Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil and crops'

Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil and crops Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — M. Hachicha, B. Kahlaoui, N. Khamassi, E. Misle, O. Jouzdan

Abstract Two experiments were carried out to study the effect of the electromagnetic treatment of saline water on seed germination of corn and the response of soil and potato crop irrigated with such water. The experiments were performed under controlled conditions with different water quality and soil texture. The electromagnetic water treatment was applied using Aqua-4D physical water treatment device. Results showed a significant increase in germination rate of corn seedlings watered with electromagnetic-treated saline water (EC=4dSm−1), particularly when water was exposed to electromagnetic fields for 15min. The experiments carried on potato crop with two soil textures, showed a significant increase in tuber yield when irrigated with electromagnetic treated water. It was also observed a significant decrease of soil salinity (ECe), Na+ and Cl− contents of soils irrigated with electromagnetic treated saline water compared to the soils irrigated with non-treated saline water. In contrast, compared to both treatments (control treatment and saline water treatment), the electromagnetic saline water treatment produced non-significant effect on tuber yield, Mg2+ and HCO 3 - . However, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water increased significantly K+, N and P adsorption in all tissues of potato and decreased significantly the adverse effects of saline water. Based on our results, electromagnetic treatment of saline water can reduce the negative effect of salinity on corn germination and potato crop and increase yield in about 10% in test conditions.

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil and crops"

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M. Hachicha, B. Kahlaoui, N. Khamassi, E. Misle, O. Jouzdan

Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil and crops

Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences

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S1658-077X(16)00002-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jossas.2016.03.003 JSSAS 207

Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences

Received Date: Revised Date: Accepted Date:

17 October 2014 2 March 2016 7 March 2016

Please cite this article as: Hachicha, M., Kahlaoui, B., Khamassi, N., Misle, E., Jouzdan, O., Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil and crops, Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences (2016), doi: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2016.03.003

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EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TREATMENT OF SALINE WATER ON SOIL AND CROPS

Hachicha, M.1,Kahlaoui, B.1,Khamassi, N.2, Misle, E.3,Jouzdan, O.4

1Institut National de Recherche en Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts, 17 rue HédiKarray, BP n°10 Ariana 2080, Tunisia.

2Institut National de Recherche Agronomique de Tunis, 17 rue HédiKarray,BP n°10 Ariana 2080, Tunisia.

3Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Forestry, Universidad km 5 PB 7-D, Curico, Chile.

Católicadel Maule Camino a Los Niches

4 Arab Center for the studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD), Damascus, Syria.

Tel., +216. 71. 718 055 Fax, +216. 71. 717 951 Correspondence address, Mohamed Hachicha

E-mail:hachicha8@gmail.co BesmaKahlaoui

E-mail:besma.kahlaoui@gmail.com

EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TREATMENT OF SALINE WATER ON SOIL AND CROPS

bstract

o experiments were carried out to study the effect of the electromagnetic treatment of saline water on seed germination of corn and the response of soil and potato crop irrigated with such water. The experiments were performed under controlled conditions with different water quality and soil texture. The electromagnetic water treatment was applied using Aqua-4D physical water treatment device. Results showed a significant increase in germination rate of corn seedlings watered with electromagnetic-treated saline water (EC = 4 dS.m-1), particularly when water was exposed to electromagnetic fields for 15 minutes. The

experiments carried on potato crop with two soil textures, showed a significant increase in tuber yield when irrigated with electromagnetic treated water. It was also observed a significant decrease of soil salinity (ECe), Na+ and Cl- contents of soils irrigated with electromagnetic treated saline water compared to the soils irrigated with non-treated saline water. In contrast, compared to both treatments (control treatment and saline water treatment), the electromagnetic saline water treatment produced non-significant effect on tuber yield, Mg2+ and HCO3". However, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water increased significantly K+, N and P adsorption in all tissues of potato and decreased significantly the adverse effects of saline water. Based in our results, electromagnetic treatment of saline water can reduce the negative effect of salinity on corn germination and potato crop and increase yield in about 10% in test conditions.

Key words:

Electromagnetic water treatment, Seed germination, Potatoes, Tunisia. 1. Introduction

adverse!

The production of several crops continues to be adversely affected due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Damages caused by these stresses are responsible for enormous economic losses worldwide. Traditional breeding technologies and proper management strategies continue to play a main role in crop improvement. Conventional breeding programs are being employed to integrate favourable genes of interest from inter crossing genes into the crops to induce stress tolerance. However, conventional breeding methods have little success and have failed to provide desirable results (Purohit et al., 1998; Rai et al., 2011). In addition, cultural practices, including implementation of large engineering schemes for land reclamation, drainage, and irrigation with high-quality water, although essential, are usually expensive and often provide only a temporary solution to the problem. Therefore, we need to use other tools for addressing the critical problems of crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

A comp

plementary and more permanent approach to minimizing deleterious effects of soil and ater salinity is to develop crops that can grow and produce economically sufficient yields under saline conditions (Epstein et al., 1980; Foolad, 1996). In this sense, extensive areas in Tunisia have semi-arid conditions and severe problems of salinization due to poor drainage, mineral weathering or irrigation with low water quality. The knowledge of the spatial extension of salt affected soils may help improve agriculture management practices. In this respect, an increasing salinization of the irrigation water is forcing farmers of arid and semiarid regions to implement innovative techniques to preserve crop yield and quality while

coping with the degradation of this major resource (Debaeke and Aboudrare, 2004). Among these approaches, some closely related studies have reported beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields in a number of farming situations. Magnetic treatment of water can influence the root growth of various plant species (Turker et al., 2007). Indeed, some studies reported by Esitken and Turan (2004) and Selim and El-Nady (2011) have shown that there is an increase in number of flowers, earliness and total fruit yield of strawberry and tomatoes withthe application of magnetic fields. Most researchers have treated crop seeds with different magnetic fields and they succeeded to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth; for example, it was found that a magnetic field applied to dormant seeds increases greatly the rate of seedling growth of wheat, barley, corn, beans, tomatoes, certain tree fruits, and other tree species (Pittman, 1977; Angel et al., 1999; Dagoberto et al., 2002; Moon and Chung, 2000; Martinez et al., 2002; Socorro and Carbonell, 2002).Selim and El-Nady (2011)reported significant increases in plant height, root length, fresh and dry weights of different organs, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and leaf area index of tomato plants as a result of the application of magnetic technologies. It can be observed that the highest increases in most growth characters were recorded by the magnetized water compared to the combination of magnetized seeds and water. However, the variable magnetic fields may affect the biological functions of organisms through changes of hormone concentrations, changes of enzyme functions or transport of ions through the cell membrane and through changes in DNA synthesis or transmission (Strasak et al., 2002). If we are dealing with electrical anisotropy of the structure of plant tissues and cells, the magnetic field affects the functioning of ion pumps for the transport of Ca2+ ions (Piacentini et al., 2001).

Generally, the literature review indicates that likely there are some positive effects of magnetic fields on plant growth. The exact mechanism of the effect of magnetic fields on living organisms is still unclear. Using magnetic fields treatment to improve plant growth is not expensive and at the same time not dangerous to the environment. According to the Swiss company Planet Horizons Technologies, the electromagnetic treatment of water affects the behaviour of inorganic and organic materials in water, including crystallisation and biological processes. The technology of physical treatment of water by a magnetic device that works with very low frequency and very low intensities, permit to recreate a structure of natural and optimized water in its ability to dissolve and transport minerals. Electromagnetic water treatment allows irrigation with saline water without any detrimental effects on plants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic

treatment of saline water on seed germination of corn and the response of soil and potato crop irrigated with saline water.

Materials and methods

1.1 Electromagnetic device (Aqua-4D)

Aqua-4D is a physical water treatment technology, based on the quantum and the electrodynamics' physics.The quantum physics indicate that water is a matter organized and structured, and not chaotic as one might think. Water and its components can adopt many different structures. Depending on the structure taken by the water, the behaviour of dissolved minerals and biological materials is different. For the electrodynamics physics, it acts on the structure of water, giving it properties that create a better dissolution and distribution of minerals in the water, better water retention in the soil, and better adsorption of minerals by plants, while not destroying the bacterial soil life and promoting a balance between the different elements of the living soil.

The electromagnetic device Aqua 4D consists of two basic modules:

- An electronic box pre-programmed to generate electromagnetic signals (EM).

- Tubes especially designed for transmitting the EM signal into the water.

>rown 1]

signed for t

1.2 Methods

Two different experiments were performed: a study on germination of corn seeds and a study on potato crop, grown in soil and in pots.

1.2.1 Study on germination of corn seeds treated by saline water

To evaluate salt tolerance during germination, 25 seeds of corn were placed on a filter paper in a 9 cm Petri dish and soaked with 5 ml of water solution. Three water qualities were used: distilled water as control, (TW) treated saline water by electromagnetic device and (UW) reated saline water. Saline water was prepared by mixing salt (NaCl) with distilled water. Different concentration of salt was used during the experiment as to get the following electrical conductivities (EC): 0.14, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10 dS.m-1. Experiments were performed in a completely randomized design with 5 replicates in laboratory conditions. Germination counts were made daily and corn seeds were considered to have germinated when the radicle was emerged.

1.2.2 Study on potatoes crops irrigated with saline water

The experiment was performed at the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunis (INRAT), Tunisia under the natural conditions of a greenhouse and repeated for two seasons (Autumn2011 and Spring 2012). Crops were made in the ground (soil) and in pots.

In the ground, the soil was a silty clay loam (clay= 26%, silt=44% and sand=30%), rich in limestone (25%) and poor in organic matter (1%). In the pots, two kinds of soils were used: a clay soil and a sandy soil. The first is as indicated as in the ground soil. The second kind of soil was a sandy (clay= 3%, silt=4% and sand=93%), rich in limestone (20%) and very poor in organic matter (0.4%). The pH for the two soils was basic and the salinity was low (Table 1).

a length of 10 m were set up. The spacing en drippers was 30 cm. Three lines were

For autumn season (2011), six lines of drippers of ; between lines was 80 cm and the spacing between drippers was 30 cm. Three lines were supplied with saline water treated by the device Aqua-4D (TW) and the other three lines were supplied with untreated saline water (UT). 180 tubers of the variety of potato seeds Spunta were pre-germinated in 4/10/2011 (90 tubers for each water quality (TW) and (UT)). In parallel, an experiment in pots was carried out with two soil texture and the same potato variety. Freshwater (potable water) was used as control behind the two others saline waters (Table 2).A total of 60 pots were used, 30 containers of each soil texture.

For spring season (2012), two cultivars from different sources of potato Spunta were used: local and imported provenance. Seeds were provided by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunis (INRAT), Tunisia. Planting took place on February 2012. The same set up of dripper's lines was made as in autumn 2011 experiment. Two lines were supplied with saline water treated by the device Aqua-4D (TW), two lines were supplied with untreated saline water (UT) and the other two last lines were supplied with freshwater (potable water) as control (C). The characteristics of irrigation waters are described in Table 3.

Analyses

1.3.1 Water analyses

Irrigation water was periodically analysed. The average characteristics are shown in Tables 2 and 3.

1.3.2 Soil analyses

Soil salinity was measured before the start of the experiment and at the end of the crop cycle, at the roots level, every20 cm up to 40 cm depth. The soil/water ratio was 1/5. A significant linear relationship permitted to convert the soil electrical conductivity EC (1/5) to the electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract (ECe) (Jammazi and Hachich 2002).

1.3.3 Plant analysis „V

For chemical analyses, samples of leaf, petioles, stems and roots were used. The organic ions were extracted from dry matter by HNO3 at room temperature for 48 h. K+ and Na+ were analyzed by flame emission using an Eppendorf spectrophotometer (JENWAY PFP7).Total nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl method and phosphorus content estimated by the chlorostannous molybdo-phosphoric blue colour method (Piper, 1944).

the ha,

1.3.4 Data analyses

Statistical processing was performed by th France, 1997). All the recorded paramete Means comparisons were carried out by the

2. Results

out by t

treatmen

od (Piper,

y the software STATistica, Versit rs were subjected to anone-way analys he LSD test at the significance level of

statistica, Version 5 (Statsoft bjected to anone-way analysis of variance.

2.1 Effect on soil salinit

The electromagnetic treatment of saline water had a significant effect on ECe (Fig.1a and 1b).

Soil salinity was decreased compared to the soil irrigated by non-treated saline water. It is clear with the autumn experiment, despite the ECe is lower than the spring experiment which it is explained by the difference of the water quality (ECw): ECw was for autumn experiment and spring experiment. Figure 1a show a significant increase of ECe with treated and non-treated waters at the depth of 20-40 cm. On the other hand, ECe was not significantly rent in the depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm in the control.

Additional chemical soil analyses were carried out in the Spring season experiment. As seen in the Table 4, significantly less Na+ and Cl- was found in the soil irrigated with treated saline water. Moreover, compared to the control, the treated saline water had non-significant effect

on Mg2+, and HCO3- contents in the soil. On the other hand, our data showed an increase of K+, Ca2+ and SO42- in both treated and non-treated saline water compared to the control (potable water).

The pots test highlighted the soil texture effect. A significant effect on the ECe was observed (Fig. 2). Although, we noticed an increase in ECe in clay and sand soils with all the three kinds of water (Control, TW and UW), the electromagnetic treatment of saline water had a significant effect on ECe:ECe is significantly lower in the soil irrigated with treated saline water than the soil irrigated with untreated saline water.

2.2 Effect on crops

2.2.1 Germination of corn seeds

Figure 3a shows that the germination rate decreased significantly with the increase of salt concentration. This reduction is clearer with a high concentration C5 (10 dS.m-1). The treatment of saline water produced a significant effect on the germination rate particularly at concentration C2 (4 dS.m-1). As seen in Figure 3b, the germination rate is higher with the extension of time of electromagnetic treatment of saline water. This significant increase is noticed at concentration C2 (4 dS.m-1) compared to the both treated and non-treated waters.

2.2.2 Potato yield Autumn 2011 experiment

In the Autumn experiment, with potato grown in the ground, the effect of treated saline water induced a variation of about 11% of the harvest yield: 25.7 T.ha-1 with treated water vs.23.2 ton.ha-1 with non-treated water but according to the statistical test, this difference was not significant (Fig. 4a).With potatoes grown in pots, the soil texture had a significant effect on yield and it was significantly increased in the case of clay soil compared to the sandy soil. However, a not significant difference was noticed between all treatments (Control, treated and untreated waters; Fig 4b).

ring 2012 experiment

In 2012 spring experiment, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water produced a positive effect on potato yield of Spunta from the two provenances (Fig. 5). The tuber yield was higher for both provenances of potato (Spunta) when irrigated with saline water treated than these irrigated by untreated saline water. The significant increase of tuber yield was higher in the local provenance than the imported provenance.

2.2.3 Mineral nutrition

The electromagnetic treatment had a significant effect on the accumulation of Na+ in potato from both provenances. It decreased the toxicity in all tissues of Spunta variety of two provenances (Fig. 6a and 6b). The electromagnetic treatment significantly increased P, N and K contents in all tissues of potato. However, this treatment compared to the control (potable water), had non-significant on K and P contents in stems and roots of plants of local provenance and N in leaves of plants of imported provenance.

Discussion

Saline soils and the need of irrigation with saline water constitute a serious production problem in vegetable crops as saline conditions are known to penalise plant growth. Salt stress can affect seed germination by decreasing the ease by which the seeds take up water, because the activities and events normally associated with germination are delayed and/or preceded at a reduced rate. Salinity can also affect germination by facilitating the uptake of toxic ions, which can cause changes to certain enzymatic or hormonal activities of the seed. These physicochemical effects upon the seed seem to result in a slower and/or lower rate of germination (Shannon and Grieve, 1999). These results are consistent with our present study which confirms that salinity adversely affects the germination rate of corn. The results of our study are consistent with the findings of Yilmaz et al. (2004) on pepper. The increase of germination rate of corn soaked with electromagnetically treated saline water, particularly with the extension of time of 15 min as observed in the present study, has already earlier been reported with other crops plants such as broad bean, tomato, onion and wheat (Moon and Chung, 2000; Novitsky et al., 2001; Angel et al., 2004; De Souza et al., 2006). Amaya et al. (1996) and Podleoeny et al. (2004) have shown that an optimal external electromagnetic field accelerates plant growth, especially seed germination percentage and emergence speed.

Most researchers, concerned with plant growth under magnetic fields have analyzed seed germination in darkness as a test, which is the basic effect of magnetic on plants. Experiments e proved that a certain magnetic field strength could affect cell division, cell extension, and cell differentiation. Many physical and chemical factors participate in germination, which is the process of initiating the growth of a previously dormant embryo (Bradford, 1990). Based on the phenomenon where a certain intensity of electromagnetic fields affects seed germination and plant growth, it was thought that magnetic fields can cause changes in the ionic concentration across the cellular membrane and thus in the osmotic pressure which regulated the entrance of water to crops seeds, which may be the explanation of the reported

alterations in germination rate of seeds by the magnetic field (Negishi et al., 1999; Reina et al., 2001). However, Kornarzynski et al. ( 2004) suggested that the cabbage seeds and radish stimulated with variable magnetic fields at induction of B= 30, 60,and 100 mT for stimulation times from 4 to 60 s, a positive effect on germination rate and yields was obtained for induction of 30 mT.

net wa cel

In our current study, the effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water has not significantly affected the yield of potato in the experiment on ground. This result is consistent with the work of Maheshwari et al. (2009) on pea. However, it had no significant effect on the yield and water productivity for pea plant. In the pots test, the tuber yield increased in clay soil more than in sandy soil. According to Al-Omran et al. (2005), the differences could be due to the clay deposit characteristics and variation in CaCO3 content, CEC and the dominant clay minerals. Sandy soils are particularly critical for water management in irrigated agriculture because of their low water-holding capacity and low clay contents. The productivity of these soils is limited by high infiltration rate, high evaporation; low fertility level, low water-holding capacity and low organic matter content (Al-Omran et al., 2005).

It is a well-established fact that yields of crop plants in drying soil declines even in tolerant lines of that crop species (Iqbal et al.,2008). A similar trend in yield decline was observed during the present investigation, the yield was reduced due to non-treated saline water. The decrease in yield in both tuber provenances has also been reported by Iqbal et al. (2008). The present work clearly indicated that salt tolerant potato showed less reduction in yield of plants with respect to susceptible provenance. Hence, maintenance of better yield of the variety Spunta, of local provenance than the crop from imported provenance with the saline water treated points towards its higher salt tolerance ability. This finding in the current study is similar to the ones of Esitken and Turan (2004), Danilov et al. (1994) and Podlleoeny et al. (2004) who reported increased fruit yield of strawberry, tomatoes and broad bean by magnetic fields. However, Maheshwari et al. (2009) reported that the magnetic treatment of irrigation ter resulted in statistically significant increases in the yield and water productivity for celery and snow pea plants in some instances. Likewise, according to the view of Hilal and Helal (2003), the magnetically treated water has been utilized to improve yielding conditions of desert soils with high salinity and calcification, where higher yields were obtained for tomato, pepper, maize and wheat.

Efforts have been made to control salinity by various technological means including soil reclamation, drainage, the use of high leaching fractions, and the application of soil amendments (Rady, 2012). In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of sustainable agriculture; hence, several materials and treatments have been applied as using the electromagnetic treatment of saline water to overcome the adverse effects of soil salinity, to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils, to increase their water retention, and to provide mineral nutrients. Based in this background, the present study investigates the significant decrease of ECe of soil with the electromagnetic of saline water (WT). Furthermore, the significant increase of ECe in the clay soil than in sandy soil could be explained by the view of Yassoglou (1987) and Melendez-Pastor et al. (2010) who had reported that the use of irrigation water with high electrical conductivity and high Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) in soils with low permeability and low supply of bivalent cations leaded to a slow but progressive salinization of the soil. This significant decrease regarding this parameter of the soil has an effect in the chemical characteristics of the soil. Indeed, in the current study, an increase in soil available K, particularly under electromagnetically treated saline water irrigation, appears to have played some role in improving salt tolerance of potato of two provenances. Electromagnetic treatment of saline water may be influencing desorption of K from soil adsorbed on colloidal complex, and thus increasing its availability to plants, resulting in an improved plant growth and productivity. Confirmed on our view, Noran et al. (1996) observed differences in the concentrations of K, N, P, Na and Ca and Mg in soils irrigated with electromagnetically treated water when compared those with normal water. They argued that electromagnetic treatment of water slows down the movement of minerals, probably due to the effect of acceleration of the crystallisations and precipitation processes of the solute minerals. In the other hand, Mostafazadeh-Fard et al. (2011) reported that the magnetized irrigation water under trickle irrigation had a good potential to reduce soil cations

con Inc:

anions. This will result in lower salt concentrations in soil profile and better soil litions for plant growth.

Increased K and P contents in stems and roots of plants of local provenance and Nin leaves of plants of imported under electromagnetically treated water in the current study also suggest an improved availability, uptake, assimilation and mobilization of these nutrients within plant system and may have contributed to improving the productivity of variety Spunta of potato with magnetic treatment of water. Duarte Diaz et al. (1997) reported an increase in nutrient uptake by magnetic treatment in tomatoes. A marked increase in P content of citrus leaves by

magnetically treated water was also reported by Hilal et al. (2002). An increase in nutrient uptake by magnetic treatment was also observed in tomatoes by Duarte Diaz et al.(1997) and Selim and El-Nady (2011) and by Celery and snow pea plants (Mahshwari and Grewal, 2012).

Our results of reduced Na concentration in all tissues of both provenances of potato cv. Spunta irrigated with electromagnetically treated saline water when compared to the irrigation with saline water suggest restricted Na loading into potato crop. Electromagnetic treatment may be assisting to reduce the Na toxicity at cell level by detoxification of Na, either by restricting the entry of Na at membrane level or by reduced absorption of Na by plant roots. Alternatively, the reduction of Na concentration in local and imported provenances of potato cv. Spunta may be associated with dilution of salts when they were irrigated with electromagnetically treated saline water.

when th

3. Conclusion

Results of the current study demonstrated beneficial effects, of electromagnetically treated saline water, on soil and plants. The electromagnetically treatment of saline water plays an important role in the protection of plants as corn and potato crops against the adverse effects of salt stress. The electromagnetic treatment of saline irrigation water increased, significantly the germination rate of corn seeds, absorption of the nutrients (K, N and P) by the potatoes and decreased the ion toxicity for the crop by decreasing the Na+ contents in the plants. In addition to these beneficial effects, the electromagnetic treatment of saline water had a positive effect on yield. This means that this technology can be recommended to farmers to improve their production when they are facing poor soil and water quality. However, it will be critical to clearly understand the mechanisms and processes that affect plant yield when they are irrigated with electromagnetically treated water, to identify the limits of the operating requirements and to evaluate its effectiveness under field situations.

requireme

Acknowledgements

The study was carried out under the agreement between INRGREF and the Tunisian company Générale Horti-Services representing in Tunisia - Swiss company Planet Horizons Technologies. It was also supported by the National project (PISEAU II) "saline water use in centre of Tunisia" and the INRGREF/ACSAD project for transferring use of saline water for the farmers.

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Figure l.Variation of electric conductivity (ECe) of soil under (a) the electromagnetic treatment of saline and (b) depth of soil. All values are the mean of three replications (n=3) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test. (C: initial soil; T: soil irrigated with saline Treated Water; N: soil irrigated with untreat saline water).

2- 2 01 o

(a) Ground □ CEe test c

Treatments

Figure 2. Effect of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on ECe of soil in the soil pots test. All values are the mean of three replications (n=3) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test. (C: initial soil; T: soil irrigated with saline Treated Water; N: soil irrigated with untreated saline water).

Figure 3.Effects of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on germination of corn plants. (C0, C2, C3, C4 and C5 represent respectively 0.14, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS.m-1 of salts).

All values are the mean of four replications (n=5) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test.

Figure 4. Effects of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on tubers yield of potato in (a) Ground test and in (b) pots test. All values are the mean of three replications (n=3) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test. (C: control (potable water); T: electromagnetic treated saline water; N: Saline water non-treatec

Figure 5. Effects of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on tuber yield of two provenances of Spunta variety. All values are the mean of three replications (n=3) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test. (C: control (potable water); T: electromagnetic treated saline water; N: Saline water non-treated).

Treaiments

Figure 6. Effects of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on Na+, K+, N and P contents of two provenances of variety "Spunta" of potato. All values are the mean of three replications (n=3) and bars with different letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) according to the LSD test.

Table l.Chemical characteristics of soil (ECe in dS.m-1 and ions in meq.L-1).

Texture pH ECe CO3" HCO3" Cl" SO42" Na+ K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ A

Silty clay 8.07 0.98 0 0.4 5 3.8 3.5 0.7 3.1

Sand 8.36 0.99 0 0.5 6 3.3 3.5 0.3 3.9 2.3

All values are the mean ± SE of three replications (n=3). The different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05 according to LSD test.

Table 2. Chemical characteristics of the irrigation water(me.L-1)(Autumn 2011 experiment).

pH EC CO3" HCO3- Cl- SO- Na+ K+ C?+ Mg2+ SAR

Non- 7.0 4.0 0 09 28.0 2.8 221 01 5.1 3.6 7.4 treated water

Treated 7.2 4.0 0 1.3 28.0 2.1 21.6 0.1 5.0 3.8 7.2 water

3). The d

Potable 7.9 1.4 0 0.9 8.0 5.0 7.0 0.3 4.0 3.0 4.0 water

All values are the mean ± SE of three replications (n=3). The different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05 according to LSD test.

Table 3.Chemical characteristics of the irrigation water (me.L-1) (Spring 2012 experiment).

pH EC dS.m"1 CO3" HCO3" Cl" SO4" Na+ K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ SAR /

Potable 7.9 water 1.4 0 0.9 8 5 7 0.3 4 3 4

Saline 7.3 water 9.2 0 2.6 57.8 31 45.8 5 22 19.1 6 Or

All values are the mean ± SE of three replications (n=3). The different letters are significantly

different at P < 0.05 according to LSD test. /

Table 4.Effects of electromagnetic treatment of saline water on soil chemical components (meq.L-1).

Water C?+ Mg^ Na+ K+ Cl HCO3" SO42

Potable 6±0.94a 1±0.34a 11.8±0.68 4.29±0.2 11.76±1.07 1.06±0.0

a 3b 5a 9a

Treated 12±2.8 1.1±0.25 39.86±9.7 4.4±0.82 37.66±3.21 1.33±0.0 15.39±3.2

8b b 7b b b 9a 8b __

Untreat 16±7.1 1.76±1.3 55.33±9.8 2,23±2.9 55.63±5.19 1.43±0.5 20.53±6.5

ed 8c 1c 2c 2a c 4a 3c

All values are the mean ± SE of three replications (n=3). The different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05 according to LSD test.