Scholarly article on topic 'À Load-balancing and Self-adaptation Clustering for Lifetime Prolonging in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks'

À Load-balancing and Self-adaptation Clustering for Lifetime Prolonging in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Chirihane Gherbi, Zibouda Aliouat, Mohammed Benmohammed

Abstract Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to lower energy consumption within a cluster, performing data aggregation and fusion in order decrease the number of transmitted messages to the BS. In this paper, a novel hierarchical approach called distributed energy efficient adaptive clustering protocol with gathering data (DEACP) is proposed for Wireless sensor network. Since nodes in a sensor network have limited energy, prolonging the network lifetime and improving scalability become important. we have proposed (DEACP) approach to reach the following objectives: reduce the overall network energy consumption, balance the energy consumption among the sensors and extend the lifetime of the network, the clustering must be completely distributed, the clustering should be efficient in complexity of message and time, the cluster-heads should be well-distributed across the network, the load balancing should be done well, the clustered WSN should be fully-connected. As a result transmission power of the node is reduce which subsequently reduces the energy consumption of the node. Our proposed work is simulated through Network Simulator (NS-2). We consider the problem of conserving energy in a single node in a wireless sensor network by turning off the node's radio for periods of a fixed time length. While packets may continue to arrive at the node's buffer during the sleep periods, the node cannot transmit them until it wakes up. The objective is to design sleep control laws that minimize the expected value of a cost function representing both energy consumption costs and holding costs for backlogged packets. The resource reservation is used to decompose the total simulation time of network into smaller time slots depending upon number of nodes in the network using TDMA technique. Simulations show that (DEACP) clusters have good performance characteristics.

Academic research paper on topic "À Load-balancing and Self-adaptation Clustering for Lifetime Prolonging in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks"

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Procedia Computer Science 73 (2015) 66 - 75

The International Conference on Advanced Wireless, Information, and Communication

Technologies (AWICT 2015)

A Load-Balancing and self-adaptation clustering for lifetime prolonging in large scale wireless sensor networks

Chirihane Gherbi a, Zibouda Aliouat b, Mohammed Benmohammed c

aChirihane Gherbi, chirihane.gherbi@gmail.com, University of OEB, Algeria bbZibouda Aliouat, Aliouat_zi@yahoo.fr, University of Ferhat Abbes Setif, Algeria Mohammed Benmohammed, Ben_moh123@yahoo.com, University Of Constantine, Algeria

Abstract

Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to lower energy consumption within a cluster, performing data aggregation and fusion in order decrease the number of transmitted messages to the BS. In this paper, a novel hierarchical approach called distributed energy efficient adaptive clustering protocol with gathering data (DEACP) is proposed for Wireless sensor network. Since nodes in a sensor network have limited energy, prolonging the network lifetime and improving scalability become important. we have proposed (DEACP) approach to reach the following objectives: reduce the overall network energy consumption, balance the energy consumption among the sensors and extend the lifetime of the network, the clustering must be completely distributed, the clustering should be efficient in complexity of message and time, the cluster-heads should be well-distributed across the network, the load balancing should be done well, the clustered WSN should be fully-connected. As a result transmission power of the node is reduce which subsequently reduces the energy consumption of the node. Our proposed work is simulated through Network Simulator (NS-2). We consider the problem of conserving energy in a single node in a wireless sensor network by turning off the node's radio for periods of a fixed time length. While packets may continue to arrive at the node's buffer during the sleep periods, the node cannot transmit them until it wakes up. The objective is to design sleep control laws that minimize the expected value of a cost function representing both energy consumption costs and holding costs for backlogged packets.The resource reservation is used to decompose the total simulation time of network into smaller time slots depending upon number of nodes in the network using TDMA technique. Simulations show that (DEACP) clusters have good performance characteristics.

© 2015 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof organizing committee of the International Conference on Advanced Wireless, Information, and Communication Technologies (AWICT 2015)

Keywords: Energy saving; Distributed algorithm; Cluster- based Routing; Wireless Sensor Network.

1877-0509 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the International Conference on Advanced Wireless, Information, and Communication

Technologies (AWICT 2015)

doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.050

1. Introduction:

Networks of Wireless Sensor devices are being deployed to collectivity monitor and disseminate information about a variety of phenomena of interest. A wireless sensor device is a battery- operated device, capable of sensing physical quantities. In addition to sensing, it is capable of wireless communication, data storage, and a limited amount of computation and signal processing. Advances in integrated circuit design are continually shrinking the size, weight and cost of sensor devices, while simultaneously improving their resolution and accuracy. At the same time, modern wireless networking technologies enable the coordination and networking of a large number of such devices. A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of wireless capable sensor devices working collaboratively to achieve a common objective. One or more sinks (or base-stations) which collect data from all sensor devices. These sinks are the interface through which the WSN interacts with the outside world. Challenges in wireless sensor network arise in implementation of several services, there are so many controllable and uncontrollable parameters [4] by which the implementation of wireless sensor network affected such as: Energy conservation. As we know that the sensor node has small size due this small size the battery has low capacity and the available energy is very less. When the wireless sensor network replaced the single macro sensors, it gained advantage in extended range of sensing, fault tolerance, improved accuracy and lower cost than its predecessors. But as the number of nodes increases in the WSN to increase the coverage range and accuracy, energy management becomes a major constraint since all these nodes are battery powered. And in that situation the refilling or replacing of battery is impossible. In this paper, we propose a Distributed Energy Efficient Adaptive Clustering Protocol with gathering data. Our goal is to achieve better cluster size balance and obtain clusters such that each has the minimum energy topology. Clustering is an efficient way to reduce energy consumption and extend the life time of the network, doing data aggregation and fusion in order to reduce the number of transmitted messages to the BS [2]. Nodes of the network are organized into the clusters to process and forwarding the information, while lower energy nodes can be used to do the sensing the target, DEACP makes no assumptions on the size and the density of the network. The number of levels depends on the cluster range and the minimum energy path to the head. The proposed protocol reduces the number of dead nodes and the energy consumption, to extend the network lifetime. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: An overview of related work is given by section 2. In section 3, propose an energy efficient level based clustering routing protocol DEACP. Simulations and results of experiments are discussed in the section 4. In section 5, concludes the work presented in this paper and the scope of further extension of this work.

2. Related Work:

The growing interest in wireless sensor networks and the continual advancements in micro electronics and wireless communication technologies have inspired some previous efforts. Various issues in the design of wireless sensor network design of low-power signal processing architectures, low-power sensing interfaces, energy efficient wireless media access control and routing protocols. In 2004, G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta and A. Bestavros [9] proposed Stable Election Protocol (SEP) protocol. This protocol is an extension to the LEACH protocol. It is a heterogeneous aware protocol, based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to their respective energy. This approach ensures that the Cluster Head election is randomly selected and distributed based on the fraction of energy of each node assuring a uniform use of the nodes energy. In this protocol, two types of nodes (two tier in-clustering) and two level hierarchies were considered. In the Linked Cluster Algorithm [6], a node becomes the clusterhead if it has the highest id among all nodes within two hops. In PEGASIS(Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems), a near optimal chain-based protocol that is an improvement over LEACH. In PEGASIS, each node communicates only with a close neighbor and takes turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round. In updated LCA [7], those nodes with the smallest id become cluster head. All the other nodes which are 1 -hop to the heads become children of the heads. In [8], those nodes with highest degree among their 1-hop neighbors become cluster heads. In [10], the authors propose two load balancing heuristics for mobile ad hoc networks, where one is similar to LCA and the other is degree-based algorithm. The Weighted Clustering Algorithm (WCA) [11] elects cluster-heads based on the number of surrounding nodes, transmission power, battery-life and mobility rate of the node. WCA also restricts the

number of nodes in a cluster so that the performance of the MAC protocol is not degraded. The Distributed Clustering Algorithm (DCA) uses weights to elect clusterheads [12]. These weights are based on the application and the highest weight node among its one hop neighbors is elected as the clusterhead. All of the above algorithms generate 1-hop clusters, require synchronized clocks and have a complexity of O(n), where n is the number of sensor nodes. This makes them suitable only for networks with a small number of nodes. All the previous protocols require either knowledge of the network density or homogeneity of node dispersion in the field. Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed clustering (HEED). HEED does not make any assumptions about the network, such as, density and size. Every node runs HEED individually. At the end of the process, each node either becomes a clusterhead or a child of a clusterhead. Residual energy of a node is the first parameter in the election of a clusterhead, and the proximity to its neighbors or node degree is the second. HEED generates a 1-level hierarchical clustering structure for intra-cluster communication. Ming Liu et. al. [ming] has presented An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks, The authors present EAP, a novel energy efficient data gathering protocol with intra-cluster coverage. EAP clusters sensor nodes into groups and builds routing tree among cluster heads for energy saving communication. In addition, EAP (Energy Aware Routing Protocol) introduces the idea of area coverage to reduce the number of working nodes within cluster in order to prolong network lifetime. Also, DEACP protocol Distributive Energy Efficient Adaptive Clustering (DEEAC) protocol. This protocol is adaptive in terms of data reporting rates and residual energy of each node within the network.

3. Distributed Energy Efficient Adaptive Clustering Protocol with Gathering Data for Wireless Sensor Networks. (DEACP):

A. Radio model

We used the following equations for calculating the Communication energy dissipation. The free space (d2 power loss) channel model is used, depending on the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. The energy spent for the transmission of the k-bit packet over distance d is given by ETX :

Etx (K, d) = KEdc + KEampd 2 (1)

Erx (K) = KEel

Eelec is required energy for activating the electronic circuits. Eamp are required energy for amplification of transmitted signals to transmit a one bit in open space and multi path models, respectively. Energy consumption to receive a packet of k bits is calculated according to Eq: ERX (2). The residual energy of a node Ni, after transmitting a message of "k" bits at distance d from the receiver, is calculated by (3):

Eri= Einitial - (Etx (k, d) + ERX (K)) (3)

we can compute the total initial energy (4) of the networks by the given equation :

Etotal NEinitial (4)

Eaverage (5) denotes the average energy of all live micro sensor nodes in the WSN, which is calculated as follows:

— n =1 residual

Fround eq is the total energy dissipated in the network during a round, which is equal to:

F =ANF + 2NF + NF d2 + F d

round ! ^ DA elect yILfsUneigh^ £/amput

'amp ChtoBs,

where FDA is the data aggregation cost spent in each node, dCHtoBS is the average distance between the cluster head and the BS, dneigh is the average distance to the next node in the chain, A' is the total size of transmitted data, Ffs and Famp depend on the transmitter amplifier model used.

B. DEACP protocol:

One of the important factors to improve lifetime of wireless sensor network is the design of network. In this section we describe the proposed DFACP approach. The DFACP approach utilizes adaptive clustering scheme. A clustering scheme is called an adaptive scheme, if over time, the number of clusters varies and the nodes membership evolves. In DFACP, the BS is assumed to have unlimited energy residues and communication power. It is also assumed that the BS is located at a fixed position, either inside or away from the sensor field.

Nodes with special high "Pch" condition can act as CH to burden the pressure of data transmission. In order to prevent early death due to excessive energy expenditure, all nodes should be alternately take turns to become CH, CH election need to consider many factors , In DFACP the following factors is considered: node-weight, residual energy, condition distance between nodes, condition distance with SB.

The DFACP protocol achieves a good distribution of clusters (unresolved problem with many protocols). The DFACP protocol takes place in "rounds" that represent time intervals determined in advance. Each round is consisting of four phases, the initialization phase, phase decision, phase of group formation and phase transmission. Proposed clustering algorithm is divided into three phases; initialization, setup phase and steady state. Our proposed approach is explained using these phases:

1) Initialization phase:

Each node in order to calculate the node-weight sends a message "Discov-neigh-msg" which contains its identifier. Any node receiving the message sends immediately a "Discov-neigh-msg" message the same type, then each member has its neighbors table, allowing him to know its cost is that the size of the latter.

2) Decision Phase:

The most important part of each clustering scheme is the cluster-head election. For the cluster-head election, the proposed DFACP uses a hybrid scheme of residual energy and distance among the cluster-heads, distance between node and Bs, Weight- node. The cluster-head election phase is done in two steps: the local competition and the distance condition.

• The most important part of sensor network protocol is the selection of the head; therefore the design should be such that the node selected as head must dissipate the minimum power for transmission. In our proposed method the nodes compete in a competition scheme to be elected as the cluster head candidate. At first the condition of each node being selected as the cluster-head candidate is found. To do so, this condition "Pch", is determined proportional to the remainder energy of node "Ni" as:

DBs,i: the distance between the node "i" and the base station Bs. DBs,j :the distance between the node neighbour "j" and the base station Bs.

ß2(U j) = 1 -«2(1 - Nw/NWj ) ............

Nwi: Node-weight of node « i ». Nwj: Node-weight of node neighbor « j ».

ao\ j)=1 -«3(1 - yE ) ............

Er,j: Residual energy of node « i ». Er,j: Residual energy of node neighbor « j ».

Pch(i j) - Mox|i - £ jAj)'A(u j)'A(u j)\

Pch(i,j): condition to be cluster head for node "CH" al, a2, a3: constant coefficient «0» or «1» Each sensor node (Ni) in the network calculates its condition Pch, and then broadcasts a message to the other nodes; called CH-ADV. this message includes the node ID and the value of condition Pch. In the proposed competition scheme, we define a competition range called Rcomp; Cluster range (cluster radius), RcompThis parameter specifies the radius of a cluster, i.e., the farthest a node inside a cluster can be from the clusterhead. The cluster radius is a system parameter and is fixed for the entire network, this range should be reasonable, that it is should not be too long to overload the network and should not be too short to increase the number of cluster-head candidate advertisements.

The node i wait for twait seconds and receives the message Pch-msg from all its neighbors. Then it compares its condition value with that of its neighbors.

If it found its condition Pch greater than Pch value of all its neighbors, then it elects itself as cluster-head candidate. Else, it sends a join message to the neighbor that has the highest condition Pch to become a member of the cluster. The number of selected cluster heads varies according to the specified cluster radius. The smaller the radius, the larger the required number of cluster heads to fully cover the entire network. The pseudo code protocol: The pseudo algorithm of DEACP is given as follow:

Algorithm!: DEACP algorithm

1. Phase 1: "Initialization phase "

2. Each sensor node Ni;

3. Broadcast "Disc-neigh-msg";

4. wait for twait seconds to receive message;

5. IF the "Disc-neigh-msg" message is received THEN

6. Add identifier "id" and send msg "Disc-neigh-msg";

7. End IF

8. Create table of neighbors;

9. Weight-node=size of neighbors table;

10. wait for twait seconds;

11. Phase 2: "Decision phase"

12. Each sensor node sends msg {WN, Er, Dbs};

13. Each sensor calculates the Pch(i);

14. Evaluate Pch (i);

15. For each node neighbor

16. If V;h(i)>Cch(j) Then // Pch(i) is great than all condition Pch of nodes

17. Ni, CH(i): //Ni is the cluster head

18. Else

19. Nj, CH(j); //Nj is the cluster head

20. EndIF

21. Cluster head "Ch " is defined

22. Phase 3: "Steady phase "

23. Cluster head node fixes and sends a TDMA to all its cluster members.

24. Each cluster member sends its data packets in allocated TDMA

25. CH collects the data from all the nodes in its cluster multihope communication inter-cluster r.

26. CH transmits the data with multihope communication inter-cluster to the Sink node.

3) Steady phase:

In this protocol, a transmission time slot is assigned to each node, during which the nodes can send their messages. In wireless transmission, as the signal from a sender propagates over the channel, it attenuates with distance; it also suffers from physical propagation due to interactions with the physical environment (e.g., passing through obstacles). A receiver receives the signal after attenuation and other propagation effects, and it attempts to decode the signal. If the received signal strength is sufficiently higher than the sum of the noise and signal from interfering signals, the signal can be decoded successfully (with low error rate); otherwise, the transmission cannot be received. Thus, interference from concurrently transmitting nodes plays an important effect in determining whether correct reception or a collision occurs.

In the presence of competition for accessing the medium from interfering senders, the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays the role of moderating access to reduce collisions while maintaining concurrency and fairness. Under an ideal scheduler, the amount of throughput between a sender-receiver pair depends upon the number of active nodes (senders or receivers) that are interfering with the data transmission. However, practical schedulers are rarely able to archive this ideal behacvior. The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol [19] is the de facto standard for Wireless LAN (WLAN) and MHWNs, and much of the existing research is based on this protocol. IEEE 802.11 uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

In contention-based protocols such as IEEE 802.11, the channel state at the receiver is not known at the sender, which contributes to the well-known hidden and exposed terminal problems [20]. To counter these effects, IEEE 802.11 uses an aggressive CSMA (low receiver sensitivity) to attempt to prevent far-away interfering sources from transmitting together (but potentially preventing non interfering sources from transmitting; hidden terminal is reduced, but exposed terminal increased). Optionally, the standard allows the use of Collision Avoidance (CA), which consists of Request-to-Send (RTS)/Clear-to-Send (CTS) control packets, to attempt to reserve the medium. After a successful RTS-CTS handshake, the actual DATA packet is sent. The successful reception of DATA packet is acknowledged by an ACK packet. As a result of these mechanisms, many, but not all, collisions are prevented. Depending on the relative location of contending sources to each other, either they are able to effectively handshake using the MAC protocol or they continue to collide.

Fig.1 Schedule DEACP- TDMA

The problem is complicated because multiple concurrent transmissions may occur and collectively result in a collision, when individually they do not. Similarly, the aggressive collision avoidance mechanisms can prevent some possible concurrent transmissions from proceeding even though they do not cause a collision. In summary, the MAC protocol and the relative locations of contending sources play an important role in how a set of nearby sources interact and the resulting quality of the link observed by each of them. The TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) based scheduling protocols make the nodes to be in inactive mode, until their allocated time slots. The TDMA based protocols [1] are designed such that the shortest path for communication will be found out and only a particular link will be in wake up mode for a transmission. "Fig.l" Any scheduling protocol for the WSN for Medium Access Control (MAC) should have the following: Narrowband Modulation techniques, Good throughput efficiency, and

moderately low Data transfer rate. Less Hardware complexity. Low access delay, low transmission delay and low overhead. The TDMA based scheduling allocates separate time slot for each node to access the medium to send the sensed data or to forward the aggregated data.

• DEACP NETWORK TRANSMISSION TIME (NTT):

One the clusters are formed and TDMA schedule is fixed in all clusters of the network. In NTT all nodes send their data to their PCHs, in assigned time slots. Cluster-heads receive the data from its cluster and aggregate the data. Data aggregation is key technique in order to compare data amount. Cluster-heads only send meaningful information to BS in order to prolong the battery lifetime. One of the primary challenges in Multihop wireless networks (MHWNs) is the routing problem; how to construct efficient routes for a network that is self-configuring. From a routing perspective, clustering allows to split data transmission into intra-cluster (within a cluster) and inter- cluster (between cluster-heads and every cluster-head and the sink) communication. This separation leads to significant energy saving since the radio unit is the major energy consumer in a sensor node. In fact, member nodes are only allowed to communicate with their respective clusterhead, which is responsible for relaying the data to the sink with possible aggregation and fusion operations. Moreover, this separation allows to reduce routing tables at both member nodes and cluster-heads in addition to possible spatial reuse of communication bandwidth. The sink is usually located far away from the sensing area and is often not directly reachable to all nodes due to signal propagation problems. A more realistic approach is multi-hop inter-cluster routing that had shown to be more energy efficient. In DEACP protocol, sensed data are relayed from one clusterhead to another until reaching the sink. Inter-cluster communication in several proposals is achieved through organizing the cluster-heads in a hierarchy. allows better energy distribution and overall energy consumption. However, maintaining the hierarchy could be costly in large and dynamic networks where nodes die as soon as their y supply is completely discharged.

The pseudo algorithm of Inter cluster routing is given as follow:

1. For each (level i)

2. for each CH

3. CH receives the data from the cluster member

4. Aggregate the data.

5. If (i ==1)

6. CH transmits data to the BS.

7. Else

8. CH broadcasts data in the next level.

9. End if

10.End for

11.End for

DEACP uses Intra-cluster communication is contention less using TDMA. Each parent node polls its direct children and forwards the data to its parent node until the data reaches the clusterhead.

4. Performance Evaluation

A comparison between the simulation results in DEACP, DEEAC, and PEGASIS algorithms is performed via NS2 simulator. We use two scenarios for simulations. In the first scenario, 100 nodes are uniformly and randomly dispersed in a field of size 100m_100m. To study the effect of scale on the performance of DEACP, in the second scenario, 200 nodes are uniformly and randomly dispersed in a field.We assume that the BS is located at the center of the field. The other simulation parameters are summarized in TABLE1.

TABLE1- Parameters of simulation

Parameter 1 Value

Area Data packet size Control packet size Number of sensor nodes Initial energy Base station location Distance do elec I 1000m X 1000m 1 4000 bits I 512 bits I 100/200 I 2 Joule I (50,50) I 87m 50nj/bit

• Energy consumption of sensor nodes :

Fig.2 shows the results for the energy consumed by sensor nodes in DEACP, DEEAC and PEGASIS protocols The energy consumed by sensor nodes for each round in DEACP is much lower than that in DEEAC and PEGASIS. According to the data presented in this figure, DEACP has less energy consumption than the other two protocols, because this protocol periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of their residual energy distance between node and BS, weight-node: number of neighbor nodes , such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree. The main reason for this result is the suitable number and distribution of the clusters in the network. As expected, PEGASIS has variant energy consumption, relevant to the pendulous number of its clusters in consecutive rounds. Although, DEEAC has distributed clusters across the network properly, as the number of clusters in DEEAC is large, energy consumption in the whole network increases. Therefore, DEACP has the lowest energy consumption among the two protocols and has more energy consumption in contrast with the other protocols. Other main reason, DEACP uses a multihop communication inter-cluster and intra cluster. Each parent node polls its direct children and forwards the data to its parent node until the data reaches the clusterhead, and a multihop communication between cluster-head and base station. • Life time for wireless sensor network

The network lifetime for three protocols is depicted in figures 1 .The result between the number of nodes alive and the number of rounds is shown by "Fig.3, Fig.4". The result obtained by measuring of time until the first node dies to time until the last node dies appear the DEACP has a better lifetime than the other protocols DEEAC and PEGASIS because the DEACP method elects the nodes with the highest condition cluster head 'Pch' Also, in this approach, the load balancing in the network is performed properly, which provides a longer time between the beginning of the operations until the time the first node dies.

2000 1800 1600

13 1400

I 1000

400 200

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 Time (s)

Fig.2 Comparison of Energy consumption

Fig.3 Comparison of network life time with 100 nodes Fig.4 Comparison of network life time with 200 nodes

DEACP protocol balance the energy consumption among the sensors and extend the lifetime of the network, the clustering must be completely distributed, the clustering should be efficient in complexity of message and time, the cluster-heads should be well-distributed across the network, the load balancing should be done well, the clustered WSN should be fully-connected. (fig.5)

Fig5: DEACP with balanced cluster

I. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In this paper, we proposed a Distributed Energy Efficient Adaptive Clustering Protocol with Gathering Data for Wireless Sensor Networks. DEACP is well distributed, which is a major advantage in a power constrained sensor network. In this method the distance among the cluster-heads has been utilized to reach a well-distributed clustered

WSN with suitable size clusters. Our simulations demonstrated that DEACP generates well balanced clusters. In the future, in addition to the energy-efficiency, we will try to design the DEACP approach in a way that it meets the other WSN requirements, like the full coverage of the monitored area, And involves real-time implementation using wireless sensor motes and secure routing protocol in terms of memory.

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