Scholarly article on topic 'Factors Affecting Repurchase Intention to Shop at the Same Website'

Factors Affecting Repurchase Intention to Shop at the Same Website Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Selim Aren, Mevlüdiye Güzel, Ebru Kabadayı, Lütfihak Alpkan

Abstract Internet's fast steps into our lives have brought about social, economic and psychological changes and novelties. Online shopping comes one of the recent innovations in economic system. Nowadays, there happens to be a high increase in the number of researches about online shopping which deeply affects the social and economic lives. It has become popular to identify factors which facilitate online shopping and repurchases on internet. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment have been noted to have an impact on online shopping and revisits to e-shops. The most outstanding antecedent of online shopping is behavioral intention. We have come up with a theoretical model upon studying the relationships between consumers’ repurchase intentions, and perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment. The research has been carried out through a paper and online survey on 300 students who have e-shopped before. Depending on the research results, positive relationships have been observed between above-mentioned variables and repurchase intention while a mediation effect of enjoyment has been detected between them, which all confirm the research hypotheses.

Academic research paper on topic "Factors Affecting Repurchase Intention to Shop at the Same Website"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 99 (2013) 536 - 544

9th International Strategic Management Conference

Factors Affecting Repurchase Intention to Shop at the Same

Website

Selim Arena, Mevlüdiye Güzelb*, Ebrn Kabadayic, Lütfihak Alpkand,

a'b'c'dGebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli, 41400, Turkey

Abstract

Internet's fast steps into our lives have brought about social, economic and psychological changes and novelties. Online shopping comes one of the recent innovations in economic system. Nowadays, there happens to be a high increase in the number of researches about online shopping which deeply affects the social and economic lives. It has become popular to identify factors which facilitate online shopping and repurchases on internet. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment have been noted to have an impact on online shopping and revisits to e-shops. The most outstanding antecedent of online shopping is behavioral intention.

We have come up with a theoretical model upon studying the relationships between consumers' repurchase intentions, and perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment. The research has been carried out through a paper and online survey on 300 students who have e-shopped before. Depending on the research results, positive relationships have been observed between above-mentioned variables and repurchase intention while a mediation effect of enjoyment has been detected between them, which all confirm the research hypotheses.

© 2013 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.

Selectionand peer-reviewunderresponsibilityofthelnternational Strategic Management Conference. Keywords: Online shopping; behavioral intention; TAM

1. Introduction

1990s witnessed an increasing number of remote sales methods among which internet has come out as the most influential and fast growing method. Having been developed by scientists in the USA in the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-262-605-1577; fax: +90-262-653-8494. E-mail address: mguzel@gyte.edu.tr.

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the International Strategic Management Conference. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.523

1960s, internet has penetrated into everyone's lives through mobile phones, computers and any other available device. Internet World Statistics announced the number of internet users to be 34% of total world population in June 2012. Internet's spread has increased 566% from 2000 to 2012. Having been launched by a project in Turkey, it reached a peak in the millenniums. Of the houses in Turkey, 48% has internet connection according to a report released in April 2012 by Turkish Statistical Institute. The number of internet users is expected to reach 44 million in 2013 (Capital, 2011).

Online commerce is a kind of commerce where products or services are produced, distributed, presented, bought and paid for on the internet (£elik and Yilmaz, 2011). Being the consumer's perspective of online commerce, online shopping is a novelty which has been brought along with internet. Despite short history of online shopping, the number of e-shoppers is expected to be 9 million in 2013 (Capital, 2011). As its huge and fast growth results in a need to define and explain online shopping, it grabs attention of e-vendors and researchers. That both online shopping and generally marketing becomes consumer-centered with a long-term relational perspective has brought online shopping behaviors to the forefront among other research matters.

Online shops have nowadays become more and varied due to differences between brick-and-mortar and click-and-mortar stores. There are various reasons which lead consumers to shop online. As time gains more and more importance as a result of busy working and social life, online shops let consumers save time while fulfilling their fundamental needs, cover a variety of products and services in a short time, and avoid traditional shopping costs. On the other hand, to establish an identity over the internet is inevitable for companies. Consequently, an understanding of consumer behaviors is a necessity for the ones that wants to establish long-term relations with their consumers. They can develop appropriate strategies and achieve a critical competitive advantage if they learn more about consumers' feelings and thoughts.

This study investigates on consumers' revisiting and repurchasing behaviors while focusing on factors that affect their behavioral intention to repurchase at the same e-shop.

2. Development of Hypotheses

2.1. Antecedents of Enjoyment

Consumers have two motivations driving them to shop online: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is a reaction to things independent from situation. For instance, reactions to people's demands are extrinsically motivated. On the other hand, intrinsic motivations drive actions demonstrated for the action itself. For example, an interesting and satisfying act refers to intrinsic motivation (Kim et al., 2011). Hu and Tsai (2009) listed extrinsic dimensions as subjective norm, image, perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness and perceived risk while categorizing enjoyment, concentration and curiosity as intrinsic dimensions. Similarly, several studies defined usefulness and ease-of-use as extrinsic, and expected enjoyment as intrinsic motivation (Davis, 1985; Kim et al., 2011; Wu and Liu, 2007; Teo et al., 1999).

Having focused on extrinsic aspect of working life, Technology Acceptance Model was further developed by adding expected enjoyment as an intrinsic motivation. The relations among both motivations have been investigated by Davis et al. (1992) who showed a positive effect of perceived ease-of-use on enjoyment. This causal relation depends on motivational models (Davis et al., 1992; Deci, 1975). According to Teo et al. (1999), systems difficult to use are less possible to be perceived as enjoyable. This would result in a decrease in repurchase intention to shop at the same store. As a technological application becomes easier, the perceived enjoyment will increase (Kim and Forsythe,

2009). As ease of an online shop protects consumers from psychological tension, consumers will enjoy shopping experience (Jayawardhena and Wright, 2009). Venkatesh and Davis (2000), and Hsu and Lu (2004) concluded positive effect of perceived ease-of-use on enjoyment. Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:

Ht: The perceived ease-of-use has a positive effect on enjoyment.

Another probable causal relation between TAM variables is between enjoyment and usefulness. The usefulness perceived during music download from a website influences perceived enjoyment because people download music in order to relax, become happy and have fun. Consequently, consumers enjoy buying services from a website as much as it fulfills their needs (Bounagui and Nel, 2009). Nel et al.

(2009) found a positive impact of perceived usefulness upon enjoyment felt during online music shopping, which was also reported by Al-maghrabi et al. (2011) in online shopping context. Accordingly, we conclude below proposition:

H2: The perceived usefulness has a positive effect on enjoyment.

Although there is hardly a study that has addressed a direct relation between trust and enjoyment, Sun

(2010) investigated bidding websites like Gittigidiyor.com where sellers are consumers at the same time, and showed a significant effect of trust on enjoyment felt by consumers who would sell products or services while using the website. As trust decreases consumers' concerns about misuse of their personal information and about any other possible risks, it will enhance their enjoyment. According to Zhou

(2011), consumers' trust about that it will be a good experience affects sensational experience or, in other words, enjoyment in behavior itself. Here we propose:

H3: Trust has a positive effect on enjoyment.

2.2. Antecedents of Repurchasing Intention

Online shopping is a volitional act emphasized in Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action. Therefore, the level of how consumers express their intention to buy from a certain store is a reasonable and volitional indicator of their shopping behavior (Jarvenpaa et al., 2000). In accordance with Theory of Reasoned Action, Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior and Davis's Technology Acceptance Model, behavioral intention is preferred in this study as it is the most important indicator of behavior. That Suki et al. (2008) claimed an impact of perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness on buying behavior points to this effect is also observed on behavioral intention, too.

Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1985) highlights two factors that determine a user's intention to deliberately accept, use in other words, a new technology: user's beliefs about perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness of this technology. Perceived ease of use is the degree of believing that using a particular system or, in other words, shopping online would be effortless; perceived usefulness is the degree of believing that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance or, in other words, shopping. The easier a system is to use, the higher the possibility is to be accepted by users (Davis, 1989). Gefen et al. (2003) have concluded that a website will receive more visits as it becomes more useful and practical. The less effort a technology requires, the more tendency and intention consumers will feel to use it. According to Li et al. (2005) usefulness perception is positively related to behavioral intention. In parallel with Davis's (1989) work, Klopping and McKinney (2004) reported a positive effect of perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness on purchase intention. Similarly, this positive impact has been confirmed by other researchers (Davis, 1989; Castaneda et al., 2007; Qelik, 2011).

Shopping intention will rise if consumers develop a perception of easy usage and an online store perceived to be useful increases consumers' shopping intention (Shang et al., 2005). Users with a high level of perceived usefulness will demonstrate buying intention (Monsuwe et al., 2004). Tong (2010) observed that perceived usefulness would affect cons^ers' intention to shop online. Moreover, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness have a positive effect on repetition of shopping behavior (Chen, 2012). Accordingly, we propose the first hypotheses as follows:

H4: The perceived ease-of-use has a positive effect on repurchase intention at the same e-shop.

H5: The perceived usefulness has a positive effect on repurchase intention at the same e-shop.

2.3. Trust

Facing complexity and uncertainty in today's e-commerce transactions, consumers follow some cognitive paths in order to minimize them. Trust is an effective shortcut in this context (Grabner-Kraeuter, 2002). It is a significant factor affecting shopping intention (Lim et al., 2009; Dennis et al.

2010). It is essential not only in traditional shopping environment (Bloemer and Odekerken-Schroder, 2002), but also in online shopping context (Jarvenpaa et al., 2000). Trust plays a determining role in online shopping because it helps consumers avoid vendors' possible opportunist behaviors. Thus, it increases consumers' intention to participate into internet shopping (Gefen et al., 2003).

Considering online games, trust is a factor that positively affects users' intention to play over the internet (Wu and Liu, 2007). Particularly, it stands out among risk and uncertainty in today's e-shopping context (Lee and Turban, 2001). According to Theory of Planned Behavior, consumers may be more eager to shop at an internet store which they perceive as being less risky. On the contrary, they may not want to buy from a more risky store (Jarvenpaa et al., 2000). As an increase in trust decreases risk perception, it directly and indirectly demonstrates a positive effect on online shopping (Çelik and Yilmaz,

2011). Therefore, we propose a positive relationship between trust and repurchase intention:

H6: Trust has a positive effect on repurchase intention at the same e-shop

Fig 1. Theoretical Model

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Goal

This study aims to identify relations among perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment as well as their impacts on repurchasing intention.

3.2. Sample and Data Collection

A field survey was carried out on under- or post-graduate students of Business Administration at universities in Istanbul and Kocaeli. Data was collected through printed and online questionnaires. Approximately 900 students are contacted although 300 of them participated in the survey. Data out of these respondents was applied factor and regression analyses by SPSS analytic software.

3.3. Analyses and Results

To measure perceived ease-of-use and enjoyment, 7 items for each are used and adopted from Davis (1985) and Childers et al. (2001) while only Davis's (1985) items of 6 are used for perceived usefulness. Trust scale is adopted from Ha and Stoel (2009), Green (2005), Anderson and Srinivasan (2003) which includes 7 items. Intention scale is adopted from Ha et al. (2010), Green (2005), Jayawardhena and Wright (2009), and Harris and Goode (2010) which is composed of 5 items. However, 6 items (out of perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness) are deleted as they showed a weak loading or loaded on two different factors. Overall, 26 items using 5 likert-type scale are applied to measure the relations proposed in this study. As shown in Table 1, the Cronbach's Alphas for each construct exceeds 0,70, which represents the reliability of scales. In Table 2 are presented the remaining items with their factor loadings..

Table 1. Cronbach's Alphas and Scale Sources

Constructs Number Cronbach's Measurement Scale's Items are adopted

of Items Alpha from the following Sources:

Perceived Ease-of-Use (EOU) 4 0,881 Davis (1985), Childers et al. (2001)

Perceived Usefulness (U) 3 0,820 Davis (1985)

Trust (T) 7 0,941 Ha and Stoel (2009), Green (2005), Anderson and Srinivasan (2003)

Enjoyment (ENJ) 7 0,925 Davis (1985), Childers et al. (2001)

Repurchase Intention (INT) 5 0,909 Ha et al. (2010), Green (2005), Jayawardhena and Wright (2009), and Harris and Goode (2010)

Table 3 shows that all variables are significantly correlated to each other. Especially the two dependent variable of the model, i.e. enjoyment and repurchase intention are found correlated to each other. As for the hypothesized relations, regression analyses are conducted.

Table 2. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results

Factors

Trust Enjoyment Repurchase Intention Perceived Ease-of-Use Perceived Usefulness

I find this website easy to use. ,750

I like the ease-of-use of this website ,774

Shopping at this website is clear and understandable. ,798

This website doesn't require a lot of effort. ,594

T his website would be useful in buying what I want. ,657

Shopping at this website makes my life easier. ,776

This website enables me accomplish shopping more quickly. ,762

I would find using this website to be enjoyable. ,610

Shopping at this website would be pleasant. ,704

Shopping at this website would be fun for its own sake. ,827

Shopping at this website would make me feel good. ,778

Shopping at this website would involve me in the shopping process. ,798

Shopping at this website would be exciting. ,854

Shopping at this website would be interesting. ,777

I consider this website as my first choice. ,509

I would like to visit this website again in the future. ,738

Given the chance, I intend to use this website. ,756

I will repurchase other products/services at this website. ,729

Given the chance, I predict that I should use this website in the future. ,732

I feel like my privacy is protected at this website. ,750

I feel safe in my transactions with this website. ,801

This website can be counted on to successfully complete the transaction. ,761

I feel I can trust this website. ,791

This website has adequate security features. ,840

This website is reliable for online shopping. ,856

This website is one that keeps promises and commitments. ,661

Table 4 shows the effects of independent variables on enjoyment. Perceived Ease-of-Use, Perceived Usefulness and Trust are found to be significant drivers of Enjoyment, as hypothesized. Similarly, Table 5 depicts the effects of independent variables on Repurchase Intention. Perceived Ease-of-Use, Perceived Usefulness and Trust are found to be significant drivers of Repurchase Intention, again as hypothesized.

Table 3. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations

Variables N Mean Std. Deviation EOU U T ENJ

EOU 299 4.05 .728

U 299 3.79 .818 .572**

T 299 3.76 .777 .565** .487**

ENJ 299 3.46 .909 .481** .500** .428**

INT 299 3.95 .804 .699** .629** .626** .508**

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Table 4: Antecedents of Enjoyment

Model 2 Dependent Variable: Enjoyment

Independent Variables Standardized Beta Coefficients t Sig. Acceptance of Hypotheses

(Constant) 1.491 .137

EOU .222 3.480 .001 H1: Accepted

U .296 4.907 .000 H2: Accepted

T .159 2.652 .008 H3: Accepted

Adjusted R2: .316 F: 26.501 .000

Table 5: Antecedents of Repurchase Intention

Model 1 Dependent Variable: Repurchase Intention

Independent Variables Standardized Beta Coefficients t Sig. Acceptance of Hypotheses

(Constant) .719 .473

EOU .388 8.073 .000 H4: Accepted

U .274 6.027 .000 H5: Accepted

T .273 6.053 .000 H6: Accepted

Adjusted R2: .611 F: 156.873 .000

4. Conclusion

Modern marketing approach which is based on long-term relationships with consumers is dominant around the world. Marketing has been transferred to a new stage together with fast development of internet which is the new meeting point for buyers and sellers within electronic commerce.

Companies including traditional brick and mortars establish online identities. The success of the identities is essential for competitive advantage. The path to success runs trough consumers. It is a necessity for companies to understand their target group and to develop right positioning strategies to be remembered by them. Although the first step is basically products and services themselves, defining the reasons in consumer behaviors is effective in a better understanding of consumers. Among these reasons

are important the technical characteristics and service rendered by a website. Despite an increase in computer and internet literacy, time management in today's hectic life is also a fundamental factor to shop over the internet. Online stores stands different that have a user-friendly, useful and attractive identity with low risk and high trust.

Firstly, in this study is developed a theoretical model upon the related literature review on online shopping and consumer behaviors, and secondly, are defined the factors affecting consumers' intention to shop at the same website and the relations among them depending on the analyses. The results show that characteristics of an online store and what consumers feel and perceive cannot be ignored apart from social and economic reasons that lead people to shop online. These factors take consumers first to behavioral intention and then to the behavior itself. It is a requirement to develop marketing strategies by considering these factors in electronic commerce with an intense competition and innovational applications.

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