Scholarly article on topic 'Teacher-coach-student Coaching Model: A Vehicle to Improve Efficiency of Adult Institution'

Teacher-coach-student Coaching Model: A Vehicle to Improve Efficiency of Adult Institution Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{coaching / "adult learning theory" / andragogy / "educational coaching" / "teacher-coach-student coaching model"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Pendar Fazel

Abstract The escalating success of coaching and the significant potential it holds as a vehicle for effective learning for individuals and groups appear to have had little impact within educational contexts to date. In response, this paper therefore presents an introduction to coaching practice and its principle and outcomes and examines its processes through a discussion of adult learning theory and comparing the principle of this theory with coaching principle and frameworks. In doing so, it demonstrates the learning value inherent within the coaching framework and challenges educators to consider its potential as a model for active, collaborative, authentic and engaging learning for adult.

Academic research paper on topic "Teacher-coach-student Coaching Model: A Vehicle to Improve Efficiency of Adult Institution"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect PfOCSCl ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 97 (2013) 384 - 391

The 9th International Conference on Cognitive Science

Teacher-coach-student coaching model: A vehicle to improve efficiency of adult institution

Pendar Fazel*

#16 No 14 Bagherpour Deadend Valiast Alley Kamali Blvd. Ashraf Esfahani Highway,Tehran 1476997481, Iran

Abstract

The escalating success of coaching and the significant potential it holds as a vehicle for effective learning for individuals and groups appear to have had little impact within educational contexts to date. In response, this paper therefore presents an introduction to coaching practice and its principle and outcomes and examines its processes through a discussion of adult learning theory and comparing the principle of this theory with coaching principle and frameworks. In doing so, it demonstrates the learning value inherent within the coaching framework and challenges educators to consider its potential as a model for active, collaborative, authentic and engaging learning for adult.

© 2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionand/or peer-review underresponsibility oftheUniversitiMalaysia Sarawak.

Keywords: coaching; adult learning theory ; andragogy; educational coaching; teacher-coach-student coaching model

1. Introduction

Learning, creativity and innovation are fundamental instruction for all educational institutions. One of the most important challenges that students are faced is how they can transfer knowledge into skill. Learning is a very well-known topic in psychology today. It has been said that learning is the most hopeful of the fields of psychology [1]. Educational psychologists are concerned with the use of psychology to increase the effectiveness of the learning experience, including facilities, curriculum, teaching techniques, and student problems. In the other hand we face with different cognitive and behavioral educational theories in the educational field. Learning theorists use scientific method in exploring learning process, but they are different in assumptions, principles, purposes and their methods. Generally each approach is trying to provide a model for boosting the quality of education.

Method such as mentoring and coaching as modern approaches are up to date in helping to improve persons' ability and competency [2]. Coaching is a powerful relationship for people making important changes in their lives' [3]. Inter alia coaching as a target-oriented approach due to integrating of different views into an operational one is ideal for present century and it has been shown that it will be effective in converting knowledge to skill and will lead to transformative learning if it is used efficiently[4]. In summary, what clients consistently derive from a coaching experience includes: heightened self-awareness, self-acceptance and a sense of well-being; improved goalsetting and goal attainment, life balance and lower stress levels; increased self-discovery, self-confidence and self-

*. Tel.: +98-21-44424650; fax: +98-21-44424354. E-mail address: pendarfazel@yahoo.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.249

expression; better communication and problem-solving skills; enhanced quality of life; and, changed and broader perspectives and insight [5]. Therefore, such outcomes, is only made possible through a process of learning. The International Coach Federation (ICF), which is self-described as the voice of the global coaching profession, identifies, "facilitating learning and results" as one of its four core coach competencies [6]. As ICF explained within coaches' competency, it is the responsibility of coaches to facilitate the development of goals and the designing of actions which lead to the achievement of these goals. Coaching profession is strongly grounded in sound academic and scholarly theories that preceded it, and it will be strengthened by the validation of theories and evidence-based research as we move forward. These days a theoretical framework for coaching was developed but still it requires more research to improve. This is interesting given the fact that many coaches and coaching manuals use techniques which borrowed psychological theories almost without realizing their rootedness. Zeus and Skiffington [7] said that "without understanding learning theories coaching practice hangs in a theoretical abyss" Therefore this paper outlines the potential significance of adult learning theory, and its impact on developing effective coaching practice and how it provides an environment to improve learning. The purpose of this article is demonstrating contribution of coaching with adult learning theory. Therefore I am going to brief review of coaching and its outcomes and examine its processes through a discussion of adult learning theory and comparing this theory with coaching principle and frameworks and introduce a combine teacher-coach-student coaching model as a useful supportive model for all educational institutions.

2. Ease of use

Numerous coaching texts refer to the implicit nature of learning in coaching field which paves the way for the achievement of goals and manifestation of change [5], [8], [9], [10]. Coaching can be especially productive for teachers, who benefit from regular, sustained, and personalized interactions with others around their practice [11]. Coaching has been shown to have a positive effect on student achievement in a large-scale evaluation of early literacy learning [12]. Hurd's phenomenological research on nine organizational coaching clients, revealed that, "coaching creates the conditions for learning and behavior change" [13]. He revealed that "coaching creates the conditions for learning and behavior change". Olivero, Bane, and Kopelman found that training followed by one-to-one coaching significantly increased productivity compared to training alone [14]. Joyce et al demonstrated that student achievement increased when coaching was part of a professional development program. Lyons and Pinnell [12] found a connection between literacy coaching and increased achievement in reading and writing. Norton [12] reported positive results of the statewide Alabama Reading Initiative (ARI) which includes a strong literacy coaching component on students. He reported that coaching led to a significant improvement in student test scores.in addition as a result of Lapp, Fisher, Flood, & Frey research [12], student literacy achievement increased markedly during, reading specialists provided half-time peer coaching and half-time student tutoring program.

3. Method

Basing the study on the perspective of coaches, a field hitherto un-chartered, called for a qualitative research framework [15]. The scholarly coaching literature has advanced considerably in the past decade. However, a review of the existing knowledge base suggests that coaching practice and research remains relatively uninformed by relevant psychological theory [16]. This paper briefly reviews the coaching process. It addresses adult learning theory that use in the coaching method, as well. The psychology of learning literature and associated fields of study are used to facilitate this including the relevant coaching literature. The literature is also supported by the use of my own experience of using coaching techniques over the last 3 years and of the anecdotal experiences of other coaches who have either trained me. Most of the research about coaching presented in this article, has been presented as thesis, dissertation, papers or posters at academic conferences, or wrote by authors who are certified with ICF which is professional organization and the largest worldwide resource for professional coaches.

4. Coaching

Coaching includes lots of principles from sports coaching, like teamwork, motivating and going for the goals, it is the experience and knowledge of the individual or team that determines the direction. Additionally, professional

coaching, is fundamentally concerned with the enhancement of human functioning, achieved through the improvement of cognitive, emotional and behavioral self-regulation [16] and it is unlike athletic development, does not focus on behaviors that are being executed poorly or incorrectly. Instead, the focus is on identifying opportunity for development based on individual's strengths and capabilities. Coaching integrates knowledge, tools and skills from other fields like psychology, management, philosophy, social science as well as its proclivity for innovation. In turn the profession of psychology stands to make a significant contribution to the conceptual understanding and practice of coaching [17].ICF's definition of coaching is "partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximize their personal and professional potential." Douglas & McCauley mentioned that, the aim of coaching is sustained cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes which facilitates goal attainment and performance enhancement [18]. As it is obvious the aim noticed elements of learning which Kimble defined learning as 'permanent change in behavior or behavior potentiality that occurs as a result of experience' [19]. On the other hand Douglas & McCauley considered cognitive and emotional changes which are considered in cognitive learning.There is so many definition of coaching which has been tried to explain it. In turn the most precise one which cover coaching proficiencies and explain its context and concept briefly shows in Grant's definition [14]: "Coaching is a collaborative, solution-focused, result-orientated systematic process, used with normal, non-clinical populations, in which the coach facilitates the enhancement of the coachee's life experience and performance in various domains and fosters self-directed learning, personal grotto and goal attainment of the coachee."

Mentoring and often teaching are characterized by an expert-novice relationship, both technical and empirical coaching literature emphasize the existence of an equal partnership between coach and client [3], [5], [14]. In addition, "the coach does not need to be an expert in the coachee's area of learning, "the coach need only have expertise in facilitating learning and performance enhancement" [14].what's great about coaching is that it just shows the value of not being an expert but being curious and willing to not know" [20].

Coaching focuses on constructing solutions rather than analyzing problems [14]. The coach's skills lie in helping individual and groups tell their problem story in a way that reframes the presenting problem as being solvable and highlights the client's resources and ability to define and move toward a solution, while at the same time building a collaborative relationship in which the coach has permission to hold the client accountable for proposed action steps [21]. Indeed, Lyubomirsky, et al. found that dysphoric self-reflection is characterized by a focus on the negative emotional aspects of personal problems rather than a constructive problem-solving approach [22]. Thus, such individuals lack the skills or resources to move from self-reflection through to action and insight. Coaching promote problem solving skill in coachee which step to a) define and understanding problem, b) searching for solution, c) choose and implementing a solution, and d) evaluating result [14].

As Grant [14] .noticed, "goal setting ignites the coaching cycle which is followed by focused, planned action toward the achievement of the goals". Each session the coach helps client to define a mid-term goal either intrinsic goals (e.g.: managing and dealing with emotions, promote intuition, identifying preference, increasing self-confidence and self-acceptance, etc.) or extrinsic goals (e.g.: determining vision, defining mission, prioritizing actions, finding a new ways, etc.), which is facilitate reaching the main goal. He/she utilizes various methods of observation, assessment and analysis to monitor and evaluate situations prevailing in clients' lives. Then, by capitalizing on their inherent creativity and potential, clients' realities are expanded towards a future vision. Finally, maintenance, support structures and constructive evaluation and feedback complete the coaching cycle in the achievement of goals [5].

5. Adult learning theory

Malcolm Knowles [23] is the theorist who brought the concept of adult learning as andragogy which defined it as the "art and science of helping adults learn."The concept that lies at the heart of andragogy is person-centered, experience based, and collaborative relationship. Carl Rogers has developed the theory of facilitative learning. The basic premise of this theory is that learning will occur by the educator acting as a facilitator that is by establishing an atmosphere in which learners feel comfortable to consider new ideas and are not threatened by external factors [23]. He demonstrated active listening, accompanied by unconditional positive regard, supports clients in making tremendous positive changes. Based on Rogers' theory, Coaches' main competencies are building rapport, active listening, ask powerful questions, positive feedback, encourage the choachee in order to help coachee to establish SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timed) goals as well as mobilizing the their inner resources for

the purpose of enhancing performance or personal development [24]. Coaches listen in unique ways that support the goals of the coaching relationship and maximize opportunities for achieving those goals [25]. "Coaches ask questions rather than give answers, because questions lead to learning and answers may not" [24]. As 'internal needs and values are more powerful motivators' [26] and Reinforcement leads to learning, coaches identify value, and motivational words as well as goals and opportunities in order to reinforce them during coaching process. Principles of adult learning theory are:

5.1. Adults need to know why they have to learn something.

Working with adults as collaborative partners for learning satisfies their need to know what they will be learn, as well as identifying why that is important to them. Therefore, the agenda always belongs to the coachee, and the agenda is carefully negotiated in order to find the value, beliefs and needs which stand within. Thus, this clarification leads them to commitment and tolerating during learning process. Coaches use logical level of learning and change based on Robert Dilts' model [27]. Dilts presents the model as a pyramid style hierarchy where each level is a category or set that contains the level directly below those are Environment (at the bottom level), Behaviors, Capability, Beliefs and Values, Identity' and Sprit which means our connection with others and a collection of identities (at the top level). It could also be said that a higher level cannot develop without the immediate level below. Change in a higher level tends to have more effect on the lower levels than vice versa. In turn a coach help the coachee simulate his/her journey as well as find the main reason of learning and its impact on his/her identity and sprit. In turn he/she can modify the goal based on his/her ideal self.

5.2. Adults are self-directed learners.

As a person matures, they become a more self-directed, autonomous human being [23]. Nevertheless, adult learning tends to be facilitated rather than directed: adults want to be treated as equals and shown respect both for what they know and how they prefer to learn. As the client sets the agenda and the relationship is a designed alliance [3], this approach is respected relationship. This also explains person centered coaching which include specific feedback that is free of evaluative or judgmental opinions are a key feature of coaching. Coaches help people through their desire and direct which suits to their preferences. This relationship isn't a guided one because a coach doesn't permitted to get advice. At the heart of the coaching discovery process are answers to simple, powerful questions. Coaching is a technique that uses powerful questions to facilitate coachees finding their own answers [28]. The interesting thing about a question is that it automatically causes us to start looking [3]. Coaches ask questions rather than give answers, because questions lead to learning and answers may not [24]. They have to use open ended question which don't lead the coachee to determined answer. Therefore, the skill of asking divergent, or open-ended, questions is fundamental in the development of comprehension and creativity; Coaches ask open ended questions rather than close ended ones. Divergent thinking broadens one's perception and flows from asking open-ended questions that seek to understand related frameworks and one's own perspective. Open ended questions emerge coachee's intuition and creativity and enthusiasm and make them to explore and choose their direction.

5.3. Adults have a lot of experience.

A mature person life is full of a mass of experience, information, and resources. Given the assumption that past behavior is often a strong indicator of potential future behavior, it may arguably appear conceptually and practically flawed to approach the developmental process within the coaching relationship without firstly exploring the client's development experiences and perceptions to date. This can be expected to maximize the effectiveness of both the coaching intervention itself and the client's developmental outcomes [17]. Coaches recognize these experiences have a very important impact on their learning. However, as well as being a source of new learning, experience can also act as a gatekeeper, reinforcing mental models and schemas. Therefore, the unlearning process is as important as the learning process. The coach is very well placed to challenge coachees' assumptions in relation to new learning. Basic fundamental Assumption in coaching is, clients are naturally creative, resourceful, and whole [3] and they are not empty vessels. The coach's role is to spring loose the client's resourcefulness [29], Coaching addresses the whole person—past, present, and future [29] and the coaches role is elicit their experience and help them to use

their creativity in order to reframe them into current issue and integrate previous experience with new ones. As Mezirow noticed "deep learning occurs, identified by a basic change in beliefs, principles, and feelings that results in a fundamental shift in an individual's understanding of oneself and others in relationship" [30]. Coaching is an intervention specifically designed to create change by opening up a client to new perspectives or learning [3][31][32]. Therefore, Coaches use proven methods, like "1.2.3. Position", "Logical Levels Alignment", "TimeLine", "Change Belief Cycle", "Core Transformation", etc in order to lead to perspective transformation to provide deep learning [33].

5.4. Adults learn when they have a need to learn.

Adults generally become ready to learn when their life situation creates a need to know, understand, cope with a life situation, or perform a task. The more the coach can anticipate and understand the client's life situation and respond to readiness for coaching. Coaching as a process fits the client's needs and situation [20]. Thus, client-oriented coaching also reacts to the coachee's environment, to his doubts, his needs and hopes [34]. Coachees meet coaches because they need to fill the gap between current and desired situation. Thus, a coaching relationship doesn't start without self-dete^^ed need which lies in the client's current life. On the other hand coaching relationship respond to basic human psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competency that Hannah mentioned based on self-determination theory which these three needs must be met in order to facilitate psychological courage and value-based actions [35].

5.5. Adults are relevancy-oriented Instead of being interested in knowledge for its own sake.

Adult frequently seek immediate application of what they learn and are oriented to problem solving. As we discuss before, coaches do not seek facts about the problem, but rather look for qualitative information about the uniqueness of the situation and the purposes of the individuals served by the solution. Thus, coaching as a solution focus approach help clients to reach their solution without analyzing the problem and guide them to act as soon as it is possible and its relationship help avoid Postponement. Clients learn best when there is a need to address a pressing issue to find. The coach role is help the clients clarify their needs and work on immediate solution, as well as longer term, developmental issues.

5.6. Adults are internally motivated.

They are generally more motivated towards learning that helps them to solve problems as they see them, or that results in 'internal payoffs' (self-esteem, quality of life, societal interests)[23]. This does not mean that external motivators, such as requests or encouragement from the line manager, do not have relevance, but rather internal needs and values are more powerful motivators. The coach's role then is to help provide the sense of connection between the client's needs, values, and the results of the coaching. Thus, coaches focus on desired identity, ideal self, and engage in social communication based on their values and lead them to change quality of life.

5.7. Adults' educator has to help them to self-evaluate in learning process.

Coaching promote self-evaluating skill in client and Coaches always use scaling questions before, during and after every single session, in order to help coachees to evaluate themselves. At the beginning coaches ask client to define exact suitable situation as high degree (e.g.: 10), exact unsuitable situation as low degree (e.g.: 10), then they ask them to scale current situation and ask them to define actions which they can evaluate themselves in higher degree.

From this comparison the elements of coaching can be seen to reflect the principles of andragogy And as Cox noticed Andragogy has reached its zenith with the advent of coaching as a learning approach [36].

6. Teacher-coach-student coaching model

Currently in formal educational institution (e.g.: schools, colleges and universities), teachers present the curriculum which set down by a regulatory board, and students have to learn, and repeats the lessons without any tangible prospects of outcomes or deep understanding of lessons and materials. In addition, teachers are frequently set performance management targets that are embedded in this complexity, and while targets help to focus attention they rarely act as the means for improving practice. On the other hand lack of inquiry-based learning makes students dependent, irresponsible and unskilled. In suggesting a combined teacher-coach-student model, a shift in educational approach is required. Teacher-coach-student model for learning in which, could place at its students' personal vision, and goals related to content and lessons, encourage them to achieve and commit to outcomes which is promote their academic competency. This model contains:

6.1. One-on-one skill coaching which provides a means to reduce teacher isolation and to improve teacher efficacy by helping teachers "expand their repertoire of teaching styles, by exploring untapped resources within themselves " [37]

6.2. Educational group coaching for students that facilitated group process lead by a professional coach and created with the intention of maximizing the combined energy, experience and wisdom of students who engaged in order to achieve educational objectives and their educational goals related to their ideal missioned profession.

6.3. Team coaching for students and their teacher as a direct interaction with them (as a team intended to help them make coordinated and task-appropriate use of their collective resources in integrating and gaining the educational skills.

7. Conclusion

Coaching cover adult learning theory's principal those not considered in current learning institutions. Therefore, teacher-coach-student coaching model is a powerful enriched model promote teachers efficiency by inspiring and supporting teaching style and communication skill with student as well as inspire students to be engaged in their lessons actively, thereby providing an authentic learning framework which is contain interactive, flexible, inquiry-based teaching-learning. Therefore it will be caused meaningful deep learning which can help them to provide a skill based knowledge which would bring alive through a transformational learning-alliance between teacher, and students.

Acknowledgements

My thanks to all those without whom I would not have arrived at this point. Special thanks go to Dr. Saeed Mohammad, Siavash Rahimi for invaluable support and constructive feedback.

References

[1] Raygor R. The Science of Psychology, New York; McGraw-Hill 2005

[2] Ahmadi L, Shafiabadi A. Effectiveness of coaching on changing the attitudes on labor market and increase the employability skills of of Psychology graduates of Tabatabai college. Vol 2,No.2. Tehran: Journal of occupational and organizational Consulting, 2008, p. 12

[3] Whitworth L., Kimsey-House H, Sandahl, P. Co-Active Coaching: new skills for coaching people toward success in work and life. CA: Davis black publishing; 2007

[4] Fazel P. Coaching: new approach in cognitive and behavioral learning. Accepted abstract in Fifth International Conference oof Cognitive Science Tehran, 2013

[5] Griffiths K. Personal coaching: A model for effective learning. Journal of Learning Design, vol 1, No 2; 2005 p.55-65.

[6] www.coachfederation.org

[7] Peel D. The significance of behavioural learning theory to the development of effective coaching practice. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 3, No. 1; 2005, p. 18-28;

[8] Whitmore J. Coaching for performance. 3rd ed. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 2002

[9] Hargrove R. Masterful Coaching (Revised Edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer. 2003

[10] Wilkins B M.. A grounded theory study of personal coaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, San Diego State:University of Montana. 2000

[11] Fishman J B, Davis A E; Teacher Learning Research and the Learning Sciences. the cambridge handbook of the learning sciences; London: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp 535-570

[12] Carnahan D, Righeimer J, Tarr L, Toll C, Voss C. Reading First Coaching: A Guide for Coaches and Reading First Leaders. Chicaco:Learning Point Associates, 2004

[13] Hurd J L. Learning for Life: A phenomenological investigation into the effect of organizational coaching on individual lives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, USA: Union Institute and University Graduate College. 2002

[14] Grant A M. Towards a Psychology of Coaching: The Impact of Coaching on Metacognition, Mental Health and Goal Attainment. Submitted in partial requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Doctoral Dissertations, Australia; Macquarie University. 2001

[15] Griffiths A, Coaching and Spiritual Values in the Workplace: exploring the perspective of coaches. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Special lssue.4, 2010, 65-82

[16] Spence B G, Oades G L. Coaching with self-determination in mind: Using theory to advance evidence-based coaching practice, International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Vol. 9, No. 2 2011

[17] Travis J Kemp, Psychology's Unique Contribution to Solution-Focused Coaching: Exploring Clients' Past to Inform Their Present and Design Their Future, evidence-based Coaching. Theory, research and practice from the behavioral sciences.Voi 1, Australia: Australian Academic Press, 2005 p 37-49

[18] Douglas C A. McCauley C D. Formal developmental relationships: A survey of organizational practices. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol 10 No 3, 1999. p 203-220.

[19] Aparece P A. Teaching, Learning and Community: An Examination of Wittgensteinian Themes applied to philosophy ofeducation.. Roma: Iura Editionis et versionis reservantur 2005 p 75

[20] Carter T M. Appreciative inquiry and adult transformative learning as an integrated frame-work to guide life coaching practice. Unpublished Dissertation of doctoral of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Psychology, San Francisco, California: faculty of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements; 2009

[21] Grant A M. An Integrative Goal-Focused Approach to Executive Coaching. Evidence based coaching handbook : putting best practices to work for your clients Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons , 156- 192, 2006

[22] Lyubomirsky S. Tucker K L. Caldwell N D. Berg K. Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoricrumination. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Vol 77 No 5, 1999, p1041-1060.

[23] Dunn L. Learning and Teaching Briefing Papers Series. Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development,2002 http:// www.bro okes .ac.uk

[24] O'Connor J, Lages A. How coaching works. London:A & C BLACK. First published, 2007.

[25] Williams P, Menendez D S. Becoming a professional life coach: Lessons from the Institute for Life Coach Training. New York: W. W. Norton & Company First edition 2007

[26] Bachkirova T, Cox E, Clutterbuck D, Editorial arrangement, The Complete Handbook of coaching, London,:Sage Publications, Ltd, First published 2010

[27] Cheal J. who is 77 Who is 'me'?: Utilising and Developing the Logical Levels Model. GWiz Learning Partnership, 2007 p1 available at < http://www.gwiztraining.com>

[28] Mumford J. Life Coaching For Dummies; NJ:John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2007 p

[29] Rogers J. Coaching skills: A handbook. New York: Open University Press. 2004

[30] Stober D, Grant, A M. Toward a Contextual Approach to Coaching Models. Evidence based coaching handbook : putting best practices to work for your clients Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons , 156- 192, 2006

[31] Munro R. Coaching and the Change Paradox: A Heuristic Study. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring Special Issue No.6, 2012, PP:88-101

[32] Starr J. The Coaching Manual The definitive guide to the process, principles and skills of personal coaching. The definitive guide to the process, principles and skills of personal coaching. London: Pearson Education. 2003

[33] Nielsen N, Nielsen K, The Graves Model and its application in coachin. Berlin:NLP & Coaching Institut 2010 available at <www.NLP-Nielsen.de> p 8

[34] McMahon G. Behavioural contracting and confidentiality in organisational coaching. Counselling at Work,:2005 1-3 Berlin: NLP & Coaching Institut available at < www.NLP-Nielsen.de>

[35] Hannah S T, Sweeney P J, Lester P B. Toward a courageous mindset: The subjective act and experience of courage. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2007 Vol 2 No 2, 129-135.

[36] Cox, E, An Adult Learning Approach to Coaching. Evidence based coaching handbook : putting best practices to work for your clients Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons , 2006, 193-215

[37] Weasmer J, Woods, A M. Peer partnering and change. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 1999 , 36, 32-34.