Scholarly article on topic 'The Disparity of Watershed Development between Northern and Southern Region of Java Island'

The Disparity of Watershed Development between Northern and Southern Region of Java Island Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Kaswanto, Fitriyah Nurul Hidayati Utami

Abstract The disparity in Java Island can be observed from the difference of development between northern and southern watershed, particularly in the west part of Java. The northern region (NR) is represented by Cisadane and Ciliwung Watershed, while the southern region (SR) is Cimandiri and Cibuni Watershed. Those four watersheds are burst out from the same mountain which can be assumed the biophysical and geology conditions are similar, thus the driving force predominantly comes from human intervention. The disparities are coming from human force such as population, urbanization, migration, accessibility and others socio-economic factors. Although the watershed length and topographic condition are also force the disparities. This research aims to figure out the driving force of disparities between NR and SR, and arrange some recommendations to mitigate and adapt the environmental issues. The annual rate of land use and cover change (LUCC) shows that the forest reduction in the NR is twice than the SR and the agriculture land lost in the NR is three times than the SR. It means the NR is rapidly changed to built-up area, while the SR is slowly changed, but the SR gradually follows the NR condition. In addition, the average growth rate of population and the annual GDP in the NR are reached five times than the SR.

Academic research paper on topic "The Disparity of Watershed Development between Northern and Southern Region of Java Island"

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Procedia Environmental Sciences 33 (2016) 21 -26

The 2nd International Symposium on LAPAN-IPB Satellite for Food Security and Environmental

Monitoring 2015, LISAT-FSEM 2015

The disparity of watershed development between northern and southern region of Java Island

Kaswanto* and Fitriyah Nurul Hidayati Utami

Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Meranti St. Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Abstract

The disparity in Java Island can be observed from the difference of development between northern and southern watershed, particularly in the west part of Java. The northern region (NR) is represented by Cisadane and Ciliwung Watershed, while the southern region (SR) is Cimandiri and Cibuni Watershed. Those four watersheds are burst out from the same mountain which can be assumed the biophysical and geology conditions are similar, thus the driving force predominantly comes from human intervention. The disparities are coming from human force such as population, urbanization, migration, accessibility and others socio-economic factors. Although the watershed length and topographic condition are also force the disparities. This research aims to figure out the driving force of disparities between NR and SR, and arrange some recommendations to mitigate and adapt the environmental issues. The annual rate of land use and cover change (LUCC) shows that the forest reduction in the NR is twice than the SR and the agriculture land lost in the NR is three times than the SR. It means the NR is rapidly changed to built-up area, while the SR is slowly changed, but the SR gradually follows the NR condition. In addition, the average growth rate of population and the annual GDP in the NR are reached five times than the SR.

© 2016 The Authors. Published byElsevierB.V. Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of LISAT-FSEM2015

Keywords: land evaluation; landscape services; remote sensing; scenic beauty estimation (SBE); triple bottom line benefit

1. Introduction

The disparity in Java Island can be observed from the difference of development between northern and southern watershed, particularly in the west part of Java. The northern region (NR) is represented by Cisadane and Ciliwung

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-812-1939-739; fax: +62-251-8624-931. E-mail address: kaswanto@ipb.ac.id; kaswanto@apps.ipb.ac.id.

1878-0296 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of LISAT-FSEM2015 doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.052

Watershed, while the southern region (SR) is Cimandiri and Cibuni Watershed. As one of developing country in term of GDRP, Indonesia has potential economic growth surrounded by beautiful landscape which also has diverse ecosystem services [1, 2, 3]. The economic potencies can be found from mountainous area along the watershed landscape. These landscapes provided services to preserve and conserve the ecosystem while also provide resources for economic activities. These natural resources potencies tend to be ignored since the over used carrying capacity is often found in this area. The impacts decrease the agriculture production [4], disasters [5], flood and drought [6], sedimentation and decreasing water quality [7] and others negative impact for the landscape itself [8].

The aims of this research are to evaluate the disparity between the northern and the southern region of west part of Java Island, and to describe the recent condition of disparity of watershed as ecological boundary.

2. Methods

2.1. Study location

This research used LANDSAT satellite data set image, demographic, economic and tourism activities data. The study site is located at four watersheds, west part of Java Island, Indonesia (Fig. 1). Four watersheds were selected, Cisadane and Ciliwung Watershed represents the northern region (NR), while Cimandiri and Cibuni Watershed represents the southern region (SR). The NR included big cities such as, Jakarta, Depok, Bogor, Bandung and Bekasi.

106°0'0"E 107°0TrE

Fig. 1. Four watersheds as research site are located in west part of Java Island.

2.2. Data and analysis

The disparity was analyzed descriptively by comparing the trends in the set of population an economic growth data among administrative boundary inside ecological boundary of watersheds. Some data were calculated in each watersheds [9]. The NR and SR disparity was calculated particularly on the distribution of population and economic growth among four watersheds, between northern and southern coast region for the period 2009-2014.

There are many techniques to describe the disparity among region, such as Williamson Index, Theil Index, Atkinson Index, Hoover Coefficient, Coulter Coefficient and most use Gini Index [10]. This research used Williamson Index to describe and compare inter-watersheds disparities. Williamson Index formulas as follow [11]:

hu(yi-yYfi

Where:

y fi/p

Williamson Index

Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of area-i

GRDP average of the area or region

fi is population of region-i while p= Zfi total population

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Differences of driving factors for accelerating land use conversion between the NR and the SR

The land use conversion in the NR was mainly triggered by population density and the urbanization process. Meanwhile in the SR was not only driven by those two variables, but also the slope condition (Table 1). The watersheds in the SR was characterized by shorter river and more steepness than the NR, it means that the land use conversion is slightly slower because of the difficulty land cultivation. The watershed length and topographic condition forced the disparities.

Table 1. Driving force of land use conversion during two decades in the NR and SR.

Variables

Northern Regions

Southern Regions

G A B F G A B

Altitude 0.0022 0.0032 -0.0144 -0.0074 0.0011 0.0056 0.0001 -0.0125

Slope 0.0402 0.0340 -0.0057 0.0078 0.0010 0.0253 -0.0092 0.0438

Population density -0.0328 -0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.0001 -0.0001 0.0071

Distance to major road 0.0149 0.0071 0.0092 - 0.0077 0.0029 0.0023 -

Distance to river 0.0063 0.0082 0.0327 - 0.0061 0.0043 0.0088 -

Distance to urban area -0.5209 -0.0571 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.0045 0 0.0001 -0.0151

Soil drainage 0.0632 0.0789 -0.0616 0.0013 0.1449 0.8159 -0.0366 0.0004

Note: F: Forest area; G: Grassland; A: Agricultural lands and B: Built-up areas

3.2. Carbon stock between the NR and the SR

The carbon stock was calculated in small scale agroforestry system, i.e. home garden orpekarangan. The average carbon of non-trees, trees, soil and total in the NR are 6.88, 1.84, 4.42, 13.14 Mg/ha, respectively, while in the SR are 7.67, 2.88, 5.02 and 15.56 Mg/ha, respectively (Fig. 2). It means that the carbon stock in the SR is higher than in the NR. It is probably because of higher intensity of pekarangan utilization from rural community in the SR. The low rate of economic development intensity influenced pekarangan utilization, on the other hand the rural community tends to manage their pekarangan more intensive to get additional nutrition and additional income.

The highest value of carbon stock comes from non-trees because pekarangan contains a large number of understorey and necromass. Some pekarangan were cultivated with wide diversity of starchy crops, spicy, fruits, medicines, vegetable, industrial and ornamental plants. Therefore it has high carbon stock more than 50% of total.

= = £ 4,00-

Cisadane I Cimandin I Ciliwung Cibuni

watershed

Cisadane I Cimandin

Ciliwung Cibuni

watershed

1-1—~1-1—

Cisadane I Cimandin I

Ciliwung Cibuni

watershed

Cisadane I Cimândiri I Ciliwung Cibuni

watershed

Fig. 2. The total amount of carbon stock (Mg/ha) from biomass of non-trees, trees, and soil inside pekarangan. The C total in the NR is slightly

higher than the SR.

3.3. Difference biodiversity the NR and the SR

The Shannon-Wienner index shows that the plant diversity in the NR is lower than the SR. The minimum, mean and maximum value from the NR is 1.85, 2.87, and 3.18, while in the SR is 2.82, 3.31 and 3.50, respectively (Fig. 3).

Cisadane I Cimandin

Ciliwung Cibuni

Cisadane I Cimandin I

Ciliwung Cibuni

Fig. 3. The Shannon-Wienner and Margalef Index. The species diversity is higher in the SR compare to the NR.

The species diversity in the NR supposed to be declined because of the high rate conversion of land uses high population pressure and the acceleration of urbanization process.

The Margalef Index shows that the mean value in the NR (4.57) is higher than the SR (3.57). The minimummaximum value for the NR is 2.00 - 8.62 where the SR is 1.35 - 6.49.

3.4. Disparity between the NR and the SR

The calculation of Williamson Index for the NR (Cisadane: 0.983 and Ciliwung 1.056) is quite higher than the SR (Cimandiri 0.632 and Cibuni 0.542). This disparity comes from the differences of GDRP among those watersheds. The disparities are coming from human force such as population, urbanization, migration, accessibility and others socio-economic factors. In addition, the average growth rate of population and the annual GDP in the NR reached five times than the SR. This means that the pressure of population and urbanization are higher and heavily influence the disparity.

Ciliwung Cibuni Watershed

Fig. 4. Williamson's Index between the NR and the SR.

4. Conclusions

The LUCC results show that the land degradations were mainly triggered by the population growth and urbanization process. The annual rate of the LUCC shows that the forest reduction in the NR is twice than the SR, and the agriculture land lost in the NR is three times than the SR. The NR rapidly changed to built-up area, while the SR slowly changed, but the SR gradually tends to follow the NR trend. Furthermore, the average growth rate of population and the annual GDP in the NR reached five times than the SR.

The disparities are coming from human force such as population, urbanization, migration, accessibility and others socio-economic factors. Although the watershed length and topographic condition are also force the disparities.

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted under the project entitled Management of Agroforestry Landscape as Landscape Services Provider towards Low Carbon Societies (LCS) of BOPTN 2015. The satellite data were supported by Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB).

References

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