Scholarly article on topic 'The Cognitive Theory of Metaphor in a Non-Academic Classroom'

The Cognitive Theory of Metaphor in a Non-Academic Classroom Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Sylwia Filipczuk

Abstract The purpose of the following paper is to present ways in which some premises of the cognitive theory of metaphor can be integrated into practical teaching of English to advanced adult non-academic learners. The objective underlying such an approach to teaching is increasing the learners’ comprehension of the L2 and developing their intercultural awareness. The paper will present two ideas of teaching integrated skills of speaking and writing and thus expanding learners’ vocabulary through a discussion of metaphors found in authentic materials (e.g. speeches, newspaper articles and books). Two sample lessons presented in the paper have already been used in the classroom by the author. The metaphors subject to analysis are orientational, structural and ontological. The theoretical framework comes from the seminal publication− Metaphors We Live By written by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980).

Academic research paper on topic "The Cognitive Theory of Metaphor in a Non-Academic Classroom"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 186 (2015) 955 - 965

5th World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership, WCLTA 2014

The Cognitive Theory of Metaphor in a Non-Academic Classroom

Sylwia Filipczuka*

"Polish Air Force Academy, ul. Dywizjonu 303 nr 35, Dublin, 08-530, Poland

Abstract

The purpose of the following paper is to present ways in which some premises of the cognitive theory of metaphor can be integrated into practical teaching of English to advanced adult non-academic learners. The objective underlying such an approach to teaching is increasing the learners' comprehension of the L2 and developing their intercultural awareness. The paper will present two ideas of teaching integrated skills of speaking and writing and thus expanding learners' vocabulary through a discussion of metaphors found in authentic materials (e.g. speeches, newspaper articles and books). Two sample lessons presented in the paper have already been used in the classroom by the author. The metaphors subject to analysis are orientational, structural and ontological. The theoretical framework comes from the seminal publication - Metaphors We Live By written by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980).

© 2015The Authors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center Keywords: metaphor; elaboration; source domain; target domain; skill

1. Introduction

The purpose of the following paper is to present practical ideas including their rationale for implementing the theoretical cognitive contemporary Conceptual Theory of Metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) in teaching advanced adult learners in a non-academic classroom. The term non-academic is applied here since learners who participated in these lessons were professional soldiers not students who attended an advanced intensive English language course in the Polish Air Force Academy. Two sample vocabulary lessons developed for them, which aimed at practicing the integrated the skills of speaking and writing, have been presented in the paper. Additionally, two surveys conducted among the learners have been included. The first one determined their knowledge about metaphors prior to lessons. In the second one, they expressed their opinions having participated in the lessons.

* Sylwia Filipczuk Tel.: +48- 605-172- 940. E-mail address: s.filipczuk@wsosp.pl

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.202

2. Idea and rationale

The idea for introducing the cognitive theory of metaphor into teaching originated from the authoress' work on her doctoral dissertation concerning metaphors used by the British writer Roald Dahl in his children's books such as: Matilda and James and the Giant Peach. Having researched the issue, the authoress realized the pervasiveness and ubiquity of metaphor not just in literature but also in ordinary everyday language. Furthermore, the authoress' professional experience as a teacher of advanced adult learners led to the conclusion that understanding idioms, phrasal verbs or other expressions which are most often linguistic realizations of metaphors used for conveying implicit meaning poses a considerable challenge for learners. Consequently, on the one hand, they avoid using such language and on the other hand, they fail to assimilate such new vocabulary.

Another problem is that the advanced level involves comprehending the speaker's presuppositions or making inferences, which makes being familiar with metaphorical utterances of paramount importance. This can be illustrated by the C1 descriptor specified by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (2001: 24), which states that the learner: "Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning. Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions". Nevertheless, such requirements apply not only to civilian learners, but also to military personnel who is obliged to take the so-called STANAG exam according to the NATO Standardization Agreement STANAG 6001 NTG (EDITION 4) - LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY LEVELS (2010). This can be illustrated by the description of the most desired STANAG LEVEL 3 referred to as Professional according to which a learner:

Can readily understand language that includes such functions as hypothesising, supporting opinion, stating and defending policy, argumentation, objections, and various types of elaboration. Demonstrates understanding of abstract concepts in discussion of complex topics (which may include economics, culture, science, technology) as well as his/her professional field. Understands both explicit and implicit information in a spoken text. Can generally distinguish between different stylistic levels and often recognises humor, emotional overtones, and subtleties of speech. (ibid.)

Bearing in mind the above requirements inherent in the advanced level, the teacher decided to develop lessons that would aim at teaching vocabulary within the framework of cognitive metaphor and practicing the skills of speaking and writing.

3. Theoretical background

In order to appropriately acquaint learners with the cognitive concept of metaphor, the teacher prepared a PowerPoint presentation. Basic notions explained to learners included:

• the Conduit Metaphor as a means of conveying thoughts and feelings during communication discussed by Reddy (1979);

• metaphor defined as a process of mapping from the concrete source domain onto the more abstract target domain and its elaborations (e.g. LIFE IS A JOURNEY) discussed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Ungerer and Schmid (1997) and Barcelona (2002);

• structural, ontological and orientational metaphors defined by Lakoff and Johnson (1980).

4. Pre-lesson diagnostic survey

Prior to developing lessons, the teacher created an anonymous diagnostic survey that would determine the degree to which learners were acquainted with the concept of metaphor. The diagnostic survey was a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. It was conducted on June 9 2014 in a group of 12 adult learners who attended an intensive language course in the Polish Air Force Academy for 5 days, 6 hours a week. All results of the survey are presented in tables below and discussed.

Dear learners,

The following survey is to help me develop classes for you. It is anonymous. I would appreciate your answers.

1. Do you know what a metaphor is? Circle the chosen answer.

YES NO

2. Could you give your own short definition of a metaphor.

3. Could you give three examples of metaphors in your native language.

4. What kind of people use metaphors?

5. How often do you encounter metaphors in the media (TV, press)? Circle the chosen answer?

VERY OFTEN SELDOM NEVER

6. How often do you hear people or your friends use metaphors? Circle the chosen answer?

VERY OFTEN SELDOM NEVER

7. How often do you express yourself by means of metaphors? Circle the chosen answer.

VERY OFTEN SELDOM NEVER

8. Do you think that native speakers of English use metaphors? Circle the chosen answer.

YES NO

Fig. 1. Survey determining learners' knowledge concerning metaphors

Table 1. Definition and knowledge about the concept of metaphor

Answers Number of %

respondents

Yes 10 83.33

No 2 16.67

Total 12 100

The obtained answers show that the majority of respondents, that is 10 out of 12 (83.33%) comprehends the concept of metaphors and can provide a concise definition. Two respondents (16.67 %) do not have such an understanding.

Table 2. Ability to give examples of metaphors

Answers Number of respondents %

3 examples provided 7 58.33

No examples

provided, examples

provided incorrectly 5 41.67

or too few examples

provided

Total 12 100

It can be observed that correct examples of metaphors were given by 7 learners (58.33%), whereas 5 (41.67%) were unable to give an answer, listed too few examples or were incorrect.

Table 3. Characteristics of people who use metaphors

Answers Number of %

respondents

Educated, intelligent, well-read 9 75

Sensitive 2 16.67

Avoiding a direct answer 1 8.33

Total 12 100

The majority of respondents, that is 9 learners claimed that metaphors are used by intelligent, educated and well-read people. Meanwhile, 2 learners (16.67 %) believed that metaphors are used by sensitive speakers. On the other hand, one person (8.33 %) indicated that speakers resort to metaphors when they are unwilling to answer a question directly.

Table 4. Frequency of metaphor occurrence in the media

Answers Number of respondents %

VERY 4 33.33

SELDOM 4 33.33

NEVER 4 33.33

Total 12 99.99 ~ 100

Respondents indicated that metaphors occur in the media with the following frequency:

• very often - 4 learners (33.33%)

• seldom - 4 learners (33.33%)

• never - 4 learners (33.33%)

As a consequence of the small number of respondents, the obtained results are not precise enough. Such s state of affairs might be caused by the fact that learners watch or listen to different media with various frequency and for various reasons. Additionally, they may not be fully aware of the metaphorical meaning conveyed by the media.

Table 5. Frequency of using metaphors by other speakers

Answers Number of %

respondents

VERY 6 50

SELDOM 4 33.33

NEVER 2 16.67

Total 12 100

According to respondents, other speakers or their friends use metaphors:

• very often - 6 learners (50%)

• seldom - 4 learners (33.33%)

• never - 2 learners (16.67%)

The obtained responses suggest that a learner's understanding of the concept of metaphor translates itself into noticing it in social interaction. Those respondents who notice it very often and seldom (10 learners altogether) are most probably those who are familiar with the concept and definition of a metaphor (questions 1 and 2 of Fig1.).

Table 6. Respondent's frequency of using metaphors

Answers Number of respondents %

VERY 4 33.33

SELDOM 3 25

NEVER 5 41.67

Total 12 100

The majority of respondents, that is 7 people can express themselves by means of metaphors. More specifically, 4 learners (33.33%) admitted to using metaphors very often, whereas 3 learners (25 %) - seldom. The remaining 5 respondents (41.67 %) never use metaphors.

Table 7. Using metaphors by native speakers

Answers Number of %

respondents

Yes 9 75

No 3 25

Total 12 100

9 respondents (75 %) out of 12 declared that native speakers express themselves by means of metaphors. 3 respondents (25 %) claim the contrary. The ratio of answers is determined by a learner's level of English. To be more specific, a more advanced learner will be more likely to notice metaphors in a speaker's utterance that the intermediate one.

The detailed findings presented in tables and discussed above confirmed the teacher's belief in the necessity of implementing her ideas for metaphorically-based lessons.

5. Sample lesson one

The lesson involved a number of metaphors, more specifically - structural, orientational and ontological intertwined with the concept of love. The rationale behind this exercise was to practice the integrated skills of speaking and writing including the grammatical concept of past tenses within the framework of the metaphor -LOVE IS A JOURNEY. Additionally, the ontological metaphor - MIND IS A BRITTLE OBJECT and orientational ones - HAPPY IS UP and SAD IS DOWN were included.

5.1. Stage one

The first stage of the lesson was focused on the structural metaphor LOVE IS A JOURNEY. In this case, the process of mapping already comprehended by learners, as was indicated by the survey and proved during the introductory theoretical class, was "(...) a set of ontological correspondences that characterize epistemic correspondences by mapping knowledge about journeys onto knowledge about love" ( Lakoff 1992:5). In order to explore this metaphor, learners were supposed to build a network of correspondences between the source domain of JOURNEY and the target domain of LOVE in groups of three. They negotiated their answers within the allocated 15 minutes and wrote them on the distributed transparencies. Results were displayed to the whole class. Consequently, a common set was created.

SOURCE DOMAIN TARGET DOMAIN

travellers means of transport/ vehicle l\ destinations / obstacles encountered during travel ^ lovers love relationship lovers' desires difficulties in the relationship

Fig. 2. Common set of metaphorical correspondences

Apart from the above mentioned general correspondences which accord with those enumerated by George Lakoff (ibid.), learners creatively involved in the lesson formulated more specific ones.

SOURCE DOMAIN TARGET DOMAIN

luggage taken for the journey delays during travel prohibitory road signs safety regulations lovers' beliefs/thoughts lovers' temporary break-ups boundaries set by lovers in the relationship rules established by lovers in the relationship

Fig. 3. More specific correspondences created by learners

After the set of correspondences was established, each group of learners was to choose a slip of paper. Each slip included five linguistic realizations of the metaphor LOVE IS A JOURNEY prepared by the teacher. Learners were asked to put the selected slip aside for a while with an emphasis that it would be needed later on.

SET ONE

■ to come to a crossroads in one's marriage

■ to embark on a love affair

■ to go through a lot

■ to come far

■ to be on the right road_

Fig. 4. An example of a set with metaphorical expressions used by learners

5.2. Stage two

Learners in pairs were asked to group linguistic expressions illustrating orientational metaphors HAPPY IS UP and SAD IS DOWN since both of them denote emotions accompanying the feeling of love. Learners were asked to select the sentences they liked and add them to the sets connected with the metaphor LOVE IS A JOURNEY selected during STAGE ONE.

HAPPY IS UP SAD IS DOWN

I'm feeling up. That boosted my spirits. My spirits rose. You're in high spirits. Thinking about her always gives me a lift. I'm feeling down. I'm depressed. He's really low these days. I fell into a depression. My spirits sank.

Fig. 5. Examples of orientational metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson 1980:462)

5.3. Stage three

The third stage of the lesson involved the ontological metaphor THE MIND IS A BRITTLE OBJECT discussed by Lakoff and Johnson (2003:28) in Metaphors We Live By. More specifically, learners were given the following examples listed by Lakoff and Johnson (ibid.) and asked to describe what type of mind they specify:

• Be gentle while you are handling him.

• She was crushed by the experience.

• Her ego is very fragile.

• Her boss exerted too much pressure on her and she broke.

They accurately concluded that it is an extremely delicate type of mind that can be subject to damage or destruction if not handled with due care. Once again, they were asked to expand their set with the chosen sentences.

5.4. Final stage

On the basis of the set chosen during STAGE ONE of the lesson and enriched with metaphorical expressions analysed during STAGE TWO and THREE, learners were supposed to create a story of an invented love relationship in groups of three. The story was to number 100 - 120 words. The time limit was 30 minutes. Having written their stories, learners read them aloud. Afterwards, they discussed what concept of a love relationship was conveyed by means of the expressions provided and whether their stories were aptly developed.

6. Sample lesson two

The lesson aimed at exploring structural metaphors with PLANTS as the source domain and various target domains such as: ECONOMY, IDEAS, ORGANIZATIONS and HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS. Moreover, examples of the Conduit Metaphor were provided. Learners were to process linguistic realizations and include them in their discussions on a given topic.

6.1. Stage one

The initial warm-up stage of the lesson concerned the structural metaphor IDEAS ARE PLANTS and its elaborations. More specifically, it was a brainstorm during which all of the learners were involved. The metaphor was written on the whiteboard and learners were asked to provide English verbs, adjectives or expressions, which they could associate with the given structural metaphor. They were encouraged to use English - English dictionaries to avoid writing loan translations based on their L1. As a result, the following spidergram was created:

6. 2. Stage two

The spidergram constituted the starting point for developing elaborations of the metaphor IDEAS ARE PLANTS. The procedure was as follows: firstly learners in pairs wrote their sentences with the above expressions in order to illustrate their meaning. In view of the learners' occupational background (armed forces) and interests, the constructed sentences were of military or political character. Secondly, the teacher provided sentences from a variety of sources. Afterwards, the learners' task in groups of three was to formulate elaborations and to assign sentences to them. Consequently, the following elaborations were developed and sentences were correctly assigned: ORIGINS OF PROBLEMS ARE PARTS OF PLANTS (e.g. the core of the matter, roots of humour), FAILURE OF IDEAS IS DEATH OF PLANTS (e.g. to die on the vine), ABUNDANCE OF IDEAS IS CROP OF PLANTS (e.g. crop of ideas), GETTING RID OF PROBLEMS IS DESTROYING PLANTS (e.g. to root out ideas, to weed out) and CONVEYING IDEAS IS SOWING/PLANTING (e.g. to plant ideas, to sow the seeds of sth). To give an illustration of the whole procedure and outcomes, an example is provided below:

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS IS GROWTH OF PLANTS

EXAMPLES SELECTED BY THE TEACHER and CORRECTLY CLASSIFIED BY LEARNERS

• However, the President's remarks are rife with contradictions as well as other assumptions in the background regarding his worldview that will spell the ruination of religious liberty if his ideas are allowed to come to fruition. (Meekins 2010:79)

• If the first shoots of democracy in the People's Republic emerged in late 1978 and early 1979, then the second sprouting occurred in the spring of 1986. Blossoms appeared in the summer and fall, as public discourse flourished on the reform of political institutions. This blooming was due in part to the congenial political climate created by the reform leaders and in part to seeds the democratic elite had planted earlier. Goldman (1994: 166)

• Ideas are like rose bushes: they need to be consistently pruned and trimmed down. And just like a rose bush, pruning away ideas — even if they have potential — allows the remaining ideas to fully blossom. (jamesclear)

• Maybe we will again at some point in the near future, and then it will be important that "new ideas" blossom in both parties. Kilgore (2013)

SELECTED LEARNERS' EXAMPLES

• The major's idea for a new generation of drones came to full flower because of his long experience with operating them.

• The dictator quickly thwarted his citizens' budding idea of democracy.

• The new schedule of surveillance flights has grown out of necessity.

• Due to the lack of funds, the idea of professionalization in the army will not come to fruition soon.

• The president's wife's support helped his ideas for the policy statement flourish.

6.3. Stage three

Having been familiarized with the concept of PLANTS as the source domain on the basis of the IDEAS ARE PLANTS structural metaphor and its elaborations, learners were appropriately prepared for the next task. The speaking task in question comprised discussions designed by the teacher. The objective was to practise argumentation and language functions within the framework of thematic vocabulary connected with crime, education and social problems. With a view to activating learners' cognitive abilities and further exploring other metaphors where PLANTS functioned as the source domain, namely: ORGANIZATIONS ARE PLANTS, HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS ARE PLANTS and ECONOMY IS A PLANT, the teacher complemented each discussion with an obligatory list of metaphorical expressions to be used by learners while speaking. Learners were also encouraged to include their own expressions. Therefore, they were given access to dictionaries: both traditional paper ones and online via their mobile phones. Additionally, the teacher provided two types of support. Firstly, in order to aid learners in developing arguments, the teacher added the so-called "Points to consider". Secondly, apart from metaphorical expressions, some sophisticated vocabulary was provided. Learners selected a discussion from a number of slips of paper. The task was performed in groups of three.

DISCUSSION ONE EDUCATION

There are many challenges currently faced by the school. Discuss the points below and decide which is the most and the least important one. Be ready to justify your choice.

• STUDENTS' BEHAVIOUR

• TECHNOLOGY

• NEW REGULATIONS POINTS TO CONSIDER

1. reforms - exams, school age, types of school, stages of teacher's professional development

2. students' behaviour + crime = among students + students vs. teachers (give examples from current affairs)

3. technology as danger: * mobile phones as distractors in the learning/teaching process

* the Internet used for bullying - offensive posts on Facebook or creating sb's anti-profile

4. Internet as a tool for education: chat rooms for language learning, applications, stock exchange simulations for developing investment skills,

5. Internet as a means of promoting a school: forum + website (with sports achievements, competitions), students' newspaper + other ventures ( e.g. charity work) online

USEFUL VOCABULARY

■ to fall prey to bullying

■ to give vent to negative emotions

■ verbal and physical abuse

■ to be subject to abuse

■ interactive test

■ to conduct computerization

■ to introduce, implement regulations

■ to assault sb

■ to pose a threat

LINGUISTIC REALIZATIONS OF METAPHORS

A. STRUCTURAL METAPHOR

■ hothouse atmosphere (Kovecses 2002: 101)

■ to reap enormous benefits (ibid.)

■ their friendship is in full flower (ibid.)

■ personal growth

■ to prune the budget (yourdictionary)

■ sow the seeds of discontent (knowgramming)

■ to harvest investment (ibid.)

■ a budding friendship

B. THE CONDUIT METAPHOR

■ Your words are hollow (...) (Reddy 1979: 288)

■ His words carry little meaning. ( Lakoff and Johnson 1980: 459)

■ Try to pack more thoughts into fewer words. (ibid.)

■ Your reasons came thorough to us. (ibid.)

Fig. 7. Sample discussion (Filipczuk 2013: 59) including metaphorical expressions, points to consider and useful vocabulary

7. Post-lesson diagnostic survey

In order to receive further feedback essential for determining the future role of such lessons and drawing further conclusions, the teacher developed a second short anonymous diagnostic survey.

Dear learners,

The following diagnostic survey has been prepared so that you can express your opinion about lessons connected with metaphors. It is anonymous. I would appreciate your sincere answers.

1. Do you believe that metaphors are important for communication? Circle the chosen answer.

YES NO

2. Do you think that it is important to understand metaphors used by English speakers? Why/Why not?

3. Can the knowledge of metaphors help you learn English in any way? Why/ Why not?

Fig. 8. Diagnostic survey conducted after metaphorically-based lessons

Table 8. Importance of metaphors for communication

Answers Number of %

respondents

YES 10 83.33

NO 2 16.67

Total 12 100

The findings indicated that 83.33% of learners (10 people) emphasized the importance of metaphors for communication, which clearly proves the advisability of teaching them. Additionally, in the open-ended questions, learners stated that metaphors are essential for recognizing the implicit meaning of a native speaker's utterance, avoiding misunderstanding and contributing to understanding English culture.

Table 9. Importance of understanding metaphors used by native speakers

Answers Number of %

respondents

Yes 9 75

No 3 25

Total 12 100

The majority of respondents -75 % claims that it is important to understand metaphors used by native speakers. The remaining 25% do not share such a viewpoint.

Moreover, respondents who declared the importance of understanding metaphors gave different reasons to support their view. Namely, in their opinion metaphors allow native speakers to:

• avoid misunderstanding and simultaneously - to comprehend the speaker's intention: 9 respondents;

• acquire the ability to use idioms in speech - 6 respondents

• understand English culture - 4 respondents

• understand a wide variety of metaphors in quality press - 3 respondents.

On the other hand, none of respondents who undermined the importance of metaphors was able to support his viewpoint with appropriate reasons.

Table 10. Influence of knowledge of metaphors on learning English

Answers Number of %

_respondents_

Yes 10 83.33

No 2 16.67

Total 12 100

The significant majority of respondents 83.33 declared that the knowledge of metaphors might aid them in discovering the meaning of a given expression from the context. Therefore, it may facilitate learning vocabulary (especially idioms and other fixed phrases), its acquisition and retention. The remaining 16.67% who maintained that metaphors have no influence on learning English failed to substantiate their claim.

8. Conclusion

Judging by the learners' performance and task achievement, the teacher's attempt to develop metaphorically-based lessons with a simultaneous practice of skills proved successful. Namely, learners were firstly able to analyse metaphors, formulate their elaborations, categorize the provided examples and support them with their own ones. Secondly, they achieved the objectives set by the teacher by appropriately completing a number of tasks integrating skills during each lesson. Consequently, the teacher decided to modify her syllabus and develop further resources for metaphorically-based lessons.

References

A growing resource for metaphor examples, essays, lessons and lists. knowgramming = (http://www.knowgramming.com/). Barcelona, A. (2002). Guidelines for the application of the theories of metaphor and metonymy to textual examples, in Metaphor.

AMultidisciplinaryApproach, ed. by Tomasz Komendzinski. Torun: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikolaja Kopernika, 143-175. Clear, J. (2013). What to Do When You Have Too Many Ideas (And Not Enough Time), jamesclear = (http://jamesclear.com/pruning). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment.

(http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf). Filipczuk, S. (2013). Developing Speaking Skillsfor Advanced Learners. Dublin: Wydawnictwo WSOSP.

Goldman, M. (1994). Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China: Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era, Harvard: Harvard University Press. Kilgore, E. (2013). "New Ideas" And Old Conflicts, Political Animal Blog. (http://www.washingtonmonthly.com) Kovecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor. A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lakoff, G. (1992). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor". (http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~israel/lakoff-ConTheorMetaphor.pdf). Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University Press of Chicago.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). "Conceptual Metaphor in Everyday Language". The Journal oof Philosophy, volume 77, issue 8 (August,

1980), 453-486. Meekins, F. (2010). The Obama File. p. 79

NATO Standardization Agreement STANAG 6001 NTG (EDITION 4) - LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY LEVELS 12 October 2010.

(http:// www.natobilc .org/stanag/index-eng. asp) Reddy, M. J. (1979). "The Conduit Metaphor - A Case of Frame Conflict in Our Language about Language", in Andrew Ortony (ed.) Metaphor

and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 284-324. Ungerer, F., & Schmid, H.-J. (1997). An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics. London/New York: Longman. YourDictionary: Dictionary definitions you can understand. yourdictionary = (http://www.yourdictionary.com)