoring. 3.99 1.05 Good

15. Games are major resources for tutoring. 3.85 0.90 Good

Additional opinions are provided by respondents as following:

1. Content for tutoring should be clear, precise, and simple for learning and understanding.

2. Students had high expectations on teachers' characters and teaching skills and methods, such as lively, funny, friendly, easy to follow, not too fast and understand the concepts.

3. Teachers should provide opportunities for students to ask questions and access anytime.

4. The unrest situation in southernmost areas affected the instructional process and often caused school shutdown.

5. Many schools were still lack of instructional resources.

5. Recommendations

1. Recommendations on a research implementation

This research could be adjustable and modified according to the situation, circumstance, and subject to achieve the learner's objective.

2. Recommendation for further studies:

2.1 The new technology tendency should be applied in teaching techniques.

2.2 To study on how to design teaching tools to be allied with Distance Learning System.

6. References

Fahrungsang, B., Uttayawalee, Kh., Sungthong, E. (2006). Research report on Collection of multicultural studies of southernmost provinces of Thailand. Pattani: Prince of Songkla University.

Kaosaiyaporn, O., Khlaisang, J. & Na-Songkhla, J. (2012) Factors of Virtual Networks for Multicultural Classrooms to Enhance Knowledge Construction and Cultural Awareness for Graduate Students. Technical Education Journal King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, 3: 1.

Kaosaiyaporn, O., Khlaisang, J. & Na-Songkhla, J. (2013) Development of a Virtual Networks for Multicultural Classrooms to Enhance Knowledge Construction and Cultural Awareness for Graduate Students. Journal of Education, Prince of Songkla University, 24: Special Issue.

Khemkunasai, P. (1993). Views of Muslim Thais in southernmost areas on cultural harmony policy in southernmost provinces: Strategies to solve problems. Journal of Thaksinkadee. 3: 2.

Chaicharoen, S. (2008). Educational Technology: from principles, theories to practices. Khonkean: Krangnanawittaya.

Hoffman, L.W. (1977). Fear of success in 1965 and 1974: A follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. pp. 310-321.

Yongyuan, B. (2008). The encouragement a children development in the context of cultural diversity. [Online]. Available: http://www.cf. mahidol.ac.th/autopage/file/WedJuly2008-22-18-5-4articel-004.pdf [November, 4, 2012].