Scholarly article on topic 'Power Ultrasound Assisted Mixing Effects on Bread Physical Properties'

Power Ultrasound Assisted Mixing Effects on Bread Physical Properties Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{Ultrasound / "dough mixing" / "aeration mechanism" / "physical properties of bread"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Nasrul Fikry Che Pa, Nyuk Ling Chin, Yus Aniza Yusof, Norashikin Abdul Aziz

Abstract Power ultrasound was applied during in-situ bread dough mixing process at power level of 1.00, 1.50, 2.05 and 2.50 kW for time durations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. Well mixed doughs were subjected to standard proofing and baking processes where physical properties of bread like mass, volume and density were investigated. Power ultrasound significantly (P < 0.05) altered the physical properties of bread with bread volume increase by 19%, while bread mass and density reduced by 2.1% and 17%, respectively at maximum ultrasound power of 2.50 kW for exposure of 40 min.

Academic research paper on topic "Power Ultrasound Assisted Mixing Effects on Bread Physical Properties"

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Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 2 (2014) 60 - 66

"ST26943", 2nd International Conference on Agricultural and Food Engineering, CAFEi2014"

Power Ultrasound Assisted Mixing Effects on Bread Physical


Nasrul Fikry Che Paa, Nyuk Ling Chinb*, Yus Aniza Yusof^ Norashikin Abdul Azizb

aDepartment of Chemical Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja,

Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

hDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPMSerdang, Selangor, Malaysia


Power ultrasound was applied during in-situ bread dough mixing process at power level of 1.00, 1.50, 2.05 and 2.50 kW for time durations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. Well mixed doughs were subjected to standard proofing and baking processes where physical properties of bread like mass, volume and density were investigated. Power ultrasound significantly (P < 0.05) altered the physical properties of bread with bread volume increase by 19%, while bread mass and density reduced by 2.1% and 17%, respectively at maximum ultrasound power of 2.50 kW for exposure of 40 min.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of CAFEi2014

Keywords: Ultrasound; dough mixing; aeration mechanism; physical properties of bread

1. Introduction

Research on power ultrasound effects in assisting food processing has gained considerable interest from food technologists for the past two decades. The cleanliness and effectiveness of ultrasound energy plays an important role in the sustained research for developing an advanced production method, especially for food processing (Gallego-Juarez, 2010). It is known that power ultrasound, particularly at low frequency (<100 kHz) causes physical, mechanical, or chemical effects which are capable of altering food properties through intense pressure, shear and

Corresponding author: Tel: +60389466353; fax: +60389464440 Email address:

2210-7843 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of CAFEi2014

doi : 10. 1016/j. aaspro .2014.11.009

temperature gradient depending on the medium of propagation (Dolatowski et al., 2007). A significant number of researches have been conducted to incorporate power ultrasound in food processing, particularly to improve its processing part and to enhance food properties.

The most critical and complex operation in breadmaking is mixing, especially in the case of no-time dough method of breadmaking as it serves as a critical control point for the operation. Dough mixing aims to develop rheology and to create the aerated state or the bubble size distribution which yield the desired baking performance (Campbell, 2003). The creation and control of aerated structures in breadmaking are keys to mastering manufacture of bread, as distinctive features are gained from them. Softness of bread is also significantly attributed by the porosity of bread crumb. Many believe that good quality bread should have a high porosity and a fine, regular gas cell structure in the crumb (Hayman et al., 1998). Bread crumb comprises of a network of gas cells originated from gas bubbles initially introduced into the dough during the mixing process. Therefore, improving mixing element is one of the ways to enhance bread quality as stated by Cauvain et al. (1999) who emphasized that different mixer designs can alter porosity of dough significantly.

Bread is considered as an aerated food product and its quality depends on parameters like protein content, loaf volume, crumb grain quality and crumb texture (Upadhyay et al., 2012). Tan et al. (2011) investigated the changes caused by power ultrasound on sponge cake, a highly aerated product with air content of up to 80% upon baking. They found that power ultrasound was able to enhance batter cake mixing process which resulted in lower batter density and flow behaviour index, higher overrun and viscosity as compared to control mixing. Work by Lim and Barigou (2005) demonstrated that high-intensity ultrasound could be used to control foam structure during production which lead to narrower bubble size distribution. The findings suggested the benefits of ultrasound in aerated food products which are highly dependent on its physical appearance and textural characteristics. Research on application of ultrasound during dough mixing in a breadmaking process is inadequate although there is a patent filed by Jackel (1970) on the method and apparatus of continuous mixing, where premix dough is forced through an ultrasound vibrating pipe to increase its throughput and to reduce the operating temperature. Jackel (1970) claimed that the technique enabled the production of the final dough with lower temperatures and permitted variations and flavour improvement. This research studied the usage of power ultrasound during in-situ dough mixing in producing better bread quality in terms of aerated crumb structure.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Materials

Commercial high protein flour (Red Horse, Prestasi Flour Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia), fine salt (Seng Hin Brothers Enterprises Sdn. Bhd. Selangor, Malaysia), castor sugar (Gula Castor Prai, Malayan Sugar Manufacturing Company Limited, Malaysia), filtered water, shortening (Mariana Vegetable Shortening, Delima Oil Product Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia) and dried yeast (Saf-Instant Yeast, S.I. Lesaffre, France) were used in the formulation of open loaf.

2.2 Experimental rig set up

The ultrasound assisted mixing system consists of an ultrasound bath with a dimension of 635 mm (L) x 595 mm (W) x 330 mm (H). Five units of ultrasound transducer each powered at 500 watts at frequency at 25 KHz were attached to the ultrasound bath (Fig. 1). A temperature probe with a sensitivity of ± 5 °C was installed in the stainless steel tank to monitor water temperature inside bath and the mixer bowl was partially submersed in the tank. Fresh tap water was used for every run of the experiment for consistency. The system was equipped with a steel based support structure which included a roller, a roller lock and a floor-jack hydraulic system for ease of handling.

2.3 Sample preparation

Open loaves were produced using a no-time dough method. The ingredients used in this study were pre-packed and stored in a chiller at a temperature of ± 10 °C prior to the experiment. Dough was prepared by mixing flour with all other ingredients as listed in Table 1 in a multipurpose planetary mixer (TK 40/60, Tekno Stamap SRL, Italy).

Mixing duration was determined through the dough extensibility test using a texture analyser (TA.XTplus, Stable Microsystems, Godalming, UK).

Table 1. Open loaf formulation.

Ingredient Bakers Percentage (%)

High Protein Flour 100

Filtered Water 63

Fine Salt 1.5

Castor Sugar 6

Shortening 5

Instant Dried Yeast 1.5

The mixer bowl was fitted in the ultrasound bath system with an adjustable power level (1.00 - 2.50 kW) for 10 -40 min of ultrasound assisted mixing (Fig. 1). The settings of the ultrasound power level and the exposure duration for each treatment during the dough mixing process are given in Table 2. Power ultrasound was applied in the midst of the mixing process until completion and untreated dough was prepared as a control. The water temperature of the ultrasound bath for each mixing process was maintained between 18 - 20 °C by adding ice cubes.

Fig. 1. Mixer with the ultrasound bath system: (1) sonicator transducer powered at 500W each; (2) stainless steel tank; (3) bowl; (4) mixer; (5) mixing hook; (6) water inlet/outlet valve; (7) hydraulic jack; (8) hydraulic support structures (9) overflow valve; (10) water level; (11) mixer on/off switch; (12) mixer protector cage; (13i) ultrasound generator with 1 kW; (13ii) ultrasound generator with 1.5 kW; (14) ultrasound 70/30 ratio switch (15) ultrasound control panel; (16) ultrasound bath on/off switch.

The dough balls were moulded using an automatic moulding machine (SM-230J, Sinmag, Taiwan). Moulded doughs were then proofed in a proofer (FC-18, Salva Industrial, Spain) at 38 °C and 85% RH. After the proofing process, the baking tins containing dough were transferred into a baking oven (ST-02, Salva Industrial, Spain) and

baked at 210 °C. Baked loaves were removed from the baking tins and cooled on a wire rack for 45 minutes at ambient prior to packing in a sealed plastic bag. Baked loaves were analysed after resting on the shelf for 24 hours.

Table 2. Dough mixing assisted by power ultrasound settings at different power levels and durations.

Mixing sets Ultrasound Power (kW) Ultrasound Duration (min)

1 Control (0) Control (0)

4 1.00 10, 20, 30, 40

4 1.50 10, 20, 30, 40

4 2.05 10, 20, 30, 40

4 2.50 10, 20, 30, 40

2.4 Bread volume and density measurements

Bread density measurement was calculated as the ratio of loaf mass and volume. Mass of the bread was measured using an electronic balance (SB12001, Mettler Toledo, Switzerland) and volume was measured following the coriander seed displacement method (Sahin and Sumnu, 2006; Tan et al., 2010, 2011).

2.5 Statistical analysis

Results were analysed through an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), using the Generalized Linear Model Procedure (PROC GLM) in SAS (Version 9.2, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) to determine significant differences and interactions for the various treatments. Means were compared by using Fishers least square differential (FisherLSD) procedure (a = 0.05). Three batches of experiment were prepared for each treatment and the order of treatment was not significant. Outliers were excluded from analysis.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Effects of power ultrasound assisted mixing on bread volume and density

Fig. 2 shows the changes in bread volume when the bread dough was treated with ultrasound during the mixing process for different ultrasound durations (Fig. 2A) and power levels (Fig. 2B). An increase in bread volume was observed ranging from 6 - 19% when the bread dough was treated with an increased duration and ultrasound power level during the mixing, with the highest recorded value of 1925 cm3 (about a 19% increase compared to that of the control loaf at maximum ultrasound duration and power level). There are two plausible explanations for the bread volume expansion.

Fig. 2. Bread volume at different combinations of ultrasound (A) duration and (B) power level.

The first reason is based on the possibility of early yeast activation which leads to enhanced activity during the later fermentation stage owing to dough temperature elevation as ultrasound energy is dissipated into the dough system in the form of generated heat. This is due to the heterogeneous nature of dough which absorbs acoustic energy and causes sound wave scattering in the material. A dough mixture of a fluid and a solid that have very different properties results in a greater amount of heat generated in the system (Lee et al., 2004). This is proven in Fig. 3 which shows the variances of the temperature profile between the dough and the water bath after each treatment of ultrasound assisted mixing. The temperature of the dough was slightly increased up to 3.1 °C (Fig. 3) at the end of the ultrasound assisted mixing compared to that of the control. Other than acoustic energy absorption and sound wave scattering upon the materials, there is a slim probability of micro-acoustic cavitation occurring on the surface of the dough which contributes to the temperature increase. Acoustic cavitation was observed in the jacketed water bath surrounding the mixing bowl where the water temperature increased markedly by up to 45% from its initial state of 18.8 °C. Acoustic cavitation is suggested as the major contributor for the water temperature increase which occurred in the jacketed water bath system (Santos et al., 2009). However, in the case of the highly viscous material with a feature close to a solid like dough, the chances of micro-acoustic cavitation occurring on the surface of the dough was very slim although not impossible as it was not physically observed.

Fig. 3. Dough and water bath temperature profile after each ultrasound assisted mixing treatment (Ti and T2 indicate initial dough and water bath temperatures in °C, respectively).

The second plausible reason for the bread volume increasing due to ultrasound assisted mixing is possibly due to bubble seeding enhancement during the mixing process. On the one hand, it was accepted that mixing was the only process in dough processing that was capable of bubble seeding through the combination of shear movement of tearing, beating and kneading (Marsh and Cauvain, 2007). Throughout mixing, the creation of initial bubble nuclei (also known as bubble seeding) occurred and the bubble nuclei provided the nucleation sites for the subsequent proofing process (Chiotellis and Campbell, 2003). In addition, the other function of air bubbles incorporated in the dough during mixing was to supply oxygen for oxidation and yeast activity. On the other hand, power ultrasound has been applied in a wide array of applications due to the multiple effects it offers including enhancement of mass and energy transport/transfer operations, formation of cavitations, microstreaming and microjets (Baffigi and Bartoli, 2012; Gallego-Juarez, 2010; Gallego-Juarez et al., 2007; Patist and Bates, 2008, 2011; Rrera et al., 2004). Therefore, it is proposed that ultrasound assisted mixing is responsible for improved bubble seeding in dough processing through the suggested mechanism of enhanced mass transport resulting in improved air incorporation in the dough.

Fig. 4. Bread density at different combinations of ultrasound (A) duration and (B) power level.

Fig. 4 demonstrates the effects of ultrasound assisted mixing on bread density whereby increasing ultrasound duration and power level cause a reduction in bread density. The bread density for the control sample showed the highest density value of 233.96 kg/m3. Generally, bread density shows a trend of decreasing value across increasing ultrasound duration (Fig. 4A) and power level (Fig. 4B). The reduction in the value of bread density caused by prolonged ultrasound assisted mixing ranged from 5 - 7% in comparison to the control loaf. These results suggest that the overall increasing amount of void fraction presented in the loaves which leads to a reduction in bread density is caused by the ultrasound assisted mixing.

The effects of ultrasound duration on bread density can be divided into three levels based on the statistical significant difference: 0 min (control), 10 - 30 min (no significant difference between each treatment, P > 0.05) and 40 min for all the intensity of power levels applied. According to Fig. 4, it is very clear that the longest ultrasound duration (40 min) coupled with the highest ultrasound power level (2.50 kW) applied during the mixing process resulted in significant changes with the greatest reduction in bread density. A significant result with the least bread density reduction compared to the control mix was also observed despite the shortest exposure (10 min) of ultrasound with the lowest level of ultrasound power (1.00 kW). Therefore, based on the bread density results shown, it is initially concluded that ultrasound assisted mixing is able to impose changes in the bread physical properties compared to those of the control mix. However, the level of changes inflicted depends on both the ultrasound duration and the power level applied.

4. Conclusions

Power ultrasound assisted mixing demonstrated effects on physical properties of bread where bread volume increased of up to 19% when compared to the control. Both ultrasound duration and power level showed significant effects with P values < 0.05.


The study was conducted with financial support from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia through the e-Science funding: 03-01-04-SF0955.


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Accepted for oral presentation in CAFEi2014 (December 1-3, 2014 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) as paper 106.