Scholarly article on topic 'Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods'

Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine
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Academic research paper on topic "Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods"

Uprety et al. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2016) 12:19 DOI 10.1186/s13002-016-0089-8

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

REVIEW Open Access

Traditional use and management of NTFPs ® in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods

Yadav Uprety1*, Ram C. Poudel2, Janita Gurung3, Nakul Chettri3 and Ram P. Chaudhary1,4


Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs), an important provisioning ecosystem services, are recognized for their contribution in rural livelihoods and forest conservation. Effective management through sustainable harvesting and market driven commercialization are two contrasting aspects that are bringing challenges in development of NTFPs sector. Identifying potential species having market value, conducting value chain analyses, and sustainable management of NTFPs need analysis of their use patterns by communities and trends at a regional scale. We analyzed use patterns, trends, and challenges in traditional use and management of NTFPs in the southern slope of Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya and discussed potential implications for conservation and livelihoods. A total of 739 species of NTFPs used by the local people of Kangchenjunga Landscape were reported in the reviewed literature. Of these, the highest number of NTFPs was documented from India (377 species), followed by Nepal (363) and Bhutan (245). Though the reported species were used for 24 different purposes, medicinal and edible plants were the most frequently used NTFP categories in the landscape. Medicinal plants were used in 27 major ailment categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders. Though the Kangchenjunga Landscape harbors many potential NTFPs, trade of NTFPs was found to be nominal indicating lack of commercialization due to limited market information. We found that the unsustainable harvesting and lack of marketing were the major constraints for sustainable management of NTFPs sector in the landscape despite of promising policy provisions. We suggest sustainable harvesting practices, value addition at local level, and marketing for promotion of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape for income generation and livelihood improvement that subsequently contributes to conservation.

Keywords: Traditional knowledge, Medicinal plants, Trade, Potential species, NTFP policy, Sustainable use and management


Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are the most important provisioning services people obtain from forest ecosystems [1]. The importance of NTFPs in rural livelihoods and forest conservation has been well recognized as they provide income generation opportunities to millions of people around the world [2-5], and they are also a major source of supplementary food, medicines,

* Correspondence:

1Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article

(3 BioMed Central

fibre, and construction materials [6, 7]. In developing countries, biological resources obtained from forests, mostly NTFPs, may contribute as much as 20-25 % of income to rural people [7]. However, the economic potential of NTFPs is highly contextual and depends on a combined set of socio-cultural, ecological, geo-political, and economic conditions. Nevertheless, access to market/ commercialization of NTFPs and sustainable harvesting are two important aspects that need attention for sustainable development of the NTFP sector (also see [8]).

The ecological diversity of the Himalaya makes the area a habitat of a vast range of NTFPs. In the Himalayan

© 2016 Uprety et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

region, harvesting NTFPs is a tradition that also contributes significantly to the local economy. Some NTFPs play an important role in traditional health care systems, while others have important cultural values and are sources of food and housing material [9—11]. Among all categories of NTFPs, medicinal plants have received much focus while the contribution of other categories of NTFPs has been overlooked. For example, the contribution of wild edible plants towards food security and income generation has been undervalued in Nepal [12].

Common threats to NTFPs in the Himalayan region include unsustainable harvesting and habitat loss due to land use change, deforestation and over-grazing [13, 14]. Several other challenges have also been identified for sustainable management of NTFPs, such as policies that are ambiguous or poorly implemented due to the lack of resources, lack of comprehensive information on the ecology of the species and its socio-ecological impacts, and poor infrastructure for bioprospecting [15-17]. However, unsustainable harvesting is one of the major issues that affects ecological processes at many levels, from individual and population to community and ecosystem [2, 18]. Commercialization of NTFPs is another important aspect involving different processes such as production, collection, processing, storage, transport, marketing, and sale. Marshall et al. [19] found that product marketing and sale were the most important of all factors that constrained overall success of NTFPs commercialization. However, Ghate et al. [20] found a clear relationship between the degree of proximity to the market and NTFP dependence; remote places with low market access had high NTFPs dependency.

The demand for NTFPs is increasing not only in local markets, but also in international markets. Therefore, some important steps to facilitate integration of NTFPs into the development agenda that benefits local communities include identifying potential species having trade value and conducting research on their ecology and sustainable harvest levels; conducting analyses on value chain and use patterns; and analyzing trends and challenges in marketing and management [21]. Here we focus on these aspects of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape within the Eastern Himalaya [22] and explore the implications for conservation and livelihoods.


Study area

The Kangchenjunga Landscape is a transboundary landscape shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal. It is one of the richest landscapes in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) in terms of cultural and biological diversity and forms part of the Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot, one of 34 global Biodiversity Hotspots [23]. It extends over 25,000 sq. km within 260 21'40.49" to 2807 ' 51.25" North

latitudes and 87030'30.67" to 90° 24'31.18" East longitudes (Fig. 1). The altitude in the landscape ranges from 50 masl in the south to 8,586 masl, the height of Mount Kangchenjunga-the world's third highest peak. Vegetation zones in the landscape is comprised of tropical, subtropical, temperate, subalpine, alpine, and nival.

The Kangchenjunga Landscape provides a range of ecosystem services that supports millions of people [24]. However, like many other landscapes worldwide, biodiversity and ecosystems within the landscape face threats mainly from anthropogenic pressures [25] and global climate change [26]. As a result, the people living in the landscape are economically, physically, and socially vulnerable [25, 27].

Recognizing the global and regional significances and challenges that lie within this landscape, the Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative (KLCDI) has been initiated by the governments of Bhutan, India and Nepal to achieve biodiversity conservation and sustainable development by applying ecosystem approaches to transboundary landscape management [22]. One of these priority areas is sustainable utilization of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. Several species of high value NTFPs that are also threatened are found in the landscape such as Chiraito (Swertia chirayita), Panch aunle (Dactylorhiza hatagirea), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora), Laghupatra (Podophyllum hexandrum) and Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana).

Data collection and analysis

We reviewed scientific studies published in journals and books on traditional uses of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. Various online databases were used (ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) using specific search terms such as 'non-timber forest products, 'medicinal plants,' 'wild edible plants' and 'Kangchenjunga Landscape, 'Nepal, 'India, 'Sikkim, 'Darjeeling,' and 'Bhutan'. We also explored hard copies of relevant publications. We reviewed a total of 47 publications and one database to enumerate the NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. The precision of species identification in this review was dependent on the original source. However, we verified currently accepted name(s) in online nomenclature sources (http://www. and Vernacular names when available have also been provided. A master list was produced providing Linnaean taxonomy, vernacular name(s), mode(s) of use, and reference(s) for each species (Table 1). We also collected trade data and reviewed policy documents on NTFPs of Bhutan, India and Nepal.

We listed ailments as mentioned in the publications but we followed the method proposed by Cook [28] to classify plants according to the different ailment categories they used to cure. However, in some cases Cook's categories were not precise enough and plants were assigned to


Fig. 1 The Kangchenjunga Landscape in the Eastern Himalaya

SN Botanical name Habit Family Vernacular name(s)


1 Justicia adhatoda L. Shrub Acanthaceae Asuro (Np); Bashakha (Dz);

Jantrashi (Me); Khateermu (Sh); Vasakdog (S)

2 Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze

3 Viburnum erubescens Wall.

4 Trianthema portulacastrum L.

5 Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin

6 Achyranthes aspera L.

7 Achyranthes bidentata Blume

8 Aiternanthera sessiiis (L.) DC.

9 Amaranthus spinosus L.,

10 Amaranthus spp.

11 Amaranthus tricolor L.

12 Amaranthus viridis L.

13 Ceiosia argentea L.

14 Allium sp.

15 Allium wallichii Kunth

Herb Acanthaceae

Shrub Adoxaceae

Herb Aizoaceae

Tree Alanginaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaranthaceae

Herb Amaryl lidaceae

Herb Amaryl lidaceae

Asaray (Np)

Seto Punarnava (Np)

Dhela (S); Asare (Np)

Apamarga, Ulte kuro (Np)

Ankhlay Jhar, Datiwan (Np)

Saranchi Saag (Np); Garundi (S)

Janum arak (S); Lude (Np)

Zimtsi (Dz); Naam (Sh)

Gandhari (S); Lude (Np)

Bhale Phul, Sahastrajadi (Li) Lagok (Dz/Sh)

Wild Garlic (Eg); Palengu (Gr); Gokpa, Koje, Ri Gokpa (Km, Sh); Ban Lasun, Ban Pyaj, Jimbu, Jimbujhar (Np); Bathatuva (Ri)

Distribution Part(s) used, Use(s), Location and Reference(s)*

(Altitude in meter)

Roots: Extract taken to cure cholera and epilepsy (KL Nepal: [53]). Roots, bark and leaves: Used as insecticide, expectorant, and antispasmodic. Used as remedy for asthma, cough, fever, gonorrhea leprosy, and phthisis (Sikkim: Database)* Tender shoots: Used to treat asthma (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Extract given orally to cure wheezing in children (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction used in bronchitis, cold, and veneral diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Paste applied on abdomen and vagina just minutes before childbirth for easy deliver/ (Sikkim: [69]). Leaves and shoots: Taken orally against fever, headache and bodyache (Datjeeling: [52]). Flowers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]) and also used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Seeds: Edible (Datjeeling: [72]).

Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

Bark: Paste used for abortion and antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Whole plant: Juice taken in cough (Panchthar [67]; Ham: [73]), dropsy, piles, stomachache (Ham: [73]) and diarrhoea (Panchthar [67]).

Roots and stem: Juice used as diuretic and also given in rheumatism (Datjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]; Ham: [73, 76, 77]) and hypertention (Ham: [73, 76, 77]).

Roots: Pounded with seeds of Foeniculum vulgare and taken orally to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and twigs: Decoction taken to cure fever (Datjeeling: [78]).

Roots: Extract used as diuretic (KL Nepal: [53]). Decoction taken with warm water to check excessive bleeding at post delivety stage (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Eaten as curry to treat burns, boils and as laxative (Datjeeling: [74]).

Whole plant: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Used to stop diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken to cure gastric problems, fried beaten seeds with butter are given to pregnant women to lessen pregnancy pains (Sikkim: [11]).

Young shoots and leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Juice with sugar taken to cure colic and as laxative (Datjeeling: [74]).

Leaves: Juice administered orally in diarrhoea and dysentety (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used in digestion (Sikkim: [69]). Bulbs and aerial parts: Used as spice (Sikkim: [10, 80], Database; Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: Database). Bulbs: Boiled, fried in clarified butter and taken in cholera and diarrhea; chewed to treat cough, colds, and altitude sickness (Taplejung: [83]). Bulbs and flowers: Use to treat gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).

16 Choerospondias axillaris Tree Anacardiaceae (Roxb.) B. L. Burtt & A. W.

17 Lannea coromandelica Tree Anacardiaceae (Houtt.) Merr.

18 Mangifera indica L. Tree Anacardiaceae

Nepali Hug Plum (Eg); Phindruwa (Li); Lapsi (Np); Amali (Nw); Pindumsi, Pintupsi (Ri); Nying Sho Sha (Tb)

Doka (S)

Thaijau (Me); Ul (Np)


19 Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. Tree Tree

20 Rhus chinensis Mill.

21 Rhus javanica Miller

Anacardiaceae Chuchiam, Kathorkung (Lp)

Anacardiaceae Bhakimlo (Np); Chokashing (Dz);

Roptangshing (Sh);

Anacardiaceae Tibru, Tsakshing (Gr); Rushi (Km, Sh);

Yaseba, Isewa (Li); Bhaki Amilo, Bhakimlo, Dudhe Bhalayo (Np); Mahada, Oksarempo, Osreksi (Ri); Bokumba, Thaksing (Sh); Tibi Sing (Tm); Da Trig (Tb)

22 Semecarpus anacardium L.f. Tree


Soso (S); Rani bhalayo (Np); Bhalau (Me) 150-1200

23 Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz Tree

24 Toxicodendron hookeri (K.C. Tree Sahni & Bahadur) C.Y. Wu &

T.L. Ming

25 Annona squamata L. Tree

Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae


Amaro (Np) Tarsishing (Sh)

Saripha (Np); Mandargom (S)


26 Angelica cyclocarpa Herb Apiaceae (C.Norman) M.Hiroe

27 Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Herb Apiaceae

28 Carum carvi L. Herb Apiaceae

Caraway (Eg); Chir (Gr-Mn); Ban Jeera 2500-5100

(Np); Sushavi (Sn); Chhonyo, Khoda


Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used to make pickle (Datjeeling: [80], Sikkim: [10, 47, 72, 95]; Ham: [94]; Taplejung: [88]). Used to treat cough, cold, tonsillitis, diabetes, worm infestation, and heart ailment [87].

Bark: Paste applied around bone fracture to set bone (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Effective for jaundice patient (Datjeeling: [105]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Green unripe fruit skin crushed and drunk to get relief from stomachache (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Given with bark of Anthocephalus chinensis, Madhuca longifolia and Gmelina arborea in diarrhea and dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Young leaves chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]).

Fruits: Used as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).Used to make sour pickle (Ham: [94]).

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruits: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruits: Edible and also used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysenteiy (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73]) and stomach problems (Taplejung: [88]; Ham: [73]). Dried and extract used in diarrhea, swellings and wounds (Sikkim: Database). Juice used as food preservative; juice boiled with water and mixed with raw egg and the mixture given to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]) and dysenteiy (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Juice administered orally during blood dysenteiy (Sikkim: [79]). Boiled and isolated vinegar used to make pickles (Ham: [94]).

Roots: Used to treat skin infection (Sikkim: [11, 75]). Bark: Decoction given to animals to remove worms (Sikkim: [11]). Latex: Used as antitetanus (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also used to treat headache (Jhapa: [68]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Seed oil taken in cough and colds (Jhapa: [66]).

Flowers: Used to make curry and for flavoring (Ham: [94]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Juice drunk to control fever (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves and seeds: Used to kill ice (Panchthar: [67]). Thalamus is used as antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Useful in abortion and menstrual disorders (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Paste applied on forehead during headache (Sikkim: [79]).

Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]).

29 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Herb

Ghortaapre, Gol patta, Gota taprey, 500-2100 Goltaprey (Np); Dalka chatumana (S)


30 Coriandrum sativum L. Herb


Dhaniya (Np)


31 Cortia depressa (D.Don) C. Herb Norman

32 Heracleum nepalense D. Herb Don



Nigale Sag (Np); Gholo, Ghundu, Kholo, 3600-5100 Nhopchhema (Sh); Tangkyun (Sh, Tb); Ghundu (Wl)

Sunaga, Habluwa (Km); Samben (Lp); Chimphing (Np); Bhote-Jeera, Nafo (Np-Dl); Chimping (Np-Tb); Phaki, Thar (Sh); Chimbing, Chimping (Sh, Wl); Chapho Karpo, Zira Goepa (Tb)


33 Heracleum wallichii DC.


Chimphing (Np)


34 Heracleum candicans Wall. Herb Apiaceae ex DC.

35 Heracleum dissectifoiium K.T. Herb Apiaceae Fu

36 Hydrocotyie himalaica P. K. Herb Apiaceae Mukh.

37 Hydrocotyie javanica Thunb. Herb Apiaceae

38 Hydrocotyie sibthorpioides Herb Apiaceae Lam.

39 Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Herb Apiaceae Raizada & Saxena

Golpata (Np)

Golpatta (Np) Tike Ghor Tapre (Np)



Sunaga (Km); Bhutkesh (Np); Bhatauri, 2700-4800 Dhaneli, Kalo Chhetaro (Np-DI); Tunak (Tb); Chyadukpa (Sh, Wl)

40 Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Tree

Apocynaceae Chhatiwan (Np); Chhatni (S)


Plant: Used to cure heating and tenderness of limb skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice taken orally to get rid of pneumonia, fever (Sikkim: [75]), asthma (Jhapa: [68]; lam: [76, 77]; Sikkim: Database, [69]), mental tension, urinary problems, and stomachache (Ham: [76, 77]; Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [75]). Infusion massaged on the forehead to relieve from headache (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used for skin disease and improving memory (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and young shoots taken to cure tonsil (Darjeeling: [52]). Aerial parts mixed with young shoots of Justicia adhatoda and taken against diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).

Seeds: Used as spice (Ham: [76]) and in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Leaves: Used in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Green leaves used to enhance aroma on food (Ham: [76]). Plant: Used in cough, bronchitis, reheumatism and urinary problem (Ham: [76]).

Leaves: Tender leaves used as vegetable (Taplejung: [88]). Seeds: Used as spice (Taplejung: [81]).

Plant: Used as good winter fodder (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Roots: Given to cattle as tonic; juice and roasted seeds taken in cough and diarrhoea (Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73, 77]). Flowers and fruit: Suggested to cure influenza and body ache (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Used as pickle and also in typhoid, nausea, and vomiting (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Used in case of bodyache, headache, and faint (Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used as tonic and aphrodisiac (Darjeeling: [78]). Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken in diarrhea and gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]), used as chatni (Sikkim: [11]). Decoction of dried seeds taken in influenza (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Extract taken to cure pneumonia and throat infection (Sikkim: [75]). Plant: Taken to cure throat problem (Sikkim: [75]).

Plant: Useful in treatment of migrant and to improve memory (Panchthar: [67]).

Roots and fruits: Used for cuts, wounds, colic, gastritis, and intestinal pain (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Smoke inhaled in case of faint, fever, and headche. Also used as fodder (Taplejung: [81]). Decoction taken to get relief from pain and fever (Ham: [76]). Flowers and leaves: Smooked to treat headache (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Leaves, aromatic, carminative. Fruits: Used in skin diseases and scabies (Sikkim: Database).

Bark: Used in malarian fever and also given to lactating mothers for increasing milk (Jhapa: [66]). Extract used to treat piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Filtered bark juice used to cure leanness in man (Jhapa: [68]). Powder mixed with common salt and given to cattle to cure fever (Sikkim: [97]). Bark, latex and flowers: Used as tonic and in fever and leucoderma (Sikkim: [97]).

41 Catharanthus roseus Shrub Apocynaceae Barhamase Phool, Sadabahar (Np); 150-1500 (L.) G. Don Gofatbhiwar (Me)

42 Holarrhena pubescens Shrub Apocynaceae Ban Khirro, Khuria, Anley Khirrn, 100-1500 (Buch.-Ham.) Wall, ex G. Madhese Khirro (Np); Hat (S)

43 Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Climber Apocynaceae Dudilata (S); Dudelaharo (Np) 150-900 Br.

44 *Rauvoifia serpentina (L.) Herb Apocynaceae Kharokha (Me); God (S) 100-900 Benth. Ex Kurz.

45 Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Herb Apocynaceae Medik.

46 "Acorus caiamus L. Herb Araceae Sweet Flag (Eg); Sadakppa (Li); Ruklop 1700-2300

(Lp); Bojho (Np); Chhowas (Ri); Vacha (Sn); Chota, Jota (Gr-Mn); Suda, Syueda (Sh); Shete (Tm); Tshedak (Sh); Shudag (Tb)

47 Acorus gramineus Aiton Herb Araceae

48 Aiocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Herb Araceae Don

49 Aiocasia spp. Herb Araceae

50 Amorphophaiius Herb Araceae paeoniifoiius C. Y. Wu ex H.

Li, Y. Shiao & S. L. Tseng

Silijam (Dz), Bortsl (Sh)

Man kachui (S); Karkalo (Np). 100-800

Pindo (S); Ol (Np) 100-800

Plant: Anti cancer and antitumour (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as diuretic (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Eaten to maintain sugar level for diabetic patients (Jhapa: [68]).

Plant: Powder or decoction taken to treat acute diarrhea and dysenteiy (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark: Powdered with black pepper and taken to cure cough, cold, fever, diarrhea, and dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66]). Juice taken in amoebic dysenteiy (Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark and seeds: Useful to treat gastric troubles and have anthelmintic property (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Stem: Bark powder or decoction given to livestock to treat constipation, problems during stool passing and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [84]).

Leaves: Extraction used in stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Extraction used in toothache and gum swelling (Jhapa: [66]).

Young shoots: Extract given to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Roots, stems and leaves: Used to treat fever (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Extract used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful in insomnia (Sikkim: Database), high blood pressure, and snake bite (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database). Extract taken in stomach pain and intestinal worms (Jhapa: [66]). Powder administered orally as antidote to snake-bite (Sikkim: [84]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Rhizomes: Used in treatment of epilepsy and other mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [69]), colic pains and as a brain tonic (Sikkim: [69]). Used to cure cold, cough (Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [11, 79]; Ham: [73]), sore throat, bronchitis, tonsil, toothache, headache (Jhapa: [68]; Ham: [73]), bodypain (Jhapa: [66]), scabies, sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]) and also as vermifuge and antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]). Used in skin disease (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79, 89]), malaria and asthma (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Juice used as insecticide (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken as antipyretic (Sikkim: [11, 69]; Darjeeling: [78]) and also to treat rheumatism (Darjeeling: [78]). Pounded with the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria and given in ulcers and abdominal pains (Jhapa: [66]). Extract taken to cure measles (Sikkim: [79]). Crushed and boiled with salt and decoction used to massage for fortnight (Darjeeling: [74]). Paste applied as ointment on wounds in cattle, also administered in indigestion in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Petioles and tuber: Edible as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Young petioles: Cooked with Colocasia esculenta and taken orally in cold and cough (Jhapa: [66]).

Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Tubers and petioles: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

51 Arisaema costatum (Wall.) Herb Mart, ex Schott

52 Arisaema griffithii Schott Herb

53 Arisaema intermedium Herb Blume

54 Arisaema jacquemontii Herb Blume

55 Arisaema sp. Herb

56 Caiadium bicoior (Ait.) Vent. Herb

Araceae Araceae



Araceae Araceae

57 Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Climber Araceae Schott

58 Typhonium triiobatum (L.) Herb Araceae Schott

59 Araiia cachemirica Decne. Shrub Araliaceae

Glatli (Gr); Asek kaki (Li); Dhakayo, Jangali Makai (Np); Thwa (Sh)

Asek Makai, Yakla Khomba (Li); D ho kayo (Np); Doka Banko (Np-Dl); Thwa (Sh); Thwa (Wl)

Sarpa Makai (Np)

Banko (Np)

Dowo (Dz), Rungenengsae (Sh) Dungasaru (S)

Kammare lahara (Np); Dari jappa (S) 200-300

Nirbish (S) 450

Dal kabro (Np); Dumbak (Wl) 2400-420

60 Brassaiopsis hainia (Buch.- Tree Araliaceae Ham. ex D. Don) Seem.

61 Hedera nepaiensis K. Koch Shrub Araliaceae

62 Heiwingia himaiaica Hook. Shrub Araliaceae f. & Thomson ex C. B.


63 Macropanax unduiatus Tree Araliaceae (Wallich ex G. Don)


64 Merriiiiopanax aipinus (C. B. Tree Araliaceae Clarke) C. B. Shang

65 Panax pseudo-ginseng Herb Araliaceae subsp. himaiaicus H. Hara

66 Panax pseudo-ginseng Wall. Herb Araliaceae

Chuletro (Np, Li) Ivy (Eg); Dudela (Np)

Chenday (Np)

Mangan, Panchpattery (Np) Panchapattey (Np)

67 Pentapanax ieschenauitii Tree Araliaceae Chinde (Np) 1600-3700 (DC.) Seem.

68 Areca catechu L. Tree Arecaceae

Leaves: Dried leaves boiled and cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Young shoots used to make curry and corn eaten after repeated boiling (Ham: [94]).

Leaves: Sundried, stored and consumed as vegetable in winter; dried leaves are also used to make Sinki (dried fermented leaves) (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [81, 88]).

Roots: Juice or paste taken in ulcer and fever (Ham: [73, 77]).

Roots: Juice taken orally to treat menstrual disorders, toothache, and pain (Ham: [73, 77]).

Bulbs: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Rhizomes: Pounded and applied on body to relieve from bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit: Pounded and applied on rheumatism and bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

Rhizome: Paste applied externally to cure rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Powder contains high nutrient and generates heat in the body of animal (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Used to treat cuts and contraction of muscles (Panchthar: [67]).

Roots: Administered orally in case of dysenteiy (Sikkim: [79]).

Plant: Juice taken orally as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [85]). Fruits: Enhance fertility (Sikkim: [75]).

Bark: Administered against diabetes (Datjeeling: [52]).

Young shoots: Useful in gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).

Roots: Taken to reduce fever, indigestion, and vomiting; also used as tonic (Sikkim: [75], Database).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as stimulant, combating general debility, headache, vomiting, expectorant, carminative, tonic, in blood pressure (Sikkim: [69]) and weakness (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [69]). Juice given to cure liver disorders, colic, fever and menstrual disorders (Datjeeling: [74]).

Leaves:Tender leaves after boiling used as curry (Ham: [94]). Fruit/seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Q 3 O.

69 Borassus flabeiiifer L.


70 Calamus acanthospathus Climber Arecaceae Griff.

Tari (S) Cane (Eng)

71 Calamus erectus Roxburgh Climber Arecaceae

72 Calamus latifolius Roxb. Climber Arecaceae

73 Calamus tenuis Roxb. Climber Arecaceae Cane (Eng)

74 Caryota urens L. Tree Arecaceae Rangbhang (Np)

75 Phoenix acaulis Roxb. ex Tree Arecaceae Betgera (Np) Buch.-Ham.

76 Phoenix syivestris Roxb. Tree Arecaceae Thakal (Np)

77 Piectocomia himalayana Herb Arecaceae Patsha (Bhut) Griffith

78 Aristoiochia griffithii Hook.f. Climber Aristolochiaceae & Thomson ex Duch.

79 Aristoiochia indica L. Climber Aristolochiaceae Godh (S)

80 Asclepias curassavica L. Herb Asclepiadaceae

81 Caiotropis gigantea (L.) Shrub Asclepiadaceae Diyand.

Khorsani Kose Phul (Np)

Ankh (Np); Gogando-bimtang (Me); Akona (S)

82 Hoya longifolia Wall, ex Shrub Asclepiadaceae Wax Plant (Eg) Wight

83 Marsdenia roylei Wight, Climber Asclepiadaceae Baahuni Lahara (Np)

84 Marsdenia tenacissima Climber Asclepiadaceae Weight & Am.

85 Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. Climber Asclepiadaceae

86 Campylandra aurantiaca Herb Asparagaceae Baker

Bahuni Lahara, Sunamari (Np), Kamtiongrik (Lp)

Kali Lahara, Ryom (Np)

Nakima (Np)

Flowers: Juice taken to quench the thurst (Jhapa: [66]).

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used as a substitute for rope, as cable for suspension bridges, for wickerwork, baskets, and containers. Thicker cane used for makingfurniture frames, walking sticks and umbrella handles (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Shoots: Edible (Bhutan: [99]).

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Leaves: Juice used to cures eye diseases (Sikkim: [11]).

Shoot: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used to make household items, such as mats, screens and furnitures (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Stem and buds: Inner core pith and terminal bud consumed as vegetable (Ham: [94]).

Fruits: Raw fruits used to make vegetable curry (Ham: [94]).

Stem: Soft pith eaten raw (Ham: [94]).

Young shoots: Taken as vegetable (Bhutan: [99, 102])

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots and leaves: Paste applied in stomachache and as an antidote in snake bite and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Used to treat cancer, warts, and snake bite (Panchthar: [67]).

Latex and Leaves: Used in sprain and swelling (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Extraction given in fever and applied on chest and abdomin to relieve pains (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Applied on burns (Jhapa: [66]) and for ring worm (Jhapa: [68]).

Leaves: Applied on burns (Panchthar: [67]).

Plant: Used for cooling and alternative effect in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database). Roots, leaves and fruit: Decoction used to relieve burning sensation of the genitals (Sikkim: [11]).

Roots: Juice taken daily as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).

Leaves: Juice taken for stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).

Roots: Stocks given orally in case of food poisoning (Darjeeling: [52]). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken with water to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [11]). Given in food poisoning (Darjeeling: [74]). Flowers: Used as appetizer and taken in diabetes (Sikkim: [69, 79], Database). Taken as curry (Sikkim: [89]).

87 Chlorophytum Herb Asparagaceae Turam (S) arundinaceum Baker

88 Eucomis regia (L.) Alton Herb Asparagaceae Lily (Q

89 Tupistra nutans Wall, ex Herb Asparagaceae Nakima (Np) Lindl.

90 Acmeiia caiva (Candolle) R. Herb Asteraceae Mareti (Np) K. Jansen

91 Ageratina adenophora Herb Asteraceae Banmara (Np) (Spreng.) R.M. King & H.




92 Ageratum conyzoides L.


lamejhar (Np)


93 Ajania tibetica (Hook.f. & Shrub Asteraceae Thomson) Tzvelev

94 Anaphalis adnata Wall, ex Herb Asteraceae DC.

95 Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) Herb Asteraceae C. B. Clarke

96 Artemisia dubia Wall, ex Herb Asteraceae Besser

Buki phul (Np)

Bhukiphu (Np)

Rati, Titepati, Titaypati (Np); Sibuma, Sungmara (Ri); Chhaphung (Sh); Khenpa (Tb); Sangsin Khemba (Wl)




97 Artemisia indica Willd. Herb Asteraceae

98 Artemisia nilagirica (C.B. Herb Asteraceae Clarke) Ramp.

99 Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh.ex Shrub Asteraceae Willd.

100 Artemisia vulgaris L. Herb Asteraceae

Namyohoba (Li); Tuknil (Lp); Titepati 300-2400 (Np); Tompe (Sh)

Titepati (Np)

Titepati (Np); Titeypati (Li) 1500-3800

Roots: Powder taken to relieve from body weakness (Jhapa: [66]). Bulb: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Flower: Taken as appetizer and in diabetes (Sikkim: Database). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken to relieve from body pain (Sikkim: [11]).

Fruit: Juice taken orally for headache and stomachache [66, 77], toothache (Darjeeling: [74]; Ham: [73, 77]) and sore mouth (Darjeeling: [74]).

Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Darjeeling: [74]; Ham: [73]; Sikkim: [11, 75]) and also taken orally in fever (Ham: [73]). Leaves: Taken orally in dysenteiy (Darjeeling: [52]).

Whole plant: Used as antidote (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Juice applied on wound (Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]) and also used as anthelmintic (Panchthar: [67]). Decoction used as antipyretic (Darjeeling: [78]), and also in diarrhea, dysenteiy, colic, and flatulence (Sikkim: [1 l]).Tenders chewed to cure diarrhoea and dysenteiy. Flowers: chewed to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).

Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Juice applied on fresh cuts and wounds (Ham: [73, 77]). Flower: Paste applied regularly to cure skin problems (KL Nepal: [53]). Whole plant: Used in ritual ceremony (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves: Used to treat pains and possess anthelmintic properties (Panchthar: [67]).Crushed fresh leaves uesd to open decongestant sinuses and to stop nasal bleeding (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [11], Database). Extract used on cuts and bruises (Sikkim: [11], Database). Supposed to possess detergent effect and used as cleansing agent (Sikkim: Database). Taking bath of leaves juice cures skin allergies and leaves chewed to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [11]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Darjeeling: [80]).

Tender shoots and leaves: Used to treat inflammation (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and flowers: Juice used to treat injuries (Sikkim: [75]). Juice taken in asthma, gastritis and skin disease (Ham: [76, 77]).

Shoots and leaves: Used to cure mouth ulcer; paste applied externally on forehead during dizziness and headache (Darjeeling: [52]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Leaves: Used to treat nose bleeding (Sikkim: [69, 79, 91]) neivous and spasmodic affections, asthma and the disease of the brain (Sikkim: [69]). Tender leaves chewed cures mouth ulcers; crushed leaves mixed with water and taken bath cures skin allergy. Juice used as anti-leech, besides its religious values (Sikkim: [79]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Sikkim: [89]). Crushed and extract applied externally on skin to treat itching in cattle; fresh leaves grounded, sap extracted and used as nasal drop to stop nose bleeding in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

101 Aster neo-elegans Grierson Shrub Asteraceae

102 Auckiandia costus Falconer Herb Asteraceae

103 Bidens piiosa L. Herb Asteraceae

104 Bidens spp. Herb Asteraceae

105 Biumea hieraciifoiia (D. Don) Herb Asteraceae DC.

106 Biumea lacera (Buif. f.) DC. Herb Asteraceae

Kapisful, Kuth (Np) Kuro (Li)

Zumphirobu (Sh) Sahasrabooti (Np)



Gangansu (Me); Rancio, Ghar nagharni 150-350 (S)

107 Calendula officinalis L.



108 Chrysanthemum indicum L. Asteraceae

109 Cirsium sp. Herb Asteraceae

110 Cremanthodium humile Herb Asteraceae Maxim.

111 Eciipta prostrata (L.) L. Herb Asteraceae

Godawari (Li)


Bhringaraj (Np); Khetkeshari (S) 200-1200

112 Eiephantopus scaber L.

113 Erigeron muitiradiatus (Lindl. Herb ex DC.) Benth. ex C.B.


114 Eupatorium adenophorum Herb Spreng.

115 Eupatorium cannabinum L. Herb

116 Eupatorium odoratum L.

Asteraceae Asteraceae

Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

Sahsra Jari (Np); Dadari (Me)



Banmara (Np) Banmara (Np) 1000-2000

Aule banmara (Np); Daubanthu (Me) 400-1500

117 Gnaphaiium affine D. Don Herb

118 Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Herb Poir.



Pahelo Bukey (Np) Chot Bhidimyan (S)


Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Believed to cure bronchitis, vomiting, epilepsy, headache, and hysteria (Sikkim: Database).

Leaves: Juice applied to eyes and ears to reduce pain (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves and roots: Extract used in cut and jaundice (KL Nepal: [53]).

Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Dried and taken smell to treat asthma (Darjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Paste sticked on and around swelling region to prevent cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction given in urinary infections, and also with decoction of Plumeria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves and flowers: Used as antiseptic, antifungal, diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic and in small pox; also used in healing wounds, ulcers, and burns (Sikkim: Database).

Flowers: Dried flowers chewed during stomachache (Sikkim: [79]). Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Used in treatment of snake and scorpion bite (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and tender shoots: Used to treat cut and wounds and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Infusion used in catarrhal (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Paste applied on the muscular pain (Jhapa: [68]). Fruits: Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]).

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Sikkim: [75]; Ham: [73]) and also taken in fever (Ham: [73]).

Stem and Leaves: Extract used on cut and bruises to stop bleeding and infection (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11], Database).

Leaves: Juice applied on cut and injuiy as haemostatic and to check nasal bleeding, extract dropped in nose to cure severe headache (Jhapa: [68]). Extract also used in cuts and wounds (Sikkim: Database).

Plant: Whole plant crushed and given orally to infants suffering from diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [52]).

Aerial parts: Pounded together with Sphaeranthus indicus and taken orally as well as inhaled a few drops to restore consciousness during epileptic fit (Jhapa: [66]).

119 Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC.

120 Inula helenlum L.

121 Ixeridlum graclle (DC.) Pak & Kawano

122 Leontopodlum jacotianum Beauverd

123 Leontopodlum monocephalum Edgew.

124 Leontopodlum sp.

125 Lorentea sp.

126 Pulicaria Inslgnls Drumm. ex Dunn

127 Pulicaria sp.

128 Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

129 Saussurea gossypiphora D.Don

130 Senecio cappa Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

131 Senecio chrysanthemoldes DC.

132 Sonchus arvensls L.

133 Sonchus wlghtlanus DC.

134 Soroserís hookeriana (C.B.CIarke) Stebbins

135 Sphaeranthus indicus L.

Herb Herb

Herb Herb Herb

Herb Herb

Herb Herb Herb


Asteraceae Asteraceae



Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

Asteraceae Asteraceae




Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae


Golden Samphire, Sheep's Year (Eg); 1000-2500 Bakhrikane, Gaitihare, Kanpate, Tihare-Phul (Np); Basita, Machram (Ri).

Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-DI); Tawa Thokar, 2700-4900 Tawa Thokar Yungpa (Tb)

Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-DI); Tawa Thokar 4600-5600 goepa (Tb).

Khainingroo or Rumplung (Sh)

Bhutkesh, Kapase Phool (Np-Tp); Yazembawa (Wl)

Bakhrakane (Np)

Ban-rayo (Np)


Bhidimyan (S)


136 Tagetes erecta L. Herb

137 Tagetes patula L. Herb

138 Tanacetu matkinsonii Herb (C.B.Clarke) Kitam.

139 Tanacetum tatslenense Herb (Bureau & Franch.) K.

Bremer & Humphries

140 Taraxacum officinale F.H. Herb Wigg.


Asteraceae Asteraceae

Asteraceae Asteraceae

Demal-bhiwar (Me) Sayapatri (Np)



Roots: Juice used in fever, indigestion, and other stomach disorders (Taplejung: [81]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Flowers: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fibres: Used for various purposes (Taplejung: [81]).

Roots and leaves: Infusion used in fever and boils (Ham: [73, 76]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Paste applied to re liefe from toothache (Darjeeling: [74]). Roots: Taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Shoots: Paste applied on breast of women to cure swelling and wounds (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Juice drunk to cure pneumania and chest pain (Jhapa: [68]). Flowers: Useful in pneumonia, piles, and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]).

Flowers: Chewed to cure sore throat, cough and mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Q 3 Q.

141 Taraxacum sikkimense Hand.- Mazz.

142 Taraxacum tibetanum Hand.-Mazz.

144 Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Herb Herb

143 Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Herb Willd.

145 Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Herb Regel

146 Impatiens balsamina L. Herb

147 Basella alba L. Climber

148 Begonia picta 5m. Herb

Asteraceae Wakhur (Sh); Tuki Phool (Np);

Khurmang, Wakhur (Tb)

Asteraceae Khenpa-karpo (Dz/Sh/B)

Asteraceae Sauraj (S)

Asteraceae Jurishuri (S)

Asteraceae Gang Poe (Tb), Ghanga-Setik (Wl).

Balsaminaceae Tiuri (Np)

Basellaceae Purne arak (S); Poi sag (Np)

Begoniaceae Begonia (Eg); Magar Kanche (Np); Shovaparnee (Sn)

149 Berberís angulosa Wall, ex Shrub Hook. f. & Thomson

150 Berberís aristata DC.

Berberidaceae Chutro (Np)

Berberidaceae Berberry (Eg); Kaiya (Gr-Mn);

Kyarbukung (Lp); Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-DI); Kyerwa, Kyerkar (Km, Tb); Chompairaim (Ri); Daruharidra, Rasanjan (Sn); Kerpatsang (Dz)

151 Berberís asiatica Roxb. ex Shrub DC

Berberidaceae Berberry (Eg); Toksong, Pirima (Li); 1200-2500

Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-DI); Daruharidra, Thakti-Layem (Ri)

152 Berberís nepalensis Spreng. Shrub Berberidaceae

153 Mahonia acanthifolia D.Don Shrub Berberidaceae

Chutro (Np)

154 Mahonia napaulensis DC. Shrub

Berberidaceae Mahonia (Eg); Samlikhe, Samjikhe (Li);

Chutro, Jamane Mandro (Np); Khlusa (Ri); Daruharidra, Kanchan (Sn); Kerbe (Tm); Kerpa (Wl)

155 *Sinopodophyllum Herb

hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying

Berberidaceae Himalayan May Apple (Eg); Balulu,

Balugu (Km); Laghu Patgra (Np); Meme Gudruk (Np-DI); Upala, Bamasisi, Ramasisi (Sh, Wl); Wolmose (Tb); Goegabetapi (Sh)

Plant: Used as vegetable. Flowers and leaves: Used as galactagogue for human and cattle (Taplejung: [87]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruits: Pounded and taken to remove intestinal worms and to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [87]).

Plant: Decoction used to cure burns and urinary problems (Ham: [73, 76]). Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

Plant: Juice taken in headache and conjunctivitis (Ham: [73, 76]). Stalks: Extracts from stalks used for venereal disease (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Juice applied as an anti-leech agent (Taplejung: [88]). Shoots and leaves: Used to make pickle and jam (Ham: [94]).

Stem: Decoction taken orally in blood dysenteiy and jaundice (Datjeeling: [52]).

Roots and bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used in jaundice, malaria, fever, and diarrhea; also used externally to cure eye disease (Sikkim: Database). Leaves, flowers and bark: Used in eye disease, bile disorders, lympy disorder, jaundice, malarian fever, swelling, and dysenteiy (Ham: [73]; Panchthar: [67]). Stem: Extract used for hypoglycemic activities (Sikkim: [96]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Ham: [73]; Panchthar: [67]), also used to cure rabies (Sikkim: [75]).

Bark: Decoction used to treat conjunctivitis, eye inflammation, and also used as laxative and tonic (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Source of dye (KL Nepal: [83]).Bark and root decoction administered orally in jaundice and fever (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [82, 87]). Fruit and leaves: Juice taken in diarrhoea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [79]).

Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Stem: Decoction taken to treat blood dysenteiy, diarrhoea and jaundice (Darjeeling: [52]).

Plant: Used for fencing (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Fruit: Used in the treament of urinary disorders (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Ripe berries eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Juice applied in eyes (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysenteiy, diarrhoea (Ham: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [86]), and urinary disorders (Ham: [73, 76]).

Plant: Useful for typhoid fever, mental disorder, and plague (Sikkim: Database). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as purgative, hepatic stimulant, bile expellant, bitter tonic and in skin diseses (Sikkim: [69]). Decoction used in ulcer and liver troubles (Taplejung: [81]). Crushed and applied externally on hoof to treat infection; decoction used for cattle to treat indigestion (Sikkim: [84]). Roots and fruit: Used as anticancer remedy (Sikkim: [75]), taken in fever and diarrhea (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [75], Database). Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw; used in gynecological diseases, menstrual disorders, kidney disease, skin disease, and cough (Taplejung: [81]).

156 Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. Tree Betulaceae Saur (Np) 1200-2600 ex D. Don

157 Betula cylindrostachya Tree Betulaceae Saru (Np); Taghyam (Bh) 1400-2800 Lindley

158 Betula utllls D. Don Tree Betulaceae Himalayan Silver Birch (Eg); Bhojpatra, 2700-4300

Bhujpata, Bhojpatra (Np); Bhuj, Bhujpat (Np-DI); Tag-Pa Tak-Pa (Km, Sh, Tb, Wl); Bhurjha, Bhurjapatra (Sn).

159 Oroxylum Indlcum (L.) Kurz Tree Bignoniaceae Totala, Tatelo (Np); Totalabimfang (Me) 400-1400

160 Stereospermum chelonoides Tree Bignoniaceae Pader (S) 150-250 (L. f.) DC.

161 Bombax ceiba L. Tree Bombacaceae Edel (S); Simal (Np); Pemgeyser (Sh) 500-1500

162 Heliotropium indicum L. Herb

163 Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke Herb

Boraginaceae ginaceae

Hatisude (S) 100

Laljari (Np); Bemu (Bhu); Muktsi (Sh) 3000-4700

164 Brassica campestris L. var Herb cumifolia Roxb.

165 Brassica sp.

166 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Herb Medik.

167 Cardamine hirsuta L.

168 Cardamine macrophylla Herb Willd.

169 Erysimum hieraciifoiium Herb L. f.


Brassicaceae Brassicaceae




Rayo (Np) 2500

Yoongkar (Dz)

Shepherd's Pursa (Eg); Chamsure Jhar, 1400-4500 Tori Ghans, Tori Jhar (Np); Chhyamachhyaru (Sh, Wl)

Sim rayo (Np) 500-3000

Chhurukpa (Sh, Wl) 2500-4500

Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing (Sh); Phaledo (Np)

Bark: Paste applied on snake bite (Sikkim: [75]). Chewed as a substitute of betel nut (Ham: [94]).

Leaves: Buds used as substitute for tea leaves (Sikkim: [72]).

Branch: Used during marriage ceremony (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Crushed and applied on injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Boiled and used for cleaning wounds as antiseptic (Sikkim: [79]).

Plant useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]). Roots, bark and fruit: Used in fever, bronchitis, dysenteiy, and asthma (Sikkim: [85]). Root bark: Improves appetite, taken in vomiting, asthma, and bronchitis (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Bark and seeds: Powder used to treat dropsy, sprains, asthma, urinary disorders (Ham: [73, 76, 77]), high fever and pneumonia (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperms eaten to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Powder applied on chronic wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also used to treat burns, boils (Panchthar: [67]), and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]). Flowers:Usedas medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Edible (Darjeeling: [80]). Flowers: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [89]).

Fruit: Tied as an amulet to cure migrain (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots and bark: Used as emetic (Panchthar: [67]) and also used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Decoction given in urinary infection, also with decoction of Plumaria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Buds cooked as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Pickled and eaten twice daily to get relief from diarrhea and dysenteiy (Jhapa: [68]). Paste applied externally on small pox in children (Sikkim: [79]). Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Young stem: Used with bulb of onion to cure rabies (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Oil used externally as hair tonic (Sikkim: [49]). Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Gundruk' (Darjeeling: [108]; Sikkim: [101]). Used in fever, indigestion and irritation (Ham: [76]).

Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used as green vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Juice used in malarian fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

Shoot: Extract taken to low blood pressure and in cardiac problems (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]).

Plant: Used as vegetable (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [87])and also made fermented vegetables (North-East India: [101]).

Seed: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

170 Lepidium sativum L.


Chamsur (Np)

171 Malcolmia sp. Herb Brassicaceae

172 Nasturtium officinale R. Herb Brassicaceae Brown

173 Raphanus sativus L.


Mula (Np)

174 Thiaspi arvense L. Herb

175 Canarium sikkimense King Tree

176 Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Brassicaceae Burseraceae


Jay-kha (Dz) Poskar shing (Sh)

Aule Dabdabe, Dubdabey (Np)

177 Codonopsis foetens Hook.f. Climber & Thomson

178 Lobelia anguiata G. Foist. Herb

179 Lobelia pyramidalis Wall.

180 Pratia nummularia (Lam.) A. Herb Br. & Asch.



Campanulaceae Campanulaceae

Gaytangru (Sh)

Eklebir (Np) Lanka Sanay (Np)

181 Cannabis sativa L.


Gaja (Np); Gaja (S)

182 Canna indica L.


183 Capparis zeylanica L. Shrub Capparaceae

184 Dipsacus atratus Hook.f. & Herb Caprifoliaceae Thomson ex C.B.Clarke

185 Pterocephalus hookeri Herb Caprifoliaceae (C.B.Clarke) E.Pritz.

186 Viburnum cylindricum Shrub Caprifoliaceae Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

187 Carica papaya I. Herb Caricaceae

Asaria (S)

Yika (Dz), Pinsa (Sh),

Arrow wood (Eg); Hanggase (Li); 1000-2500

Gharaghuri, Ghar ghure, Ghode khari

Mewa (Np) 100-1000

188 Arenaria densissima Wall, ex Herb Caryophyllaceae

Edgew. & Hook.f.

Plant: Consumed as vegetable; useful in piles, asthma, cough, syphilis and bodyache (Ham: [76]).

Whole plant:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Aerial parts: Decoction given to relieve body pain; young shoots taken as salad (Ham: [76, 94]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Plant: Juice given in indigestion and urinary disorder (Ham: [76]).

Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Sinki' and 'Gundruk' (Datjeeling: [101, 108]). Used in indigestion, liver and gall bladder troubles, urinary complaints and ear pain (Ham: [73, 76]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Exude or resin used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Root bark used for curing skin disease; juice applied to treat dislocated bones and to heal wounds (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Taken to improve digestion (Sikkim: [85])

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Decoction given to treat throat pain and fever. Tender shoots: Juice applied externally to treat boils and inflammation (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves and flowers: Used as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves: Juice taken orally in dysentery and tonsillitis (Datjeeling: [74]).

Leaves: Infusion taken to cure stomach pain and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Cut into small pieces and fed to livestock to treat inflammation; small pieces mixed with fodder to feed cattle as a tonic (Sikkim: [84]). Decoction given orally to treat severe diarrhoea (Sikkim: [75, 79]). Flowers: Dried flower paste taken in empty stomach to treat diarrhoea (Datjeeling: [86]). Seeds: Pounded and taken to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [75, 79]).

Rhizomes: Edible and taken to treat fever (Sikkim: [11]). Extraction given to cure urinary troubles (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Flowers/whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Seeds: Oil used to treat burns (Panchthar: [67]) and also used for cooking purpose (Taplejung: [87]).

Latex: Mixed with salt and applied to cure ringworm (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Eaten raw and also eaten to cure jaundice (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

189 Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Herb Caryophyllaceae Abhijalo (Np); Hachiya-gara-gamso (Me) 2200-4300

ex. Roem. & Schult.

190 Drymaria diandra Blume Herb Caryophyllaceae Avijalo (Np)

191 Drymaria viiiosa Cham. & Herb Caryophyllaceae Abijalo (Np) Schlecht.

192 Ceiastrus paniculatus Willd. Shrub Celastraceae Kujur (S)


193 Chenopodium album L


Bethu Saag (Np)

194 Cleome gynandra L. Herb Cleomaceae

195 Garcinia cowa Roxb. Tree Clusiaceae

196 Hypericum uraium Buch- Herb Clusiaceae Harn, ex D. Don

197 Mesua ferrea L., Tree Clusiaceae

Junge Phool (Np); Seta kata arak (S) Egg tree (Eg); Kaphai (Np) Urillo (Np)

Nageeswari (Np)


Terminalia bei Urica (Gaertn.) Tree Roxb.


Bhaayure (Me); Barro (Np); Lopong (S); 300-1100 Baru (Dz/Sh/T/B)

199 Terminalia chebula Retz. Tree


Silikhaa (Me); Aaru (Dz/Sh)


Plant: Burned and inhaled for antipyretic effect (Darjeeling: [78]). Paste usefu to treat fever, cold and cough (Darjeeling: [78]) also used for dog bites (Sikkim: Database), headache and sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Paste applied externally on fractured bone and bandaged with the help of cotton cloth; decoction administered to animal to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [84]). Above ground parts: Steamed and smelled during sinus trouble (Darjeeling: [52, 78, 80]; Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Pasted with Urena lobata applied for cutaneous infections (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in diarrhea and dysenteiy (Panchthar: [67]).

Plant: Juice useful in cough, cold and sinusitis (Ham: [73, 76]) and peptic ulcer (Ham: [76]).

Shoots: Given to treat pneumonia and sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]).

Plant: Juice taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Fresh juice cures sores of throat (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]) and lungs (Jhapa: [66]). Bark and oil: Applied externally to treat acute stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots: Juice taken to treat gastritis and constipation (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used as eye drops to cure eye infection. Paste reduces swelling and applied on wounds to hea (Jhapa: [66]). Given to cattle to treat loss of appetite (Sikkim: [84]). Seeds: Paste applied on the skin allergies and good for gout (Sikkim: [11]).

Plant: Used as appetizer, laxative, and diuretic; also useful in treatment of eye diseases, throat troubles, piles, blood heart, and spleen diseases (Sikkim: Database). Cooked and eaten as vegetable to reduce bodypain especially back pain (Sikkim: [79]). Young shoots: Consumed as vegetable (Ham: [94]).

Leaves: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Sun dried and taken to treat dysenteiy (Sikkim: [85])

Bark: Juice applied on wound and bruises (Sikkim: [75]). Seeds: Aromatic and stimulant (Sikkim: Database).

Bark: Orally administered in various skin diseases (mostly poxes) and in menstrual disorder (Sikkim: Database). Bark or stem paste applied or taken orally in hydrocele and on wound (Sikkim: [53]).

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Powder drunk to treat constipation (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database), asthma and respiratory trouble.Decoctionadministered to livestock for treatment of diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [84]). Bark: Used for anemia and leucoderma (Sikkim: Database).

Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [47]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as tonic and also to cure eye, heart and bladder diseases (Sikkim: Database). Powder taken to recover from gastric (Jhapa: [68]). Consumed during cough and sore throat and mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Powder of dried fruits and bark given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]). Fruit and/ or bark decoction administered with small amounts of rock salt to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [84]).

200 Terminalia myriocarpa Van Tree Heurck & Mull. Arg.

201 Terminalia tomentosa Wight Tree & Arn.

202 Commellna benghalensls L. Herb

203 Commellna paludosa Herb

Combretaceae Combretaceae

Commelinaceae Commelinaceae

Rani saaj (Np)

Kane Jhar (Np) Bhaisen Jhar (Np)


900-1800 300-3500

204 Streptollrion volublle Edgew. Herb

205 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.


Commelinaceae 1500-2400

Convolvulaceae Dodder (Eg); Akash Beli, Akashveli, 200-3100

Amarbel, Indrabeli (Np); Chamjakhikwa, Jalisang (Ri); Alakjadi (S)

206 Cuscuta sinensis Lam. Climber

207 Evolvulus alslnoides L. Herb

208 Evolvulus nummularius (L.) Herb L.

209 Ipomoea aquatlca Forssk. Climber

210 Malanthemum purpureum Herb (Wall.) LaFrankie

211 Merremla umbellata subsp. Herb orientalis (Hallier f.) Ooststr.

212 Cornus capitata Wall. Tree

213 Cornus macrophylla Wall. Tree

214 Crisellnia lutida (J.R.Forst. & Shrub G.Forst.) G.Foist.

215 Bryophyllum plnnatum Herb (Lam.) Oken

216 Kalanchoe Integra (Medikus) Herb Kuntze

217 Coccinla grandis (L.) Voigt Climber

218 Cucurbita pepo L. Climber

Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae




Cornaceae Cornaceae




Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitaceae

Bayding/dukpoo-ru (Sh) Sankha Pushpi (Np) Chhatbatiza (S)

Karmi (S); Lahore pani sag (Np)

550-1100 150-910


Khhiringlo, Khirro, Sikari-Sag (Np); Lekh 2600-4300 Daro (Np-DI)


PhastilNamimpluse (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)

ChapoilBaminpa (Sh), Boray poitsi (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)

Patharkuchi (Np)

Hatnokane (Np)

Go Kankri (Np); Tilkocha (S) Pharsi (Li)


219 Dlplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Climber Jeffrey


Kabubotke (S)


Bark: Juice applied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Juice applied to treat conjunctivitis (Darjeeling: [74]). Root: Paste applied on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).

Leaves: Crushed and applied on wounds of ear, nose and navel (Darjeeling: [52]).

Plant: Decoction used to treat jaundice (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]; Ham: [73, 76]). Infusion taken in diarrhea, bronchitis (Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73, 76]), and also applied externally to treat body ache and skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots and seeds: Used to cure cough (Sikkim: [75]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used as febrifuge and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]).

Plant: Applied on scorpion sting, cut, wounds and burns (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves and twigs: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Stem: Necklace prepared and put round the neck of jaundice patient (Darjeeling: [105]).

Young leaves and tender shoots: Cooked as vegetables (Taplejung: [88]).

Stem: Extraction taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Leaves: Paste applied on wound, bruises, swelling and insect bites (Sikkim: [69]).

Leaves: Juice taken orally as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).

Fruit: Unripe fruits used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

Seeds: Powdered and taken orally for its vermifuge potency in children (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Leaves: Decoction used in eye infections (Jhapa: [66]).

Q 3 Q.

220 Herpetospermum Climber peduncuiosum (Ser.) Bail I.

221 Momordica chararitia L. Climber



Ban Kare I a (Np); Serkyi Metog (Tb); Mendok Sepu (Wi)

Tite Kare I a (Np, Li)



222 Trichosanthes tricuspidata Climber Cucurbitaceae Lour.

nclreni (Np)


223 Daphniphyllum himalense Tree (Benth.) Mull. Arg.

224 Dillenia indica L. Tree

Daphniphyllaceae Chandan (Np)


Rampha (Np)

1200-2500 150-250

225 Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. Climber Dilleniaceae Sahad (S); Tatar (Np)

226 Dioscorea alata L. Climber Dioscoreaceae Ghartarul (Np)

150-1500 600-1200

227 Dioscorea buibifera L. Climber Dioscoreaceae

Kaching (Lp); Ban tarul, Gittha, Kukurtarul (Np); Bengo nari (S); Tshemakewa(Dz), Borang-Joktang/ Fantang (Sh)


228 *Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Climber Dioscoreaceae ex Griseb.

229 Dioscorea pentaphylia L. Climber Dioscoreaceae

Ban Tarul, Kukur Tarul (Np); Kamanduki 450-3100 Saplokha (Ri)

Kusok (Lp); Aser, Bantarul, Bhyakur (Np) 600-1500

230 Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Dipterocarpaceae Sal (Np); Sasing (Li)


231 Drosera peltata Thunb. Herb Droseraceae

232 Diospyros lotus L. Tree Ebenaceae

233 Diospyros montana Roxb. Tree Ebenaceae

234 Elaeagnus infundibularis Shrub Elaeagnaceae Momiy.

235 Elaeagnus latifolia L. Tree Elaeagnaceae

236 Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) Tree Elaeagnaceae A. Nelson

Gundum (Dz), Amdebu (Sh) Gada tarul (S)

Bastard-Oleaster (Eg); Pirima (Li); Guenlo, Maldhendo, Madilo (Np); Tikun (Tm)



Fruit: Inner par used in stomachache and to treat bile diseases (Taplejung: [81]).

Fruit: Juice taken as blood purifier and also helps to control diabetes (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [79, 96]) and treat opthalmia and bleeding (Ham: [76]). Used as vegetable (Ham: [76]). Leaves and fruit: Useful in gastric troubles (Datjeeling: [91]).

Roots and fruit: Extract used to treat gonorrhea, asthma, earache, and hemicrania (Ham: [73, 76, 77]). Roots: Used in lung diseases of cattle. Fruit: Taken to cure asthma (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Tender shoots used for vegetable (Ham: [94]).

Plant: Plant has religious and aesthetic value (Sikkim: [72]).

Fruit: Juice with sugar used as cooling beverage in fever and cough (Sikkim: [11], Database). Bark and leaves: Taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [11], Database).

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Roots: Used in fever, rash and itch, constipation, intestinal worms, leprosy, piles, and gonorrhoea. (Sikkim: Database). Eaten raw to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [11]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as aphrodisiac, stomachic, appetizer (Sikkim: Database), tonic and to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [75]). Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]; Datjeeling: [80]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [89, 107], Database) and also used for washing clothes, to kill lice and fish and as contraceptive pills (Sikkim: Database).

Tubers: Cooked as vegetable; juice taken as oral contraceptives and also used in lice problems (Ham: [76]; Taplejung: [82]).

Tubers: Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]). Boiled and taken orally as anthelmintic and wormifuge especially against tapeworm (Datjeeling: [52]).Tubers and shoots: Used as tonic and can also cure swelling (Sikkim: [75]).

Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [91]). Exude used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Bark: Paste applied on wound and bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Pulp applied on cracks of feet (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit: Used to make alcohol (Taplejung: [81]).

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [47]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

237 Hippophae saiicifoiia D.Don Shrub


Seabuckthorn (Eg), Achuk, Dale Chuk 2200-3500 (Np)

238 Hippophae tibetana Shrub Schlecht.

239 Eiaeocarpus sikkimensis Tree Masters

240 Eiaeocarpus sphaericus Tree (Gaertn.) K. Schum.

Elaeagnaceae Seabuckthorn (Eg); Bhui Chuk (Np) 3800-4500

Elaeocarpaceae 1500-2100

Elaeocarpaceae Rudraksh (Np) 700-1700

241 Eiaeocarpus varunua Buch- Tree Elaeocarpaceae Ham. ex Mast.

242 Agapetes serpens (Wight) Shrub Ericaceae Sleumer

243 *Gauitheria fragrantissima Shrub Ericaceae Wall.

Gasha-thungsey (Sh)

Bandare Khorsani (Np) 1500-2600

Wintergreen (Eg); Singjang, 1200-2600 Singjhangma (Li); Dhasingare, Patpate (Np); Limbuni Phool (Np-Tp); Lamchassi (Ri); Chhyaro (Sh,Wi)

244 Gauitheria procumbens L. Shrub Ericaceae

245 Gauitheria sp. Shrub Ericaceae

246 Gauitheria trichophylia Shrub Ericaceae Royle

247 Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Tree Ericaceae Drude

248 Pieris formosa (Wall.) D.Don. Tree Ericaceae

249 Rhododendron anthopogon Shrub Ericaceae D. Don

Chanze kam (Dz); Shogshingma shing (Sh)

Ani Gnonzing (Sh, Wi), Sanchanchewa 2700-4500 (Tm)

Lyonia (Eg); Tapeba (Li); Angeri (Np); 1300-3300 Rangkhilayem (Ri) Dhobang (Sh); Sangemi Dongbu, Syanggomba (Wi).

Balu (Np); Kekphel (Li) 2000-3300

Fragrant Rhododendron (Eg); Sunpati 3500-5100 (Np); Balu (Dz/B/Sh)

250 Rhododendron arboreum Tree Ericaceae

Porota (Gr); Tokphekalaphun, 1400-3600

Thukphewa (Li); Gurans, Laliguras (Np); Dakbun, Tokse (Ri); Pullasa (Sn); Ladukpa, Sendok Dongbu (Wi).

Bark and fruit: Useful in lung dieases, skin eruptions, and irritations (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [95]; KL Nepal: [83]) and also used to make vinegar (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in toothache, joint pain, liver, lungs, and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders, dysenteiy, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasities (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Fresh root nodules chewed to stop vomitting and also to remove bad smell of mouth (Datjeeling: [49]).

Fruit: Edible and also used to obtain yellow dye (KL Nepal: [83]). Fruit: Edible (Ham: [92]; Sikkim: [95]).

Fruit: Used in vata and kapha disease of head and epileptic fits (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Seed: Paste administered to cure cough (Sikkim: [79]).

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Flowers: Edible (Sikkim: [80, 89]).

Leaves: Used as antiseptic (Sikkim: [75]), fodder and in ritual ceremony; warm juice used to treat inflammation and swellings (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and fruit: Decoction used to treat reheumatism (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]) and worms (KL Nepal: [83]; Ham: [73]). Fruit: Ripe fruits are eaten raw (KL Nepal: [87]).

Leaves: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]; Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]).

Leaves: Dried and used as cigarette wrapper (Ham: [81]). Infusion taken to treat scabies and dog bite (Ham: [73, 76]).

Roots: Dust applied to treat rheumatism (KL Nepal: [53]).

Aerial parts: Used as incense and snuffed to induce sneezing (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Used for stomach, liver, and lung disorders, indigestion, sore throat, and as appetizer and in vomiting (Datjeeling: [98]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as incense (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to cure blood dysenteiy (Sikkim: [75]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Flowers and young leaves: Useful in dysenteiy (Darjeeling: [80]; Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 85]; KL Nepal: [83]), diarrhea and headache (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [85]). Flowers: Used to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to stop bleeding in female. Flower petals clear throat choking due to fish or chicken bone (Darjeeling: [52]; Sikkim: [11]). Used to make alcohol; paste applied around eyes for good sight (Taplejung: [81]). Used to make local wine (Darjeeling: [108]; Ham: [94]). Crushed with water and administered to livestock to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [97]).

251 Rhododendron Tree Ericaceae campanuiatum D. Don

252 Rhododendron iepidotum Shrub Ericaceae Wall, ex G. Don

253 Rhododendron setosum D. Shrub Ericaceae Don

254 I/actinium gaultheriifoiium Shrub Ericaceae (Griff.) Hook. f. ex C. B.


255 Antidesma acidum Retz. Shrub Euphorbiaceae

256 Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Tree Euphorbiaceae

257 Baliospermum montanum Shrub Euphorbiaceae (Willd.) Mull. Arg.

258 Bischofia javanica Blume Tree Euphorbiaceae

259 Brideiia refusa (L.) A. Juss. Tree Euphorbiaceae

260 Croton roxburghii N. P. Tree Euphorbiaceae


Syapu (Gr); Chimal, Nilo Chimal, Seti 2800-4400 Chimal (Np); Kalma (Sh); Takma Singya (Tb); Khama, Saje Medok (WI).

Bhale sunpati (Np) 2100-4700

Sunpatay (Np); Sulo (Dz/Sh/B/T) Chyansi (Np-Tp); Khapusekma (Li)

Archa (Np)

Danti (S) Kainjal (Np) Gayo (Li) Guti (S)

261 Euphorbia griffithii Hook.f. Herb Euphorbiaceae

262 Euphorbia hirta L. Herb Euphorbiaceae

Aankle Jhar (Np); Gofatkhalakhachri (Me); Sangadare, pusitoa (S)

263 Euphorbia puicherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

264 Euphorbia royieana Boissier Shrub

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae

Siundee (Np); Sijau (Me)

265 Euphorbia sieboidiana Herb C.Morren & Decne.

266 Euphorbia sikkimensis Boiss. Herb

267 Giochidion ianceoiarium Shrub Voigt.

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae Bangikath (Np)

Wood: Dried and infusion taken in fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Leaves: Used to wrap tobacco (Taplejung: [81]). Flowers: Nectar edible (Taplejung: [81]).

Leaves and flowers: Paste used for bile and lung disease, cold, and blood disorders (KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used for incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Local Buddhist uses leaf as incense (Sikkim: [89]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruit: Eaten raw or pickled; juice used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Taplejung: [81]).

Bark and leaves: Used to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Consumed raw (Ham: [94]).

Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [95]).

Seeds: Used in gastric disorders, gouts, and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Chewed to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Bark: Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]).

Bark: Paste prepared from the bark of Bridelia retusa and Schima wa///c/i//applied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

Bark: Pounded and mixed with little amount of oil of Varanus sp. and massage on the body to relieve from measles, chicken pox, and boils (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and bark: Used as purgative (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Extraction given to lactating mother to increase the milk prodcution. Root: Given to stop vomitting (Jhapa: [66]). Young shoots: Used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation and also in gonorrhea (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Applied on pimples and old wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also to treat warts and cuts (Datjeeling: [74]).

Latex: Applied on toothache (Sikkim: [11]).

Latex: Applied to cure swelling of skin due to cutaneous and sub-cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Used to cure cuts and stop bleeding, to relieve from earache, cough, and asthma (Sikkim: Database).

Tuber/roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Tubers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark: Juice to taken in stomach complaints (Sikkim: [85]).

268 Homonoia riparia Lour. Shrub Euphorbiaceae

269 Jatropha curcas L. Shrub Euphorbiaceae

Khoia ruis (Np); Mongthel-Kung (Lp)

Aanda (Me); Kaden, Hathi-kane, Sjaiwan 500-1200

(Np); Bhernada (S); Ngera-kharshing

270 Mallotus philippinensis Muel. Tree Arg.


Sindure (Np); Rora (S)

271 Ricinus communis L.


Aadi (Me); Iradam (S); Chamlingshing 150-2400 (Sh)

272 Tragia involucrata L. Climber Euphorbiaceae

273 Abrus precatorius L. Climber Fabaceae

Ban Sisnu (Np); Sangelsinn (S) Lalgedi (Np); Karmet (S)

274 Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. Tree

275 Acacia intsia (L.) Willd.

Fabaceae Fabaceae

Toeja (Dz); Jasenshing (Sh) Kondru (S)

276 Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.



Arare (Li)

277 Aeschynomene indica L. Herb Fabaceae

278 Aibizia juiibrissin Durazz. Tree Fabaceae

279 Aibizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Tree Fabaceae

280 Aibizia procera (Roxb.) Tree Fabaceae Benth.

281 Astragalus yunnanensls Herb Fabaceae Franch.

282 Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Climber Fabaceae Benth.

Tal Khukuri (Np); Sola (S) Padke Siris (Np) Harasiris (Np) Seti Siris (Li)

Jangali bhatmasejhar (Np); Birhorec (S) 400-1200

Roots: Decoction taken as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).

Latex: Applied to treat toothache and swelling testicules (Jhapa: [68]). Used to stop bleeding from wounds; also applied to treat burns, eczema, ringworm (Sikkim: Database) and scabies (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Chewed to cure mouth sores (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Seeds: Dried and powder applied on the wound of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Given to pigs along-with food to kill intestinal worms, rushed and applied externally to cure wound, injuries and skin infection (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Powder of glandular hairs of fruits applied in sores and wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots: Used for skin diseases. Tied as an amulet on neck of children to stop vomiting (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used to cure headache, boils, and dysenteiy; paste used to cure jaundice (Sikkim: Database). Warmed with mustard oil and massaged on the body of post deliver/ women to cure body pain (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperm applied as cream on diyness of skin to cure cracking heels (Jhapa: [68]).

Leaves: Paste applied on local swelling of hands and feet ([66]).

Roots and fruits: Extract taken orally for abortion (KL Nepal: [53]) and also taken for tonsil and pneumonia (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Paste usedto treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ham: [76]) and also in cough, cold and menstrual troubles and also applied to cure wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Powder taken to treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ham: [76]). Leaves: Juice taken orally to relieve urinary complaints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Chewed or fresh root juice administered orally during throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).

Stem: Heartwood extract used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [70, 71]) and gum (KL Bhutan: [70]). Stem and roots: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Root: Paste used in fever, cough and cold, and also applied against snake and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste with pepper taken orally to cure blood dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Paste applied on sores and itches (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Chewed with sugar and cumin during bleeding gums; juice administered orally in indigestion in infants (Sikkim: [79]).

Plant: Juice and cumin seeds used in reducing fever (Jhapa: [66]).

Bark: Extract or paste used to treat dandruff (KL Nepal: [53]).

Leaves and flowers: Used to cure boils, piles, and diarrhea (Sikkim: [75]).

Bark: Crushed into paste and applied on forehead during fever (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Paste orally administered to treat body swelling (Jhapa: [66]).

283 Bauhinia purpurea L.


Tanki (Np)


284 Bauhinia serrtia Wunderlin Tree Fabaceae

285 Bauhinia vahiii Wight & Am. Climber Fabaceae

Makrik (Lp); Verla, Baro Lara, Bhorla (Np) 200-1300

286 Bauhinia variegata L.


Koiraalo, Koirala, Takki (Np)


287 Butea minor Buch.-Ham. ex Shrub Baker

288 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Shrub Kuntze

289 Caesaipinia bonduc (L.) Shrub Roxb.

290 Cassia fistula L.

Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae

Bhujetro (Np)


Palans (Np); Marup (S); Flamingo tree 150-1200 (Eng)

Sugrong-bithai (Me)


Raj Brichhya (Np); Mukhralaudhi (Me); 150-1400

Noormui Miifu Baha (S); Dongkoshing

291 Cassia accidenta lis L.


Thulo Tapre (Np)


292 Cassia sophera L. Shrub Fabaceae

293 Cassia tora L. Herb Fabaceae

Tapre (Np); Chakora (S) 700-1000

Tapre (Np); Chakora, Bhede deren (S) 450-1300

294 Crotalaria pallida Aiton

295 Desmodium gangeticum (L.) Shrub DC.

296 Desmodium triflorum (L.) Herb DC

297 Entada phaseoioides (L.) Climber Merr.

Fabaceae Fabaceae

Fabaceae Fabaceae

Chhinchhinne (Np)

Sano Chameli (Np) Pangra (Np), Kolokpu-sae (Sh)

200-1750 300-1000



Plant used against animal bite;useful as maturant for boils and ebcesses (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used as carminative (Sikkim: Database, [79]). Paste applied on boils (Sikkim: [79]). Bark: Used to control diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as laxative (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as fodder (Ham: [73]). Shoots: Used as vegetable (Ham: [94])

Exude: Used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Useful in skin disease (Sikkim: Database) and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database,

[74]). Leaves: Used as demulcent (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied in factured bone (Sikkim: [97]). Seeds: Used as tonic and aphrodisiac, and also given to treat snake bite (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roasted and consumed (Ham: [92]). Seeds and leaves: Given in dysenteiy and used as laxative (Sikkim:


Root: Dried root and bark administered orally in diarrhea (Datjeeling: [86]). Decoction given to expel placenta of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Bark: Juice taken as tonic in toothache (Sikkim: [11]). Paste taken to cure swelling, leprosy, cough, and menstrual disorder (Ham: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [79]). Flower: Juice taken to cure dysenteiy, diarrhea, and stomach pain (Sikkim: Database). Buds taken for skin disease and ulcer, dried buds chewed to treat bleeding piles (Sikkim: [11]). Cooked as curry (Datjeeling: [80]; Ham: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [89]). Fruit: Used for blood purification (Sikkim: Database).

Seeds: Used as anthelmintic (Panchthar [67]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used in tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]).

Seeds: Fried to black with coconut oil, crushed and paste applied on scalp with the help of cock's feather for baldness (Jhapa: [68]).

Leaves: Used for treating skin diseases, extraction taken orally taken to purify blood, and also used as laxative (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as diuretic, purgative, and laxative (Panchthar [67]). Used for asthma, diabetes, and eczema (Sikkim: Database). Paste used to treat the whopping cough (Jhapa: [68]).

Flowers and seeds: Paste applied in minor skin infection and inflammation (Jhapa: [68]).

Bark and seeds: Infusion given in diabetes (Jhapa: [66]).

Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Extraction applied on ringworm and itch (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Juice drunk to cure body-swelling problems (Jhapa: [68]). Roots: Used in snake and scropion bite (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Juice consumed to treat diarrhoea and dysenteiy (Datjeeling: [74]).

Seeds: Used as astringent and emetic (Panchthar [67]; Sikkim: Database) and also useful to treat dandruff (Panchthar [67]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

298 Entada pursaetha subsp. Climber Fabaceae sinohimaiensis Grierson & D.

G. Long

299 Erythrina arborescens Roxb. Tree Fabaceae

300 Erythrina stricta Roxb. Tree Fabaceae

304 Erythrina suberosa Roxb. Tree Fabaceae

302 Elemingia macrophylla Shrub Fabaceae (Willd.) Merr.

303 Giycyrrhiza glabra L. Herb Fabaceae

304 Indigofera sp. Tree Fabaceae

305 Macrotyloma uniflorum Tree Fabaceae (Lam.) Verde.

306 Mimosa pudica L. Herb Fabaceae

Phaledo (Np); Gyesey Kung (L)



Phaledo (Np); Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing 1000-1600 (Sh)

Phaledo (Np); Buru marar (S) Baivasi (Np) Jethimadhu (Np)

Gahat (Li)

Lazzawathi (Np);Jhapani (S)

900-1200 700-1700



307 Moghania strobilifera (L.) J. Shrub Fabaceae St.-Hil. ex Kuntze

308 Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. Shrub Fabaceae

309 Mucuna monosperma Wall. Shrub Fabaceae

310 Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Herb Fabaceae

Barakaulijhar (Np)

Baldengra (Np, Li) Kauso (Np); Etka (S)



311 Oxytropis japónica Maxim. Herb Fabaceae

312 Tamaríndus indica L. Tree Fabaceae

Jojo (S) Imli, Titri (Np), Titri (Me) 200-900

313 Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. Herb Fabaceae

314 Castanopsis hystrix Miq. Tree Fagaceae

315 Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Tree Fagaceae Miq.

Bir ghangra (S) Patle Katus (Np) Katoos (Np)

1800-2400 1200-2900

Bark: Juice applied externally to cure skin disease (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Paste applied to treat mumps; powder acts as antidandruff agent (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves and bark: Curative efficacies for skin diseases (Sikkim: [75]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark and leaves: Paste given in rheumatism, fever, asthma, and epilepsy (Ham: [73]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark: Grinded with bark of Oroxylum indicum and given as antidote (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Decoction given to cattle to cure blood dysentery (Sikkim: [97]).

Roots: Given in cough, fever, dysenteiy, and chronic hepatitis (Sikkim: Database).

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Seeds: Decoction used to remove stone developed in kidney (Sikkim: [79]).

Plant: Juice given to relieve from diarrhoea (Ham: [73]; Darjeeling: [86]), dysenteiy, and in treatment of hydrocele (Ham: [73]). Roots and leaves: Paste used in case of piles (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11], Database) and kidney problems (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used in treating asthma, fever, cough, dysenteiy, vaginal and uterine complaint (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied externally to treat boils (Sikkim: [11]). Juice taken to cure epilepsy and sexua weakness also used to cure eye troubles (Jhapa: [66]). Powder used to clean tooth (Darjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Juice taken in indigestion, insomnia and epilepsy (Darjeeling: [74]).

Seeds: Powder taken as anthelmentic (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Act as expectorant in cough (Sikkim: [79]).

Leaves: Paste used in boils, blisters, and ulcers (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Used as antipyretic and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Used in delirium (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark: Decoction given in paralysis, ulcers, and inflammations. Infusion along with bark of Ziziphus mauritiana, Anthocephalus chinensis, Shorea robusta, Streblus asper and black salt given to cure flatulence in cattle (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Used for cough and blood disorders (Sikkim: Database). Seeds: Paste eaten to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [68]).

Tubers and seeds: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [68]).

Fruit: Eaten raw (Darjeeling: [80]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [72, 89]).

Fruit: Roasted and consumed (Ham: [94]).

316 Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) Tree A. DC.

317 Quercus giauca Thunb. Tree

318 Quercus griffithii Hook.f. & Tree Thomson ex Miq.

319 Gynocardia odorata Tree Roxburgh


Fagaceae Fagaceae


Musure Katus (Np)

Phalat (Np); Yahi (Li) Sisi (Dz); Benangshing (Sh)

Gantay (Np)



320 Gentiana grandifiora Laxm. Herb Gentianaceae

321 Gentiana stylophora Herb Gentianaceae C.B.CIarke

322 Gentiana urnuia Harry Sm. Herb Gentianaceae

323 Gentiana veitchiorum Herb Gentianaceae Hemsl.

324 Haienia eiiiptica D.Don Herb Gentianaceae

325 Swertia angustifoiia Buch. Herb Gentianaceae Harn, ex D. Don

326 Swertia bimacuiata (Sieb. & Herb Gentianaceae Zucc) C. B. Ciarke

327 *Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Herb Gentianaceae Fleming) Karsten

Gangi- Pangenmotok (Dz)

Vaale Chirayito (Np) 600-3300

Chiraito, Tite (Np) 900-3700

Tikta (Km, Sh, Wi); Sungkhinwa (Li); 1200-3000 Chiraito, Chiraita, Tite (Np); Khalu (Nw); Kuple (Ri); Kirattikta (Sn); Timda (Tm); Gya-Tig, Tigta (Tb)

328 Swertia muiticauiis D. Don Herb

329 Swertia nervosa (G. Don) C. B. Clarke

330 Geranium donianum Sweet Herb

331 Geranium iambertii Sweet Herb

332 Geranium nepaiense Sweet Herb



Geraniaceae Geraniaceae Geraniaceae

Sharma Guru (Np, Tm); Sepu Gundum 4000-4900 (Sh, WI)

Chiraito, Bhale Chiraito, God Tito (Np) 700-3000 Ragatgeri (Np)


Bhanda (Np)

Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]).

Leaves: Good ingredients for compost (Sikkim: [89]). Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Juice taken or eaten raw in fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Seed oil applied on skin diseases and leprosy (Sikkim: [75]), also used for massage purpose for infants (Sikkim: [79]). Ripen seeds roasted and the oil extracted to use in various purposes (Ham: [94]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Floral parts: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Extract used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Ham: [73]).

Plant: Used to treat diarrhea, dysenteiy, and fever (Taplejung: [81]).

Plant and seeds: Plant infusion and crushed seeds considered most effective in treating fever (Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Ham: [73, 76]), asthma, cold, and cough (Datjeeling: [80]; Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Sikkim: [11]; Ham: [73, 76]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to treat ulcer, asthma, inflammation, and piles (Datjeeling: [80]). Taken as tonic and also in leucoderma and skin diseases (Datjeeling: [69, 78, 80]). Decoction taken to cure cold, cough, diarrhea, and stomachache (Datjeeling: [69]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Shoots: Taken in dyspepsia (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Mixed with young stem of Achyranthes aspera and stem bark of Phyllanthus emblica and decoction given to cure fever and cholera (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Decoction used to treat fever, cough, bodyache, and internal injuries; paste applied to prevent bleeding and infection from cuts and wounds (Taplejung: [81, 82, 87, 88]).

Roots: Used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Taplejung: [82, 88]).

Plant:Juice consumed in renal complications and dysenteiy (Datjeeling: [74]). Roots:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant: Used as astringent (Sikkim: [75]).

333 Aeschynanthus parviflorus Shrub Gesneriaceae (D.Don) Spreng.

334 Didymocarpus viiiosus Herb Gesneriaceae D.Don

335 Dichroa febrífuga Lour. Shrub Hydrangeaceae

Kumkum (Np)


Aseru, Basauli, Bhahak, Pahare Basak, 900-2500 Vasak (Np); Khasrte, Patre, Polokamji (Gr); Kiplisang (Ri), Dharmen (Tm); Borang-yangshabu (Sh)

336 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Herb


Kalo musali, Musali Kanda (Np); Gahot 500-1100 (S)

337 Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Herb Iridaceae Redoute

338 Iris decora Wall. Herb Iridaceae

339 Engeihardia spicata Lesch. Tree Juglandaceae ex Blume

340 Vuglans regia L. Tree Juglandaceae

Tarware phool (Np)


Yakpohama (Li), Mauwa (Np), Bokto, 400-2500 Oksipou (Ri)

Okhar (Np)


341 Juglans regia var kamaonia Tree Juglandaceae L.

342 Juncus grisebachii Herb Juncaceae Buchenau

Himalayan Walnut (Eg); Akhor (Gr); 1200-3000 Katutung, Takshing, Koto (Gr-Mn); Khayusin, Khesik (Li); Okhar, Hande Okhar (Np); Khaisi (Ri); Akshotak (Sn)

Juncus (C)

lusule, Rato Charpate, Rato 200-2400 inting (Sh)

); Lakhanaat (Me); Varni (S) 100-1500

Anisomeles indica (L.) Herb


Clerodendrum infortunatum Shrub

Clerodendrum viscosum Herb Vent.

Lamiaceae Nirepati, J

Pat (Np); J

Lamiaceae Chitu (Np)

Lamiaceae Rajbeli (N[

346 Clinopodium umbrosum Climber Lamiaceae (M.Bieb.) C. Koch

Suparnasa (Np)


Roots: Decoction used to treat fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

Leaves: Smoked for its laxative action (KL Nepal: [53]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as tonic (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken to treat malarial fever (Ham: [76]; Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [91], Database). Roots and leaves: Decoction taken for cough and fever (Darjeeling: [78, 80]; Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 89]). Fruit: Used as febrifuge (Panchthar: [67]). Ink prepared from berries (Sikkim: [11]).

Roots/rhizomes: Taken in stomachache, physical weakness (Jhapa: [66]), jaundice, cholera, and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [49]; Panchthar: [67]). Rhizome paste used against skin complaints, stomach ulcer, white discharge in women and dyspepsia (Darjeeling: [49]). Infusion used in gastritis and piles (Darjeeling: [49]).

Rhizomes: Freshly collected and eaten in stomachache and also taken orally as antidote to food poisoining (Darjeeling: [52]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark: Used in diarrhea and dysenteiy; paste used in bone fracture (Taplejung: [88]).

Bark: Used for dye and acts as detergent (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Juice taken to get rid from intestinal worms (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Stem bark: Decoction taken to cure arthritis, rheumatism, skin diseases and toothache (Sikkim: [79]). Bark and leaves: Juice used as fish poison (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Paste applied on the hoof diseases of cattle (Sikkim: [97]) Fruit: Oil used for headache (Darjeeling: [80]). Used in rheumatism (Darjeeling: [91]). Nuts: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [89]). Shell crushed and obtained black color (Sikkim: [11]).

Bark: Paste used for poisoning fish. Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Boiled in water to extract dye. Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Eaten as tonic or to treat throat pain; hard cover of the fruit applied on gout or to treat throat and chest pain (Taplejung: [87, 88]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Juice taken to cure fever, soar throat, diarrhea, and dysenteiy (Taplejung: [88]).

Leaves: Used as anthelminthic, fresh juice used as tonic and febrifuge (Sikkim: Database).

Plant: Infusion boiled in water along with the leaves of Azadirachta indica and bath to treat scabies and skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Paste used as antipoison (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves: Paste used as hair tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Leaf juice consumed to treat leucoderma and hydrophobia (Darjeeling: [74]).

Leaves: Juice used to treat cuts and burns (Panchthar: [67]).Eaten as vegetable to maintain good health (Darjeeling: [74]).

347 Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm.


Dhursuli (Np); Dhusor (Me)


348 Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Herb Benth.


Jungali Tulsi, Ban Silam (Np)

349 Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Shrub Rehcler

350 Eriophyton wallichii Benth. Herb

351 Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Shrub

352 Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. Herb ex D.Don) Kudo

353 Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Herb Spreng.

354 Leucas indica (L.) R. Br. ex Herb Vatke


Lamiaceae Lamiaceae




Chhinik (Np); Aamgora, Kansata (Sh); Jirug Serpo (Km, Tb); Furmi (Wl)

Arridari (S) Mire (Np)

Drona puspi (Np); Gante Jhar (Np)





Khaangkareh (Me); Gummi (Np); Durup 70-1000 (S)

355 Leucosceptrum canum Sm. Herb

356 Melissa axillaris (Benth.) Bakh. f., Herb

357 Mentha arvensis L.

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae


Cheeongkung (L) Sugandhi (Np)

Padina (Np, Li)



358 Mentha piperita L.


Pudhina (Np)

359 Mentha sp. Herb Lamiaceae

360 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Herb Lamiaceae

Tulasipatta (S)


361 Orthosiphon incurvus Benth. Herb Lamiaceae

362 Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton Herb Lamiaceae

363 Phlomoides rotata (Benth. Herb Lamiaceae ex Hook.f.) Mathiesen

364 Pogostemon amarantoides Herb Lamiaceae Benth.

Tite (Np) Silam (Np, Li)

Solomon, Namnam (Bhu)



Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and inflammation of skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice used to treat cuts and bruises (Panchthar: [67]).Juice taken in dysenteiy (Sikkim: [79]). Bud extract applied in opthalmic problems (KL Nepal: [53]).

Roots: Powder paste with mustard oil applied on the scabies affected area of cattle (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Juice given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [74]). Shoots: Taken in gastritis (Sikkim: [75]).

Plant: Religious value (Taplejung: [81]). Leaves and spikes: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Given against tonsilitis (Darjeeling: [52]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Paste applied on skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice warmed and applied over lice and parasities infected area (Darjeeling: [74]).

Leaves and shoots: Used to treat cuts and wounds (Panchthar: [67]).

Plant: Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]) Leaves: Decoction given in menstrual disorders (KL Nepal: [53]).

Leaves: Crushed with Euphorbia hirta and let to inhale for sinusites and nasa infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction massaged on forehead to relieve headache; drops poured in nostril to cure sinusitis and earache; juice taken in asthma, and also applied in geneital organs to cure venereal diseases (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots and leaves: Used for epilepsy and wound (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves: Juice taken with honey to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

Leaves: Juice given to treat rheumatism, fever, weakness, ulcer, wounds, jaundice, cough, asthma and cuts (Ham: [76]). Fresh leaves chewed during gastritis and acidity (Sikkim: [79]).

Plant: Paste taken in bodyache (Darjeeling: [52]). Leaves: Juice, paste or oil taken in painful urination, stomach problems and indigestion (Ham: [76]).

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Leaves are pounded and given with unboiled rice in cough and bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]). Chewed to cure mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Juice given in cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis, snake bite, urinary disorders (Ham: [76]).

Plant: Juice given to cure tooth decay, diarrhoea, wounds, and cuts (Ham: [73, 76]).

Seeds: Dried seeds chewed to cure cough and nausea (Sikkim: [79]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Young leaves: Used as vegetables (Bhutan: [102]).

365 Pogostemon Shrub benghalensis(Bu\'m. f.)


366 Salvia campanuiata Wall, ex Herb Benth.

367 Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. Herb ex Benth.

368 Salvia sp. Herb

369 Siphocranion macranthum Herb (J. D. Hooker) C. Y. Wu

370 Holboellia latifolia Wall. Tree




Lamiaceae Lamiaceae


Rudilo (Np)

Golfa (Np)

371 Cinnamomum bejolghota Tree Lauraceae (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet

372 *Cinnamomum glaucescens Tree Lauraceae (Nees) Hand.-Mazz.

373 Cinnamomum Tree Lauraceae impressinervium Meisn.

374 *Cinnamomum tamala Tree Lauraceae (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm.

Bhalay Linkauli (Np) Phagpanengshing (Sh) Sisi (Np)

Sinkauli, Tejpat (Np); Ringe (Gur); Rataarangkhi (Rai); Shishi (She)


375 Cinnamomum verum J.RresI Tree Lauraceae

376 Lindera neesiana (Wall ex Tree Lauraceae Nees) Kurz

Gutum Phopri (Gr-Mn); Waregpa (Li); Sil 1800-2700 Timmur, Rhenlo Khapate (Np); Kongkochi (Ri); Kutumba (Tm)

377 Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Rers.


Siltimur (Np); Tanghaercherkerng (L)

378 Litsea glutinosa Lour.

379 Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Tree Rers.

380 Machilus edulis King.

Lauraceae Lauraceae


Kawala, Suppatnyok (Np) Ratmanti, Sunyokkung (Np)

Rumpsi, Lapche Kaulo, Lapchephal (Np)

381 Machilus sp. Tree Lauraceae

382 Persea odoratissima (Nees) Tree Lauraceae Kostermans

Lalikaulo (Np)


Young shoots: Grounded and given to treat sores of mouth and tounge (Jhapa: [66]).

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Given against diabetes (Datjeeling: [52]).

Flower: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Shoots: Taken in gastric (Sikkim: [75]).

Roots: Effective for rheumatism (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Edible (Datjeeling: [72, 80]; Sikkim: [89]). Stem: Used to make bangles, which are believed to give from orthopedic problems (Datjeeling [80]).

Bark: Used as condiment (Sikkim: [72]). Wood: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Seeds: Edible (Datjeeling: [80]). Leaves: Used as a substitute of bay leaf (Sikkim: [72]).

Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Given in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database).Extract used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as stimulant in rheumatism, and also in colic and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Rubbed on the body to cure scabies (Sikkim: [11]), throat allergy and to increase appetite (Jhapa: [68]). Used as condiments (KL Bhutan: [70]). Ham: [94]).

Leaves: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark and fruit: Used as aromatic and carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Used in cough, cold, fever, and cholera; fried in butter and used during gastritis; also used in pickle (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Given to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Powder taken to stop vomiting (Sikkim: [11]).

Flowers: Used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [11, 75], Database). Fruit: Taken orally as carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Used to make chutney (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Dried fruits used in nausea and giddiness (Datjeeling: [80]).

Leaves and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysentety (Sikkim: [79]).

Bark: Decoction taken to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]).

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [47, 89]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

Bark: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Leaves: Good fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

383 Careya arborea Roxb.

384 Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Shrub Hornem.

Lecythidaceae Leeaceae

Khumbhi (S) Galeni, Galoni (Np)



385 Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.


Ghiu kumari (Np)


386 *Asparagus racemosus Willd.


Kurilo (Np); Kedar nari (S); Ngalalkom 300-2200 (Sh); Ngakhacho (Dz)

387 Dlsporum cantonlense Herb Liliaceae (Lour.) Merr.

388 Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don Herb Liliaceae

389 Fritiiiaria deiavayi Franch. Herb Liliaceae

390 Gloriosa superba L. Herb Liliaceae

391 Lilium nepalense D. Don Herb Liliaceae

392 Paris poiyphyiia Smith Herb Liliaceae

Mhajari (Np)


Snake's head fritillary (Eg); Ban lasun, 3000-4600 Kakolee (Np)

Tsika (Dz)

Langarey Tarul (Np) Ban Lasun (Np)

400-2200 2300-3400

Love Apple (Eg); Satuwa (Gr); Tangma 1800-3500 (Km); Satuwa, Tintale Banko (Np); Haimavati (Sn); Natar Dhap (Tm)

393 Polygonatum hookeri Baker Herb Liliaceae Ranye (Km), Pangi Ranye (Tb) 2900-5000

394 Smilax bracteata C. Ptesl Climber Liliaceae Kukurdine (Np) 1900 subsp. verruculosa (Merrill)

T. Koyama

Bark: Grounded with cumin seeds and given to treat indigestion and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]).

Root: Used to cure snake bite (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Chewed to treat vira fever. Wrapped by cloths and tied around the neck of the children to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]).

Plant: Used for antihypergycemic effect (Sikkim: [96]). Purgative (Sikkim: Database) and used on burns and skin complaints (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; KL Nepal: [53]; Sikkim: Database, [79]). Leaves: Chewed to cure skin and uterine disorder and jaundice (Jhapa: [68]; Ham: [73, 76]). Used as stomachic, tonic, purgative and anthelmintic. Juice put on head in high fever to reduce body temperature (Sikkim: [69]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful for diabetes, jaundice and urinary disorder (Sikkim: Database). Extract used in diabetes and tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [52]) and applied externally on bone fracture and joint dislocation (Darjeeling: [52]). Also used as diuretic, demulcent, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, astringent, and appetizer (KL Nepal: [83]; Darjeeling: [52]; Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to enhance lactation for mothers and also useful in anemia and diarrhoea (Ham: [73, 76, 77]). Grounded with root of Musa paradisiaca and drunk to cure gonorrhea; decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]). Mixed with hay or grain to feed the cattle for fortnight to increase milk-yield (Sikkim: [84]). Paste administered orally in fever, cough and cold. Fruit: Eaten to treat pimples (Sikkim: [79]). Shoots: Cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [82]; KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]).

Roots: Used to treat sprains (Panchthar: [67]).

Bulb: Boiled and eaten (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in tuberculosis (Sikkim: [75]) and to treat asthma (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]), bronchitis, and bleeding during cough (Sikkim: [75]).

Bulb: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots and flowers: Useful in chronic ulcers, leprosy, piles, and abdomina pains (Sikkim: Database).

Plant: Powder used to flavouring dishes; juice taken as tonic (Ham: [73]). Bulb: Used to treat scabies and boils (Panchthar: [67]).

Roots: Used as antidotes (Sikkim: [75]) and in stomachache (Taplejung: [81, 82]) and fever (Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: [75]). Powder applied to heal wound (Darjeeling: [49]; Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83]). Infusion taken as tonic and also used in diarrhea, dysenteiy (KL Nepal: [83]; Ham: [73]) and fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Infusion taken to treat respiratory disorders and worms (Ham: [76]).

Roots: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [87]).

Stem: Used for brushing teeth to cure pyorrhoea and gingivitis (Darjeeling: [52]).

395 Smiiax ovaiifoiia Roxb. ex. Climber Liliaceae D. Don

396 Buddleja asiatica Lour. Shrub Loganiaceae

397 Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Herb Loranthaceae Etting.

398 Scurrula elata (Edgew.) Shrub Loranthaceae Danser

399 Viscum articulatum Burm.f. Shrub Loranthaceae

Kukurdaino (Np) 200-1000

Bhinsenpatee (Np); Pndam (L) 350-2000

Mandargon banda (S); Aijeru (Np) 150-900


Hadchur (Np); Hadjor, Kathkomjunga 200-1700 (S)

400 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Shrub Kurz


Dhairo (Np); Icha (S)


401 Michelia champaca L.


Chanpak (Eg); Oulichamp (Np)

402 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Shrub

403 Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Herb

404 Malva verticiiiata L. Shrub

405 Sida acuta Burm. f. Shrub

406 Sida cordifolia L. Shrub

407 Sterculia villosa Roxb. Tree

408 IJrena lobata L. Herb

409 Melastoma maiabathricum Shrub L.



Malvaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae

Malvaceae Malvaceae

Jawa Kusum (Np)

Bel Chandan (Np); Maharetha (Me)

Halemetok (Dz) Khareto (Np) Bamonmara (Np)

Odal (Np) Samthai (Me)

Melastomataceae Augeri, Chulesi (S & Np)

410 Osbeckia nepaiensis Hook. Herb

Melastomataceae Angeri, Lattey (Np)

Roots and fruit: Juice used to cure venerai diseases, rheumatism, and wounds (Ham: [73, 76]). Leaves and shoots: Used as curry (Ham: [94]).

Stem, leaves and flowers: Used in skin complaints and as abortificant (Sikkim: [75], Database).

Leaves: Paste applied externally to treat skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Used for making tea leaf for local suja (Bhutan: [99]). Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).

Plant: Used to treat bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]); also given in ulcers, epilepsy, muscular pains (Sikkim: Database), injuries, and fracture (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79], Database). Stem: Used in body pain, fracture, and fever (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [75]). Paste used in sprain and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

Bark: Used for gastric trouble.

Bark and flowers: Used in burns, dysenteiy, and fracture (KL Nepal: [53]; Panchthar: [67]). Flower: Dried and taken in piles, liver complaints. Honey like secretion consumed (Ham: [94]). Leaves: Given to cattle to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [97]). Decoction taken in malarian fever (Jhapa: [66]).

Flowers: Taken for stomachache (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: [85]) and as carminative in the treatment of dyspepsia (Sikkim: [85]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Flowers: Young flowers given against tonsillitis. Leaves and flowers: Juice used to cure dandruff and hair problems (Darjeeling: [52]).

Leaves: Paste with leaves of Lawsonia inermis applied on the foot to cure wound caused by muddy water during rainy season (Jhapa: [68]).

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Stem: Paste applied on bone fracture (Darjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Half cup root juice and half-tablespoon sugar candy mixed together is given once daily till cured (Darjeeling: [105]).

Bark: Used to make ropes (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Leaves: Paste with aerial part of Drymaria cordata applied to cure skin infection and eczema (Jhapa: [68]).

Leaves: Used in fever; decoction given to cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Stem and roots: Bark paste applied on wounds and skin disease (Darjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Decoction given in urinary complaints and diabetes. Leaves: Extract of young leaves or tender shoots applied on forehead and to treat pneumonia, fever and common cold (Darjeeling: [74]). Leaves and flowers: Paste used in foot sores of cattle (Darjeeling: [49]).

Table 1 NTFPs used by the local people of the Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya (Continued) 411 "Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Tree Meliaceae Meemee (S); Neem (Np); Nimbilai (Me) 60-1200

412 Dysoxyium hamiltonii Tree Meliaceae Sipochikang (Np) Blume.

413 Melia azedarach L. Tree Meliaceae Bakaina (Np); Bokom Bana (S) 700-1100

414 Toona ciiiata M. Roem. Tree Meliaceae Tooni (Np); Toon (S) 200-1700

415 Trichilia connaroides (Wight Tree Meliaceae Aankha Taruwa (Np) 700-2400 & Am.) Bentv.

416 Cissampelos pareira L Climber Menispermaceae Batulpate (Np); Tejomala (S) 500-1000

417 Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Climber Menispermaceae Tamarke (Np) Miers


418 Stephania glandulifera Miers Climber

419 Stephaniajaponica(lhunb) Climber Miers

420 *Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Climber Men.

Menispermaceae Menispermaceae

Tamarkay (Np)

Menispermaceae Gatjo, Gurjo (Np); Sarasatilata (S)

421 Artocarpus heterophyllus Tree Moraceae Lam.

422 Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. Tree Moraceae ex Roxb

Rukh Kathar (Li) Badahar, Barar (Li)


Plant: Used as an antiseptic and febrifuge. Useful in treatment of small pox, and as tooth brush, prophylactic for mouth and teeth (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Cooked with rice and eaten during the name giving ceremony of newly born child. Boiled in water and bath taken with warm water to cure scabies and eczema. Dried leaf power taken as blood purifier (Jhapa: [92]). Juice taken for blood purification and intestinal worms, also applied externally on wounds, sores, blisters, ans skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Fresh/dried leaves chewed to control diabetes (Sikkim: [79, 96]). Bark powder used as insecticide (Sikkim: [79]).

Bark: Decoction taken orally to treat stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).

Roots: Used as astringent, and in biliousness, heart pain, vomiting, and leucoderma. Leaves: Juice taken orally as anthelmintic (Sikkim: [85]). Bark: Used as anthelmintic (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Used in leprosy (Jhapa: [66]).

Bark: Pounded and given to cure toothache (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [79]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]). Fruit: Used for chestpain, fever and measles (Sikkim: [79]).

Leaves: Decoction taken to treat cholera (Sikkim: [85]). Leaves and fruit: Useful to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]).

Plant: Extract given to treat diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [11]), dysentery, urinary disorders, and indigestion (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used as antidote; paste taken orally in stomach pain, malarian fever, and cold (Jhapa: [66]). Decoction consumed in empty stomach to cure diabetes (Darjeeling: [74]). Extract given to treat blood in urine (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Paste applied on wound and juice taken to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]). Roots and leaves: Useful in cough, gastric troubles, and sore throat (Panchthar: [67]).

Tubers: Powder used in diabetes, tuberculosis, asthma, and fever (Darjeeling: [49, 78]). Oil used externally in the treatment of leucoderma, leprosy and other skin complaints (Darjeeling: [49]). Stem: Bark used to extract fibres (Darjeeling: [49]). Plant: Useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]).

Tubers: Eaten in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).

Root: Dipped in water and sprinkled in poultry farm to prevent from birld flu. Leaves: Paste applied on boils for opening (Sikkim: [11]).

Roots: Useful in diabetic. Extract used in menstruation disorders and piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Stem and roots: Infusion given in fever (Darjeeling: [69, 78]). Used to make broom (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Warmed and wrapped around the fractured and painful joints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Boiled in milk and drunk to get rid from tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [74]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Latex: Applied on the boils and on the fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]).

Q 3 Cl

Latex: Applied on boils and on fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Raw fruits used as vegetable and ripen fruits eaten raw (Ham: [94]).

423 Ficus auriculata Lour.


Nimaro, Nibaro (Np)

424 Ficus benghalensis L. Herb Moraceae

425 Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Tree Moraceae Hornem.

426 Ficus hirta Vahl Tree Moraceae

427 Ficus hispida L.f. Tree Moraceae

428 Ficus racemosa L. Tree Moraceae

429 Ficus religiosa L. Tree Moraceae

430 Ficus semicordata Buch.- Tree Moraceae Ham. ex Sm.

Banidare (S); Bar (Np) Brongshig (Sh)

Setapodo (S); Khasreto (Np) Loa (S); Guiar Durnri (Np)

Peepal (Np)

Khasrey, Khaneu, Khaniu (Np)

431 Reus subincisa Buch.-Ham. Herb ex Sm.

432 Reus virens Diyand. Tree

433 Morus alba L. Tree


Moraceae Moraceae

Lute Khaneu (Np) Kabra (Np)

434 Morus australis Poir.


Kodaz (S); Kimu (Np)

435 Morus macroura Miq. Tree Moraceae

436 Strebius asper Lour. Tree Moraceae

437 Moringa oleífera Lam. Tree Moringaceae

Kimbu (Np); Tshendey (Dz); Sengdengshing (Sh)

Khaksi (Np); Sada (S)

Munga (S); Sajiwang, Sajana (Np); Sajanamakharia (Me)


438 Musa balbisiana Colla Herb Musaceae

439 Musa paradisiaca L. Herb Musaceae

Bankera (Np) Kera (Np)


440 Musa sp. Herb

441 Myrica esculenta Buch- Tree Ham. ex D. Don

Musaceae Bankera (Np)

Myricaceae Box Myrtle (Eg); Kaphal (Np, Gr); 1200-2300

Katphala (Sn); Lalisa (Lm); Chakchansi, Jheremsi (Ri)

Roots and fruit: Chewed in constipation and warts (Ham: [73]). Fruit: Consumed (Ham: [94]).

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also given in fever (Jhapa: [66]). Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Root: Decoction used to treat food poisoning (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Applied on boils and blisters (Jhapa: [66]).

Latex: Applied on the boils on the tongue (Ham: [73]).

Bark and latex: Applied on boils to check infection (Sikkim: [11], Database). Latex: Applied on fresh cut (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Edible (Ham: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

Latex: Freshly collected and applied externally on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).

Leaf buds: Young unopened leaf buds boiled and used as pickle (Ham: [94]).

Leaves, stem and roots: Contains active phytochemical to lower blood glucose level (Sikkim: [96]). Leaves: Tender leaves chewed in curing inflammation of vocal cord and hoarse voice (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [95]). Used to make jam, jellies and drinks (Ham: [94]).

Bark and leaves: Decoction used to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Extract applied to treat foot cracks (Sikkim: [11]).

Stem: Extract from heartwood used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70])

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Used to stop bleeding from freshly cut wound (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves, flowers and fruit: Used as vegetable Ham: [94]; Jhapa: [92]). Cooked vegetable taken to control blood pressure (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Paste mixed with black goat's milk and taken to cure tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste used by women for long hairs (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit: Green fruits used as vegetable after boiling and spath for pickle (Ham: [94]).

Root bark: Pounded together with stem bark of Mango, Jack fruit, Ziziphus mauritiana, Shorea robusta and Azadirachta indica and taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Sap: Taken to cure fever (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves: Used in house construction, roofing, and for making temporary sheds, also used as fodder. Flowers and fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70, 100]).

Bark: Powder mixed with tobacco and snuffed to treat sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]); mixture also given to livestock to cure worm infestation (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied to fix fractured bone and cure internal injuries (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied on the chest to get relief from cough and bronchitis (Ham: [76]; Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Ripen fruits consumed (Ham: [73, 94]).

442 Myrica nagi Thunb. Tree Myricaceae Tsutsusey (Sh)

443 Horsfieldia kingii (J. D. Tree Myristicaceae Ramgua (Np) Hooker) Warburg

444 Knema angustifolia Roxb. Tree Myristicaceae Ramguwa (Np)

445 Ardisia macrocarpa Wall. Tree Myrsinaceae

446 Ardisia solanacea Roxb. Tree Myrsinaceae Gulaich (S)

447 Embelia ribes Burm.f. Shrub Myrsinaceae Buibidans (Np)


1500-2400 200-1100

448 Maesa chisia Buch.-Ham. ex Shrub Myrsinaceae D. Don

449 Eugenia kurzii Duthie Tree Myrtaceae

450 Eugenia sp. Tree Myrtaceae

451 Psidium guajava L. Tree Myrtaceae

Bilaune (Np); Purmu Kung (L)

Ambakay (Np) 500

Mantsisey (Sh); Nasi or Nyasey (Dz)

Amba (Np); Aprisam (S) 450-1200

452 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Tree

Myrtaceae Sokod (S); Jamun (Np); Jamun (Me),

Bjee (Sz), Dangbelingsae (Sh), Ngasi (Dz)


453 Euryale ferox Saliab. Herb Nymphaeaceae

454 Eraxinus floribunda Wall. Tree Oleaceae

Poraini (S); Maknana (Np) Lankuri (Np); Payjew (L)


455 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Shrub


Parijat (Np); Badibaha, Jhanti (S)


456 Epilobium angustifolium L. Herb Onagraceae

457 Bulbophyllum affine Lindl. Herb Orchidaceae

458 Calanthe plantaginea Herb Orchidaceae Lindley

459 Coelogyne cristata Lindl. Herb Orchidaceae

460 Coelogyne occultata Hook.f. Herb Orchidaceae

461 Cymbidium longifolium D. Herb Orchidaceae Don

Rosebay (Eg); Bahankot (Km); Seja (Sh, 3300-4000 Wl); Char Pan, Chu Tsi (Tb)

Wangpeimo (Bhu)

Chaandi gaava (Np) Churchurbu (Sh)

Fruit:Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]). Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ham: [94]).

Fruit: Powder taken orally to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [47]).

Bark: Macerated with flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and taken to purify the blood and also to arrest bleeding (Jhapa: [66]).

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Powdered with milk and given to dog for anthelmintic efficacies (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Crushed and given to pigs to kill tapeworm; also used as appetizer for cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

Roots and leaves: Used as insecticide and anthelmintic (Sikkim: [75]).

Fruit: Pulps consumed (Ham: [94]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Pounded with bark of mango and given to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Tender shoots chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Semi ripe fruits and bark eaten to cure diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).

Bark: Juice drunk in dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66, 68]) and diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Extraction massaged on forehead of children for cooling and given orally to increase appetite (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Seeds: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Bark: Boiled and applied on gout (Sikkim: Database). Applied on bone fracture (Sikkim: [75]).

Bark: Paste used for dislocated bones. Leaves: Boiled and decanted water taken to control malaria fever. Flowers: Offered to god and goddesses (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Pounded with warm water and given to woman to ease expulsion of placenta (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Dried and used as tea; given as fodder (Taplejung: [81, 88]).

Plant: Ornamental value (Bhutan: [99]). Flowers: Edible (Bhutan: [99]). Plant: Cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]).

Bulbs: Paste used in sores and boils (Ham: [76]). Bulb/stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Plant: Used as ornamental (Bhutan: [99]).

462 *Dactylorhiza hatagirea Herb Orchidaceae Wangpo Lagpa (Km, Sh, Wl); 2800-4200

(D.Don) Soo Nahasihukchok (Li); Ranch Aunle (Np);

Hathejara (Np-DI); Munjataka (Sn); Lovha (Sh); Wang Lag, Wangpo Lagpa (lb)

463 Dendrobium aphyllum Herb Orchidaceae (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch.

464 Eulophia dabia (D. Don) Herb Orchidaceae Hochr.

465 Gymnadenia crassinervis Herb Orchidaceae Finet

466 Ponerorchis chusua (D. Don) Herb Orchidaceae Soo

467 Pedicuiaris anas Maxim. Herb Orobanchaceae

468 Pedicuiaris decorissima Diels Herb Orobanchaceae

469 Pedicuiaris longiflora Herb Orobanchaceae Rudolph

470 Pedicuiaris oederi Vah Herb Orobanchaceae

471 Oxaiis cornicuiata L. Herb Oxalidaceae

Hattipaila (Np) Wanglak (B)

Ongri (Sh); Wangla, Marpo, Wanglag 2400-4900 Mem pa (Tb)

Chari Amilo (Np); Tandi, chatumarak, 300-2900 Kedumarajan (S)

472 Pandanus nepaiensis St. Shrub Randanaceae John

473 Argemone mexicana L. Herb Rapaveraceae Thakal (Np); Dhamoi (S) 150-1400

474 Corydaiis chaerophyiia DC. Herb Rapaveraceae

475 Corydaiis crispa Prain Herb Rapaveraceae

476 Corydaiis dubia Prain Herb Rapaveraceae

477 Dicentra scandens (D. Don) Climber Rapaveraceae Walp.

478 Hypecoum erectum L. Herb Rapaveraceae


Tubers: Used as tonic and given in dysenteiy (Sikkim: Database) and chronic fever (Datjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: Database). Decoction used to treat fever, diabetes (Ham: [73, 76]) and diarrhoea (Ham: [73, 76]; Sikkim: Database). Paste applied on cuts and bruises; extract taken orally to cure body ache (Datjeeling: [52, 80]). Paste taken in gastric complaints, jaundice, body ache, bone fracture, and in the formation of bone marrow (Datjeeling: [49]). Young leaves and shoots: Eaten as vegetable (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Used as nervine tonic and aphrodisiac (Sikkim: [69]).

Stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Tubers: Juice taken orally as appetizer (Sikkim: [85]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Tubers: Rosted and eaten (Taplejung: [87]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Juice used to treat indigestion, diarrhoea, piles, anemia, and eye problems (Ham: [73, 76]). Chewed raw as appetizer and also checks boils (Sikkim: [11]). Pounded with cumin seeds and taken to cure dysenteiy and diarrhea. Paste applied on forehead to treat headache. Paste mixed with rhizome of Drymaria quercifolia and applied on bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used in infatuation (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Juice taken to cure dysenteiy (Sikkim: [11], Database) and fever, anemia, and for digestion (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Consumed to cure throat pain (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Ham: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

Leaves: Young leaves chewed as breath sweetener. Fresh leaves acts as cockroach repellant. Used to make mats, cany bags, fishing bags and thatching purpose (Ham: [94]). Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ham: [94]).

Leaves: Juice applied on cut, wounds, blisters, and burns (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used in opthalmic infections (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and leaves: Paste or juice used in skin disease, constipation, cough and fever (Ham: [76]).

Fruits: Taken in stomachache (Sikkim: [75]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Crushed and used to stop excessive bleeding in females (Sikkim: [11]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

479 Hypecoum leptocarpum Herb Hook. f. & Thomson

480 Meœnopsis grandis Prain Herb

481 Meœnopsis horriduia Hook. Herb f. & Thomson

482 Meœnopsis panicuiata Prain Herb

483 Meœnopsis simpiicifoiia (D. Herb Don) Walp.

484 Passiflora foetida L.


Papaveraceae Papaveraceae Papaveraceae Papaveraceae Papaveraceae Passifloraceae

Upal Ngongpo (Sh, Tb); Upa Gnono 3000-5200 (WD

Kheldar, Langur (Np-DI); Upa Sepu (Wl) 3000-4400

Upal Mentook (Bhu) Sano Jhar (Np)

3300-4500 100-1200

485 Passiflora nepaiensis Wall. Climber Passifloraceae

486 Sesamum orientale L. Shrub Pedaliaceae

487 Phyiianthus acidus (L.) Tree Phyllanthaceae Skeels

488 *Phyiianthus embiica L. Tree Phyllanthaceae

Garendal (Np) Siwing (Me)

Atummeral (S); Amala (Np)


Amala (Np); Meral (S); Chhorgengsoi 150-1400 (Sh)

489 Phyiianthus reticuiatus Poir. Shrub Phyllanthaceae

490 Phyiianthus urinaria L. Herb Phyllanthaceae

491 Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Herb Phytolaccaceae

Smeldam (S) Kanthad (S)

Jaringe Sag, Jarko Sag (Np); Zalmathangru (Sh)

492 'Piper longum L.



Chhimpri-gupai (Me)


493 Piper nigrum L. Herb Piperaceae

494 Hemiphragma Herb Plantaginaceae heterophyilum Wall.

Kanakmala (Li)

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used as fodder for goat (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Seeds: Edible (Taplejung: [81,87]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Young twigs: Used as fodder for goat; young stems eaten raw (Taplejung: [81, 87]).

Rhizomes: Powder or decoction used as tonic in renal complaints (Datjeeling: [49]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Leaves: Infusion consumed to cure insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy and as painkiller (Datjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Decoction taken in fever (Datjeeling: [78]).

Seeds: Chewed and applied on skin for sunburns and ringworm (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Infusion taken to cure stomatitis and aphthous (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit and leaves: Juice taken to cure jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, and asthma (Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73, 76]). Fruit: Edible and also used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Good for burning sensation of heat and urinary discharge, liver complaint, and eye trouble (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]) and eaten raw to treat cough, dysenteiy and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Used to make pickle (Ham: [94]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Paste applied on burns and boils (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and sores (Jhapa: [66]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Decoction used in jaundice (Taplejung: [88]). Juice dropped in the nose to cure sinusitis (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Effective in high blood pressure (Datjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]). Fresh juice applied on cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and infection (Sikkim: Database). Decoction taken to cure body ache and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds and leaves: Used in indigestion and eye problems (Ham: [73, 76]).

Roots: Used as anthelminthic, improves appetite, and abdominal pain (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Paste given to treat pneumonia in adults (Jhapa: [68]). Powder given to treat cold (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken to cure diarrhea, dysenteiy, piles, and leprosy (Datjeeling: [80]). Dried unripe fruits used as alternative and tonic. Ripe fruits, aromatic, stomachic and carminative. Infusion of dried fruit taken in cough (Datjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11]) and fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Powder applied to reduce strains (Datjeeling: [80]).

Fruit: Used as spices and medicine (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruit: Juice administered orally to treat sore throat (Sikkim: [79]).

495 Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

496 Piantago asiatica subsp. erosa (Wall.) Z. Yu Li

497 Piantago depressa Wi I Id.

498 Piantago major L.

499 Plumbago zeylanica L.

500 Arundinaria intermedia Munro

501 Arundinaria maling Gamble

502 Arundinaria sp.

503 Bambusa nutans Wall, ex Munro

504 Bambusa sp.

505 Bambusa tulda Roxb.

506 Coix iachryma-jobi L.

507 Cymbopogon fiexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W.Watson

508 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

509 Dendrocalamus hamiltonii var. hamiltonii Nees & Am. ex Munro

Herb Plantaginaceae

Herb Plantaginaceae

Herb Plantaginaceae

Herb Plantaginaceae

Shrub Plumbaginaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Herb Poaceae

Puti-shing (Dz), Kutki (N)

Isagbul (Np) 400-3800

Tsa-shokum (Sh) Jibray Jhar (Np)

Chitu (Np); Chitigni (S) 100-1300

Malingo (Np) 2000-3000 Himalayan bamboo (Eg); Malingo (Np) 1500-3500

Bans (Np)

Mala Bans (Np) 700-1700 Bans (Np)

Kanda Bans (Np); Mai Bans (S)

Jargedi (S); Bhirkraulo (Np) 900-2100 Solubang (Sh)

Dubo (Np); Dubu (S) 100-2000 Choya Bans, Tama (Np)

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fresh root paste applied to cuts, ■<

wounds, bruises, and injuries (Sikkim: [91]). 3.

Leaves: Taken to cure toothache (Sikkim: [75]). Paste applied to treat wounds. ^

Seeds: Powder taken to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [11]). °

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Q

Plant: Decoction taken to cure fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Leaves: Juice ^

consumedin the case of throat pain. Flowers and fruit: Juice applied on cuts 3-

and wounds (Datjeeling: [74]). Roots: Paste applied externally on cuts and o

wounds for quick healing (Sikkim: [84]).

Roots: Used in antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Used to make traditional yeast or i®

starter called 'Marcha' to make local wine (Datjeeling and Sikkim: [108]). Q

Roasted with potatoand taken orally in jaundice (Datjeeling: [105]). o_

Plant: Used to make mats, baskets and to construct temporary huts (Sikkim: g-

[89]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Ham: [73]). Young shoots: Used as vegetables o

(Ham: [73]). i?

Young shoots: Cooked as vegetable or pickled and eaten (Ham: [94]; KL Nepal: §■ [83]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Nepal: [83]). Mixed with black pepper and

feed with little salt to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [84]). g

Roots: Ash mixed with mustard oil and paste applied externally on ringworm ^

in catties (Sikkim: [84]). ~

Shoots: Used for fencing and to make food and drink containers, hats arrows jj

and quivers. Young shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Plant: Used to support prayer flags by Buddhist (Sikkim: [89]).

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Split and woven mats (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Plant: Burnt ash of seedlings applied in leprosy (Jhapa: [66]). Young shoots: Chopped and fermented in tight bamboo or glass bottles to make sour pickle locally called 'Mesu' (Datjeeling: [108]; North-east India: [101]).

Fruit: Juice drunk regularly for a long time to cure tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]).

Leaves: Used to extract essential oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Extract used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Juice taken orally to cure scabies, cut, wound, epilepsy, piles (Ham: [73, 76]), and juice along with garlic and warm mustard oil used to rub on body to relieve bodypain (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Juice used in piles; paste used to hea cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [11]). Freshly prepared juice taken to cure liver cirrhosis (Datjeeling: [52]). Roots and leaves: Decoction used to cure diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [11]).

Young shoots: Chopped and fermented in tight bamboo or glass bottles to make sour pickle locally called 'Mesu' (Datjeeling: [101, 108]; Ham: [94]). Used to make water pipes, water vessels, in house construction and also consumed as vegetable (Sikkim: [89]).

510 Dendrocalamus hookeri Herb Poaceae Munro

511 Dendrocalamus sericeus Herb Poaceae Munro

Chilley Bans (Np) Bans (Np)

512 Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Herb Poaceae Stapf

513 Drepanostachyum sp. Herb Poaceae

514 Eleusine coracana (L.) Herb Poaceae Gaertn.

515 Euiaiiopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Herb Poaceae Hubb.

516 Fargesia grossa T. P. Yi Herb Poaceae

517 Himalayacalamus Herb Poaceae hookerianus (Munro)


518 Imperata cyiindrica (L.) P. Herb Poaceae Beauvois

Kush (Np) Bans (Np) Kodo (Np) » (Np)


Pareng (Np)

Siru (Np)

519 Phyllostachys edulis Herb Poaceae (Carrière) J. Houzeau

520 Saccharum spontaneum L. Herb Poaceae

521 Thamnocalamus sp. Herb Poaceae

522 Thysanolaena maxima Herb Poaceae (Roxb.) Kuntze

Kattabans (Np)

Kash (Np); Kashim (S)

Bans (Np) Amriso (Np)

523 Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. Shrub Polygalaceae

ex D. Don

524 Bistorta vivipara (L.) Gray Herb Polygonaceae

525 Fagopyrum esculentum Herb Polygonaceae Moench

526 Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill Herb Polygonaceae

527 Persicaria barbata (L.) H. Herb Polygonaceae H ara

Yellow milkwort, Red eye (Eg); Cleem- 600-1800 soon-creem, Karima, Marcha, Michepnor-kung (Np)

Pantsa Ramba, Rambu (Sh); Pangram, 3300-5000 Rmbu Godpa (Tb)

Phapar (Li) 1800-4100

Mountain Sorrel (Eg); Boke (Np) Bish (Np); Bareputuli (Me)

Shoots: Used in making baskets and in fencing (Sikkim: [89]).

Shoots: Used to makedomestic and agricultural implements, such as water containers, baskets, trays, mats, etc. Young shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Roots: Astringent and galactagogue (Panchthar: [67]).

Shoots: Used to makebaskets, trays, mats, sieves, livestock shelters and temporary dwellings. Yound shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Seeds: Used to make local wine called 'Jnard' (Datjeeling: [108]). Plant: Whole plant dust applied to treat skin allergy (KL Nepal: [53]).

Culms: Used to make mats, bags and baskets (Bhutan: [99]).

Plant: Used to make basket and hut construction (Datjeeling: [89]). Young shoots: Consumed as vegetable (Datjeeling: [89]).

Roots: Juice taken in diarrhoea and dysenteiy (Ham: [73]), taken during cough, cold and fever (Datjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]). A piece of root tied in hair to ease deliver/ (Jhapa: [66]). Paste applied on boils (Datjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]).

Shoots: Young shoots used to make curry and pickles (Ham: [94]).

Roots: Extract taken to kill intestinal worms and also relieving for fever and bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

Shoots: Used forroofing, mats and fencing (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Roots: Extract used in boils and worms (Ham: [73, 76, 77]; Sikkim: [79]). Paste applied on boils (Datjeeling: [52]). Decoction of young roots taken in case of bronchial problem (Datjeeling: [49]). Leaves: Used as abortifacient (Panchthar [67]). Flowers: Poultic of young flowers used in rheumatic pain and skin swelling (Datjeeling: [49]). Inflorescence: Used to make broom (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Roots: Juice taken for its laxatic and emetic actions (Sikkim: [85]). Plant: Used to make marcha (Datjeeling: [80]).

Plant: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [87]).

Leaves: Juice taken orally during stomachache and gastritis (Sikkim: [79]). Plant: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [87]).

Leaves: Paste with cloves of Allium sativum applied on ringworm after slightly scouring the wound by warm salt-water (Jhapa: [68]).

528 Polygonum coriaceumSam. Herb Polygonaceae

529 Polygonum molle D.Don. Herb Polygonaceae Kandyeo-pam„ Patusua, Thotne, Tuknu 1300-4000

530 Polygonum runcinatum Herb Polygonaceae Ratnaulo (Np) Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

531 Polygonum sp. Herb Polygonaceae

532 Polygonum verticillatum Herb Polygonaceae Biroli ex Colla

533 Polygonum viviparum L. Herb Polygonaceae Ratnaula (Np)

534 Rheum acuminatum Hook. Herb f. & Thorns, ex Hook.

Polygonaceae Padamchal (Np); Bokya (Np-DI);

Khokkim (Np-Tp); Chhurta, Khokkim, Kyojung (Sh); Chum Tsa (Tb)

535 *Rheum australe D. Don

Herb Polygonaceae Himalayan Rhubarb (Eg); Chuk, Chulthi 3200-4200

Amilo, Mire Chuk, Padamchal (Np); Khokkim (Np-Tp); Chhulama, Chhoyoma, Churcha (Sh); Amlaparni, Pitamulika (Sn); Chhucha (Wl)

536 Rheum nobile Hook. f. & Herb Thorns.


Padamchal (Np); Kenjo, Chhulama (Sh, 3600-5000 Wl); Chuka (Dz)

537 Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Herb


Halhale (Np)

538 Portulaca oleracea L. Herb Portulacaceae Kulfa Saag (Np) 300-1500

539 Androsace hookeriana Klatt Herb Primulaceae

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Juice taken to treat diarrhea (Ham: [76, 77]; Sikkim: [85]). Used as astringent (Sikkim: Database). Young shoots: Used for curry (Ham: [94]) and pickle (Ham: [73, 94]; Sikkim: Database). Useful in diarrhoea (Ham: [73]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [81, 87]).

Whole plant: Used to make vegetable (Ham: [94]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Juice boiled with water and given in fever (Sikkim: [11], Database), recommended for jaundice (Sikkim: Database) and stomach trouble (Sikkim: [11], Database). Leaves: Paste applied on insect bite (Datjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Herbal tea prepared from rootstock used to treat body pain; paste applied on forehead during severe headache (Sikkim: [79]). Petioles: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [87]) and also as appetizer (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Juice from the shoot portion taken in dysenteiy and intestinal problems (Sikkim: [79]).

Roots: Dried and used as tea (Datjeeling: [80]). Taken in constipation, skin eruption, and liver complaints (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction used as tea during internal injuries, body pain, and for blood purification. Rootstocks also yields dye for coloring wool (Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database). Rhizome powder taken in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, constipation and ulcer (Ham: [76]). Petiole: Young petioles and leaves used to cure cuts and wounds, sprains and bodyache (Sikkim: [90]). Fresh petioles eaten raw (Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Effective in ulcer, bronchitis, and fever (Sikkim: [75]). Boiled and paste with flour and Tibetan salt applied on the fractured area. Boiled with rhizome of Begonia and paste applied externally on the fractured bone (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Decoction or infusion aken to treat rheumatism, arthritis, heart complaints and as tonic after delivety (Datjeeling: [49]). Used as anti emetic, diuretic, laxative, heating potency and for swelling (Datjeeling: [98]). Plant: Consumed as vegetable or pickle (Datjeeling: [80, 98]).

Roots: Extract used orally in hepatitis and loss of hair (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 89], Database) and as dyes (Sikkim: Database). Infusion taken to treat ulcer, cuts, and sprains (Datjeeling: [91]; Ham: [73, 76, 77]). Shoots: Used in skin diseases (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves and shoots: Juice applied on woundto hea (Datjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Cooked and taken as vegetable (Ham: [94]). Leaf and root paste taken in stomachache and applied on wound (KL Nepal: [53]).

Young plants: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

540 Primula sikkimensis Hook. Herb Primulaceae

541 Helicia nilagirica Bedel. Tree Proteaceae

542 Aconitum ferox Wall. exSer. Herb Ranunculaceae

ndian Aconite (Eg); Bikh, Bish, Atisingua bish, Seto bikhma (Np)

543 Aconitum heterophyllum Herb Wall, ex Royle


Sikh, Atish (Np)

544 Aconitum lethale Griff.

545 Aconitum naviculare (Brühl) Herb Stapf

546 Aconitum orochryseum Herb Stapf

547 Aconitum palmatum D.Don Herb

548 *Aconitum spicatum (Brühl) Herb Stapf

Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae




Manchhen (Sh), Tsenduk (Dz)

■nga (Sh)

Kuphora Bikhma (Li); Lungezee nyin (Lp); Bikhma, Nirmasi (Np); Bongmar, Bongser, Pomar (Sh); Bhungna (Wl)

Seto Bikhuma (Np)

549 Anemone rivularis Buch.- Herb Ranunculaceae Ham. ex DC.

550 Clematis acuminata DC. Climber Ranunculaceae Pinasay Lahara (Np)

551 Clematis buchananiana DC. Climber Ranunculaceae Tinpate Lahar, Pinasay Lahara (Np); 1800-3300

Maha Gagri (Np-Tp); Bhwaresang, Thaknangjwa (Ri); Pipipma (Sh); Khondro Langdu (Tm); Imong-Karpi (Tb)

Climber Ranunculaceae Kaneshi Lahara (Np); Lanitokaru (Sh) 300

Herb Ranunculaceae

Herb Ranunculaceae

Herb Ranunculaceae Dampatey (Np) 2300-3500

552 Clematis montana Buch-Ham. ex DC.

553 Delphinium brunonianum Royle

554 Delphinium cashmerianum Royle

555 Thalictrum chelidonii DC.

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Plant used as expectorant, febrifuge and in diabetes (Sikkim: [89]). Rhizomes: Used in malaria and other fevers, abdominal pains, diarrhoea and indigestion particularly for children (Datjeeling: [69]). Given in cough, skin disease (Sikkim: [11, 85], Database), asthma, leprosy and snakebite (Sikkim: Database). Decoction taken orally to treat abdominal disorders (Datjeeling and Sikkim: [69]; Sikkim: [85]; KL Nepal: [53]). Dried rhizome juice taken as antipyretic agent (Datjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11, 90]). Dried rhizome chewed in food poisoning, cold and cough (Sikkim: [79]). Chewed in headache, powder taken orally to cure netvousness and heart problems (Ham: [76]; KL Nepal: [53]).

Rhizomes: Used as bitter tonic and antidote for snakebite (Datjeeling: [69]); §

taken orally against food poisoning (Datjeeling: [52]). Used as anti-fertility agent, tonic, stomachic, anti-periodic and given in hysteria, piles and throat diseases (Sikkim: Database). Dried rhizomes taken to cure body ache (Sikkim: [11]; Datjeeling: [52]), fever, cold, cough and nose discharge (Sikkim: [11, 91]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Powder used to treat fever (Taplejung: [81, 88]; Sikkim: [75]), headache, stomachache (Taplejung: [81, 82, 87, 88]) and rheumatism (Sikkim: [75]).

Rhizomes: Used for cholera, rheumatism (KL Nepal: [83]), and also to treat rabies and stomachache (KL Nepal: [53]). Paste given in diarrhea (Ham: [73]). Buti (Amulet) prepared with tuber and tied on the body of a baby to keep far from bad spirit (Taplejung: [81]).

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Given to treat sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]).

Roots: Juice or powder used in headache, sinusitis (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [11, 75, 89], Database), half headache and to make fermenting agent (Taplejung: [87]). Fresh roots crushed and used to release effluvium through nose to cure sinusitis and nose blocks (Datjeeling: [52, 74, 80]).

Roots: Taken to cure sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]). Seeds/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as tonic and purgative (Sikkim: [75]).

556 Thalictrum foliolosum DC. Herb Ranunculaceae

557 Thalictrum reniforme Wall. Herb Ranunculaceae

Dampatey (Np)

558 Gouania leptostachya DC. Climber Rhamnaceae

559 Hovenia dulcis Thunberg Tree Rhamnaceae

560 Rhamnus napalensis (Wall.) Shrub Rhamnaceae M. A. Lawson

561 Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. Tree Rhamnaceae

Coral tree (Eg); Bangikath (Np)

Archa (Np)

Janum (S); Bayer (Np)



562 Zizyphus rugosa Lam. Shrub

563 Zizyphus spp. Shrub

564 Chaenomeies speciosa Shrub (Sweet) Nakai

565 Cotoneaster microphyllus Shrub Wall, ex Lindl.

566 Docynia indica (Wall.) Tree Decne.

567 Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Herb Focke

568 Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Herb Lacaita

Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Rosaceae





Sekra (S) 150-800

Khankarisey, Khanglchalingsay (Sh)

Mayel (Np); Thungchurpu (Sh); Tong 2000-3000 (Dz)

Bhui Aiselu (Li) Bhui Aiselu (Li)

569 Potentilla fructicosa L. Herb Rosaceae

570 Potentilla fulgens Wall, ex Herb Hook.


Teba, Rangsermendo (Gr-Mn); Rema, 2700-4600 Rama, Pang Ser Metog (Km); Bhairung Pate, Jhwani (Np)

Bajradanti (Np) 1600-4800

571 Prinsepia utilis Royle Shrub Rosaceae

572 Prunus cerasoides D. Don Tree Rosaceae

Phekray (Np) Payun, Aaru Patay (Np)

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as tonic and purgative (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken in fever (Datjeeling: [78]).

Roots: Used to treat jaundice (Panchthar: [67]). Paste applied to cheek boils (Sikkim: [11], Database). Decoction used as gargle in case of bad breath and kills worms in stomaching on drinking (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves: Paste applied to cure sores and inflammation (Sikkim: [11]).

Seed: Powder taken to get relief from excessive drinking of alcohol (Sikkim: [85]).

Roots: Used as purgative (Sikkim: [75]). Roots and leaves: Applied on fractured bone (Sikkim: [75]).

Roots, seeds and bark: Useful in measles and pneumonia (Panchthar [67]). Bark: Extract used in diarrhea; powder used for septic wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Eaten raw (Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots: Used as astringent (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Used to make jam and pickles (Ham: [94]). Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Paste applied on cut and wounds (Datjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Paste applied externally to control bleeding; chewed in cough and cold (Sikkim: [79]). Juice taken in cough and cold, toothache, and high altitude sickness (Datjeeling: [74]). Fruit: Ripen fruits cosumed (KL Bhutan: [70]; Ham: [94]). Leaves and fruit: Pounded and administered with lukewarm water to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery, also used as diuretic for cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

Roots: Used for breast disease, stomach and lung disorders, and indigestion; also used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Stem: Used as brooms (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and flowers: Used in making tea (Taplejung: [87]).

Plant: Juice taken to treat stomach trouble, cough, and cold. Decoction given to cattle to regulate fertility (Sikkim: [97]). Roots: Powder used to cure toothache and diarrhea (Sikkim: [75]) and pyorrhea. Juice used in throat and tooth infection, peptic ulcer, cough and cold (Ham: [73, 76]). Root stock used to treat gastric troubles (Panchthar [67]).

Seed: Oil consumed (Ham: [94]).

Bark: Crushed and applied on the injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [11, 97]). Decoction taken to treat fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Bark and stems: Applied on fractured bone and toothache (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Edible (Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [11, 95]).

573 Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex Tree Rosaceae D. Don

574 Rosa macrophylla Lindl. Shrub Rosaceae

575 Rosa sericea Lindl. Herb Rosaceae

Maya I (Np) 750-2600

Himalayan Rose (Eg); Jangali gulaf (Np) 1400-3300

Sewa (Gr-Mn); Sewa Metog (Km); 2200-4600 Sebimendo (Sh); Segue-Karpo, Seroga, Sewa (Tb); Setokpa (Wl)

576 Rubus ellipticus Sm. Shrub Rosaceae Nepali Raspberry (Eg); Tinsek (Li); 1700-2600

Kysyim (Lp); Aiselu, Aeiselu (Np); Ghees, Tudum (Ri); Chhilum, Nyaningma (Sh); Rolang (Tm); Kandakari, Gah-Trah (Tb); Chhilum (Wl)

577 Rubus lineatus Reinw. Shrub Rosaceae

578 Rubus rugosus Sm. Shrub Rosaceae

579 Anthocephalus chinensis Tree Rubiaceae (Lam.) A. Rich, ex Walp.

580 Anthogonium graciie Wall. Herb Rubiaceae ex Lindl.

Suvuk (L)

Jogi Ainselu (Np)

Kadam (S and Np)

Bhui Sunakhari (Np)

1500 290-800

581 Cinchona officinalis L. Shrub Rubiaceae

582 Galium aparine L. Herb Rubiaceae

583 Haldina cordifolia Tree Rubiaceae (Roxburgh) Ridsdale

584 Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Herb Rubiaceae Lam.

585 Hedyotis scandens Roxb. Herb Rubiaceae

586 Houstonia spp. Herb Rubiaceae

587 Meyna pubescens (Kurz) Shrub Rubiaceae Robyns

588 Mussaenda frondosa L. Shrub Rubiaceae

Sinchona (Np) Zangtsi-rokpu (Sh) Rahenley (Np); Sinjo (S)

Ririengo (Np)

Bokre Lahara (Np); Kalhya (L) Nombareng (Sh)

Dhotisara (Np)


Fruit and bark: Taken to cure menstrual disorders (Ham: [73]). Fruit: Extract taken to cure dysenteiy (Datjeeling: [80]).

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used for fever, diarrhea, and bile disorders; edible and also used for making local wine (KL Nepal: [83]).

Bark: Used in cases of poisoning and lymph fluid disorders (KL Nepal: [83]). Flower and ripe fruit: Used in liver, bile, wind and lung diseases and menstrual disorders. Ripe fruit: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]). Believed to have curative effects in headache, liver complaints, and constipation (Sikkim: [75, 79]). Leaves: Decoction used to wash wound (Sikkim: [79]). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots and bark: Useful in gastric problem and diarrhea (Datjeeling: [49, 74]; Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Juice given in fever (Sikkim: [75]). Paste applied on forehead during severe headache (Sikkim: [11]) and applied to treat wounds (Sikkim: [11]). Root used for abortion (Datjeeling: [52]). Roots and young shoots: Used for colic pain (Sikkim: [11]). Young shoots: Chewed to stop sudden stomach pain (Datjeeling: [51, 91]; Sikkim: [11]), mouth allergy and paste of tender shoots applied as antidote to snake bite (Taplejung: [87]). Tender leaves and/or young stem shoots pounded and administered to ivestock to treat cold and fever (Sikkim: [84]). Bark: Crushed and applied on injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible (Datjeeling: [80]; Ham: [94]; Sikkim: [95]). Juice used to cure fever and cough; ripe fruits used to make local wine (Taplejung: [88]) and in dysenteiy and wounds (Ham: [73]).

Roots: Taken in food poisoining (Sikkim: [75]).

Root bark: Used as anthelmintic drug (Panchthar [67]).

Fruit: Ripe pseudocarps edible (Jhapa: [68]).Consumed during stomachache (Sikkim: [79]). Seeds: Roasted and oil consumed (Ham: [94]).

Rhizomes and pseudobulbs: Paste applied externally to treat bone fracture and dislocation; pseudobulbs crushed to make paste and applied externally to cure boils (Datjeeling: [52]).

Bark: Used as remedy for malaria (Sikkim: Database). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Bark: Decoction used for antipyretic actions (Datjeeling: [78]). Young shoots: Decoction applied in eye infections (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Decoction taken orally to prevent gastric irritability and also act as an anthelmintic (Datjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [85]).

Whole plant: and roots are useful in eye diseases, sprains and boils (Sikkim: [75]). Roots: Useful in eye diseases, sprains, and boils (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Young leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Plant: Decoction given to treat fever, cough, and asthma (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Extract given in fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Roots: Juice given in jaundice (Datjeeling: [74]).

589 Mussaenda macrophylla Herb Rubiaceae Wall.

590 Mussaenda treutieri Stapf Shrub Rubiaceae

591 Paederia foetida L. Climber Rubiaceae

592 Paederia scandens (Lour.) Shrub Rubiaceae Merr.

Tungbub (L)

Tungbub (L) Barilahara (Np) Pate biree (Np)

300-1800 1400

593 Pavetta indica L.

594 Randia sp.

595 Rubia cordifoiia L.

Tree Herb


Rubiaceae Rubiaceae

White Pavetta (Eg); Kangyphul, Takali, Sundok (Np)

Nertingaey (Sh)


596 *Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Climber Fleming


Majitho (Np)


597 Rubia waiiichiana Decne. Climber Rubiaceae

598 Spermadictyon suaveoiens Shrub Rubiaceae Roxb.

599 Tamiinadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tree Rubiaceae Tiiveng. & Sastre

600 Uncaria sessiiifructus Roxb. Climber Rubiaceae

601 Uncari arhynchophyiia Climber Rubiaceae (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil.

602 Aegie marmeios (L.) Correa Tree Rutaceae

Vyem (L) Ban Champ (Np)

Pendra (S); Pidar (Np)

Sinjo (S); Bel (Np)




603 Boenninghausenia aibifiora Herb (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn.

604 Citrus medica L.



Likhijari (Np) Bimbira (Li)



Roots: Taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]). Juice taken in acidity, diabetes and fever (Ham: [76]).

Roots: Given in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves: Decoction used as medicine (Datjeeling: [78]).

Stem: Swollen part of the stem used to treat rheumatism (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Dried and paste applied around tooth to cure toothache and prevent tooth decay (Sikkim: [11]).

Roots: Juice used for purgative action (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots and fruit: Taken in dysenteiy, uterian pains, and voice complexion (Sikkim: Database). Stem: Crushed, mixed with rice wash and given to cattle in post natal problem of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Decoction of dried roots taken to treat fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Decoction used in urinary infection; paste applied on skin diseases (Datjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11]). Used as dye (Datjeeling: [72]; Sikkim: [11]). Paste applied on forehead to cure headache (Datjeeling: [52]). Paste also used as ointment to treat skin infection; decoction administered to cattle after deliver/ for quick recovery (Sikkim: [84]).

Plant: Used as dye (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: Database). Decoction used to treat snake bite, desenteiy, leprosy, skin diseases (Datjeeling: [74]; Ham: [73, 76]), diabetes, and arthritis (Ham: [73, 76]). Roots: Used as alterative, astringent, and tonic. Used to obtain dye (KL Nepal: [83]). Used as tonic, alternative, astringent (Sikkim: Database). Stem: Used in scorpion bite (Sikkim: Database). Roots and fruit: Given to treat menstrual disorders (Datjeeling: [49]; Sikkim: [75]).

Young shoots: Taken in jaundice and paralysis (Sikkim: [75]).

Roots: Paste applied externally to relieve from joint pain (Sikkim: [11]).

Bark: Decoction taken orally to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Unripe fruits eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

Root: Used to treat bone fracture and crack (Panchthar: [67]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used in constipation, diarrhea and dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar [67]; Datjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [79, 91]). Pulp edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Jhapa: [92]). Seeds: Extract taken orally in ulcer (KL Nepal: [53]).

Leaves: Extract applied on the body of cattle to kill lice and flea (Sikkim: [75, 97]).

Fruit: Eaten raw in indigestion, vomiting, jaundice and typhoid. Dried skin powder administered in dysenteiy (Sikkim: [79]).

605 Citrus reticulata Blanco Tree

606 Ciausena excavata Burm. f. Shrub

607 Euodia fraxinifolia (D.Don) Tree Hook. f.

Evodia fraxinifolia Hook. f.

Rutaceae Rutaceae Rutaceae


Suntala (Li)

Khanakpa (Np) Khanakpa, Kanu (Np)





609 Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Tree Rutaceae

610 Tetradium fraxinifolium Tree Rutaceae (Hooker) T. G. Hartley

611 Zanthoxylum Shrub Rutaceae acanthopodium DC.

Khanakpa (Np); Kanu (L) 700-3000

Boke timur (Np); Gee (Sh), Thingne (Dz) 1600-2800

612 'Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Shrub


Timur (Np)

613 Zanthoxylum budrunga Shrub Rutaceae Wall.

614 Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Shrub Rutaceae Edgew.

Nepalese Pepper (Eg): Ban Timur, Lekh 2100-2800 Timur (Np)

615 Salix babylonica I. Tree Salicaceae

616 Salix calyculata Hook. f. ex Shrub Salicaceae Andersson

617 Osyris wightiana Wall. Ex Shrub Santalaceae Wight

618 Pyrularia edulis (Wall.) A. DC. Tree Santalaceae

619 Cardiospermum Climber Sapindaceae halicacabum L.

Bains (Np)

Leng Junye, Langma Parma (Km); Lansip (Sh); Langma Chhung (Tb); Langma (Wl)

Nundhiki (Np)

Amphi (Np) Fuka fucha (S)

620 *Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Tree


Ritha (Np)

Fruit: Skin dried and paste applied on the face to soften (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used to remove flies from wounds, sores, and cuts (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Juice given in dysentery and menstrual disorder (Ham: [73]).

Roots: Powder taken to treat dysentery (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [85]). Bark: Decoction given in fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Fruit: Used as antipyretic and in treatment of typhoid; eaten as vegetable (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Seeds: Used to make chutney and taken with food to improve appetite (Datjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]).

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Whole plant: Taken as antipyretic and diuretic (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Taken as antipyretic and diuretic (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves and seeds: Used to cure toothache and worms (Datjeeling: [91]; Ham: [73]). Branchlets: Used as toothbrush to relieve toothache (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Taken in indigestion (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [74, 75, 79]), used to treat ear diseases, headache, and asthma (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Crushed and rubbed on the leg and foot as antileech repellent agent (Datjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [1 l]).Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruit, roots and leaves: Decoction used to treat toothache, fever, cough, rheumatism, and asthma (Datjeeling: [78]; KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]; Ham: [73, 76, 77]). Fruit: Used as spice (KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar [67]; Ham: [73]).

Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruits: Pickled and eaten; paste of immature fruit kept between teeth to relieve from toothache (KL Nepal: [83]). Flowers and fruit: Extract given to treat pain, tumor, fever, cholera and snake bite (Ham: [76]).

Leaves and stem bark: Infusion taken in fever (Datjeeling: [78]).

Plant: Used in death ritual. Leaves and flowers: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81, 88]).

Root bark: Used to treat body pain and fractured bone (Panchthar: [67]).

Fruit: Edible; kernel possess wax which is used for lighting (Sikkim: [89]).

Plant: Powder mixed with mustard or coconut oil applied to cure sores and wounds (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit: Juice used to cure burnt part of the body; also used for epilepsy (Sikkim: Database). Extract applied on head to remove dandruff and lice (Datjeeling and Sikkim: [69]; Sikkim: [11]). Used to extract oil (Ham: [94]). Fruit and root bark: Used as tonic, anthelmintic, purgative, in asthma and piles (Datjeeling and Sikkim: [69]).

621 Schieichera oleosa (Lour.) Tree Sapindaceae Baru (S); Kusum (Np) Oken

622 Aesandra butyracea (Roxb.) Tree Sapotaceae Chiuri (Np) Baehni


623 Diploknem abutyracea Tree Sapotaceae Yika (Dz), Pinsa (Sh) (Roxb.) HJ.Lam

624 Madhuca longifolia (Roxb.) Tree Sapotaceae Mahuwa (Np) Macbride

625 Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Herb Saururaceae Gaytso (Bhu)


626 Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham. Herb Saxifragaceae

ex D. Don

Tangphung, Tangphung Supari, Toksong Supari (Li); Bansupari, Buriokahti, Budo Okhati, Thulo Ausadi (Np); Thappasid (Ri); Tongsergugay (Sh),

627 *Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.

Herb Saxifragaceae Rockfoil (Eg); Rakhanved (Np); Sallipat, 900-3600

Saipari, Simtadi (Np-DI); Sediwakthosida (Ri); Rashanaveda (Sn); Hyoma, Kopsokpa, Silviro (Sh); Bhramhendo (Tm)

628 Bergenia purpurascens Herb

(Hook. f. & Thomson) Engl.


Rakhanved (Np); Chhurcha, Kopsyokpa 3800-4700 (Sh); Gadur, Ligadur (Tb)

629 Chrysosplenium carnosum Herb Saxifragaceae Hook. f. & Thomson

630 *Neopicrorhiza Herb Saxifragaceae scrophulariiflora (Rennell)

Churtsa, Simjhar (Sh); Ya Ki Ma, Ser Ya 3800-5500 Ki Ma (Tb)

Gorki, Gurki (Gr-Mn); Katuki, Kutki (Np); 3500-4800 Katuko (Np-DI); Katukaa (Sn); Högling, Hunglen (Sh, Wl)

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Bark and seeds: Paste applied on fractured bone and in piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Fruits: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Edible ([94]; Sikkim: [11, 47, 89, 95]; KL Bhutan: [70]). Used in rheumatism (Sikkim: Database; [47]). Juice taken to soften the skin (Sikkim: [11]). Oil extract applied on body during winter (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Used to treat bone crack (Panchthar: [67]).

Shoots: Used as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]). Leaves: Decoction given to treat tuberculosis (Datjeeling: [74]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken as tonic for post nata women (Sikkim: [75]). Chewed to relief from pain (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Paste applied to treat wound and juice used in fever, dysenteiy, back pain, waist pain, and throat pain (Taplejung: [82, 87, 88]) body ache, bleeding at pre and post pregnancy (Datjeeling: [52, 74]; Ham: [73, 76, 77]; Sikkim: [69]). Powder taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [69]). Roots and leaves: Taken in diarrhea, dysenteiy, and as blood purifier (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Chewed raw in toothache (Sikkim: [49, 79]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as analgesic and in piles, heart diseases (Datjeeling: [80, 89]), and spleen enlargment (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [69]).Juice taken as tonic (Sikkim: [75]) and used to treat wound, boils, diarrhea (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [11, 75], Database; Panchthar [67]) sinusitis, body pain, cough and cold, eye infection, dysenteiy, abdominal pain, fever, and to check bleeding during menstruation (Taplejung: [87, 88]; Panchthar [67]). Crushed and tied around the factured bone (Datjeeling: [80]), also used with root of Bergenia ciliata, Kaempferia rotunta, and Viscum articulatum for the same (Sikkim: [79]). Paste given to treat dysenteiy (Sikkim: [74, 91]); also applied on burns and cuts; dried rhizome used as astringent, given in ulcers and tuberculosis (Sikkim: [69]). Crushed and extract given to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysenteiy (Datjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [84]).

Roots: Paste used in wound, bodyache (Taplejung: [82, 87]; Datjeeling: [80, 89]) and bone fracture (Taplejung: [82]). Decoction used in fever, diarrhea (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [75]), knee ache, and loss of eye sight (Taplejung: [87]). Dried roots used as substitute of tea by high altitude dwellers to get relief from bodyache (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves and stem: Used in common fever and typhoid fever (Taplejung: [82]).

Rhizomes: Used for bile disease, eye diseases, and gastritis (KL Nepal: [83]). Decoction used to treat cold and cough, throat pain, fever, bodyache, and high blood pressure (Datjeeling: [49]; Taplejung: [81, 87, 88]). Taken in cold, fever and snake bite (Datjeeling: [52]). Used as bitter tonic, laxative, stomachic, effective in dropsy and scropion stings (Sikkim: [69]). Effective in diseases of liver and spleen including jaundice and anaemia (Sikkim: [69]).

631 Saxifraga mucronulata Herb Royle

632 Schisandra negiecta A. C. Climber Sm.

633 Digitalis purpurea L. Herb

634 Lancea tibetica Hook. f. & Herb Thomson

635 Scoparia duicis L. Herb



Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae

Sighatta Lahara (Np) Fox glove (Np)

Scrophulariaceae Chineebimfang (Me)


636 Smiiax zeyianica L.

637 Anisodus iuridus Link ex Herb Spreng.

638 Datura mete! L. Herb

Climber Smilacaceae Solanaceae


Kukur Dainey (Np) Langthang, Longtankobu (Wl) Dhaturo, Dhontrey (Np)




639 Datura stramonium L.


Gofatdothrabithai (Me)


640 Hyoscyamus sp. Shrub Solanaceae

641 Mandragora officinarum L. Herb Solanaceae

642 Physaiis minima L., Herb Solanaceae

643 Solanum aculeatissimum Herb Solanaceae Jacq.

Jangali phokphokey (Np)

Goglang (Me); Hinje, Bhingakheta (S) 1600

644 Solanum myriacanthum Herb Solanaceae Düna

645 Solanum nigrum L. Herb Solanaceae

Sano bini (Np)


646 Solanum sp.


Khalanji (Sh.)

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Used as tonic and given in insomnia (Sikkim: [75]).

Leaves: Used as heart tonic and cardiac stimulant (Sikkim: Database). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Decoction used in eye troubles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Extract drunk and also applied externally on the body as a remedy for the babies weeping all days (Jhapa: [68]). Young leaves taken in diabetes (Sikkim: [75]). Roots: Decoction taken orally in diarrhea and dysenteiy (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Used in Urinary complaints and dysenteiy. Roots: Taken as tonic (Sikkim: Database).

Seeds: Used to treat toothache (Taplejung: [81]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Seeds: Powder used in skin diseases in cattle (Sikkim: [97]; Ham: [73, 76]), dandruff, leprosy, ulcer, and fever (Ham: [73, 76]). Burned and smoke inhaled in chronic asthmatic fits (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Crushed leaf applied on insect bite of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Burnt and smoke inhaled to treat asthma (Sikkim: [11]). Warmed leaves placed on joint to reduce the pain and swelling (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Smoked for toothache; powdered and mixed with warm mustard oil to treat earache (Jhapa: [66]). Taken in mad dog bites (Sikkim: [79]).

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used to treat scabies (Jhapa: [68]). Used as narcotic and also to treat dandruff and hairfall (Panchthar: [67]).Given orally against rabies, neivousness, nausea and hysteria (Darjeeling: [52]).

Fruit/Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Fruit: Used as tonic, diuretic, laxative, and useful in inflammations (Sikkim: Database).

Roots and fruit: Extraction taken in cold and bronchitis. Fruit: Smoked for relieving toothache (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Boiled and vapour taken through mouth to kill germs of teeth (Jhapa: [68]).

Seeds: Smoke directed to the infected tooth to cure toothache and tooth decay (Sikkim: [11]).

Aerial parts: Used as sedative (Darjeeling: [74]). Roots, leaves and fruit: Used in the treatment of leucoderma, dysenteiy, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, fever, and urinary discharge (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Edible (Ham: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

647 Solanum surattense Burm. f. Shrub Solanaceae

Solanum torvum Sw. Shrub Solanaceae

649 Ivlelochia corchorifolia L. Herb Sterculiaceae

650 Pterospermum acerifolium Tree Sterculiaceae (L.) Willd.

651 Punica granatum L. Tree Sterculiaceae

652 Sympiocos lucida Tree Symplocaceae (Thunberg) Siebold &


653 Sympiocos paniculata Shrub Symplocaceae (Thunb.) Miq.

654 Sympiocos sp. Shrub Symplocaceae

655 Myricaria rosea W. W. Smith Shrub Tamaricaceae

656 Schima waiiichii (DC.) Korth. Tree Theaceae

Kalchudo (Np); rangani kate (S) Henje (S); Thulo bini (Np) 250-750

Thuik (S)

Hattipaila, Numbong (Np) Darim (Np) Kharane (Np)

Pangtsi (Dz)

Angmeo (Gr); Thrishing (Km); Chhusin- 3300-4500 Ghumbu, Hunbu (Sh, Wi); Hunbu Chungwa (Tb).

Chilone (Np); Sakriphal (S) 900-2100

657 Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. Tree

658 Daphne bholua Buch- Shrub

Ham.ex D.Don

659 Daphne papyracea Wall, ex Shrub Steud

Thymelaeaceae Aagurushing (Dz/Sh/T)

Thymelaeaceae Tunguma (Li); Baruwa, Kagaj Pate,

Lokta, Seto Baruwa, Seto Lokta, Sikre (Np); Sugumendo, Da Mendok (Sh); Da Mendok (Wi).

Thymelaeaceae Tunguma (Li); Aule Lokti, Dangma,

Jhapre Lokta, Kagatey, Kalo Baruwa (Np); Khultum (Ri)

Daphne sp.

661 Edgeworthia gardneri (Wall.) Shrub Meisn.

662 Trapa bispinosa Roxb. Herb

663 Trema orientalis (L). Blume Tree

Thymelaeaceae Thymelaeaceae

Trapaceae Ulmaceae

Nepalese paper bush (Eg); Argeli, Argaily (Np)

Paniphalz (S); Paniphal singara (Np). Sitaundu (S); Khari (Np)


200-600 1000-1200

Roots: Grounded with Alternanthera sessilis and given in urinary troubles (Jhapa: [66]).

Fruit: Used as vegetables and pickle (Jhapa: [92]). Fried and eaten to cure cold and cough (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Smooked to treat toothache (Datjeeling: [74]).

Young leaves: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [66]).

Flowers: Juice taken to treat peptic ulcer (Sikkim: [85]).

Unripe fruit: Useful in vomiting, fever, heart diseases, sore throat, diarrhea and dysenteiy (Sikkim: Database). Fruit/seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Seeds: Powder applied against spider sting (Sikkim: [75]). In the past people used to extract oil for cooking from the seed (Sikkim: [89]).

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]), Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Seeds: Used §

to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). 2

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]). PI-

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Leaves and flowers: Used ^

for incense (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Stem: Used to treat cough and cold g

(Taplejung: [87, 88]). &

Bark: Crushed with common salt and used as vermicide in cattle (Sikkim: [97]). jo

Rubbed on caterpillar infected portion to remove hair (Sikkim: [11]). Pounded 5

and given to cure fever and stomach pain, and also applied in bone fracture and sprain (Jhapa: [66]). Bark paste with the bark of Bridelia retusa applied externally on deep cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

Stem: Heartwood used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots and bark: Used to treat intestinal worms; decoction used in fever (Taplejung: [87]). Bark: Used in the manufacture of handmade paper (KL Nepal: [83]; KL Bhutan: [93]).

Roots: Used for intestinal troubles (Sikkim: Database). Decoction given in food poisoning (Sikkim: [79]; Datjeeling: [91]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as a substitute of Aconitum sp. (Sikkim: [79]). Bark: Decoction given to treat fever (Sikkim: Database). Juice used to treat intestinal worms and used as anti-leech agent; powder cause nasal irritation (Taplejung: [87]). Used to make handmade paper (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Given to baby goat during diarrhea and fever; stalks used to make locally used mats (Sikkim: [11]).

Inner wood: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Bark: Used to make paper (KL Bhutan: [93], KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [72]; Database). Bark: Used as fish poison (Sikkim: Database).

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). ¡?

664 Dendrocnide sinuata Shrub (Blume) Chew

665 Eiatostema lineolatum Shrub Wight

666 Eiatostema platyphyiium Shrub Wedd.

667 Girardinia diversifoiia (Link) Herb Friis





Morange (Np) Damroo (Bhu) Gagleto (Li)




Himalayan Nettle (Eg); Mayu Sagi (Li); 1700-3000 Kuju (Lp); Alio (Np); Ptale (Ri)

668 Girardinia paimata (Forssk.) Shrub Urticaceae Gaudich.

669 Girardinia sp. Herb Urticaceae

670 Laportea terminaiis Wight Herb Urticaceae

671 IJrtica dioica L. Herb Urticaceae

Zochha (Dz); Gomjazu (Sh); Sissnu (Np)

Sishnu (Np); Sorong (L)

Stinging Nettle (Eg); Polo (Gr, Tm); Sagi 1000-4000 (Li); Sisnu (Np); Sajilim, Sokhima (Ri); Sadukpa (Wl)


672 *Nardostachys grandiflora Herb DC.

Valerianaceae Spikenard (Eng); Pagbon, Pangbo,

Pangbwang (Li); Pangpay (Dz/Sh); Bhulte, Bhutle, Jatamasi (Np); Bhultya (Np-DI); Ngorochi (Ri); Jatamansi (Sn); Pangboe (Wl)


673 Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Herb Valerianaceae

Nakkali Jatamansi (Np)


674 'Valeriana jatamansii Jones Herb Valerianaceae

Indian Valerian (Eg); Nappu (Gr-Mn); 1200-3600 Samayo, Sugandhawal (Np); Bhutakesi (Sn); Jaboe (Wl)

675 Callicarpa arbórea Roxb. Tree Verbenaceae

Guahelo (Np)


676 Callicarpa macrophylla Vah Shrub Verbenaceae

Guenlo, Sumali (Np); Tichangsa (Che); 300-1500 Dahidhula (Dar); Dahigun (Tha)

677 Gmelina arbórea Roxb. Tree Verbenaceae

Khamari (Np); Kasnar (S)


Roots: Powder taken to stop vomitting and diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]).

Young shoots: Used as vegetable (KL Bhutan: [70, 102]).

Shoots: Young shoots consumed as vegetable in gastritis (Sikkim: [79]). Stems and Leaves: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots: Juice taken in constipation (Ham: [73, 76]). Young shoots: Eaten as green vegetable (Ham: [94]; Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as substitute for dal which is good for diabetes (Datjeeling: [80]). Leaves: Paste given in headache and joint pain (Ham: [76]). Flowers: Taken to treat blood pressure (Sikkim: [75]).

Inflorescence: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Bark: Used to make ropes (KL Bhutan: [100]).

Leaves and flowers: Used in blood pressure complaints (Sikkim: [75]).

Plant: Juice used to treat jaundice, toothache, and hematuria (Ham: [73, 76]). Roots: Paste applied as antidote to dog bite and on minor fractures. Young shoots: Taken as vegetables (Datjeeling: [80]; Taplejung: [88]; Sikkim: [11], Database). Young shoots and inflorescences cooked and given in hypertension (Datjeeling: [52]). Leaves: Cooked and taken to maintain blood pressure (Datjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]).

Whole plant and roots: Useful in skin diseases, leprosy, ulcers, and cough. Roots: Used for incense and also in wounds, cough, cold, chronic fever, high blood pressure, and stomach diseases (Sikkim: [49]; Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [83]). Infusion taken to treat stomachache and as laxative (Sikkim: [75, 85]). Decoction used in fever (Datjeeling: [49, 78]). Juice or decoction taken in dysentety and constipation (Ham: [76]). Used as tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic and antiflatulent (Sikkim: [69]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Roots: Given in hysteria, epilepsy, and neurosis (Sikkim: [75]). Used as carminative and stimulant (Sikkim: Database). Extract taken to cure urine trouble (Sikkim: [11]).

Rhizome: Used in fever, cold (Taplejung: [82]), headache, eye compliants, sore throat, wounds, and indigestion (KL Nepal: [83]). Dried rhizome also used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Juice given in hysteria, epilepsy, cholera, cough, asthma, weakness and hairfall (Ham: [76]).

Bark: Juice given to treat fever (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Chewed in cases of boils on the gums (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Juice administered to cure fever (Sikkim: [79]).

Roots: Used to treat pneumonia (Panchthar: [67]). Decoction drunk to cure bronchitis (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Used in rheumatism and gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database).

Bark: Pounded and taken as antidote for all kinds of poison; also used in dysentety (Jhapa: [66]).

678 Lantana camara L.


679 Premna serratifolia L. Shrub Verbenaceae

680 Vitex negundo L. Shrub Verbenaceae

Gineri (Np)

Simali (Np); Sindware (S)

681 Viola biflora L. Herb Violaceae Ghattey Ghans (Np)

682 Viola diffusa Ging. ex DC. Herb Violaceae Ghattey Ghans (Np)

683 Viola serpens Wall. Herb Violaceae Ghattejhar (Np)

684 Ampeiocissus barbota (Wall.) Climber Vitaceae Jarila lahara (Li) Planch.

685 Ampeiocissus iatifoiia Climber Vitaceae Icewar (S) (Roxb.) Planch.

686 Ampeiocissus sikkimensis (M. Climber Vitaceae A. Lawson) Planch.

687 Alpinia allughas (Retz.) Herb Zingiberaceae Churampha (Np) Roscoe

688 Amomum subulatum Roxb. Herb Zingiberaceae Bada alaichi (Li)

689 Caulokaempferla sikkimensis Herb Zingiberaceae (King ex Baker) K. Larsen

690 Costus spedosus (Koenig) Herb Zingiberaceae Sm.

Bhuin Champa (Li) Bet Lauri (Np); Urat (S)


691 Curcuma angustlfolla Roxb. Herb Zingiberaceae

692 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Herb Zingiberaceae

Bakhre Saro (Np); Nauhaine- haldai 100-1500 (Me)

Wild turmeric (Eg); Bandhale, 700-1100

Banhaledo, Kalohaledo (Np); Vanharida

Leaves: Juice applied in cut to heal; crushed and tied over the sprain to relieve pain (Sikkim: [11, 79]).

Roots: Decoction taken as laxative and carminative (Sikkim: [85]).

Plant: Juice used to treat fever, ulcer, asthma, and cough (Ham: [73]). Leaves: Used to treat sinusitis and rheumatism (Panchthar: [67]); also used as repellent for insects and bedbugs (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Juice bath taken to treat body swelling, common cold and influenza (Datjeeling: [74]).

Roots and flowers: Used as emetic and antiseptic (Sikkim: [75]).

Flowers: Taken to get relief from chest pain (Sikkim: [75])

Roots: Juice taken in fever (Datjeeling: [78]).

Plant: Juice given to treat sores in mouth and tongue of milk sucking baby (Sikkim: [79]).

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

Plant: Juice used to cure sores in the mouth of an infant and treats foot and mouth disease in cattle (Sikkim: [11]).

Rhizomes: Extract taken in diabetes and as laxative (KL Nepal: [53])

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used in indigestion and vomiting (Ham: [76]).Decoction used to gargle to treat teeth and gum infection (Sikkim: [79, 91]). Oil applied on eye-lids to allay inflammation of the eye in cattle; paste applied externally as antidote for scorpion-sting and insect bites (Sikkim: [84]).

Bulb: Poultice from crushed bulbs applied to heal fractured bone and wound (Sikkim: [11]).

Roots: Useful in fever, bronchitis, anemia, rheumatism and diabetic (Datjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [69]) and diabetic (Datjeeling: [51, 78]; Sikkim: [96]).Used as antiinflamatoiy, stimulant and anthelmintic and also given in urinary stones (Sikkim: [69]). Juice taken before breakfast to cure urinary tract infection; juice mixed with sugar and used to treat veneral disease (Sikkim: [11]). Juice mixed with milk and sugar cubes and drunk to cure sensation of internal heat and stomach inflammation (Jhapa: [66]). Roots of this plant grounded with leaves of Swertia chirayita and taken in fever and urinary complaints (Jhapa: [66]). Root mixed with leaves of Drymeria cordata androot paste of Bombax ceiba and combinely crushed and administered orally to treat urinary disorders (Sikkim: [79]). Rhizome powder given to cattle to treat fever and inflammation (Sikkim: [84]). Stem: Extract given in diabetes and cholera (KL Nepal: [53]).

Rhizomes: Powder used as antiseptic in cuts, wounds and to check bleeding (Jhapa: [68]).

Rhizomes: Used in cough and bronchitis (Taplejung: [82]). Also used as appetizer, tonic, carminative and applied to bruises and sprains; powder used as anthelmintic; oil useful in the treatment of early stage of cetvix cancer (Sikkim: [69]).

693 Curcuma caesia Roxb. Herb Zingiberaceae

Kalo haledo (Np)

694 Curcuma longa L. Herb Zingiberaceae

695 Curcuma zeodaria Rose. Herb Zingiberaceae

Hardi (Np); Juung (Sh); Yongka (Dz)

Kalo Hardi (Np); Zalmathangru- tsalu (Sh)

696 Eiettaria cardamomum (L.) Herb Zingiberaceae Maton

697 Hedychium spicatum Sm. Herb Zingiberaceae

Pankha Phool, Sara (Np)

698 Kaempferi agaianga L. Herb Zingiberaceae Borangsaga (Sh)

699 Kaempferia rotunda L. Herb Zingiberaceae Vuinchampa (Np)

700 Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Herb Zingiberaceae

Bañada (Np)

701 Zingiber officinale Rose. Herb


Aduwa (Np)

100-1 £

1 Lycoperdon pyriforme Herb Schaeff. (Fungi)

2 *Ophiocordyceps sinensis Herb (Berk.) Sung et al.


Ophiocordycipitaceae Yarcha gombuk (Np); Yaartsa-gunbu (Dz)


1 Usnea iogissima Ach. Herb Usneaceae

2 Usnea sikkimensis Biswas Herb Usneaceae

Lichen, Old-man's beard (Eg); Jhyau 2500-3900 (Np)

Rhizomes: Powder taken to treat leueoderma, piles, bronchitis, and asthma (Ham: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [69]). Fresh rhizomes eaten raw to expel gas (Sikkim: [11]). Used as stomachic, diuretic, aromatic, stimulant, carminative and to cure sprains and bruishes (Sikkim: [69]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Paste prepared from powder and applied on the fractured bones (Datjeeling: [52]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Eatern raw to cure diarrhea, colic and indigestion; paste applied to treat skin diseases (Sikkim: [11]). Decoction taken to get rid from fever (Datjeeling: [78]). Cut into small pieces and administered orally to treat stomach pain, loss of appetite and also used as antidote to food poisonong (Datjeeling: [52]).

Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken to treat diarrhea, vomiting, and asthma (Sikkim: [69, 75]).Used in liver disorders and stomach ailments (Sikkim: [69]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Juice used in gastric problems, tumors, ulcers, wounds (Ham: [73, 76]) and swelling, and wounds (Ham: [76]). Tubers: Used as bone settlers (Sikkim: [69], Database) and as poultice in fracture, healing fresh wounds, and removes coagulated bloods from the body (Datjeeling: [80]). Paste prepared along with the roots of Laportea terminalis and aerial portion of Viscum albumand applied on bone fracture and dislocated joints (Datjeeling: [52]). Root decoction used analgesic and sedative (Datjeeling: [74]).

Leaves and inflorescence: Given in cough and fever, dyspepsia. Inflorescence heated in fire and sniff against sinusitis (Datjeeling: [69]). Rhizomes: Soup taken during stomachache (KL Nepal: [53]).

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as laxative, aphrodisiac, carminative, also useful in heart diseases, throat, and asthma (Sikkim: Database). Used as spice; juice and powder used to cure joint pain, headache, cough, and cold (Ham: [73, 76]).Roasted rhizome chewed with salt during severe dty cough (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Rejuvenates liver, heart and cheeks ageing process and built up immune system (Sikkim: Database). Species has high commercial value (Bhutan: [99]; Sikkim: [98]). Known to treat health complaints like aging, cancer, diabetes, fatigue, heart diseases, lungs and liver ailments (Sikkim: [96]). Taken as aphrodiasic (KL Nepal: [53]).

Thallus: Useful in wounds, lung, liver, and fever from poisoning; also useful as incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

Thallus: Used to bandage surface of wound and skin eruptions; inserted into the nose to stop bleeding (Sikkim: [11]).

1 Ulva spp.


1 Adiantum capiiius-veneris L.

2 Dipiazium asperum Blume

3 Dipiazium escuientum (Retzius) Swart

4 Dipiazium laxifrons Rosenstock

5 Dipiazium maximum (D. Don) C. Christensen

6 Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott

7 Equisetum diffusum D. Don

Herb (Algae) Ulvaceae

Herb Herb Herb

Equisetum ramosissimum Herb subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke

Adintaceae Athyriaceae Athyriaceae






Kane Uniu (Np)

Ghinki arak (S); Niguro (Np) Nakey (Bhu) Nakey (Bhu)

Ankhle (Np)

Kurkure Jhar (Np); Haalgoda (Me)

900-IE 900-IE

Lycopodium ciavatum L.


Naagbeli (Np); Dermusungfon (L)


10 Nephrolepis cordifoiia (L.) C. Herb Pres

11 Lepisorus thunbergianus Herb (Kaulf.) Ching

12 Drynaria quercifoiia (L.) J. Herb Smith

Nephrolepidaceae Raniamala (Np)



13 Aieuritopteris ieptoiepis Herb

(Fraser-Jen k.) Fraser-Jen k.

14 Pteris biaurita L.

Rteridaceae Rteridaceae

Rani sinka (Np) Thado unew (Np)

15 Pteris terminaiis Wallich ex Herb Rteridaceae Nimin Daway (Bhu) J. Agardh

16 Lygodium fiexuosum (L.) Sw. Herb Schizaceae Bahun Lahara (Np)

Whole plant: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaflets: Decoction taken as antipyretic (Datjeeling: [78]). Roots: Used to cure dysenteiy (Sikkim: [11]).

Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]; Datjeeling: [78]; Bhutan: [102]).

Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]). Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]). Stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Plant: Paste applied on bone fracture, sprains, and in urinary troubles (Ham: [73]).

Plant: Paste mixed with Drymaria cordata and applied in bone factures (Jhapa: [68]). Aerial parts: Used as clotting agent for wound, nose bleeding, and bleeding of urinary tract (Sikkim: [11]; Database). Paste applied to cure mouth sores (Datjeeling: [74]).

Plant: Administered orally for treatment of muscle contraction in cattle (Sikkim: [84]). Plant and spores: Taken in rheumatism, pulmonary disorders, and chronic kidney. Roots and leaves: Used in treating rheumatism (Sikkim: [75], Database). Spores: Given withpaste of strobilus to cure lung and kidney problems and urinary disorders (Ham: [73, 76, 77]). Also used to treat scabies and ringworms (Panchthar: [67]). Applied directly on the wound (Sikkim: [79]). Cosumed to treat bleeding after childbirth (Datjeeling: [74]).

Tubers: Juice taken to treat indigestion, fever, cold, and cough (Ham: [73, 76]). Fruit: Edible (Ham: [73, 76]).

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Rhizomes: Juice with sugar drunk to cure stomach inflammation and sensation of internal heat of cattle; grounded with Oxalis corniculata and applied on bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]).

Plant: Juice used in ulcer and stomachache (Ham: [73]).

Stem: Mashed and applied on cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and infection (Sikkim: [11], Database). Frond: Juice consumed to treat dysenteiy (Datjeeling: [74]).

Young fronds: Cooked as vegetable (KL Bhutan: [102]).

Fronds: Young fronds soaked in mustard oil and applied externally on affected areas to treat rheumatism and sprains (Datjeeling: [74]).

17 Sphagnum squarrosum Crome

18 Tectaria coadunata (J.Sm.) Herb C.Chr.


1 Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Shrub Stapf

2 Cupressus spp. Tree

3 Juniperus communis L. Tree

4 Juniperus indica Bertol. Tree

5 Juniperus recurva Buch.- Shrub Ham. ex D.Don

6 Juniperus spp. Shrub

7 Abies densa Griff. ex Parker Tree

8 Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Tree Mirb.

9 Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Tree Don) G. Don

10 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Tree

*Taxus wallichiana Zucc. Tree

Sphagnaceae Tectariaceae


Cupressaceae Cupressaceae



Cupressaceae Pinaceae





Kalo Oonew (Np) 500-2500

Hathijor, Somlata (Np); Kagchalo, 2000-5200

Kagcharo, Sallejar (Np-DI); Chhe (Sh), Sankhapa (Sh); Chhewong (Sh, WI), Tshe (Dz)

Tsendenshing (Sh); Tsendey (Dz) Sukpa (Np)

Black Juniper (Eg); Dhup (Np) 3700-4500

Drooping juniper (Eg); Dhupi (Np); 3300-4600 Shup (Dz); Shukpashing (Sh)

Gobre salla (Np); Dungshi (Dz)

Himalayan Silver Fir (Eg); Gobre Salla, Thingre Salla (Np); Thingro (Np-Dl); Talispatra (Sn); Som Chirugpa (Wl)

Deodara (Np)

Rani Salla (Np); Aang (Li)




Eastern Himalayan Yew (Eg); Silingi (Gr- 2100-3500 Mn); Dhengre (Li); Lauthsalla (Np); Kandeloti, Lota (Np-Dl)

Plant: Used as fuel; hunters and graziers use whole moss for dressing wound (Sikkim: [11]).

Plant: Boiled and taken as soup for a week to treat dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).

Plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Raises blood pressure and used to relieve high fever (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database) and asthma (Sikkim: Database). Juice used for liver fever, bleeding, and cuts (KL Nepal: [83]. Fruit: Used as digestive (KL Nepal: [83]). Ripe fruits taken to get relief from altitude sickness and indigestion (Sikkim: [79]). Stem: Powder inhaled to treat headache (Sikkim: [79]).

Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Fruits: Dried and chewed as a nut or decoction taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

Leaves and fruits: Used in kidney disorders, skin and lymph disease, fever, cough, and cold, sores, wounds and paralysis of limbs (KL Nepal: [83]). Fruit: Powder put on the glowing red fire coaland the scent smelt to relief from headache and reduce blood pressure. Dried fruit powder mixed with tea or milk to treat cough, cold in high altitude (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

Aerial parts: Used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Juice taken orally to relieve from stomach pain and fever (Sikkim: [11]). Extract used in asthma, bronchitis, and stomach trouble (Sikkim: [79, 80, 89]). Extract given to cattle to treat fever and loss of appetite (Sikkim: [84]).

Leaves: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81, 88]). Leaves and gum: Used as tonic and also usefulin tuberculosis and internalhemorrhage (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Boiled to obtain black ink (Taplejung: [87]).

Oilapplied externally to treat ringworm (Sikkim: [97]).

Leaves: Extract used in hydrocele and also during bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]). Resin: Used as medicine in rheumatism (KL Bhutan: [71, 93]).

Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken as herbaltea, especially to treat piles (Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [104]) and in muscular pain and fever. Leaves: Extract used to cure asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory diseases (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Antispsmodic, used in nervousness, hysteria and epilepsy (Darjeeling: [69]; Sikkim: [106]). Young shoots used in headache, giddiness, diarrhoea and liver disorders (Darjeeling: [69]; KL Nepal: [104]). Fruits: Eaten raw (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]).

Q 3 O.

^Sikkim: Datadase = Medicinal Plant Database of Government of Sikkim: *National priority herbs of Government of Nepal

Abbreviations: Bh Bhotia, Bhu Bhutanese, Dz Dzongkha, Eg English, Gr Gurung, Gr-Mn Gurung of Manang, Km Kham, Li Limbu, Lp Lepcha, M Meche, Np Nepali, Np-D/Nepali in Dolpo, Np-Tp Nepali in Taplejung, Nw Newari, Ri Rai, S Satar, Sh Sherpa, Sh Sharchop-kha, Sn Sanskrit, Tb Tibetan, Tha Tharu, W/ Walung

additional ailment categories. Chi-square (x2) was used to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in use of NTFPs under various use categories among the three countries in the Kangchenjunga Landscape.

Results and discussion

Pattern of publications

Majority of publications on NTFP were from India (60 %), while 34 % were from Nepal and 6 % from Bhutan. This is quite obvious as Darjeeling and the state of Sikkim in India make up a large part of the KL (56.3 %). The presence of two state level universities and research institutes has made significant contribution to the research in KL India [29]. Except for Bhutan, the species reported in this study were mostly documented through ethnobotanical studies conducted in different parts of the landscape. A few studies were focused on particular ethnic communities whereas most of the studies were on general ethnobotany of the region with mixed ethnic composition. Publication on NTFPs date back to 1988 in India while in Nepal and Bhutan it was started after 1996 (Fig. 2). However, majority of the publications (86 %) were published after 2000. All publications are qualitative in nature.

Frequency of NTFPs use

We reported on a total of 739 species of NTFPs used by the local people of Kangchenjunga Landscape. Of these, the highest number of NTFPs was documented from India (377 species), followed by Nepal (363) and Bhutan (245). These numbers, however, overlap in terms of distribution. The NTFPs used only in India were 185 species, while this number was 189 for Nepal and 166 for Bhutan.

Taxonomic diversity and growth habit

Angiosperms were predominant with 705 taxa belonging to 137 families followed by Gymnosperms (10), Pteridophytes (17), Fungi (3), Lichens (2), Bryophyte (1) and Algae (1). Families with the highest number of species used belong to Asteraceae (56 species), Fabaceae (41), Lamiaceae (27), Rubiaceae (24), Poaceae (23), Moraceae (16), Ranunculaceae (16), Rosaceae (15), Zingiberaceae (15), Polygonaceae (14), Ericaceae (13), Rutaceae (13), and Liliaceae (11). NTFPs were distributed into different life forms, with herbs having the most species followed by trees and shrubs (Fig. 3). Pattern of NTFPs used according to different life forms was similar in Bhutan, India and Nepal. Such herbaceous species were mostly medicinal and their extensive use could be because they were frequently found in the forest, and it is believed that the more abundant a plant is the more medicinal virtues it may possess [30].

Major use categories

People from Kangchenjunga Landscape used NTFPs for 24 different purposes (Table 2). A comparative analysis

revealed that the highest number of use categories were reported from the Kangchenjunga Landscape region of India (20 categories) followed by Nepal (18) and Bhutan (14). Despite common occurrence of many species in India and Nepal, use pattern differed greatly in these two countries. Medicinal plants were among the main valuable NTFPs in the landscape. Of the total NTFPs, 334 species were used in traditional medicinal practice in India, whereas 297 species used in Nepal and 176 species used in Bhutan. A considerable number of species were also used as edibles as fruit, vegetables, and pickles in all three countries (Table 1 and Table 2). Fruit and shoots were the most frequently eaten parts.

The relatively higher number of diversity in wild edible NTFPs in Nepal could be because of higher diversity of ethnic groups living in the lowland Tarai to highland regions. There was a significant difference (j2 = 35.06, df =64, a = 0.05 and 1-a = 83.67) in medicinal plants use pattern in major disease/ailment categories in India and Nepal. These results indicate differences between the traditions of NTFP use in different cultures of India and Nepal. Similar results were also obtained from East Timor [31]. NTFPs use varies from site to site because of the heterogeneity of the community and different traditional practices by ethnic groups [14].

Among 739 species used by the local people, most species were used for a single (550 species) purpose, while fewer were used for two (147) or multiple (42) purposes. Local people were well aware of collecting seasons, mode of collection, and frequency of collection of specific parts of plant species. Medicinal plants such as Heracleum nepalense is plucked on the first Tuesday after the Teej festival. This practice is known as 'Harlo'. The people believe that the medicinal plants plucked on that day are extremely effective and potent [32]. Similar practice of harvesting season can be found among the Amchis of the Himalaya where they believe that for better medicinal efficacy, specific parts of specific medicinal plants should be collected during specific seasons [33].

Ailments treated and preparation methods

The use of medicinal plant in treatment of particular ailment and the preparation method were not specified from Bhutan. In India and Nepal, a total of 27 major ailments were reportedly treated with medicinal plants with most species being used to treat multiple ailments (Table 3). Gastro-intestinal disorders; fever; cold, cough and sore throat; musculoskeletal disorders; injuries; dermatological infections; respiratory system disorders; nutritional disorders; and poisoning effects were treated with the highest diversity of medicinal plant species (Table 1 and Table 3). The high diversity of species use in gastro-intestinal disorders

could be because of poor sanitation and drinking water quality in the Kangchenjunga Landscape as in many developing contries [34, 35].

Mode of preparation included juice, paste, decoction, powder, infusion, and chewing raw plant parts (Fig. 4, Table 1). The majority of formulations were prepared as juice followed by paste and decoction. Proper selection of species, parts, as well as preparation and administration methods were very important in traditional health care systems.

Almost all plant parts were used to prepare different medicinal formulations: roots, rhizomes, tubers, bark, leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds, young shoots, whole plants, and gum and latex (Table 1). The most frequently used plant parts were underground parts, followed by leaves, fruit, bark, whole plants, seeds and flowers (Fig. 5). Use of multiple plant parts was often documented (Table 1). The preference for roots and rhizomes to prepare traditional remedies follows the scientific basis that roots generally contain high concentrations of bioactive compounds [36]. Such a trend is also reported from other studies from the Himalaya [35, 37, 38].

NTFPs trade and livelihoods potential

The role of NTFPs is particularly important in the Himalayan region where a large proportion of the rural population depends on them as a source of medicine, food, fibre, dye and other useful materials [39-41]. In the Kangchenjunga Landscape, many of the NTFPs are used for subsistence, while others are the main or only source of income generation. However, the role of non-marketed NTFPs that were used for subsistence is largely ignorned when estimates are made of the economic importance of NTFPs to rural populations [42]. Understanding the economic value of non-marketed NTFPs helps to determine the true income of the gatherers and also helps

ascertain the true value of the standing forest, leading to more rational decisions about its alternative uses [42].

Domestic as well as cross-border trade of NTFPs, both legally and illegally, is a historical practice in this region [43]. The traded NTFPs mostly include medicinal plants and to a lesser extent some wild edible plants and fibre yielding plants. The handmade paper from Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri) is the only NTFPs that was sold after value addition in Nepal. Many of the species documented in this study possess high economic potential (Table 4) and could thus supplement family income [44] while generating incentives for biodiversity conservation [45].

Commonly traded NTFPs from the Nepal part of the Kangchenjunga Landscape include medicinal plants such as Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Fritillaria cirrhosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, lichens, and Taxus wallichiana. Other important species under trade are Aconitum species, Valeriana jatamansi, Viscum album and Zanthoxylum species. Species such as Daphne bholua, Edgerworthia gardnerii, Rhododendron anthopogan, Rubia manjith, Swertia chirayita, Valeriana jatamansi, and Zanthoxylum species are traded in large volume following legal procedures. The collected plant materials are normally sold to middlepersons (local traders), with only a few collectors selling or exporting NTFPs directly in local and cross-border markets. The total amount of NTFPs traded from Nepal in the last five years was 2,029,960 kg and the amout of revenue generated was around US$ 76,066 (Fig. 6, Table 4). The lack of openly accessible information on traded species of NTFPs from Bhutan and India limited our ability to conduct a comparative analysis.

Despite the high potential for trade and livelihoods through NTFPs, local people in the Kangchenjunga Landscape are not able to adequately benefit from engaging in the NTFP sector. In most cases, collectors were not aware of the market price for their products and

Fig. 2 Pattern of publications on NTFP from the Kangchenjunga Landscape

were compelled to sell based on the offers of the middleper-sons [46]. Thus, ensuring that market information is available to local people is one of the challenges in the NTFP sector in the landscape. Moreover, traders reported several other issues including multiple taxation system,

Table 2 Major use categories of NTFPs and frequency of taxa reported from Kangchenjunga Landscape

Use category

Frequency of taxa reported


(Kangchenjunga Landscape)

Basket 4 3 - 7

Broom 2 - 1 3

Cigarette wrapper - - 1 1

Detergent - 1 - 1

Dye 12 6 6 23

Edible 62 46 130 191

Fencing 2 1 1 4

Fermentation - 4 3 4

Fibre 10 4 4 15

Fish poisoning - 1 1 2

Fodder 3 4 12 19

Fuel - 1 1 2

Gum 4 - - 4

Incense 19 3 13 33

Insecticide - 2 1 3

Medicinal 176 334 297 598

Oil 6 2 7 7

Ornamental 5 1 - 2

Preservator - 1 - 1

Roofing 2 - - 2

Ritual - 3 5 8

Spritual - 1 1 2

Tea 1 4 4 8

Vetenery medicine - 27 5 27

hurdles during transportation, and duration of transport permit.

As reported by Sundriyal and Sundriyal [47] from Sikkim within the Kangchenjunga Landscape, the sale of fruit provides minimum returns due to fairly low shelf life and market costs. Therefore, some value addition in the form of pickle, chutney, jam, jelly, etc. may increase fruit shelf-life and economic profit to local communities. This reflects a clear need to diversify the product base and to ensure that wild edible plants fetch higher prices [47]. There is also need for value addition for other NTFPs. Therefore, value addition at the local level is an essential part of NTFP trade. Untapped but potential species of NTFPs such as wild edible fruit and vegetables could be promoted in local markets. These could also be promoted for visitors in hotels and restaurants.

Another major problem in commercialization of NTFPs is the low volume in which they are collected and produced, in contrast to the large quantities that are required for the markets. This problem could be addressed by establishing cooperatives, and using these cooperatives for collective marketing which will ensure optimum benefits to collectors [48].

Threats and conservation challenges

Unustainable harvesting of NTFPs, mostly medicinal and edible plants, is the major threat to conservation and management of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape [47, 49]. Sustainable harvesting is essential for conservation of NTFPs, and in turn for ensuring the livelihoods of many rural peoples. Indeed, promotion of commercial extraction of NTFPs as a conservation strategy is based on the argument that forest conservation must be able to offer economic incentives to local peoples in order to counter the threat from destructive land uses such as logging and grazing. This strategy has gained wide acceptance as a conservation paradigm [2]. As indicated by Ticktin [2], despite growing concern over the conservation of these species, as well as their potential to enhance forest conservation and livelihoods, information on the ecological implications of harvest is not available in the Kangchenjunga Landscape.

Illegal trade of NTFPs from the landscape often includes some of the CITES Appendix listed species such as Sunakhari (Orchids), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora), and Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana). The trade also includes some plant species under legal protection of the Government of Nepal like Orchids, Champ (Michelia champaca), Jhyau (Lichens), Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora), and Sughandhawal (Valeriana jatamansi) [43]. These species are mostly traded to India via local collectors, whereas limited quantity of these items are exported to Tibet [50, 51]. Conserving such species is challenging, yet illegal trade has

Table 3 Major disease categories and number of taxa reported from Kangchenjunga Landscape

Disease/ailment/condition category Number of

India Nepal

Blood system disorders (purification, anaemia, etc.) 9 9

Circulatory system disorders (heart problems, blood pressure, etc.) 23 9

Cough, cold and sore throat 84 54

Dermatologicalinfections (boils, eczema, itch, leucoderma, leprosy, running sore, dropsy, irritant, smallpox, chicken pox, skin problems, etc.) 86 63

Diabetes 19 11

Earache, ear irritation 3 5

Fainting and fits - 2

Fever/malarian fever 83 64

Gastro-intestinaldisorders (bile disorder, cholera, colic, constipation, indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, emetic, laxative, liver disorders, piles, purgative, stomach pain, ulcer, intestinalworms, vomiting, etc.) 312 219

Generalhealth (alterative, antiperiodic, prophylactic, etc.) 7 5

Gynaecologicalproblems (menstrualdisorders, pain, vaginaland uterine problems, etc.) 8 12

Haemorrhages (internalbleeding, nasalhaemorrhage, etc.) 2 2

Hair care (prevent hair loss, scalp problems, lice) 7 8

Headache 18 20

Injuries (cuts and wounds, burns) 65 54

Mental disorders (Hysteria, insomnia, seizures, nervousness, etc.) 23 10

Musculoskeletaldisorders (analgesic, arthritis, gouts, bone facture, rheumatism, body pain, joint pain, sprains, swellings, cramps, muscle relaxant, etc.) 76 84

Nervous system disorders (paralysis, hypertenson, etc.) 5 4

Nutritional disorders (weight loss, tonic, appetizers, etc.) 42 17

Odontologicalproblems (tooth ache, gum problems, decayed teeth) 17 15

Ophthalmologicaldisorders (eye wash, sore eyes, infection, etc.) 13 12

Poisoning (insect bites, leech bites, rabies, snake bites, bee stings, food intoxication) 25 26

Pregnancy, child birth, puerperium (labour induction, labour pain, after child birth, miscarriages, abortion, lactation stimulant, pregnancy prevention) 8 17

Respiratory system disorders (asthma, bronchitis, plague, chest pain, expectorant, pneumonia, tuberculosis, altitude sickness, nasalirritation) 65 55

Sexualhealth/dysfunction 7 8

Urinary system disorders (hematuria, kidney, urination, diuretic etc.) 26 27

Venerealdiseases (gonorrhea, spermatorrhea etc.) 7 11

aMost taxa were reported to be used in more than one disease/ailment/ condition category (see Table 1)

slightly decreased in the last decade due to effective conservation efforts of local organizations and increased cultivation practices in the landscape. Community forestry, which has restricted open access to NTFPs, and resource monitoring have also been effective in conserving NTFPs in recent years. In addition, availability of economically important NTFP species has currently declined due to deforestation and replacement with monoculture, use of pesticides and over harvesting [50]. Traditional knowledge on the use of NTFPs such as medicinal plants is also gradually declining due to socio-economic transformation in the Kangchenjunga Landscape [49, 52, 53].

Monitoring is one of the key components to promote the NTFP sector. Follow-up of rules, regulations and strategies related to NTFPs is necessary for contributing to changes in policy that are able to mainstream sustainable management of NTFPs with livelihoods improvement. Limited progress has been achieved in the Kangchenjunga Landscape in controling over-harvesting, enforcing effective harvesting regimes, and maintaining conducive and adaptive adminstrative processess. Recently adopted economic tools such as certification of sustainable harvests should also be applied as a means of ensuring that NTFPs collected sustainably can be identified as such by the consumers [54, 55].

NTFPs reported from the Kangchenjunga Landscape also include many species under different threat categories as well as under priorities of the governments. For example, of the total 30 national priority herbs of Nepal, 26 are abundantly available in the Kangchenjunga Landscape, while all species prioritized for cultivation and research in Nepal are also reported from the Landscape [56]. Among these, Nardostachys grandiflora, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Rauvolfia serpentina and Taxus wallichiana are the most threatened species. Therefore, the economic, socio-cultural and conservation values of these NTFPs are extremely high.

NTFP policy frameworks

A comparision of NTFP policy frameworks in the Kangchenjunga Landscape shows that Bhutan, India and Nepal have supportive policies for the NTFP sector, thereby providing enabling environments and support for NTFP programs and marketing [25]. As a result, many development agencies including national and international non-governmental organizations have placed emphasis on NTFPs in their programs. The collection, conservation and sustainable utilization of NTFPs in Bhutan is mostly guided by the National Strategy for the Development of Non-Wood Forest Products 2008-2018. Other sectoral policies are the Forest Act 1969, Plant Quarantine Act of Bhutan 1993, Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan 1995, Environmental Assessment Act 2000 and

or eaten law

Preparation methods

Fig. 4 Use frequency (number of medicinalformulations) of different remedy preparation methods in India and Nepal

Biodiversity Act and Framework of Bhutan 2003, 2006 [57]. The Indian National Forest Policy (1988) makes a special mention of NTFPs emphasizing on protection, improvement and their enhanced production for generation of employment and income [58]. Likewise, in Nepal there are several sectoral as well as specific policy provisions for sustainable use and management of NTFPs [15, 55]. The most comprehensive policy is the Herbs and Non-Timber Forest Product Development Policy 2004 [59]. The recent Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014 and Forest Policy 2015 also emphasize sustainable use and management of NTFPs and critically provide special opportunity to support livelihoods of marginalized propoor and women through wise use of NTFP. Nevertheless, present policy formation, implementation and field reality reflects power structures and domination by certain stakeholders and interests [60].

Gender participation in policy formulation is also challenging. For example, 75 % of people collecting

NTFPs in India were women and 100 % involved in NTFP processing were women, but their inclusion in Joint Forest Management committees was less than 10 % [61]. Similarly, in Nepal, although women contribute a large share of the labor for forest and biodiversity conservation in community forests, they represent only 22 % in the executive bodies of Community Forest User Groups [62]. Similar situation exists in Bhutan where the women's involvement is generally low in the designing, planning, and implementation of forestry policies, and there is limited understanding of the roles, knowledge, aspirations and contributions made by women towards NTFP management [63].

Considerable efforts have been made to develop the NTFP sector, but the contribution of NTFPs in national economies remains insignificant. As pointed by Shackleton and Pandey [21], the reason behind this is that their economic value remains invisible to external observers as most NTFPs are used for household purposes; production and harvest of NTFPs is a seasonal event, with their use or trade involving only small quantities; much of the NTFP trade is via informal and closed markets which are hard to enumerate; production and markets is dispersed; and their use is highest in rural areas, which are often remote and marginalised in terms of human resources and development policies.

Gaps on knowledge based conservation and management of NTFPs

Like in other parts of the Himalayas, there is still a severe paucity of in-depth field based information on the abundance, reproductive biology and ecological impacts of harvesting of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. There is no standard method available to estimate the economic contribution of NTFPs and their products. Research on the inventory, life history of NTFPs, and

Table 4 Major NTFPs traded (in kg) and revenue generated (USD) from 2008 to 2013 in the Nepal part of Kangchenjunga Landscape

Species/products and parts Traded quantity (kg) Revenue (USD)

Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri)/Bark 97,000 4109

Ban lasun (Fritillaria cirrhosa)/Bulb 1500 150

Bish jara (Aconitum ferox)/Root 4300 301

Chiraito (Swertia chirayita)/Whole plant 88,765 7445.97

Chutro (Berberis wallichiana)/Bark 5000 NA

Daruhaldi (Mahonia napaulensis)/Bark 6500 130

Dhupi pat (Juniperus indica)/Twig 3800 76

Khayar (Acacia catechu)/Heartwood 97,784.6 38,456.88

Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana)/Twig 290,500 9441.25

Lichen (Usnea sp., Parmelia sp.)/Whole plant 11,000 1650

Lokta (Daphne bholua)/Bark 71,076 1940

Majitho (Rubia manjith)/Whole plant 78,800 2199.24

Nagbeliko powder (Lycopodium clavatum)/Pollen grains 8000 160

Khoto (Pinus roxburghii)/Resin 1,256,334 9799.40

Ritha (Sapindus mukorossi)/Fruit 1600 48

Total 2,021,959.6 75,906.74

Source: Compiled from Hamro Ban - a yearly publication of Department of Forests, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal

impact of harvesting on the ecosystem is a prerequiste for their sustainable management, yet very few such activities have been documented from the landscape [64]. Similarly, ecological impacts of NTFPs harvesting for domestic and commercial purposes must be estimated to ensure their sustainability and the implementation for effective conservation measures.

Market size, structure and value chain of NTFP species depend on the demand and supply characteristics of products and their beneficiaries in different areas. Understanding market information is important for value addition and in devising investment strategies [16] for NTFPs based products, their diversification, and related enterprises. At present, the majority of NTFPs from the Kangchenjunga Landscape are traded in the raw forms, and NTFP harvesters lack necessary support for market-based strategies from both private, as well as government sectors.

Indigenous knowledge and management systems have been recognized for contributing to sustainable use of NTFPs, and consequently they have secured legal rights to manage forest resources [55]. In the Kangchenjunga Landscape, indigenous knowledge on NTFP use is well documented, but indigenous management systems need to be assessed and used for sustainable management.


We documented NTFPs collected and used for various purposes by the local people of the Kangchenjunga Landscape. The diversity of NTFPs was highest in India, followed by Nepal and Bhutan. Though the landscape possesses many potential species for trade, their nominal contribution to local livelihoods was due to lack of value addition and commercialization. Unsustainable harvesting and lack of value addition and commercialization could be considered as major challenges for conservation and development of the NTFP sector in the landscape.

Tracing the trend of NTFP research and exploitation, it shows much focus on medicinal plants resulting in over-harvesting of some highly potential medicinal plants, with


§ 9,000

Ü 8,000

= a 7,000

■0 <s = 6,000

<U 1» 5,000

- tM 4,000

tM O 3,000

a -1 1,000

Year 2008/09 Year 2009/010 Year 2010/011 Year 2011/012 Year 2012/013 Trade of NTFPs

Fig. 6 Amount of traded NTFPs (black bars) in '000 kg and revenue generated (grey bars) in USD in five years in the Nepalese part of the Kangchenjunga Landscape

very negligible amount of other plant species reported for other purposes. At present, NTFPs are synonymous with medicinal and aromatic plants and vice versa. Only small amounts of other NTFPs are marketed. Therefore, research must also focus on other potential categories of NTFPs. NTFP collectors need to be educated about forest ecology and the adverse impacts of unsustainable harvesting for conservation and local livelihoods. Sustainable harvesting techniques should be provided through training and capacity building programs to local people. Biological studies of high value NTFPs must be carried out in order to ensure sustainability of these resources.

Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and nutrient value analysis of wild edible plants would foster their commercialization. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use could be integrated with 'modern' health care systems [65]. Highly potential NTFPs must be identified and grown for commercial cultivation and adopted in traditional agroforestry systems. This will reduce pressure on these species in their natural environments while providing economic benefits to poor farmers [47].

Conservation and development organizations, together with government agencies and private sectors, must provide technical and innovative inputs to add value to NTFP products. They must also facilitate community mobilization for assessment and identification of potential NTFPs. The latter role will be of significant importance considering the limited human and financial resources of government agencies in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. An integrated approach will promote sustainable use of NTFPs while contributing to income generation and livelihood improvement for local people. Transboundary landscape conservation programs will provide opportunities for transboundary cooperation through policy reforms, as well as providing opportunities to diversify livelihoods of forest dependent communities. However, marketing and commercialization of NTFPs can be successful only if the activity is transparent, equitable and sustainable, with important implications for poverty reduction and better resource management [20]. Increasing access to NTFP-selling outlets could be achieved through information dissemination, empowerment of collectors and establishment of linkages between collectors and traders [41]. The role of small and medium sized enterprises and cooperatives is extremely important to achieve sustainable management of NTFPs.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions

YU, RCP, NC, and RPC designed the study. YU, RCP and NC carried out the literature search. YU, RCP, JG, NC and RPC analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.


The authors would like to recognize the support of the Austrian Development Agency (ADA) and the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for their financial support through International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

Author details

1Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. 2Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. international Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. 4Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Received: 21 October 2015 Accepted: 3 April 2016 Published online: 03 May 2016


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