Scholarly article on topic 'Metaphor-based Design for Learning via ATTA and SCAN Model'

Metaphor-based Design for Learning via ATTA and SCAN Model Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Jiin-Chyuan Lai, Tsuilien Shen

Abstract The purpose of this research is to explore the impacts of the ATTA, Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adult and SCAN, Six Creative Analogical and Assimilated Navigation Model on curriculum design of linguistic development. By means of stimulating the performance of creativity in fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality in learners’ works with the six aspects of metaphor-based analogy, the participants’ learning outcomes are promoted. This study is conducted on the basis of quantitative quasi-experimental research. The impact of the Communicative Language Teaching with Cultural Metaphor Plan (CLTCMP) with ATTA and SCAN model, a cultural teaching style, has on facilitating the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ English proficiency in reading comprehension and understanding of American culture are measured through the use of standardized tests. Based on the Analysis of learners’ linguistic performances evaluated by the standardised tests, TVE-JCEE, Technological and Vocational Education-Joint College Entrance Examination and ACMA, American Cultural Metaphor Assessment, the statistical analysis indicated that the CLTCMP with ATTA and SCAN model, the cultural metaphorical teaching method, affected the EFL students’ English reading comprehension slightly, a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M=65.72 and experimental M = 69.69. However, the statistical analysis indicated that the CLTCMP did greatly influence the participants’ American cultural metaphor understanding, a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M= 64.74 and experimental M = 93.04. Therefore, there were statistically significant differences between those trained in the CLTCMP method contrasted to those who were in more traditional classes.

Academic research paper on topic "Metaphor-based Design for Learning via ATTA and SCAN Model"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

ELSEVIER Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 112 (2014) 738 - 746 -

International Conference on Education & Educational Psychology 2013 (ICEEPSY 2013)

Metaphor-Based Design for Learning via ATTA and SCAN

Jiin-Chyuan Lai a*, Tsuilien Shen b

a Assistant Professor of Dept. of Applied Foreign Languages, Transworld University,No.1221., Zhenna Rd., Douliu, Yunlin 640, Taiwan. b Professor of Center for General Education, National Formosa University, No.64., Wenhua Rd., Huwei, Yunlin 632,Taiwan.

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to explore the impacts of the ATTA, Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adult and SCAN, Six Creative Analogical and Assimilated Navigation Model on curriculum design of linguistic development. By means of stimulating the performance of creativity in fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality in learners' works with the six aspects of metaphor-based analogy, the participants' learning outcomes are promoted. This study is conducted on the basis of quantitative quasi-experimental research. The impact of the Communicative Language Teaching with Cultural Metaphor Plan (CLTCMP) with ATTA and SCAN model, a cultural teaching style, has on facilitating the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' English proficiency in reading comprehension and understanding of American culture are measured through the use of standardized tests. Based on the Analysis of learners' linguistic performances evaluated by the standardised tests, TVE-JCEE, Technological and Vocational Education-Joint College Entrance Examination and ACMA, American Cultural Metaphor Assessment, the statistical analysis indicated that the CLTCMP with ATTA and SCAN model, the cultural metaphorical teaching method, affected the EFL students' English reading comprehension slightly, a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M=65.72 and experimental M = 69.69. However, the statistical analysis indicated that the CLTCMP did greatly influence the participants' American cultural metaphor understanding, a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M= 64.74 and experimental M = 93.04. Therefore, there were statistically significant differences between those trained in the CLTCMP method contrasted to those who were in more traditional classes.

© 2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityof Cognitive-counselling,research and conference services (c-crcs).

Keywords: metaphor-based design, Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adult, SCAN model for creativity, analogical

thinking

* Corresponding author. Tel.:+886-923-703-558

E-mail address: marklai07@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Cognitive-counselling, research and conference services (c-crcs). doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1225

1. Introduction

The focus of this study has to do with teaching the target, American, culture in the foreign language classroom through American English cultural metaphors. For years, teachers of EFL and English as a Second Language (ESL) have focused on teaching grammatical forms and patterns and, as a consequence, they might have overlooked the role that culture plays in the foreign language classroom. It is common to find that the teaching of culture in the foreign language classroom has been relegated to the insertion of little vignettes about cultural differences. The vignettes range from the insertion of literary passages to organization of cultural patterns interspersed among the chapters of a Foreign Language (FL) text. Although they might be helpful, they do not provide the theoretical model upon which these anecdotes are organized. Seely (1984), for example, provides a list of insightful cultural encounters for students when visiting foreign countries. He does have a theoretical model, but it is implicit. His insights are revealed in his explanation of why such intercultural events create cognitive dissonance for the visitor to a foreign country. Take, for example, the concept of territorial possession that native speakers of English assume when eating in self-serve restaurants in Germany. In the United States, a student will take his meal and find a table for himself. He does not expect to share that table with others unless he invites them. In Germany, on the other hand, the concept of the table possession is not a temporary private event, but occurs within public space. Hence, it is not unusual to join other strangers in sharing a table in public. Seely (1984) explains these cultural differences, and in doing so, he provides insight into for strangers the different cultural assumptions that constitute the same event.

Metaphor plays a major role in language. Metaphor accounts for linguistic creativity, and, most importantly, it accounts for how people think metaphorically across cultures. In this investigation, several American cultural metaphors will be introduced in the EFL classroom. The students were tested for these concepts before they were formally introduced in the classroom and after they had been introduced. Instruments were used to ascertain how cultural metaphorical concepts were learned in the EFL classroom.

What has been overlooked in many EFL programs is that many of the difficulties that students encounter in Foreign Language (FL) programs do not have to do with learning new linguistic forms, but with how they are organized metaphorically. Although humans share the same biological components that constitute language, they organize them in different ways. They have the same physiological abilities to articulate sounds, but they produce different sound patterns. They have the same ability to organize ideas syntagmatically, but they differ in their syntactic patterns. Syntagmatic patterns are organized linearly. Syntax follows the syntagmatic pattern. It contrasts with paradigmatic patterns that are organized vertically as in the noun paradigm in Latin grammar. People organize things either linearly or vertically. In this dissertation, ideas are ordered linearly and hence syntagmatically. Similarly, people have the same ability to semantically organize ideas, but they differ in how people use figurative language to create linguistic categories in their own languages. The focus of this investigation, however, is not limited to how cultures differ metaphorically, but to what kinds of problems Chinese-speaking students encounter when entering the metaphorical world of the English language, to provide students with the target language cultural metaphors and to examine the impact of the Communicative Language Teaching with Cultural Metaphor Plan (CLTCMP) with ATTA and SCAN model on the students.

2. Literature Review

2.1. The role of metaphors in language acquisition

The methodologies and pedagogies of English as a Foreigner Language (EFL) have been broadly discussed in non-English speaking countries for a long time. For EFL teachers, seeking the best teaching methods is a difficult issue. In particular, EFL teachers in Asia have approached these issues in terms of providing EFL students with effective English language learning approaches. Some researchers suggest that second languages should be taught on the basis of meaningful contexts in the learners' social reality.

Many of the concepts used in the foreign language classroom were developed during the World War II when linguists were asked to work with native speakers of the target language developing courses for the Foreign Language Institute in Monterrey, California. These methods were based on teaching linguistic forms. Students were subjected to intensive language training based on moving from passive to active control of language structures. Since then many foreign languages textbook authors have used this approach to EFL. With the advent of the Second Generation of Cognitive Linguistics (Gardener, 1987; Lakoff, 1987), traditional methods of language teaching have been transformed. Cognitive linguists have come to realize that most of language learning is analogical.

According to Marzano (1992), "A highly interactive process of constructing personal meaning from the information available in a learning situation and then integrating that information with what we already know to create new knowledge," is important. To EFL students, this is a worthy perspective and can be employed by the EFL instructor in the course of dealing with some crucial EFL learning problems. The formal study of the English language including vocabulary, parts of speech, sentence structure, and grammar is necessary but not sufficient form of language learning. The student must also learn to think metaphorically. The student is already doing so in his native language and his challenge is to learn how to do it in a foreign language. Hence, in addition to formally learning a language, a student must also conceptually learn the metaphorical world that constitutes that language. He must understand those expressions and meanings which are characteristic of the metaphorical world of English speakers. If he does not learn to think metaphorically in English, he will not fully understand what that language means.

The approach used in this investigation differs substantially from the aforementioned traditional approaches to language teaching. St. Clair (2002), for example, has argued that metaphors can be used to define different cultures. He has shown, for example, that European cultures are defined by certain metaphors that have emerged from their own social history over time and these clusters of metaphors form a cultural profile. These are the metaphors of growth, the metaphors of games, the metaphors of semiotic form, the metaphors of the machine, the metaphors of the stage (dramaturgical metaphor), and metaphors of time and space. St. Clair (2002) also pointed out that when one learns an Indo-European language such as English, these cultural metaphors are assumed to be a part of the zeitgeist of that language. Metaphors are embedded into the very being of how people think in that language. The reason for this deep connection between metaphor and thought has to do with the argument made by Lakoff (1987) that thought is metaphorical. Metaphors, Lakoff and Johnson (1980) argue, are used to create linguistic categories. Fauconnier and Turner (2002) have further articulated this new approach to cognitive linguistics by demonstrating how conceptual blending takes place in metaphorical thought. Consider, for example, the metaphor "The surgeon is a butcher." The inputs, information, to this metaphor are the concepts of surgeon and butcher. When these inputs are merged, they produce a new concept: the surgeon who performs like a butcher.

2.2. Metaphor and Linguistic Creativity

For two millennia the role of metaphor as an instrument of linguistic creativity was disparaged by philosophers and scientists. Recent work in the field of the cognitive sciences has demonstrated that metaphor is not only an intrinsic part of human creativity, but also that it plays a significant role in linguistic creativity and in linguistic change. The following discussion with St. Clair (lecture notes, seminar on Cultural Metaphors) addressed the nature of this change. It is argued that metaphor is central to analogical reasoning. Another trope that has been recently revived is metonymy. It will be demonstrated how both of these tropes developed out of cognitive models of categorization, and schema theory. In addition, it can be demonstrated that most linguistic change is metaphorical. Both lexical items and grammatical constructions undergo metaphorical change. These concepts will be discussed under the rubric of grammaticalization, the creation of new grammatical constructions that are created by metaphorical extension of existing structures. Finally, this discussion will address the concept of linguistic borrowing and translation theory and it is argued that most borrowed forms are essentially new forms that undergo metaphorical shifts and reanalysis when imported into another linguistic system. Similarly,

translation theory involves the ingenious use of human creativity, as literal translations are impossible. An old Italian adage is traduttore e traiditore, a translator is a traitor. Now this can be restated, "the translator is a creative genius." (St. Clair 2002)

The disparagement of metaphor is now a thing of the past. Recently, linguists have turned their energies into reinvestigating the use of tropes in language (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980; and Lakoff, 1987). Lakoff was aware of the changes taking place in the cognitive sciences and knew that the field was being reconceptualized. Not only were cognitive scientists interested in analogical reasoning but were also interested in how visual thinking was used to create schemas, frames, and scenarios in language. Gibbs (1994) demonstrated that the dichotomy between figurative and literal language could not be sustained. Many literal terms are metaphorical in nature*. Later, cognitive scientists noted how analogical language is used to create mental spaces and metaphorical blends. Gilles Fauconnier (1994) created a model of mental spaces and demonstrated how categories are used to move from a source to a target space in the creation of metaphor. In arguing, "The surgeon is a butcher" one chooses the butcher as the source concept and uses it to create a target, the surgeon. The metaphor is created in a blended space that uses short-term memory, long-term memory, and the structure of the radial networks associated with the items butcher and surgeon. He referred to his model as mental spaces, the place where concepts and categories combine in working memory. Recently, scholars working within the field of grammaticalization (Hopper and Traugott, 1993) had demonstrated that not only lexical metaphors dominate language, but also grammatical metaphors. They provide numerous examples of new grammatical constructions that have emerged through the metaphorical construction of linguistic patterns. What they demonstrate has been widely known in the field of historical linguistics. New grammatical categories are continuously created and re-created in language metaphorically. For example, in many language systems a new form of the future was created and modelled on verbs of motion.

3. Research Methods

3.1. Method

The quasi-experimental quantitative research method was employed and designed to illustrate effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of an instructional approach, it is optimal for determining the effectiveness of the Communicative Language Teaching with the Culture Metaphors Teaching method on both the foreign language learners' English reading comprehension and the understanding of American cultural metaphors. The quasi-experimental research-nonequivalent control group design was utilized to examine whether English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners would obtain higher achievement in English Reading Comprehension (ERC) and American Cultural Metaphorical Understanding (ACMU) when instructed using the Communicative Language Teaching with Culture Metaphors Plan (CLTCMP) with ATTA and SCAN model.

3.2. Participants

The participants in this study were the EFL Taiwanese adult learners in the Language Center (LC) at the China Institute of Technology (CHIT) in Taipei, Taiwan. These students were also enrolled in English classes. Sixty-nine undergraduates from the Industrial and Engineering Management (IEM) department at CHIT, made up two in-tact classes for this study. Participating groups were randomly assigned to either the control or to the experimental group by flip a coin. Forty-three participants, all juniors, were in the control group, named MC for having classes held on Mondays, and twenty-six participants, all sophomores, were in the experimental group named TC because classes were held on Tuesdays. All of the participants took two types of assessments: an English reading comprehension assessment made up of both covariate-test, TVE- JCEE 94-1and post-test, TVE-

JCEE 94-2, and an American cultural metaphor understanding assessment, also made up of both covariate-test, ACMA-1 and post-test, ACMA-2. The measurement framework can be seen in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 The Measurement Framework Diagram

1st ANCOVA

Covariate : TVE-JCEE 94-1

Post-test: TVE-JCEE 94-2

| IV: Teaching Method |

Control group Experimental group

DV: English Reading n=43 n=26

2nd ANCOVA

Covariate: ACMA-1

Post-test: ACMA-24

DV: Cultural Metaphor n=43 n=26

Understanding

3.3. Procedures

First, the researcher obtained the name list of the 69 participants from the Language Center (LC) in the China Institute of Technology (CHIT); The Participants' Consent Form was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the researcher also received the research approved letter from IRB. The Course Project Forms were submitted and approved by the LC at CHIT.

Second, the monitor of the two classes, the control group and the experimental group, distributed the Consent Form developed for this study to the participants and received their authorization. The monitor conducted two covariate, Technological and Vocational Education-Joint College Entrance Examination Version 94-1 (TVE-JCEE 94-1) and American Cultural Metaphor Assessment (ACMA-1) to both the control group, Monday Class (MC) and the experimental group, Tuesday Class (TC). These tests evaluated the students' English Reading Comprehension (ERC) and American Cultural Metaphor Understand (ACMU). The covariates were given to both groups during the first class by the monitor. The monitor gave a set of instructions and read the scripts to each class. Eight weeks later, the same test, but a different version was given as a post-test. The tests were also proctored by the monitor under the same set of circumstances. The post-tests also evaluated the students' ERC and ACMU. Because both of the instruments, covariate and post-tests were written in English and the possible language-barrier could result in the students' English limitations, the researcher translated the instructions into Chinese when needed. The actual test items remained in English.

Third, after the two classes completed the covariates, the researcher taught them their respective and instructional lesson plans, CLTP (Communicative Language Teaching Plan) version for the control group, MC, and CLTCMP (Communicative Language Teaching with Cultural Metaphor Plan) with ATTA and SCAN model version for the experimental group TC. The researcher followed the schedule arranged by the director of the Language Center at CHIT. The researcher completed all lessons in eight sessions.

Finally, after all eight lessons were completed; the researcher administered the post-tests of the instruments to determine students' progress. The post-tests included Technological and Vocational Education-Joint College Entrance Examination Version 94-2 (TVE- JCEE 94-2) and American Cultural Metaphor Assessment-2 (ACMA-2).

4. Result Analysis

4.1. Quantitative Data Analysis- Main Analysis

To analyze quantitative data, the statistical analysis software, Standard Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 14.0 was employed. Two ANCOVAs were run. The first ANCOVA was run with the dependent variable post-test-1, TVE-JCEE 94-2. The second ANCOVA was run with the dependent variable post-test-2, ACMA-2. In both analyses, the pretests, TVE-JCEE 94-1 and ACMA-1, scores served as the covariate.

Regarding to the assumptions, Shavelson stated, "With the ANCOVA, we make the usual three assumptions (Independence, Normality, and Homogeneity of variances) common to the analysis of variance." (1996, p.511) Two extra assumptions, the linearity and homogeneity of regression coefficient were involved in this research. Overall, the assumptions for ANCOVA were maintained for both variables DV-1, TVE-JCEE 94-2, and DV-2, ACMA-2. Independence was satisfied through the experimental design. All subjects' responses were independent of the groups. The histograms of the DV below show that normality was given. (Figure: 4.1 & 4.4) A standardized residual plot indicated that the linear regression assumption was met, (Figure: 4.2 & 4.5) and finally to check for the homogeneity of regression coefficient assumption, (Figure: 4.3 & 4.6) the researcher analyzed the interaction between the treatment group and PREACMA-1. The assumption was met (p>.05 level). However, the interaction between the treatment group and PRETVE-JCEE94-1 was significant (p< .05 level) and thus, it violates the homogeneity of regression coefficient assumption.

ANCOVA #1 Assumptions

Histogram

Dependent Variable: PostTest-TVE

Std. Dev - .90 Mean - 0.00

Regression Standardized Residual

Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standar Dependent Variable: PostTest-TVE

0.00 .25 .50

Observed Cum Prob

Figure 4.1 ANCOVA #1 Normality Assumption

Figure 4.2 ANCOVA #1 Linearity

Scatterpl ot

-3 -2 -1 O 1 2 3 4

Regression Standardized Predicted Value

Figure 4.3 ANCOVA #1 Homogeneity of Variances Assumption

ANCOVA #2 Assumptions

Histogram

Dependent Variable: PostTest-ACMA

Std Dev - .90 Mean - OHO N - 69.CO

Regression Standardized Residual

Figure 4.4 ANCOVA #2 Normality Assumption

Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standa Dependent Variable: PostTest-ACMA

O.CO .25 .50

Observed Cum Prob

Figure 4.5 ANCOVA #2 Linearity

Scatte^"pl ot

st-ACMA

Regression St^d^dized Predicted Value

Figure 4.6 ANCOVA #2 Homogeneity of Variances Assumption

4.2 First ANCOVA Result

As can be seen in table 4.1, the CLTCMP treatment affected the participants' scores on the post-test, TVE-JCEE94-2. There was a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M=65.72 and experimental M = 69.69. (Table 4.1) The CLTCMP teaching method significantly affected the scores on the TVE-JCEE94-2. F (1, 66) = 5.76, p <. 02 (at the .05 alpha level). (Table 4.2) This produced an effect size of (r|2 = .08), which indicated that about 8% of the variance in the post-test scores was explained by the treatment. In spite of the sig., this small effect size (Cohen, 1998) indicated that the treatment effect was modest at best. The cultural teaching method, while affecting the results, did not greatly influence the means participants' English reading comprehension. Because there were cultural metaphors underlying parts of the ERC test, the participants were expected to increase their scores after learning more about culture. However, this was an imbedded concept, not directly linked to reading comprehension skills. Therefore, the results obtained during this study are understandable.

Table 4.1 Descriptive for the First ANCOVA

MC/TC Mean Std. Deviation N

CLTP 65.72 9.274 43

CLTCMP 69.69 8.034 26

Total 67.22 8.979 69

* Dependent Variable: PostTest-TVE

Table 4.2 First ANCOVA Result

Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Squared

PRETVE1 674.78 1 674.78 9.78 .003 .12

GROUP 397.18 1 397.18 5.76 .019 .08

Error 4551.40 66 68.96

Corrected Total 5481.73 68

4.3. Second ANCOVA Result

As can be seen in table 4.3 the CLTCMP treatment affected the participants' scores on the ACMA 2 test. There was a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups, control M= 64.74 and experimental M = 93.04. (Table 4.6) The CLTCMP teaching method significantly affected the scores on the ACMA-2 test. F (1, 66) = 93.21, p <.0001 (at the .05 alpha level). (Table 4.4) This difference produced an effect size of -q2 = .59. According to Cohen (1998), the results are practically significant with a large effect size. This result is expected because the CLTCMP predominately and directly taught cultural awareness and cultural metaphors. The cultural teaching method significantly influenced the participants' cultural metaphoric knowledge.

Table 4.3 Descriptive for the Second ANCOVA

MC/TC Mean Std. Deviation N

CLTP 64.74 13.024 43

CLTCMP 93.04 10.030 26

Total 75.41 18.235 69

* Dependent Variable: PostTest- ACMA

Table 4.4 Second ANCOVA Result

Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Squared

PREACMA1 266.45 1 266.45 1.88 .18 .028

GROUP 13237.44 1 13237.44 93.21 .00 .59

Error 9372.70 66 142.01

Corrected Total 22610.64 68

5. Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of teaching culture through metaphor in the EFL classroom. The statistical analysis shows that the CLTCMP with ATT A and SCAN model, the cultural metaphorical teaching method, affected the EFL students' English reading comprehension slightly. That means students' English reading ability could be promoted through learning American cultural metaphors by means of ATTA and SCAN model, more specifically idioms and slang. However, the statistical analysis shows that the CLTCMP with ATT A and SCAN model did greatly influence the participants' American cultural metaphor understanding. That means that after eight weeks of instruction of cultural metaphor teaching with ATTA and SCAN model, students learned much about American cultural metaphors.

References

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Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. (2002) The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. NY: Basic Books.

Gardner, Howard. (1987). The Mind's New Science: A Study of the Cognitive Revolution. NY: Basic Books, A Division of HarperCollins.

Gibbs, Raymond W. (1994). The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Understanding. Cambridge University Press.

Hopper, Paul J. and Elizabeth C. Traugott. (1993). Grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, Georege and Mark Johnson. (1999) Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. NY: Basic Books

Lakoff, George. (1987) Women, Fire, & Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.

Marzano, R. J. (1992). A different kind of classroom: Teaching with dimensions of learning. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Seely, H. Ned. (1984). Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication, 3rd

St. Clair, Robert N. (2002). The Six Major Metaphors that Constitute Western Thought: Growth, Game, Form, Machine, Dramaturgical, Time and Space. Lampeeter, PA: Edwin Mellen Press.