Scholarly article on topic 'Prediction of the overall enthalpy of CO2 absorption in aqueous amine systems from experimentally determined reaction enthalpies'

Prediction of the overall enthalpy of CO2 absorption in aqueous amine systems from experimentally determined reaction enthalpies Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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{"Carbamate formation enthalpy" / "CO2 absorption"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical sciences, author of scientific article — Nichola McCann, Marcel Maeder, Hans Hasse

Abstract The enthalpy of CO2 absorption into a selection of different amine systems has been calculated, based on the measured enthalpy values and calculated CO2 dissolution values. The results are in good agreement with measured values as reported in the literature. Individual reaction contributions to the enthalpy of absorption have been calculated for 30 mass % MEA and 30 mass % MDEA, yielding information that is essential to the efficient and effective development of improved amine systems for CO2 capture.

Academic research paper on topic "Prediction of the overall enthalpy of CO2 absorption in aqueous amine systems from experimentally determined reaction enthalpies"

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Energy Procedía 4 (2011) 1542-1549 :

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Prediction of the overall enthalpy of CO2 absorption in aqueous amine systems from experimentally determined reaction enthalpies

Nichola McCanna*, Marcel Maederb, Hans Hassea

aLaboratory of Engineering Thermodynamics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, 67663Kaiserslautern, Germany. bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle NSW 2308, Australia

Abstract

The enthalpy of CO2 absorption into a selection of different amine systems has been calculated, based on the measured enthalpy values and calculated CO2 dissolution values. The results are in good agreement with measured values as reported in the literature. Individual reaction contributions to the enthalpy of absorption have been calculated for 30 mass % MEA and 30 mass % MDEA, yielding information that is essential to the efficient and effective development of improved amine systems for CO2 capture.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Carbamate formation enthalpy; CO2 absorption

1. Introduction

It is generally accepted that anthropogenic sources of CO2 emissions need to be severely reduced in the near future in order to avert potentially catastrophic climate change [1-3]. A substantial contributor to CO2 emissions is fossil fuelled power plants and consequently, much research is currently underway to reduce emissions from this source. The most advanced technology to date is post combustion capture, (PCC), using aqueous amine based solvents. In this process, the CO2 containing flue gas is passed in counter current to a solvent at relatively low temperature in an absorber column. Here the CO2 is selectively absorbed into the solvent, which is then transferred to a stripper column, operating at relatively high temperature, where the process is reversed and the CO2 is released. The CO2 can then be compressed and transported to sequestration, while the CO2 lean solution is returned to the stripper column to continue the cyclic process.

Although this technology is well developed, significant improvements are necessary before it can be economically applied on the scale required for CO2 capture from power plants. In particular, the energy requirements for the currently available systems are very high. This is mostly attributable to the high energy associated with regeneration of the solvent, to which the enthalpy of CO2 desorption is the most important contribution [4]. The enthalpy of CO2 absorption/desorption also plays a significant role in the heat released in the absorber column, which in turn

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doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.023

influences the temperature profile in the column. Accurate modeling of the absorber column thus requires a good understanding of this property.

When CO2 comes into contact with an aqueous amine solution, a number of different reactions occur as shown by equations 1 to 6, below. Each of these reactions has an associated equilibrium constant (K) and enthalpy of reaction (Ah). The constants used in this work and the associated references are given in the supplementary information.

CO2 + H2O <-> HCO3+ H+ (1)

HCO^-> CO2~+ H+ (2)

H2O <-> OH + H+ (3)

RR NH+ <-> RR'NH + H+ (4)

HCO:^ + RR'NH <-> RR'NCO:^ + H2O (5)

RRNCO2H <-> RRfNCO2 + H+ (6)

Carbamate formation (represented by equation 5) is of particular interest, as this reaction has not been investigated as extensively as those corresponding to equations 1-4. Protonation of the carbamate (equation 6) is also not well investigated, but under conditions relevant to PCC, it occurs only in relatively small quantities, so is not of particular interest in this field.

To our knowledge, prior to our work the enthalpy of carbamate formation has not previously been directly measured. Estimates of this value have been obtained from the temperature dependency of the equilibrium constant using the van't Hoff equation (equation 7), but these values are typically approximate only, and can have large errors associated with them [5].

5 ln K Ah

-=-7 (7)

5T RT2

In the case of MEA, carbamate formation constants over the temperature range 298 to 328 K have been measured from NaOH titration of a carbamate solution [6], from vapour-liquid-equilibria (VLE) measurements over the temperature range 273 to 423 K [7], [8], and from NMR titrations between the temperatures 293 and 346 K [9], [10]. Van't Hoff analysis of each of these sets of results yields enthalpy values corresponding to the reaction described by equation 5 ranging from -13 ± 2 [6] to -33 ± 2 [10] kJ/mol.

Similarly, DEA carbamate formation has been measured by NaOH titration over the temperature range 293 to 328 K [6, 11], by NMR titrations at temperatures from 304 to 355 K [12] and NMR titrations combined with VLE measurements between the temperatures 293 K and 333 K [13]. Van't Hoff analysis again results in a wide range of enthalpy values: between -12 [13] and -34 [11] kJ/mol.

Measured enthalpies of carbamate formation for MEA and DEA are given in the supplementary information [14]. These calorimetrically measured enthalpies have been used here to estimate the enthalpy of CO2 absorption. This provides a much more reliable and robust pathway to estimation of enthalpy than using only temperature dependencies, where the calculated enthalpies can have high errors.

The measured enthalpy values were used to accurately simulate the CO2 absorption enthalpy of some aqueous amine solvent systems, as well as to identify individual reaction contributions to CO2 absorption enthalpies.

2. Simulations

Speciation profiles for the simulations were calculated using a Newton-Raphson technique [15], along with equations 1-6 and the associated equilibrium constants. These constants and their sources are given in the

supplementary information. In the case of DEA, no measured carbamate protonation constant has been reported. This value was set to 7, based on the values for MEA and NH3 [16].

Activity coefficient corrections were applied based on a simple Debye-Huckel equation (equation 8, [17]) where y is the activity coefficient, p the ionic strength of the solution, z,- the charge on the zth ion and A and B are defined by the dielectric constant of the solvent and the temperature. The ionic radii, ri where not available were estimated based on published values for similar compounds [18].

Individual reaction enthalpies were calculated from total reaction enthalpies and the calculated speciation profiles. The total reaction enthalpy was assumed to be the concentration of product i, multiplied by the enthalpy of the reaction to produce product i, summed across all species.

Enthalpies for carbamate protonation were fixed to -10 kJ/mol. This number, however, had little effect on the calculations reported here, due to the negligible concentrations of carbamic acid under the measured conditions.

CO2 absorption enthalpies were calculated for 30 mass % MEA at 313 K, 10 mass % DEA at 298 K, 30 mass % MDEA at 313 K and 15 mass % AMP at 322.5 K. The temperatures and concentrations used were selected to match data available in the literature so that comparisons between measured and calculated data could be made. Neither MDEA nor AMP form appreciable amounts of carbamate; the results have nevertheless been included to give an indication of the reliability of the method independently of the enthalpy of carbamate formation.

In order to completely simulate the enthalpy of CO2 absorption, both chemical and physical contributions need to be taken into consideration. The chemical contribution is the main topic of this paper, and is discussed in the introduction above. Physical contributions arise from the dissolution of CO2 and from excess enthalpies. In a reactive system such as the CO2-amine system, these properties are more difficult to measure, as simultaneously occurring reactions also have associated reaction enthalpies. For the systems investigated here, the contributions of the excess enthalpies to the overall absorption enthalpy are small and were neglected.

To our knowledge, the enthalpy associated with CO2 dissolution has not been directly measured for any of the systems under investigation. However, this value can be calculated from the temperature dependent equilibrium constants, using the van't Hoff equation (Equation 7). As previously discussed, however, this technique typically results in high errors.

The temperature dependent equilibrium constants for the dissolution of CO2 have not been measured directly, as CO2 reacts with aqueous systems, making determination of the dissolution equilibrium constant complicated. Instead, the equilibrium constants are usually estimated from the 'N2O analogy' according to the equation:

S CO2 = S N2O X^-(11)

2 " 2 S N O

Where S_CO2water is the solubility of CO2 in water and S_N2O is the solubility of N2O in the solution of interest. Again, errors associated with this technique mean that the final enthalpies of dissolution calculated in this way are approximate only and potentially have large errors associated with them. For this work, dissolution enthalpies were calculated using published values for solubilities of CO2 and N2O in water [19] and for N2O in the solvent system under investigation (MEA [19]; DEA [20]; MDEA [21]; AMP [21]).

The enthalpies of CO2 dissolution used to calculate the overall enthalpy of CO2 absorption are given in Table 1 below:

Table 1 Estimated enthalpies of CO2 dissolution in amine solutions

Solvent Ahco2diSSolution (kJ/mole)

30 mass % MEA -15

10 mass % DEA -13

30 mass % MDEA -17

15 mass % AMP -16

3. Results and Discussion

The calculated enthalpies of CO2 absorption for the MEA, DEA, MDEA and AMP systems investigated here are shown in Figure 1 (lines) in comparison with literature reported data (markers). In all cases, the calculated data is in good agreement with the measured data, indicating that the absorption enthalpies can be estimated from the appropriate calorimetric parameters with a high degree of accuracy.

Ô -70 E

DEA # ...................

✓ lo

^.SLaJrSoo ° MEA

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

molar ratio (CO2:amine)

Figure 1 Comparison of measured (markers) and calculated (lines) enthalpies of co2 absorption for: 30 mass % MEA at 313 K (small dashes, calculated; , [22]; * [23]); 10 mass % DEA at 298 K (dotted line, calculated; , [24]);00 mass % MDEA at 313 K (solid line, calculated; , [25])£and 15 mass % AMP at 322.5 K (large dashes, calculated; , [26])^

As can be seen from Figure 1, the enthalpy of CO2 absorption varies between amines, although it must be remembered that measurements were conducted at different temperatures, with different amine concentrations. The difference in the CO2 absorption enthalpies is largely due to the different individual species concentrations in each solution. For a given amine concentration and CO2 loading, the pKa of the amine and the carbamate stability constant define the species distributions within the solution. These two constants are different for each of the amines, meaning that the reactions proceed to different extents and consequently the enthalpies of CO2 absorption by the amine systems are different.

This is illustrated in Figure 2, where the contributions of individual reactions to the absorption enthalpy are shown for 30 mass % MEA and 30 mass % MDEA for CO2:amine ratios typically encountered in PCC under atmospheric

pressure. The enthalpy of CO2 dissolution is similar for the two amines. It can also be seen that the majority of the reaction enthalpy is due to the protonation of the amine, and that this value is similar for the two different amines.

O -20 O

rnhco2

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

molar ratio (CO2:MEA)

Ö -40 E

-60 -■

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 molar ratio (CO2:MDEA)

Figure 2 Individual reaction contributions to the enthalpy of co2 absorption in 30 mass % amine solution at 313 K.

Top: MEA, Bottom: MDEA. CO2: physical dissolution; RNH+ / R2RNH+ : amine protonation; RNHCO¡ : carbamate formation; RNHCO2H : carbamate protonation; OH-: dissociation of water; CO2~ , HCO^ : deprotonations of carbonic acid. Contributions which are not shown are negligible.

The significant difference in enthalpies is mostly due to the endothermic bicarbonate formation reaction in the case of MDEA, which reduces the magnitude of the enthalpy, compared to the exothermic carbamate formation reaction in the case of MEA, which further increases the magnitude of the enthalpy of absorption. This is attributable to a relatively high carbamate stability constant, resulting in preferential formation of carbamate, rather than (bi-) carbonate in the case of MEA. In contrast, carbamate formation is not observed at all in MDEA solutions, meaning that the absorbed CO2 is present predominantly as (bi-)carbonate.

RNHCO2H

R2R'NH+

4. References

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[5] Schäfer, B., A.E. Mather, and K.N. Marsh. Enthalpies of Solution of Carbon Dioxide in Mixed Solvents. Fluid Phase Equilib. 2002. 194: 929-35.

[6] Aroua, M.K., A. Benamor, and M.Z. Haji-Sulaiman. Equilibrium Constant for Carbamate Formation from Monoethanolamine and Its Relationship with Temperature. J. Chem. Eng. Data 1999. 44: 887-91.

[7] Park, S.H., K.B. Lee, J.C. Hyun, and S.H. Kim. Correlation and Prediction of the Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Alkanolamine and Mixed Alkanolamine Solutions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2002. 41: 1658-65.

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[11] Aroua, M.K., A. Benamor, and M.Z. Haji-Sulaiman. Temperature Dependency of the Equilibrium Constant for the Formation of Carbamate from Diethanolamine. J. Chem. Eng. Data 1997. 42: 692-6.

[12] Barth, D., P. Rubini, and J.J. Delpuech. Study on the Formation of Diethanolamine Carbamate by C13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. New J. Chem. 1983. 7: 563-7.

[13] Böttinger, W., M. Maiwald, and H. Hasse. Online NMR Spectroscopic Study of Species Distribution in MEA-H2O-CO2 and DEA-H2O-CO2. Fluid Phase Equilib. 2008. 263: 131-43.

[14] McCann, N., M. Maeder, and H. Hasse. Calorimetric Study of Carbamate Formation. In Preparation 2010.

[15] Maeder, M. and Y.-M. Neuhold. Practical Data Analysis in Chemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2007.

[16] Christensson, F., H.C.S. Koefoed, A.C. Petersen, and K. Rasmussen. Equilibrium Constants in the Ammonium Carbonate-Carbaminate System. The Acid Dissociation Constant of Carbamic Acid. Acta Chem. Scand., Ser. A 1978. A32: 15-7.

[17] Harris, D.C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis. 6th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. 2003.

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[19] Ma'mun, S. and H.F. Svendsen. Solubility of N2O in Aqueous Monoethanolamine and 2-(2-Aminoethyl-Amino)Ethanol Solutions from 298 to 343 K Energy Procedia 2009. 1: 837-43.

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[23] Mathonat, C., V. Majer, A.E. Mather, and J.P.E. Grolier. Use of Flow Calorimetry for Determining Enthalpies of Absorption and the Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Monoethanolamine Solutions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1998. 37: 4136-41.

[24] Carson, J.K., K.N. Marsh, and A.E. Mather. Enthalpy of Solution of Carbon Dioxide in (Water Plus Monoethanolamine, or Diethanolamine, or N-Methyldiethanolamine) and (Water Plus Monoethanolamine Plus N-Methyldiethanolamine) at T=298.15 K. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 2000. 32: 1285-96.

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[26] Arcis, H., L. Rodier, and J.Y. Coxam. Enthalpy of Solution of CO2 in Aqueous Solutions of 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1 -Propanol. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 2007. 39: 878-87.

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5. Supporting Information

Reaction -logio K Temp. (K) Ref Ah (kJ/mole) Ref

CO2 HCO3 + H+ 6.351 6.296 6.292 298 313 322.5 [27] -8.94 [14]

HCÖ3< K2 > CO2~+H+ 10.329 10.220 10.173 298 313 322.5 [28] -15.4 [14]

H2O < KKw > OH"+ H+ 13.997 13.535 13.278 298 313 322.5 [29] -55.8 [29]

RNH+ < Kmea > RNH2 + H+ 9.071 313 [30] -51.3 [14]

RNH+ < Kdea > RNH2 + H+ 8.883 298 [31] -42.6 [14]

RR"R *NH+ < Kmdea > RR "R"N + H+ 8.261 313 [32] -37.9 [32]

rnh; < Kamp > RNH2 + H+ 8.973 322.5 [33] -52.2 [33]

HCO^ + RNH2 < Kca-bMK > rnhco2 -1.428 313 Unpublished results -29.7 [14]

RNHCO2H < 'KK-K > RNHCO22 + H+ 7.50 313 Unpublished results -10 Estimate

HCO2 + RNH2 < Kca-bDEA > RNHCO22 -0.87 322.5 [12] -23.7 [14]

RNHCO2H < Kca-bHDEA > RNHCO22 + H+ 7a 322.5 Estimate -10 Estimate

aEstimate, based on values for the MEA and ammonia system. No value is reported in the literature, Barth et a/.[12] use a value of 5 in fittings, but this is also an estimate.