Scholarly article on topic 'Influence of vermi-fortification on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and photosynthetic pigments'

Influence of vermi-fortification on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and photosynthetic pigments Academic research paper on "Agricultural biotechnology"

Share paper

Academic research paper on topic "Influence of vermi-fortification on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and photosynthetic pigments"

Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult (2015) 4:299-305

DOI 10.1007/s40093-015-0109-z CrossMark


Influence of vermi-fortification on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and photosynthetic pigments

Anoop Yadav1 • V. K. Garg1

Received: 18 July 2015/Accepted: 28 October 2015/Published online: 9 November 2015 © The Author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at


Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different vermicomposts and their dosages on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants in pot culture experiment.

Methods A total of five potting media were prepared containing soil and vermicompost. Soil fortified with 10 and 20 % vermicompost was used as potting media. The fertility status of soil and vermicomposts was quantified. In these potting media, growth, yield and biochemical parameters of chickpea plants were studied up to 90 days. Results The results showed that the fortification of soil with vermicompost significantly stimulated the chickpea plant growth. The plant height, plant shoot biomass, number of pods and photosynthetic pigments were significantly higher in vermicompost-fortified experiments, whereas vermicompost fortification had no significant effect on chickpea seed germination as it was & 100 % in all experiments. Total chlorophyll content in chickpea leaves was in the range of 0.437-1.07 mg/g. Similarly, carotenoid content was minimum in control and maximum in 20 % vermicompost containing potting media. Conclusion It was concluded that if soil is fortified with appropriate quantities of vermicompost, the chickpea production per unit area could be enhanced significantly.

& V. K. Garg

Anoop Yadav

1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, India

Keywords Chickpea • Organic manures • Vermicompost • Chlorophyll • Carotenoids • Vermi-fortification


CD Cow dung

HC-3 Haryana channa-3

FIS Food industry sludge

DAS Days after sowing

TCa Total calcium

TNa Total sodium

NPK Nitrogen phosphorous and potassium

EC Electric conductivity

TOC Total organic carbon

TKN Total Kjeldhal nitrogen

TK Total potassium

TP Total phosphorus

CN Carbon nitrogen ratio


Conventional agricultural systems have been characterized by high input of chemical fertilizer and pesticides leading to soil health deterioration and poor product quality due to a reduction in soil organic matter content. Continuous addition of organic matter to soil is necessary to ensure a balanced supply of plant nutrients (Gupta et al. 2014). In recent years, organic farming has gained attention as it maintains soil health, prevents soil erosion, uses natural pest controlling agents and farm products have better nutritive quality. It is evident from the available literature that organic fraction of solid wastes contains significant quantities of NPK.

However, organic wastes cannot directly be applied to the agricultural fields since these may cause phytotoxicity or may destroy the natural fertility of the soil. Therefore, their stabilization is essential prior to their application in agricultural fields (Gupta et al. 2014).

Vermicomposting of non-toxic biodegradable matter produces stabilized humus like product known as vermi-compost, which has a great potential as soil amendment (Arancon et al. 2003). Vermicompost is a very good soil conditioner that is rich in NPK, micronutrients and growth hormones. Vermicompost application to soil also increases microbial populations and activities that further influence nutrient cycling, production of plant growth-regulating materials and build up plant resistance or tolerance to pathogen and nematode attacks (Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011).

Organic amendments application enhances soil micro-bial activities as compared to mineral fertilizer and una-mended treatments (Gopinath et al. 2008). Ferreras et al. (2006) reported that soil structure stability, organic carbon and microbial activity in soil were improved after two applications of vermicomposts. Jouquet et al. (2010) reported that both compost and vermicompost led to an improvement in soil properties with an increase in the pH, soil organic matter and nutrient content, compared to soil fertilized with chemical fertilizers. Khan et al. (2015) reported that application of vermicompost caused a substantial increase (54-83 %) in the soil organic carbon pool of the soil.

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume, which ranks third among the world's pulse crops, and is grown in more than 50 countries (89.7 % area in Asia, 4.3 % in Africa, 2.6 % in Oceania, 2.9 % in Americas and 0.4 % in Europe) (Lake and Sadras 2014). India is the largest chickpea producing country accounting for 67 % (8.8 million metric tonnes) (FAO 2014). Chickpea is also a vital source of protein for millions of people in India and other developing countries, predominantly in South Asia, who are largely vegetarian. In addition to having high protein content (20-22 %), it is rich in fiber, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and p-car-otene. Farmers have notion that chickpea, being a legume crop, does not need nutrients and usually cultivate it on marginal lands without applying chemical fertilizer. The yield gap of chickpea can be abridged, by adopting the advanced production technology accompanying with use of inoculums, balanced nutrition, weed management and high yielding varieties (Hakoomat et al. 2004).

A literature survey has indicated that vermicompost produced from different wastes has different physico-chemical properties and in turn has different effects on the crops' growth and yield (Table 1). Based on this it is hypothesized that vermicomposts with different NPK contents have different effects on crops and results of a vermicompost on a crop cannot be generalized. Keeping

this view effect of food industry sludge and cow dung-based vermicompost on growth and productivity of chickpea plants has been investigated (Table 2).

Materials and methods

The soil used in potting media was collected from the agricultural fields of Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar. The soil was sandy-loam in nature. It was deficit in nitrogen, average in phosphorus and rich in potassium content. Vermicomposts used in potting media were prepared in the laboratory using (a) cow dung and (b) wastewater treatment plant sludge of food industry spiked cow dung (Yadav and Garg 2011). The physico-chemical characteristics of soil and vermi-composts are given in Table 3. The Haryana channa-3 (HC-3) variety of chickpea was procured from the certified dealer. This variety of chickpea was chosen because of its suitability for irrigated lands, blight and wilt disease suffering areas. The main characteristics of this species are hard and bold stem and light brown grain.

The soil was fortified with 10 and 20 % (w/w, on dry weight basis) vermicompost to prepare the pot culture media. Four vermicompost-fortified potting media were prepared along with one control (soil only). The potting media were well mixed and sieved through 2 mm sieve before use. Each pot was filled with 3.0 kg of potting media and three replicates were maintained for each treatment. The composition of soil and vermicompost in different treatments is given in Table 2.

After filling potting media, the pots were maintained as such for 2 weeks at 60-70 % moisture content. After that 10 chickpea seeds were drilled in each pot at a depth of approximately 2 cm in the third week of October. The temperature is in range of 18-27 °C during this period. The chickpea seeds were treated with systemic fungicide, viz., carbendazim (50 % WP @ 1.5 g kg- seed) to protect from seedling diseases. The germination was recorded in all pots 7 days after sowing (DAS) and two healthy seedlings pot-were chosen for further study. The pots were kept in open in a pot house without controlling temperature. Plant height was recorded periodically at 30,60 and 90 DAS by measuring the height from the ground level to the furthest extremity of the longest branch. Fresh and fully mature leaves were used to determine the chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein contents at 30 DAS. At the end of experiment, plants were removed carefully from the pots and separated in roots and shoots. Then fresh root and shoot biomass was recorded. No additional fertilizers were added during the study. The irrigation was done periodically as per requirement.

Germination percentage was calculated using the below given formula:

Table 1 Effects of different vermicompost on physico-chemical properties of soil and crop

Raw material used Ratio of mixing/dosage for


Duration Crop grown of study



Vermicompost-compost (mix) + bone meal

Buffalo manure

Vermicompost-compost 132 days Beet mix 2 kg m2 + bone meal, dosage 0.15 kg m2

Soil + vermicompost 1 year

(equivalent to 201 ha-1 of organic substrate)

Buffalo manure At the rate of 20 t ha-1 3 years

Temple, farmyard and kitchen wastes Vegetable peels and leaf litter

Vegetable peels and leaf litter

Paddy straw (Oriza sativa) and Ageratum conyzoides residues

Cassava peels, poultry dropping, cow dung and guava leaves

Cattle manure, market food waste and recycled paper waste

5, 10 and 25 % vermicompost-soil (v/v)

10, 25 and 50 % of vermicompost-soil (v/v)

Vermicompost application 3 years @ 0, 1, 2 and 3 t/ha

Garden soil substituted with 30 days different amounts of vermicompost (10, 25 and 50 % w/w)

1 t/ha

8 kg/plot (1 x 6 m)

60 days

10 or 20 t ha-1 (d.w.) to tomatoes and peppers, 5 or 10 t ha-1 (d.w.) to strawberries

For one season

Maize and tomato





Zea mays, Phaseolus vulgaris and Abelmoschus esculentus

4 months Cowpea

Tomato, pepper and strawberry

An increment in extractable P and stimulated Gonzalez microbial respiration in soil was found in et al. all the treatments. N and P concentration in (2010) beet aerial biomass was also recorded in treatments with amendment application Vermicompost amendment modified soil Doan et al. chemical properties leading to higher C (2013) and N, higher pH and CEC, and lower available P, NH4? and NO3- than in the control

CEC, N, P and K content was significantly Doan et al. higher at the end of the experiment in (2015)

vermicompost-amended soils than control soil. The combination of vermicompost and biochar improves plant productivity and reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality Vermicompost-water extract (VCE) Singh

stimulates seed germination, seedling et al.

growth and plant growth of chickpea (2013)

Substitution of soil with 10, 25, and 50 % Sahni VC significantly increased growth and et al.

biomass production of chickpea seedlings (2008a) progressively with the increase in vermicompost substitution compared with control

The application of vermicompost improves Singh plant growth, yield attributes and grain et al.

yield (2012)

Substituting the soil with different amounts Sahni of vermicompost showed significant et al.

reduction in mortality of chickpea (2008b)

compared to control. Maximum reduction in plant mortality was noticed in 50 % vermicompost substitution Vermicompost amendment of soil increased Roy et al. the nutrient supply and plant productivity (2010)

This field study observed that cassava peel Mba vermicompost enhanced cowpea aerial (1996)

biomass production but acidified the soil. The effect of various vermicompost on soil physico-chemical and biological properties is very pronounced The marketable tomato, pepper and Arancon

strawberry yields in all vermicompost- et al.

treated plots were consistently greater than (2003) yields from the inorganic fertilizer-treated plots

Percent germination = [No-of seeds germinated] x 100 Chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein contents were

[Total n°.of seed drilled] determined at 30 DAS. Chlorophyll 'a' and 'b' contents

and total chlorophyll were determined as reported by

Table 2 Composition of soil and vermicompost in different treatments

Table 3 Physico-chemical characteristics of experimental soil and vermicomposts

Treatment Soil (%) Vermicompost

Ti 100 0 %

T2 90 10 % Vermicompost (cow dung)

T3 80 20 % Vermicompost (cow dung)

T4 90 10 % Vermicompost (30 % FIS + 70 % cow dung)

T5 80 20 % Vermicompost (30 % FIS + 70 % cow dung)

Parameters Soil Vermicompost I Vermicompost II

(100 % cow dung) (70 % CD + 30 % FIS)

pH 8.5 ± 0.4 6.8 ± 0.1 6.6 ± 0.2

EC (dS/m) 0.4 ± 0.02 1.6 ± 0.04 1.8 ± 0.06

TOC (g/kg) 24 ± 1.7 280 ± 5 310 ± 8

TKN (g/kg) 1.6 ± 0.1 28.8 ± 0.35 26 ± 0.5

OM (%) 4.13 ± 0.3 48.2 ± 1.3 52.5 ± 1.15

TAP (g/kg) 0.6 ± 0.05 10.5 ± 0.4 9.75 ± 0.3

TK (g/kg) 2.0 ± 0.2 10 ± 0.2 7.6 ± 0.4

C:N ratio 15 ± 0.4 9.72 ± 0.54 11.9 ± 0.3

Fig. 1 Height of chickpea plants grown in different vermicompost treatments

'<D .c

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Treatment number

Arnon (1949). Carotenoid was determined by the method given by Ikan (1969). Protein content in leaf tissues was estimated using the method of Bradford (1976).

The reported results are the mean of three replicates. Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the significant differences among different treatments for studied parameters. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 95 % confidence level using the SPSS software.

Results and discussion

Effects of vermicomposts on chickpea plants

Seed germination is an important and decisive phase in growth cycle of a plant since it determines plant

establishment and yield. Seed germination was 96.6-100 % in different potting media. This shows that vermicomposts amendment had no antagonistic effect on chickpea seed germination. Several other authors have reported moderate or no effect of vermicompost on seed germination (Singh et al. 2013; Roy et al. 2010; Alves and Passoni 1997). In contrast, Ievinsh (2011) has reported that vermicompost addition inhibits seed germination depending on crop species and cultivar tested even at moderate concentrations.

The plant height increased progressively throughout the study period in all the plants (Fig. 1). It varied significantly in different treatments. At 30 DAS, the plant height was in the ranges of 9.7-15.8 cm in different treatments. On 30 DAS minimum plant height was in treatment T1 and maximum was in treatment T5. At 90 DAS plant height was

^ 20 «

Treatment No.

Fig. 2 Shoot biomass and root biomass in different vermicompost treatments

T2 T3 T4 T5

Treatment Number

in the range of 22.1 (Tj) to 43.3 cm (T5) in different treatments. Statistically, the plant height in vermicompost-fortified treatment was significantly different from control (T1) (F = 52.7, P < 0.001). This increase in plant height may be due to enhanced supply of nutrients in the vermi-compost-amended soils. Roy et al. (2010) have reported the synergistic effect of vermicompost on the plant height of maize, French bean and okra. Gopinath et al. (2008) reported that height of Triticum aestivum L. was significantly higher in all vermicompost and farmyard manure compost amended treatments, than the control.

Fresh shoot biomass (above ground plant weight) was measured at the end of experiment. The results of fresh shoot biomass are given in Fig. 2. Maximum shoot biomass (23.4 ± 1.7 g per plant) was recorded in treatment T4 and minimum (4.2 ± 0.2 g per plant) in treatment Tj. The fresh shoot biomass in treatment T3, T4 and T5 was not significantly different from each other. Similarly fresh root biomass was also measured at the end of experiment. Figure 2 shows the fresh root biomass recorded in different treatments. Root biomass was in the range of 2.0 (Tj) to 12.4 g per plant (T5). The root biomass was significantly different in different treatments (F = 98.7, P < 0.001). Bachman and Metzger (2008) have also reported that the plants cultivated in media mixes containing up to 20 % pig manure vermicompost had higher shoot biomass as compared to controls.

The number of pods per plant is an important yield contributing parameter. The number of pods per plant was different in different plants grown in vermicompost spiked soil that had more pods per plant as compared to control. The number of pods per plant in different treatments varied from 5.3 to 19.3 (Fig. 3). Maximum number of pods per plant was recorded in treatment T4 and minimum was in control. The difference in numbers of pods per plant was non-significant within different vermicompost-fortified treatments, whereas the numbers of pods per plant were significantly different in control and vermicompost-forti-fied treatments (F = 12.42, P < 0.001).

Fig. 3 Total numbers of pods in chickpea plants grown in different vermicompost treatments

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Treatment number

Fig. 4 Protein content in the leaves of chickpeas grown in different vermicompost treatments

Protein content in plant leaves was measured at 30 DAS and it varied from 5.83 to 3.85 mg/g in different treatments (Fig. 4). It was minimum in the leaves of chickpea plants grown in control. Maximum protein content was in the leaves of the plants grown in treatment T5 followed by T4. This was in agreement with reported literature that protein contents in onion grown in photo-catalytically treated dyeing industry effluent were higher than control (Ameta et al. 2003). The protein contents in treatment T4 and T5 were significantly different from other treatments (F = 34.4, P < 0.001).

Photosynthetic pigments

Determination of chlorophyll content in plant leaves is an indirect method of estimating the crop productivity. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content measured in all the treatments on 30 DAS (Fig. 5). The chlorophyll a was significantly higher than chlorophyll b in all the treatments. Maximum chlorophyll a content was in

I 1 § 0.8 3 0.6

О 0.2

□ Chlorophyll a □ Chlorophyll b Total chlorophyll

Treatment number

Fig. 5 Chlorophyll content in the leaves of chickpeas grown in different treatments

0.05 0

T2 T3 T4

Treatment No.

Fig. 6 Carotenoid content in the leaves of chickpeas grown in different treatments

those plants grown in treatment T3 followed by T5 and minimum was in control. Chlorophyll a content ranged from 0.296 to 0.807 mg/g in different treatments. The differences in Chlorophyll a content after 30 DAS between the treatments were significantly different (F = 693, P < 0.001).

Chlorophyll b content in plant leaves was minimum in control and maximum in treatments T4 (Fig. 5). The chlorophyll b content in different treatments ranged from 0.141 to 0.275 mg/g. The difference in Chlorophyll b content between the treatment T2, T3 and T4 was non-significant (P = 0.65). Total chlorophyll content ranged from 0.437 to 1.07 mg/g. Total chlorophyll content was maximum in treatment T3 and minimum in control. The results indicated that spiking of vermicomposts with soil has a synergistic effect on chlorophyll content of chickpea leaves. The total Chlorophyll contents after 30 DAS were not significantly different from other treatments (P = 0.99), except control (T1) (P < 0.001) Supply of more nutrients by vermicomposts as compared to soil may be the reason of enhanced leaf chlorophyll content in chickpea plants. Nitrogen is the most important mineral element in the process of chlorophyll biosynthesis, adding nitrogen to the soil may have a positive effect, which leads to increase of leaf chlorophyll content (Cecchin and Terezinha 2004). This may be the cause for higher total chlorophyll content in treatment T3. Atiyeh et al. (2002) have reported that plants grown in 10-20 % vermicom-posted food wastes contained more chlorophyll than the plants grown on control. Sangwan et al. (2010) have also reported that plants grown in cow dung vermicompost had higher total chlorophyll content than control.

Carotenoids play important role in photosynthesis process. Biosynthesis of these pigments in plants is a genetic characteristic, but some time environmental conditions also play a vital role. Figure 6 represents the carotenoid content in fresh leaf of plants measured at 30 DAS in all treatments. Carotenoid content was minimum in control and maximum

was in treatments T4. It varied from 0.191 to 0.404 mg/g in different treatments. The Carotenoid content in different treatments showed statistical significant difference (F = 320.8, P < 0.001). The more availability of nutrients in FIS containing vermicomposts may be the reason ofhigher carotenoid content in treatments (T4 and T5).


The results indicate that the vermicompost application has increased plant height, plant shoot biomass, seedpods, and photosynthetic pigments. Substitution of soil with 10 and 20 % vermicompost significantly increased growth in chickpea plants progressively with the increase in vermi-compost substitution compared with those grown in soil (control). The increased growth may be due to enhanced capacity of plants to produce more leaves and the greater photosynthetic activity in leaves. Besides nutrient supply, the increased soil microbial activity and biomass in amended soils may indirectly have contributed to the enhanced growth and yield of plants.

Author contribution AY carried out the experiment and physico-chemical analysis and drafts the manuscript. VKG planned this study, supervision on the data analysis and revised the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://crea, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


Alves WL, Passoni AA (1997) Compost and vermicompost of urban solid waste in Licania tomentosa (Benth) seedlings production to arborization. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 32:1053-1058 Ameta SC, Punjabi PB, Kothari S, Sancheti A (2003) Effect of untreated and photo catalytically treated dyeing industry effluent on growth and biochemical parameters of Allium cepa (Onion). Poll Res 22(3):389-392 Arancon NQ, Lee S, Edwards CA, Atiyeh R (2003) Effects of humic acid derived from cattle, food and paper-waste vermicomposts on growth of green-house plants. Pedobiologia 47:741-744 Arnon DL (1949) A copper enzyme is isolated chloroplast polyphenols oxidase in Beta vulgaries. Plant Physiol 24:1-15 Atiyeh RM, Arancon NQ, Edwards CA, Metzger JD (2002) The influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and productivity of marigolds. Bioresour Technol 81:103-108 Bachman GR, Metzger JD (2008) Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost. Bioresour Technol 99:3155-3161 Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 77:248-254 Cecchin I, Terezinha FF (2004) Effect of nitrogen supply on growth and photosynthesis of sunflower plants grown in the greenhouse. Plant Sci 166:1379-1385 Doan TT, Ngo PT, Rumpel C, Nguyen BV, Jouquet P (2013) Interactions between compost, vermicompost and earthworms influence plant growth and yield: a one-year greenhouse experiment. Sci Hortic 160:148-154 Doan TT, Tureaux TH, Rumpel C, Janeau JL, Jouque P (2015) Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment. Sci Total Environ 514:147-154 FAO (2014) Production of chickpea by countries, statistical database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Accessed 21 July 2014 Ferreras L, Gomez E, Toresani S, Firpo I, Rotondo R (2006) Effect of organic amendments on some physical, chemical and biological properties in a horticultural soil. Bioresour Technol 97:635-640 Gonzalez M, Gomez E, Comese R, Quesad M, Conti M (2010) Influence of organic amendments on soil quality potential indicators in an urban horticultural system. Bioresour Technol 101:8897-8901

Gopalakrishnan S, Pande S, Sharma M, Humayun P, Kiran BK, Sandeep D, Vidya MS, Deepthi K, Rupela O (2011) Evaluation of actinomycete isolates obtained from herbal vermicompost for biological control of Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Crop Prot 30:1070-1078

Gopinath KA, Saha S, Mina BL, Pande H, Kundu S, Gupta HS (2008) Influence of organic amendments on growth, yield and quality of

wheat and on soil properties during transition to organic production. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 82:51-60 Gupta R, Yadav A, Garg VK (2014) Influence of vermicompost application in potting media on growth and flowering of marigold crop. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult 3:47 Hakoomat A, Muhammad AK, Shakeel AR (2004) Interactive effect seed inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Int J Agricul Biol 6:110-112 Ievinsh G (2011) Vermicompost treatment differentially affects seed germination, seedling growth and physiological status of vegetable crop species. Plant Growth Regul 65:169-181 Ikan R (1969) Natural products. A laboratory guide. Academic Press, New York

Jouquet P, Plumerea T, Doan TT, Rumpel C, Duc TT, Orange D (2010) The rehabilitation of tropical soils using compost and vermicompost is affected by the presence of endogeic earthworms. Appl Soil Ecol 46:125-133 Khan K, Pankaj U, Verma SK, Gupta AK, Singh RP, Verma RK (2015) Bio-inoculants and vermicompost influence on yield, quality of Andrographis paniculata, and soil properties. Ind Crop Prod 70:404-409

Lake L, Sadras VO (2014) The critical period for yield determination

in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crop Res 168:1-7 Mba CC (1996) Treated-cassava peel vermicomposts enhanced earthworm activities and cowpea growth in field plots. Resour Conserv Recycl 17:219-226 Roy S, Arunachalam K, Dutta BK, Arunachalam A (2010) Effect of organic amendments of soil on growth and productivity of three common crops viz. Zea mays, Phaseolus vulgaris and Abelmoschus esculentus. Appl Soil Ecol 45:78-84 Sahni S, Sarma BK, Singh DP, Singh HB, Singh KP (2008a) Vermicompost enhances performance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Cicer arietinum rhizosphere against Sclerotium rolfsii. Crop Prot 27:369-376 Sahni S, Sarma BK, Singh KP (2008b) Management of Sclerotium rolfsii with integration of non-conventional chemicals, vermi-compost and Pseudomonas syringae. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:517-522 Sangwan P, Kaushik CP, Garg VK (2010) Growth and yield response of marigold to potting media containing vermicompost produced from different wastes. Environmentalist 30:123-130 Singh G, Sekhon HS, Kaur H (2012) Effect of farmyard manure, vermicompost and chemical nutrients on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Int J Agric Res 7(2):93-99 Singh A, Jain A, Sarma BK, Abhilash PC, Singh HB (2013) Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicompost-ing using Eisenia fetida. Waste Manag 33:1113-1118 Yadav Anoop, Garg VK (2011) Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida. Bioresour Technol 102:2874-2880