Scholarly article on topic 'Evaluation of the Modified Chimney Performance to Replace Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Housing'

Evaluation of the Modified Chimney Performance to Replace Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Housing Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{Chimney / "natural draft flow" / "mechanical ventilation" / "broiler House."}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — M.M. Rahman, C.M. Chu, S. Kumaresen, F.Y. Yan, P.H. Kim, et al.

Abstract The demand of poultry products and prices are increasing very rapidly. Therefore, modern poultry industry is using mechanical ventilation system in closed housing to support the increased growth rate of the birds. Ventilation system is used to produce the healthier and quality broiler by reducing indoor air pollutant concentration and temperature. Currently, the price of fossil fuel is increasing day by day; therefore, minimization of overall cost of poultry production needs reduction in energy consumption or introduction of cheaper and alternative energy sources. Although solar heating system is used in broiler industries during winter but limited research was done on natural wind-driven ventilation system. In the current study, natural draft chimney was modified with wire mesh screen and was designed for the enhanced ventilation. In laboratory, it was found that the modified chimney significantly minimized the draft losses and increased the ventilation rate up to 60 to 90 percent compared to the normal conventional chimney. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) showed that the chimney performance was significantly improved in the modified solar chimney than that in the normal one. It is suggested that modified solar chimney can be used to replace the mechanical ventilation system in poultry farming to reduce the production cost as well to meet the demand of animal protein for human beings.

Academic research paper on topic "Evaluation of the Modified Chimney Performance to Replace Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Housing"

(I)

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Engineering 90 (2014) 245 - 248

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

10th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, ICME 2013

Evaluation of the Modified Chimney Performance to Replace Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Housing

M. M. Rahmana*, C. M. Chua, S. Kumaresena, F. Y. Yana, P.H. Kima, M. Mashudb, M.S.

Rahmanc

a School of Engineering and IT, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia bDepartment of Mechancial Engineering,KUET, Khulna, Bangladesh c School of Sustainable Agriculture,Sandakan, Sabah Malaysia

AbstractThe demand of poultry products and prices are increasing very rapidly. Therefore, modern poultry industry is using mechanical ventilation system in closed housing to support the increased growth rate of the birds. Ventilation system is used to produce the healthier and quality broiler by reducing indoor air pollutant concentration and temperature. Currently, the price of fossil fuel is increasing day by day; therefore, minimization of overall cost of poultry production needs reduction in energy consumption or introduction of cheaper and alternative energy sources. Although solar heating system is used in broiler industries during winter but limited research was done on natural wind-driven ventilation system. In the current study, natural draft chimney was modified with wire mesh screen and was designed for the enhanced ventilation. In laboratory, it was found that the modified chimney significantly minimized the draft losses and increased the ventilation rate up to 60 to 90 percent compared to the normal conventional chimney. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) showed that the chimney performance was significantly improved in the modified solar chimney than that in the normal one. It is suggested that modified solar chimney can be used to replace the mechanical ventilation system in poultry farming to reduce the production cost as well to meet the demand of animal protein for human beings.

© 2014TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. Thisisan open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection andpeer-reviewunderresponsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)

Keywords: Chimney; natural draft flow; mechanical ventilation; broiler House.

1. Introduction

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +6088320000-3060 fax: +88041-774900. E-mail address:mizanur@ums. edu. my

1877-7058 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering

and Technology (BUET)

doi: 10.1016/j .proeng.2014.11.844

To maintain broiler health and ensure optimum production rate, it is needed to take away the gases, heat and particulate matter (PM) from broiler house. A good ventilation system is used in broiler house for taking away these pollutants to atmosphere [1, 2, 3]. This makes the ventilation system as an essential component for poultry farm. A good ventilation reduces indoor contaminates significantly and improves air quality as well as keeps broiler comfortable at hot climate by using the cooling effect of high ventilation rate [4]. Natural or mechanical ventilation systems are used in the poultry industries depends on number of birds in the broiler house. In the natural ventilation system, heat sources control the rate of ventilation whereas, in the mechanical ventilation system mechanical equipment's are used for creating draft for ventilation [5, 6]. The poultry industries widely used properly designed mechanically operated pad cooling with ventilation system but it is relatively expansive because of high operating cost. The alternative or renewable energy such as solar chimney is used to enhance the natural ventilation in house, dryer etc. but the use of alternative energy for ventilation in the poultry or broiler house are very limited in literature [7], therefore, the aim of this paper is to design and modelling a new type of ventilation system for broiler or poultry house to reduce the operating cost by introducing an alternative option.

2. Literature Review

In poultry industries, ventilation system creates air velocity that has a significant influence on animal heat loss. In addition, ventilation system is used not only for the control of indoor environment and reduces gas concentration but also to achieve a suitable air velocity in the broiler house for the animal, especially in summer [8]. So, in the hot climate the primary function of the ventilation is removing the heat produced by broiler [9]. In practice, most of the commercial broiler farms in the tropical region use mechanical ventilation system (fans) by adjusting the inlets to ensure the differential pressure between inlet and outlet [8]. Due to increasing price of fossil fuel and to reduce the poultry production costs, need to minimise the energy uses in the broiler production. About 43% of the electric energy is used to run mechanical ventilation system, so fanless or natural ventilation system will be a valid option for effective broiler house [10]. The natural ventilation can be used but it's main identified problem is it does not provide adequate air ventilation or temperature reduction for commercial farms [11]. Although the research effort in using alternative energy (solar energy) in various forms for broiler industries is started since 1950's but most of the researches focused on heating system during cold weather but very limited research was focused on solar chimney ventilation system. Solar chimney can be alternative option to enhance the ventilation rate but the height of the chimney is identified as main barrier to establish this technology for sufficient ventilation [12]. Research on natural draft chimney was carried out at the School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The natural draft chimney was modified with wire mesh. The inlet air velocities were found to be more than double in the modified natural draft chimney compare with normal chimney. The differential pressure reading in the modified with solid wall chimney were also much higher compared with a normal chimney. This indicates that modification in the natural draft chimney model restored velocity losses and differential pressure losses significantly. The multiple regression models found that the velocity and differential pressure losses were indirectly proportional to apparent heat gain ratio (ratio between heat transferred to the air and heat supplied to system). In addition, it was found that modified chimney exit temperature was increased with respect to the ambient temperature and it was directly proportional to the ratio of total chimney height with respect to solid wall chimney height. For the same heat load, modified chimney significantly increased the apparent heat gain ratio and this higher apparent heat gain ratio eliminates the problems of normal chimney. After carefully considered all the outcome of the chimney projects it is plan to use modified solar chimney in the poultry house to replace the mechanical ventilation system as well as to get more financial benefit than normal. Hence, it is a new idea; therefore, CFD is used to evaluate the performance of the modified chimney on poultry house ventilation to replace the mechanical system [13, 14].

3. Materials and Methods

The basic assumption of this paper was to evaluate the modified chimney performance as a replacement of mechanical ventilation system in the broiler house. Details experimental setups were mentioned in the earlier paper [14]. During experiment, just to understand the effect of wire mesh on chimney, three different normal and modified chimneys, having face area 0.56m2, 1.00m2 and 2.56m2 were used for the experiments. Total 12 numbers of K type thermocouples were used to investigate the temperature profile inside and outside the chimney during experiment. In addition, a vane anemometer (Airflow LC-430 VA), a Furness Controls (FC-0320) differential, a voltmeter and a clamp multi-meter were the principal instruments. PHOENICS 2012 software was used to investigate the effects of

modified chimney on broiler house ventilation system. Therefore, two models was design with chimney, one having wire mesh at exit and another with no wire mesh. Single-instance flow-simulation scenarios, kechen turbulence model and air as ideal gas were considered for analysis the problems. It was also considered that only natural convection process was taken place during operation of broiler house and side walls were perfectly sealed so there was no leakage from the wall side. The software was also used to determine the exit air velocity and to understand the flow mechanism at the exit of the model.

4. Results and Discussion

By using three different chimney models a total of 96 sets of experiments were carried out. To ensure the accuracy of the experiment were replicated three times for solid wall chimney and modified chimney (Solid wall chimney with wire mesh). The experimental results showed that maximum air volumetric flow rate 0.018m3/s can be achieved with modified chimney whereas in the normal chimney the value was approximately 0.012m3/s (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Previous studies have shown that broiler house needs 1.3 m/s to 2 m/s air velocity [8, 15, 16, 17, 18,19] which can be achievable by solar modified chimney with heat load 1kW per square meter. In all experiments on an average 3% error war found. The experimental results also showed that for the same heat load modified chimney has better flow rate compare to the solid wall chimney, because the wire meshes in the modified prototype chimney notably minimize the losses, as a result, enhance draft as well as remarkable increase of air flow rate are achieved.The results also confirmed by the PHOENICS simulation software. The examples of the outcomes are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. The simulation result showed that use of modified chimney has significant effect on flow pattern. In the model with normal chimney (Figure 4) shows significant effect on entrainment air and flow reversal or cold inflow at the exit point that resulted less velocity compare to model with chimney and wire mesh.

0.014 0.012 0.010

0.004 0.002

♦ ♦

♦ <»♦

2.00 Heat load Q (kW)

Fig.1. Relation between heat load and air flow rate in modified chimney model

Fig. 2. Relation between heat load and air flow rate in normal chimney model

Fig. 3. Estimated air velocity in house model with modified chimney

Fig. 4. Estimated air velocity in house model with normal chimney

5. Conclusions

The model broiler house with modified chimney has higher the air flow rate compare to model with normal chimney. The effect of entrainment air and flow reversal or cold inflow in the model with normal chimney exists

that disturb the exit air and reduce the air flow rate in the broiler house model. The improvement was significant in the simulation results of the model with modified chimney. The laboratory experiment on chimney performance was also showed that modified chimney had 60 to 90 velocity improvements compare to normal chimney. Therefore, broiler house with modified chimney can be used for broiler house ventilation and can reduce consumption of electricity as well as the cost of broiler production. Although the date rate broiler is higher in natural ventilation system but broiler house with modified chimney will decrease death rate of broiler by increasing the natural ventilation rate.

References

[1] Linden, P.F (1999),"The Fluid Mechanics of Natural Ventilation", Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1999. 31:201-38

[2] Kettlewell, P. J.; Hoxey, R. P.; Hampson, C. J.; Green, N. R.; Veale, B. M.; Mitchell, M. A. (2001), "Design and Operation of a Prototype Mechanical Ventilation System for Livestock Transport Vehicles "J. agric. Engng Res. (2001) 79 (4), 429-439

[3] Redwin, J. S., Lacey R.E., Mukhtar, S., Carey, J. B. (2002) "Concentration and Emissions of Ammonia and Particulate Matter in Tunnel -Ventilated Broiler House under Summer Condition in Texas", Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 45 (4) : 1101 -1109

[4] Zajicek, M., Pavel, K. (2013) "Longitudinal Ventilation of Broiler House - Simulation of Variants", Engineering for Rural Development,

Jelgava 23-24.05.2013

[5] Simonson, C., (2005), "Energy Consumption and Ventilation Performance of a naturally ventilated Ecological House in a Cold Climate" Energy and Buildings 37 (2005) 23 -35

[6] Wheeler, E. F. (1997), "Inlets for Mechanical Ventilation Systems in Animal Housing", G91 Fact Sheet, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Extension, engrabe.cedcc.psu.edu

[7] Tantasavasdi, N., Jelena, S., Qingyan, C., (2001), "Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand", Energy and Buildings, 33 (2001) 815 - 824.

[8] Blanes-Vidal, V., Fitas, V., Torres, A., (2007) Differential pressure as a control parameter for ventilationin poultry houses: effect on air velocity in the zone occupiedby animals, Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2007 5(1), 31-37

[9] Feddes, J. J. R., Leonard, J. J., McQuitty,J. B., (1984) "Broiler Heat and Moisture Production under Commercial Conditions", Canadian Agricultural Engineering, 26 (1),57- 64.

[10] Alloui, N., Alloui, M.N., Bennoune, O., Bouhentala, S. (2013), " Effect of Ventilation and Atmospheric Ammonia on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens in Summer", Journal of World's Poultry Research, 3 (2): 54-56

[11] Abreu, P.G., Valeria, M.N.A., Arlei C., Fatima, R.F.J., Doralice, P.P., (2007), "Evaluation of litter material and ventilation systems on poultry production:II. Thermal comfort" RevistaBrasileira de Zootecnia, v.40, n.6, p.1356-1363

[12] Rahman, M. M., Ming, C. C., Kumaresen, S., Kim, P. H. (2013) "Feasibility Study of the Low Height to Diameter Ratio Solar Chimney", published in the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Energy Materials, Solar Cells & Solar Energy Applications (Solar Asia 2013), 22- 24th August 2013.

[13] Chu Chi Ming, Md. MizanurRahman and SivakumarKumaresan (2012), "Effect Of Cold Inflow On Chimney Height of Natural Draft Cooling Towers", Vol. 249, August, pp. 125- 131, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Elsevier

[14] Md. MizanurRahman, and SivakumarKumaresan, and Chu, Chi Ming (2010) Temperature profile data in the zone of flow establishment above a model air-cooled heat exchanger with 0.56 m2 face area operating under natural convection. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (21). pp. 2673-2677. ISSN 1812-5654

[15] Yahav S., Straschnow A., Vax E., Razpakovski V., Shinder D., (2001), "Air velocity alters broiler performance under harsh environmental conditions". Poultry Science, 80(6), 724-726

[16] Corkery, G., Ward, S., Kenny, C., Hemmingway, P., (2013), "Monitoring Environmental Parameters in Poultry Production Facilities. Computer Aided ProcessEngineering", CAPE Forum 2013, Graz University of Technology, Austria, 7-10 April 2013, 10p.

[17] Zajicek, M., Kic, P., (2012), "Improvement of the broiler house ventilation usingthe CFD simulation" Agronomy Research Biosystem Engineering Special Issue 1, 235-242

[18] Wheeler, E. F., Zajaczkowski, J. S., Weiss, R.W.J.,(2000), Temperature Stratification andFuel Use During Winter in ThreePennsylvania Broiler Houses

[19] Bustamante, E., Fernando-Juan, G., Salvador, C., Fernando, E., Pedro, B., Antonio, H., Antonio, G. T., (2013) "Exploring Ventilation Efficiency in Poultry Buildings: TheValidation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in aCross-Mechanically Ventilated Broiler Farm" Energies 2013, 6, 2605-2623