Scholarly article on topic 'Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Serbian Traditional Fermented Sausages Sremski and Lemeski Kulen'

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Serbian Traditional Fermented Sausages Sremski and Lemeski Kulen Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{"Sremski kulen" / "Lemeski kulen" / microbiota / "lactic acid bacteria"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Dragan Vasilev, Biljana Aleksic, Aleksandra Tarbuk, Mirjana Dimitrijevic, Nedjeljko Karabasil, et al.

Abstract The microbial composition of Serbian traditional fermented sausages, Sremski and Lemeski kulen, was studied. The dominant lactic acid bacteria in these products were Lactobacillus (77.1 and 54.3%, respectively) and Leuconostoc (20.0 and 22.9%, respectively). Lemeski kulen was characterized by a high percent of Lactococcus (20.0%). The most abundant Lactobacillus species in Sremski and Lemeski kulen was Lb. brevis (61.5 and 57.9%, respectively). Sremski kulen contained Lb. pentosus (11.5%) and Lb. salivarius (7.7%), in contrast to Lemeski kulen which contained Lb. curvatus ssp. curvatus (15.8%). Lb. paracasei, Lb. plantarum and Lb. fermentum were present in similar percentages in both products.

Academic research paper on topic "Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Serbian Traditional Fermented Sausages Sremski and Lemeski Kulen"

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Procedia Food Science 5 (2015) 300 - 303

International 58th Meat Industry Conference "Meat Safety and Quality: Where it goes?"

Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Serbian traditional fermented sausages Sremski and Lemeski kulen

Dragan Vasileva, Biljana Aleksica, Aleksandra Tarbukc, Mirjana Dimitrijevica, Nedjeljko Karabasila, Nikola Cobanovica, Nadja Vasiljevicb*

aFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bulevar oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia bFaculty of Medicine, Dr Subotica 8, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia cMinistry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 84, 11050 Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract

The microbial composition of Serbian traditional fermented sausages, Sremski and Lemeski kulen, was studied. The dominant lactic acid bacteria in these products were Lactobacillus (77.1 and 54.3%, respectively) and Leuconostoc (20.0 and 22.9%, respectively). Lemeski kulen was characterized by a high percent of Lactococcus (20.0%). The most abundant Lactobacillus species in Sremski and Lemeski kulen was Lb. brevis (61.5 and 57.9%, respectively). Sremski kulen contained Lb. pentosus (11.5%) and Lb. salivarius (7.7%), in contrast to Lemeski kulen which contained Lb. curvatus ssp. curvatus (15.8%). Lb. paracasei, Lb. plantarum and Lb. fermentum were present in similar percentages in both products.

© 2015TheAuthors.Publishedby Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility ofscientificcommittee of The 58th International Meat Industry Conference (MeatCon2015) Keywords: Sremski kulen; Lemeski kulen;microbiota; lactic acid bacteria

1. Introduction

Kulen is a dry fermented sausage produced from high-quality meat of mature pigs, seasoned with ground red paprika, stuffed into pork appendix or rectum, and which is preserved by smoking and drying followed by ripening.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +381-11-2685-653; fax: +381-11-2685-653. E-mail address:vasilevd@vet.bg.ac.rs

2211-601X © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of scientific committee of The 58th International Meat Industry Conference (MeatCon2015) doi: 10.1016/j.profoo.2015.09.071

Dragan Vasilev et al. / Procedía Food Science 5 (2015) 300 - 303

This type of sausage is traditionally produced in some areas of Pannonian Plain, (northern Serbia, western Croatia and southern Hungary)1,2,3,4,5. In Serbia, Kulen is produced in regions of Srem (Sremski kulen) and Backa (Lemeski kulen, Petrovska Klobasa and other)3,4,5,6 and according to Vukovic et al.4, Danilovic et al.6 and Lukic7 these three types of kulen have protected designation of origin.

Traditional fermented sausages are recognized by their desirable sensory characteristics which are influenced by the activity of indigenous microbiota during fermentation and ripening8. Vukovic et al.2,3,4,5 report that during the ripening of kulen, the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increases, while enterococci and micrococci survive although their number decreases. Spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae die out and pathogen bacteria such as Salmonella species and Listeria monocytogenes become not detectable. Similar changes of microbiota in traditional fermented sausages are reported by Papamanoli et al.8, Drosinos et al.9 and Comi et al.10.

The composition of LAB in traditional fermented sausages has been studied in many countries. The predominant LAB species in traditional fermented sausages from Greece, Hungary and Italy are the genus Lactobacillus, followed by Pediococcus and sporadically, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Weissella. The majority of the lactobacilli belong to the species Lactobacillus sakei, L. plantarum, L. curvatus subsp. curvatus and L. buchneris'9'l0'n. In Serbia, the characterization of LAB to date, has been conducted only in Petrovska Klobasa6 and in Sremska kobasica11. It is important to mention that Sremska kobasica is stuffed into pig small intestine and is a different product from Sremski kulen3. Danilovic et al.6 found that LAB in Petrovska Klobasa were comprised of 59-79% L. sakei, 6-21% Ln. mesenteroides and up to 35% Pediococcus pentosaceus. Borovic et al.11 concluded that in Sremska kobasica the dominant lactobacilli were L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (26.0%), L. curvatus (13.3%) and L. plantarum (10.0%). Of other LAB, Pediococcus pentosaceus comprised 10.0%, Leuconostoc strains 8.6% and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 2.0%.

As there are no literature data about the characterization of the indigenous microbiota isolated from Sremski kulen and Lemeski kulen, the aim of this study was to identify representative LAB from these products.

2. Materials and methods

Ten samples of Sremski kulen, as well as Lemeski kulen (20 in total) were obtained from different small producers. A 25g sample from each sausage was homogenized with 225ml of sterile 0.1% (w/v) saline peptone water in a stomacher, from which serial decimal dilutions were prepared and inoculated on appropriate agar plates: LAB in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar (MRS, Merck, Germany) at 30°C for 72h; total aerobic plate count in Plate count agar (PCA, Merck, Germany) at 30°C for 72h; Micrococcaceae on Mannitol salt agar (MSA, Merck , Germany) at 30°C for 72h; enterococci on Kanamycin esculin azide agar (KEA, Merck, Germany) at 37°C for 48h; Enterobacteriaceae on Brilliant green agar (Lab M Limited, United Kingdom) at 37°C for 24h; Pseudomonadaceae on Pseudomonas agar (Lab M Limited, United Kingdom) at 30°C for 48h. The presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated according to the standard methods ISO 6579 and ISO 11290-1 respectively. Identification of LAB was performed on colonies chosen from MRS agar. For each sausage sample, 34 morphologically different colonies were collected from a representative dilution MRS agar plate, so a total of 35 isolates from Sremski kulen and 35 from Lemeski kulen were prepared for further investigation. All isolates were Gram-positive and catalase-negative. The species identification was conducted by API 50 CH test (BioMerieux, France) and the results interpreted by the ApiWeb™ identification software.

3. Results and discussion

The results of the investigation of microbiota composition in Sremski and Lemeski kulen (Table 1) show that the most dominant microorganisms were LAB, followed by Micrococcaceae and enterococci, without the presence of spoilage and pathogen bacteria, which is a similar patern reported by Vukovic et al.2,3,4,5. Lemeski kulen contained more LAB then Sremski kulen but this difference was not statistically significant. Statistically significant differences were observed in total aerobic plate count and Micrococcaceae count, which were higher in Lemeski kulen. This could be explaned by the greater quantities of ground red paprika (3-4%) in Lemeski kulen than in Sremski kulen (1.0-1.5 %)5, as it is known that spices are one of the main vectors transferring microorganisms to meat products12. The presence of micrococci is desirable because of their contribution to aroma and color

Dragan Vasilev et al. /Procedia Food Science 5 (2O15) 3OO - 3O3

development, as well as their antioxidative effect . Also, enterococci play a significant role in aroma development in fermented sausages14.

Table 1 .Microbiota of Sremski and Lemeski kulen (log cfu/g).

Microorganism Sremski kulen (x ± SD) Lemeski kulen (x ± SD)

Lactic acid bacteria 6.94 ± 0.8 7.18 ± 1.2

Total aerobic plate count 4.42 ± 0.5 5.40* ± 0.5

Micrococcaceae 3.53 ± 0.7 5.00* ± 0.5

Enterococcaceae 2.94 ± 1.3 2.56 ± 1.5

Enterobacteriaceae < 1 < 1

Pseudomonadaceae < 1 < 1

Salmonella spp. in 25g not detected not detected

Listeria monocytogenes in 25g not detected not detected

*p < 0.01

The proportion of LAB genera in Sremski and Lemeski kulen is shown in Fig. 1. In both products, Lactobacillus was the most common genus, which is typical for fermented sausages2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11.The percentage of Leuconostoc genus was quite similar in both products (20.0 and 22.9%), but in Sremski kulen, we identified Ln. mesenteroides and in Lemeski kulen, two species of Leuconostoc: Ln. mesenteroides (17.2%) and Ln. lactis (5.7%).

Fig. 1. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from (a) Sremski kulen; (b) Lemeski kulen.

Danilovic et al.6 also detected Ln. mesenteroides in Petrovska Klobasa, and which accounted for up to 21% of all LAB, but Borovic et al.11 found Ln. mesenteroides in much lower levels (8.6 %) in Sremska kobasica. Unlike products from Serbia, in sausages from Greece, Italy and Hungary, Leuconostoc spp. accounted for 1.3%, 2.0% and 4.8% of isolated LAB, respectively. The main difference in LAB composition between Sremski and Lemeski kulen, was the proportion of Lactococcus spp. (2.9% and 20.0%, respectively), although all isolates were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. Borovic et al.11 reported the presence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in Sremska kobasica, and which accounted for 2.0% of LAB, which was similar to our results in Sremski kulen. Interestingly, our results also showed that among LAB in Lemeski kulen, Pediococcus pentosaceus accounted for 2.9%, and this bacterium was not detected in Sremski kulen. On the contrary, literature data show that in Sremska kobasica, P. pentosaceus accounted for10%11and in Petrovska Klobasa up to 35%6 of LAB.

The composition of Lactobacillus species in Sremski and Lemeski kulen is shown in Fig. 2. In both products, the most abundant species was Lactobacillus brevis (61.5 and 57.9% respectively). However, the main difference was in the second most abundant species: Sremski kulen contained Lb. pentosus (11.5%) and Lb. salivarius (7.7%), in contrast to Lemeski kulen which contained Lb. curvatus ssp. curvatus (15.8%). Both products contained Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lb. plantarum and Lb. fermentum in similar percentages. According to literature data, the main Lactobacillus species in other Serbian traditional fermented sausages were Lb. sakei (59-79%) in Petrovska Klobasa and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (26.0%) in Sremska kobasica. As for traditional fermented sausages from Hungary, Italy and Greece, the most abundant LAB detected was Lb. sakei but in different proportions,

Dragan Vasilev et al. / Procedia Food Science 5 (2015) 300 - 303 303

accounting for 70%, 48.8% and 23.6-42.8% of the total, respectively.

■ Lactobacillus brevis ■ Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei ■ Lactobacillus fermentum

■ Lactobacillus pentosus ■ Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus salivarius

■ Lactobacillus curvatus ssp. curvatus

Fig. 2. Lactobacillus species isolated from (a) Sremski kulen; (b) Lemeski kulen.

4. Conclusion

The composition of microbiota of Sremski and Lemeski kulen was typical for fermeted sausages. The dominant LAB in both products were Lactobacillus (77.1 and 54.3%, respectively), followed by Leuconostoc spp (20.0 and 22.9% respectively). Lemeski kulen was characterized by a high percent of Lactococcus spp. (20.0%). The most abundant Lactobacillus species in Sremski and Lemeski kulen was Lb. brevis (61.5 and 57.9% respectively). Sremski kulen contained Lb. pentosus (11.5%) as well as Lb. salivarius (7.7%), in contrast to Lemeski kulen which contained Lb. curvatus ssp. curvatus (15.8%). Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lb. plantarum and Lb. fermentum were present in similar percentages in both products.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported under the project TR-31032 by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

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