Scholarly article on topic 'A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals'

A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals Academic research paper on "Agricultural biotechnology"

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{"Brominated flame retardants" / "Chlorinated flame retardants" / "Phosphorus flame retardants" / Nomenclature / Abbreviations / "Physico-chemical properties"}

Abstract of research paper on Agricultural biotechnology, author of scientific article — Åke Bergman, Andreas Rydén, Robin J. Law, Jacob de Boer, Adrian Covaci, et al.

Abstract Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants.

Academic research paper on topic "A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals"

Environment International 49 (2012) 57-82

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A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals

Ake Bergman a,*< Andreas Ryden a, Robin J. Law b, Jacob de Boerc, Adrian Covaci d, Mehran Alaee e, Linda Birnbaum f, Myrto Petreas g, Martin Rose h, Shinichi Sakai', Nele Van den Eede d, Ike van der Veen c

a Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden b The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK c VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands d Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1,2610 Wilrijk, Belgium e National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6

f National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Toxicology Program, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, MD B2-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA g Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 700 Heinz Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA h The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK i Environment Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan



Article history: Received 21 March 2012 Accepted 10 August 2012 Available online 13 September 2012


Brominated flame retardants Chlorinated flame retardants Phosphorus flame retardants Nomenclature Abbreviations

Physico-chemical properties

Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants.

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


1. Introduction ..............................................................58

1.1. History of organic flame retardants ................................................58

1.2. Aims...............................................................58

2. Methodology..............................................................59

2.1. Construction of STABs for BFRs, CFRs, and PFRs...........................................59

2.2. Construction of PRABs for BFRs, CFRs, and PFRs...........................................59

3. Discussion ...............................................................59



* Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 816 3997, +46 70 644 3861(Mobile). E-mail address: (A. Bergman).

0160-4120/$ - see front matter © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.! 0.1016/j.envint.2012.08.003

A. Bergman et al. / Environment International 49 (2012) 57-82

1. Introduction

Even though the history of flame retardants (FRs) dates back thousands of years (Hindersinn, 1990), it is the recent developments, and in particular the use of organic FRs, that is of current concern. Two of the major groups of these FRs are (i) halogenated FRs that may be divided into brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (BFRs and CFRs, respectively), and (ii) phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs). The BFRs, CFRs and PFRs cover the major proportion of organic FRs, although some FRs contain neither halogen nor phosphorus atoms (e.g. melamine, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine). FRs are incorporated as either additive or reactive ingredients, with the aim of increasing the fire resistance of materials. Hence, reactive FRs are incorporated into the oligomers or polymers being manufactured, while additive FRs are molded within the material to be flame retarded.

Some countries or states have rather unique regulations requiring furniture and electrical equipment to meet specific flammability tests, e.g. in the UK and Ireland (Arcadis EBRC, 2011); and in California in the USA (State ofCalifornia, 2000). However, there is growing evidence that these regulations may not offer the protection that was first intended (Babrauskas et al., 2012; DiGangi et al., 2010). Also, there is a growing body of knowledge which is raising concerns about these chemicals in relation to their persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity and long range transport. The 'San Antonio Statement' (DiGangi et al., 2010) sets the scene as to why this topic is of major concern to the global society. The FR area is complex, with numerous individual chemicals comprising the BFRs, CFRs and PFRs. This highlights the need for a common vocabulary amongst scientists and others to be used when addressing these chemicals in order to avoid confusion.

1.1. History of organic flame retardants

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured and applied as FRs from the late 1920s until the mid-1980s, although PCBs were also used in a multitude of other applications, particularly in electrical equipment. Other chlorinated compounds came into use as FR, probably from the 1960s onwards, sometimes also including a phosphate group, such as the tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCPP) and tris-(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) (Gold et al., 1978). The brominated analog of the former compound, tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phos-phate (TDBPP) made the headlines in the 1970s due to its use in children's pajamas (Blum et al., 1978). In the beginning of the 1970s, an increasing number of BFRs, e.g. polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), came to the market. In 1997, the World Health Organization tried to list all major FRs, also including any inorganic chemicals used in that role (WHO/IPCS, 1997). Pijnenburg et al. (1995) made the first review of BFRs, including what was known of their analysis, toxicity and environmental occurrence, and numerous other reviews and/or assessment documents have been published since then (e.g. Bergman, 2005; Birnbaum and Staskal, 2004; D'Silva et al., 2004; de Boer et al., 2000; de Wit, 2002; Law et al., 2003). Among the most recent documents concerning BFRs are five published opinions from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on PBBs (EFSA, 2010), PBDEs (EFSA, 2011a), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) (EFSA, 2011b), TBBPA and its derivatives (EFSA, 2011c) and also an opinion concerning other phenolic BFRs and their derivatives (EFSA, 2012). EFSA is presently also preparing an opinion on emerging and novel BFRs, for publication in 2012. In 2011, a book on BFRs was published which covered a multitude of issues relating to BFRs (Eljarrat and Barceleo, 2011). Other major reviews of BFRs from 2005 onwards include Covaci et al. (2006, 2009, 2011), Law et al. (2006, 2008). A review on PFRs was recently published (van der Veen and de Boer, 2012) while, among the CFRs, only the Dechloranes have been comprehensively reviewed to date (Sverko et al., 2011).

The BFRs most commonly used today are tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) and HBCDD (also sometimes referred to as HBCD). Due to EU legislative measures and the inclusion of PentaBDE and OctaBDE among the Stockholm Convention POPs, there are now changes in the production and use of PBDEs, HBCDDs and many other BFRs, including some which are being used as replacements for now restricted formulations. DecaBDE is subjected to use restrictions according to the RoHS directive (Directive 2002/95/EC (OJ, 2003)) after the European Court of Justice decision from 2008 (OJ, 2008). However, these changes cannot be documented adequately as the producers do not make production figures available, regardless of where the chemicals are manufactured. Similarly, there is little information available on the current applications in which these compounds are being used. The situation is similar also for production and use of CFRs and PFRs.

It is safe to say that the use of BFRs has increased dramatically since the 1970s and their cumulative current production volume exceeds 200,000 t per year, based on available information (personal communication, V. Steukers, Albemarle, 2008; references in Eljarrat and Barceleo, 2011). Volumes of CFRs seem to be higher since, in 2007, the production of polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) (also known as chlorinated paraffins (CPs)) amounted to up to 600,000 t per year, in China alone (Fiedler, 2010). These compounds are not solely used as flame retardants, however, and have a number of other applications (Nicholls et al., 2001). The worldwide production volume of PFRs in 2004 was slightly above 200,000 t per year (EFRA, 2007).

Due to the increased regulatory interest in and restrictions on PBDEs and HBCDD, alternative FRs are now being used in their place. It is, as shown below, difficult even to list those BFRs currently being offered for sale in the market. In the present document, we are therefore presenting all BFRs, CFRs and PFRs that have been proposed to date for use as FRs. Several FRs have only recently been detected in the environment, even though they may have been in use for some time, e.g. Dechlorane Plus (Sverko et al., 2011). The analysis, environmental fate and behavior of novel BFRs have been reviewed (Covaci et al., 2011; Papachlimitzou et al., 2012) and they are presently under review by EFSA. A suite of FRs has also been reported as present in materials and products taken recently from the Swiss retail market (Zennegg, 2011). In addition, other types of compounds are also used as FRs in a variety of applications, notably PFRs. Regarding the present use of CFRs, less has been published to date, even though some new chemicals have now been identified as CFRs. These are mainly related to the family of "Dechloranes" (Sverko et al., 2011) as further discussed below.

1.2. Aims

As the number of compounds in use as FRs, and for which environmental data are being reported increases, there is a pressing need to harmonize abbreviations by which these compounds can be described in the literature (for example, using TBBPA and PBDEs as described above, and BDE47 for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), with the aim of preventing future confusion. Unfortunately, a rather large number of abbreviations, for the less known FRs, are currently being used without any coordination. Following a request made at the BFR Symposium 2010 in Kyoto, we have now prepared a document which aims to promote improved harmonization, based on a set of criteria, of unique and practical abbreviations to be used for all BFRs, CFRs and PFRs identified to date. In this paper, we provide information relating to halogenated FRs and PFRs, including common, trade and systematic names, CAS numbers, physicochemical properties where known, together with recommended structured abbreviations (STABs) and practical abbreviations (PRABs). Also some general comments and suggestions are given with the aim of simplifying the abbreviation of the full chemical names of BFRs, CFRs and PFRs.

A. Bergman et al. / Environment International 49 (2012) 57-82

2. Methodology

All compounds listed were retrieved by reviewing the scientific literature for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs. Documents of particular use for identifying BFRs and CFRs were: WHO/IPCS (1994, 1995), WHO/IPCS (1997), Orn and Bergman (2004), Andersson et al. (2006); Harju et al. (2009), Letcher et al. (2009), Covaci et al. (2011), de Wit et al. (2011), Sverko et al. (2011); and for PFRs: van der Veen and de Boer (2012).

The compounds are presented in three separate groups (BFRs, CFRs and PFRs) and then listed in molecular mass order within each subgroup. The sub-grouping is given below. We have chosen to list FRs holding, for example, both a phosphorus group and a halogen substituent, in each of the groups to which they belong, i.e. a BFR with a chlorine substituent is also listed in the table containing CFRs (Table 3); a PFR containing bromine substituents is also listed as a BFR. This means that some of the chemicals are listed twice.

One further goal of the systematic work presented herein is to enable us to treat functional groups in chemicals in a similar way, which could also be applied for hitherto unknown BFRs, CFRs, and PFRs that may be identified as commercial products in the future. This may be exemplified by the way in which we handle ether and ester functional groups when structured abbreviations are made. Allyl ethers ofe.g. 2,4,6-tribromophenol and TBBPA are handled by naming the phenol entity first and then introducing one or two ether functionalities, the latter denoted "bis" (b), to give the STABs: TrBPh-AE and TBBPA-bAE, respectively. Other ethers are treated similarly, with the aryl group first and with the alkyl ether group linked to the word "ether". In order to minimize confusion, we propose the use of a set of standardized short forms for major parts of a molecule (or their name). The criteria for constructing the abbreviations are given below and in Table 1. The STABs of all BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are listed in plain letters under the PRABs of the same compound, presented in bold letters (Tables 2-4).

No inorganic FRs have been included in the present article since we feel that the chemical formula can be used for most of those chemicals.

2.1. Construction of STABs for BFRs, CFRs, and PFRs

1. Abbreviations should, as far as possible, be based on a "readable" common name of the chemical. This may lead to the use of an abbreviation, such as TBBPA originating from the common name tetrabromobisphenol A. The goal is to minimize use of non-interpretable names as a base of the abbreviation if it is possible to do so. However, some names and structures of the FRs are very complex and it is unavoidable that the STABs also become complex.

2. Functional groups, such as ether and ester groups, and glycidyl and allyl groups, should be handled the same way each time such a group appears in a compound. Alcohol functional groups are added as OH to the aliphatic chain name (e.g. MeOH for methanol, EtOH for ethanol, PrOH for propanol and PrDiOH for propanediol).

3. In cases where it is necessary to indicate the aliphatic chain or ring structure, this can be done by adding the lower case letters c for cyclo, bc for bicyclo; i for iso (c.f. Table 2). The default for an alkyl chain is "normal-" (n) and is omitted.

4. The "bis-" and "tris-" prefixes are written as "b" and "t", respectively.

5. The numbers of a particular substituent are given by the letters: Di; Tr; Te; Pe; Hx; Hp; O; N; D; UD; DD; TrD; TeD; for the series of 2-14 substituents.

6. The aliphatic chains or rings and aromatic entities are presented in Table 1.

2.2. Construction of PRABs for BFRs, CFRs, and PFRs

Since the STABs tend to be quite complicated, in numerous cases, we are proposing combinations of, in general, three to eight capital letters for PRABs. The PRABs take into account previously used abbreviations

and shortening of the STABs. In a few cases the suggested PRABs exceed eight letters, but this is in cases where no other possibility was obvious to us. The goal has been to present PRABs that are derived in a logical manner (based on the STABs) and are expected to be adopted by the scientific community.

3. Discussion

Among the FRs discussed in this article, we propose a hierarchy for clarification of the status of these chemicals in an environment and health perspective. First, it may be worth to stress that there is a difference in the definition of e.g. an "emerging chemical pollutant" and an "emerging issue". Further, an "established pollutant" could of course be an "emerging issue". Hence the following definitions are put forward for any FRs:

Established FRs (BFRs/CFRs/PFRs) are chemicals which are extensively documented regarding production and use as FRs, chemistry, fate, exposures, environment and health issues (i.e. (eco-)toxicity and/or human health effects).

Emerging FRs (BFRs/CFRs/PFRs) are chemicals which are documented regarding production and use as FRs that have been shown to occur/ distribute to the environment and/or wildlife, humans or other biological matrices.

Novel FRs (BFRs/CFRs/PFRs) are chemicals which are documented as potential FRs that have been shown to be present in materials or products.

Potential FRs (BFRs/CFRs/PFRs) are chemicals reported to have applications as FRs (e.g. in patents).

The numbers of established, emerging, novel and/or potential BFRs, CFRs and PFRs identified and reported in this paper are 55,18 and 23, respectively (Tables 2-4). These numbers do not include either congeners or enantiomers of a given FR. The DBP-TAZTO and its two congeners, BDBP-TAZTO and TDBP-TAZTO, are listed with their separate CAS numbers in Table 2, even though these homologues most likely occur together in the same technical BFR product. On the other hand, we list PBDEs as one group of BFRs (Table 2), chlorinated paraffins as three groups (SCCP; MCCP and LCCP), depending on alkane chain lengths even though they have separate CAS numbers (Table 3).

The use of a numbering system as proposed by Ballschmiter and Zell (1980) for the PCB congeners made a major impact on all subsequent discussions of this group of chemicals (Ballschmiter et al., 1992). Since PBBs and PBDEs are also dicyclic aromatic compounds, it has been possible to replicate the PCB numbering system for the PBBs and PBDEs. The same method for abbreviations is proposed herein for polybrominated diphenyl ethanes (PBDPE) and polybrominated dibenzyl ethanes (PBDBE), since these compounds are likewise, dicyclic aromatic chemicals.

The numbering system proposed by Ballschmiter et al., has also become valuable for referring to metabolites of PCBs, PBBs and PBDEs. The rules to apply are given in Textbox 1, referring to the work by Letcher et al. (2000). The same numbering system can be applied to the polybrominated phenoxy-PBDEs (PBPO-PBDE) (see Table 2).

Determine the PBDE or PBB number of the OH-BDE, OH-BB or PhO-BDE overlooking any hetero substituent (- OH, -OR, -SH, -OR, -SR or PhO-group)

Based on the numbering of the PBDE or PBB congener, give the hetero substituent the number (with or without the prime sign due to the structure) in which the substituent is placed.

Examples of the numbering of PBDE and BB metabolites are given in Fig. 1, and likewise of a polybromophenoxy-PBDE (PBPO-PBDE) congener.

A. Bergman et al. / Environment International 49 (2012) 57-82


Br^^^ \¡^^SO2CH3 Br Br


Br 1 Br


Br Br Br


Fig. 1. Examples of abbreviations for PBB and PBDE metabolites, as of PBPhO-BDEs. The appropriate abbreviations are given under each structure.

The PCB-based numbering system cannot unfortunately be applied to any other of the BFRs, CFRs or PFRs. The proposed PRABs for the BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are given in bold in Tables 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The background for selection of the PRABs is given above. The structures of each of the BFR, CFR and PFR compounds are also shown within Tables 2-4, respectively, together with the chemical abstract name and their CAS number.

STABs of BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are also given in Tables 2-4 (under the practical abbreviations (plain text)). These abbreviations follow the criteria set up above, as far as possible. For most of the BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, this yields abbreviations that are easily interpretable in relation to the compound's structure and at least one of its chemical names. The name used as a basis for the STABs is shown first in the column presenting "Common names/ Trade names" in Tables 2-4. In cases where the abbreviation criteria have not been followed, this is commented on in footnotes (Table 2).

Several of the abbreviations are based on abbreviations which have already been in common use for a long time, described as established abbreviations. In such cases we are not proposing changes

to the abbreviations already in use. This leads, for example, to the use of TBBPA as part of the abbreviated name of each of its derivatives, but the attached functional group is abbreviated following the guidelines presented herein. We suggest, however, that the common abbreviation HBCD be changed to HBCDD, to avoid future intermix with hexabromocyclodecane (c.f. Table 2). However, since HBCD is so commonly used for hexabromocyclododecane, we do foresee that this abbreviation may be used also in the future. Therefore, we introduce HBCYD as the PRAB for hexabromocyclodecane. In addition to the specific recommendations given above, we also propose "PentaBDE", "OctaBDE" and "DecaBDE" when referring to the corresponding commercial products.

Chemicals belonging to the BFRs and CFRs are listed in Tables 2 and 3 respectively, presenting the proposed PRABs and STABs, other abbreviations that have been used previously, chemical abstract name, CAS number, and common names/commercial names. The type of FR is indicated as "R" for "Reactive BFR/CFR" and "A" for "Additive BFR/CFR". In an additional few columns are some properties of the individual compounds given, as extracted from CA (Scifinder, 2012) under the CAS number given in the table. The

Table 1

Abbreviations of functional groups or corresponding entities in a molecule to be applied when constructing structured abbreviations (STABs).

Letter Group Letter Group Letter Group

A Allyl Ac Acetate Acr Acrylate

AE Allyl ether Anh Anhydride Ant Anthracene

B Bromine Bn Benzyl BnB Benzylbromide

BnC Benzylchloride Bu Butane or butyl BuO Butoxy

Bz Benzo or benzene Bzo Benzoate

C Chlorine CaA Carboxylic acid

DD Dodecane or dodecyl De Decane or decyl Den Decen

E Ether Et Ethane or ethyl EtO Ethoxy

F Furan

GE Glycidyl ether

H Hexane or hexyl Ht Heptane or heptyl Hte Hepten

Im Imide In Indane

Me Methane or methyl

N Nonane or nonyl

O Octane or octyl OH Hydroxyl OPO Oxaphosphorinoxide

P Poly — if first in abbreviation Phosphate — if last in abbreviation Ph Phenol or phenyl PhO Phenoxy

Pht Phthalate Pr Propane or propyl Prt Propionate

Pt Pentane or pentyl

Re Resorcinol

Sty Styrene

T Toluene Taz Triazine Tazto Triazine-trione

Practical abbreviation (PRAB, in bold) for bromine containing flame retardants, together with structured abbreviations (STAB; plain text) are presented.

The table also includes some basic physicochemical constants calculated using ACD/Labs Software V11.02. The STABs are constructed as described under "Methodology", incl. Table 1.



Previously used CA name and structure abbreviations

Common and trade names

Additive or reactive BFR

Log Kow


61S-SB-7 DBP


317B0-26-4 DBS


11B-79-6 TBP


327B-B9-S TBP-AE



DBS DBrsty

2,4,6BrPh 246TBP 2,4,6-TBP TBP


Phenol, 2,4-dibromo-

Benzene, dibromoethenyl-Br2-

Phenol, 2,4,6-tribromo-

Benzene, 1,3,S-tribromo-2-(2-propen-1-yloxy)-


NSC S723 NSC 6213


Styrene, ar,ar-dibromo- (BCI)

Flame Cut310K


1.3.5-Tribromo-2-hydroxybenzene Bromkal Pur 3

Bromol Flammex 3BP NSC 2136 PH 73

2.4.6-Tribromophenyl allyl ether

Benzene, 1,3,5-tribromo-2-(2-propenyloxy)- (9CI)

Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether

Ether, allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl (7CI,8CI)

Pyroguard FR 100

NSC 35767

2-(allyloxy)-1,3,5-tribromobenzene Bromkal 64-3AE; PHE-65

2S1.9 3.47 pH-dep

3.6SE + 00

A/R 261.94 na na na na

A/R 330.B 4.4 pH-dep. 6.34± 0.23 2.00E-01

A/R 370.B S.04 13,100 na 2.40E-02

234BB-3B-2 TBX


39S69-21-6 TBCT






Benzene, 1,2,4,S-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethyl-

Benzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrabromo-S-chloro-6-methyl-

randione, mo-,6-dimethylbenzene 1,4-Dimethyltetrabromobenzene 2,3,S,6-Tetrabromo-1,4-dimethylbenzene



2,3,4,S-tetrabromo-6-chloromethylbenzene anhydride Phthalic anhydride, tetrabromo- (6CI,7CI,8CI),3-dione 4,5,6,7-Tetrabromoisobenzofuran-1,3-dione Bromphthal

FG 4000

FireMaster PHT 4 NSC 4874 PHT 4

Saytex RB 49

Tetrabromophthalic acid anhydride Tetrabromophthalic anhydride

A 421.7S 6.2 56,100 na 5.80E-03

442.17 6.29 62,800


463.7 3.7

CAS PRABs Previously used CA name and structure

number STABs abbreviations


Benzene, 1,2,3,4, 5-pentabromo-6-methyl-


Phenol, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromo-OH



Benzene, 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-ethyl-

58495-09-3 PBBC PeBBnC

Benzene, 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-(chloromethyl)-XI

3555-11-1 PBP-AE PeBPh-AE

Benzene, 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-(2-propen-l-yloxy)-Br

BlV X ,Br

35109-60-5 TBP-DBPE


Benzene, 1,3,5-tribromo-2-(2,3-dibromopropoxy)-Br Br

183658-27-7 EH-TBB



Benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-, 2-ethylhexyl ester Br

Brv ^L ,Br

Common and trade names Additive or MW Log Koc pKa Vapor

reactive BFR Kow pressure

Pentabromotoluene A 486.62 6.25 60,200 na 6.00E-04 2,3.4,5,6-Pentabromotoluene Flammex 5BT


Pentabromophenol A/R 488.59 5.22 pH-dep. 4.43 ±0.33 2.55E-03

Phenol, pentabromo- (6CI,7CI,8CI,9CI)


Bromophenasic acid

Flammex 5BP

NSC 5717


Pentabromoethylbenzene A 500.65 6.76 1.14E + 05 na 1.56E-04


Pentabromobenzyl chloride R 521.06 5.95 41,300 na 8.64E-06

2,3,4,5,6-Pentabromobenzyl chloride

Pentabromophenol allyl ether A/R 528.66 6.22 57,900 na 9.21 E-05


Allyl pentabromophenyl ether

Flammex 5AE

Pentabromophenyl allyl ether

2,4,6-Tribromophenyl 2,3-dibromopropyl ether A 530.67 5.82 35,000 na 1.26E-05

2,3-Dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether Bromkal 73-5PE

1,3,5-tribromo-2- (2,3-dibromopropoxy )benzene

2-Ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate

549.92 7.73 3.82E + 05 na


87-82-1 НВВ НВВ Benzene, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexabromo-

59447-55-1 РВВ-Асг PeBBn-Acr

38521-51-6 РВВВ PeBBnB

20566-35-2 НЕЕНР-ТЕВР



26040-51-7 ВЕН-ТЕВР bEtH-TeBPht



168434-45-5 TBPD-TBP


2-Propenoic acid, (2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenyl)methyl ester

Benzene, 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-(bromomethyl)-Br

1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3,4,5, 6-tetrabromo-,l-[2-( 2-hydroxyethoxy )e thyl ] 2-(2-hydroxypropyl) ester HO_


1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3,4,5, 06-tetrabromo-, l,2-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester

Phenol, 2,4,6-tribromo-3-(tetrabromopentadecyl)-OH






HBB (flame retardant)

NSC 113975


Plasafety HBB

Pentabromobenzyl acrylate

2,3.4,5,6-Pentabromobenzyl acrylate

Actimer FR 1025M

FR 1025M

551.49 6.11 50,300

556.67 5.6

Pentabromobenzyl bromide 2,3,4,5,6-Pentabromobenzyl bromide

565.51 6.22 57,400


2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl 2-hydroxypropyl 3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate

Phthalic acid, tetrabromo-, 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl 2-hydroxypropyl ester PHT 4-Diol Saytex RB 79

627.9 1.04 87.5


Bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (9CI)

Phthalic acid, tetrabromo-, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (8CI) DP 45

Di(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate Pyronil 45 Uniplex FRP 45

706.14 9.34 2.88E + 06 na


(continued on next page)



Previously used CA name and structure abbreviations

TBBPA Phenol, 4,4'- ( 1 -methylethylidene )

TBBP-A bis[2,6-dibromo-


39635-79-5 TBBPSb


Phenol, 4,4'-sulfonylbis[2,6-dibromo-

37853-61-5 TBBPA-BME TBBPA-bMeEc

70156-79-5 TBBPS-BME TBBPS-bMeEc


Benzene, 1,1'-(1 -methylethylidene ) bis[3,5-dibromo-4-methoxy-

o ^r y o

Benzene, l,l'-sulfonylbis[3, 5-dibromo-4-methoxy-

Common and trade names

Additive or MW reactive BFR

Log Koc Kow

Vapor pressure

Tetrabromobisphenol A


543.87 9.69 4.47E + 06 7.5/8.50 ± 1.88E-05 0.10


2,2',6,6'-Tetrabromobisphenol A

3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A

3,5,3',5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A





CP 2000

FG 2000

FR 1524

Fire Guard 2000

Firemaster BP 4A

Flame Cut 120G

Flame Cut 120R


NSC 59775

PB 100

RB 100

Saytex CP 2000 Saytex RB 100 Saytex RB 100PC T 0032

Tetrabromodian Tetrabromodiphenylolpropane

Tetrabromobisphenol S A/R 565.85 5.81 pH-dep, 3.53 4.03E-10

3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol S

3,5,3',5'-Tetrabromobisphenol S

4,4'-Dihydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetrabromodiphenyl sulfone


Bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone

Bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dibromophenyl) sulfone

EB 400S

FG 400S

Flame Cut 160R

Tetrabromobisphenol A bismethyl ether A 571.92 10.35 1.00E + 07 na 2.25E-06

Tetrabromobisphenol A dimethyl ether Tetrabromobisphenol A methyl ether

Tetrabromobisphenol S bismethyl ether A 593.91 6.05 46,500 na 3.43E-11

(3,5-Dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl) sulfone Tetrabromobisphenol S dimethyl ether Tetrabromobisphenol S methyl ether

Phenol, 4,4'- ( 1 -methylethylidene ) bis[2,6-dibromo-, 1,1'- diacetate

4162-45-2 TBBPA-BHEE TBBPA-BHEE Ethanol, 2,2'-[(l-methylethylidene)

TBBPA-bOHEtEc TBBPA OHEE bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,l-phenylene)oxy]]bis-

33798-02-6 TBBPA-BO Ac


25327-89-3 TBBPA-BAE TBBPA-DAE Benzene, l.l'-(l-methylethylidene)

TBBPA-bAEc TBBPA-AE bis[3,5-dibromo-4- (2-propen-l-yloxy)-

55205-38-4 TBBPA-BA TBBPA-bAcrc

2-Propenoic acid, l,l'-[(l-methylethylidene) bis(2,6-dibromo-4,l-phenylene)l ester

3072-84-2 TBBPA-ВСЕ TBBPA-DGE Oxirane, 2,2'-[(l-methylethylidene)

TBBPA-bGEc TBBPA GE bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,l-


3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A bisacetate Phenol, 4,4'- (1 -methylethylidene )bis[ 2,6-dibromo-, diacetate (9CI) Phenol, 4,4'-isopropylidenebis[ 2,6-dibromo-, diacetate (8CI)

2,2-Bis(4-acetoxy-3,5-dibromophenyl)propane 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A diacetate

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether Ethanol, 2,2'-[isopropylidenebis[(2,6-dibromo-pphenylene)oxy]]di-

2,2-Bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl ]propane

2,2-Bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(p?>-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl ]propane


dibromophenyl ]propane



4,4'-Isopropylidenebis[ 2- (2,6-


AFR 1011

FG 3600

Fire Guard 3600

BA-EO 20

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(allyl) ether

Benzene, 1,1'- (1 -methylethylidene )bis

[3,5-dibromo-4-(2-propenyloxy)- (9CI)

Propane, 2,2-bis[4- (allyloxy )-3,5-dibromophenyl ]- (8CI)

1,1 '-Isopropylidenebis[4- (ally loxy)-3,5-dibromobenzene]



FG 3200

Fire Guard 3200

Flame Cut 122K

Pyroguard SR 319

SR 319


Tetrabromobisphenol A allyl ether Tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether Tetrabromobisphenol A bisacrylate 2-Propenoic acid, (1-methylethylidene) bis(2,6-dibromo-4,l-phenylene) ester (9CI) 2,2',6,6'-Tetrabromobisphenol A diacrylate 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dibromophenyl acrylate) SR 640

Tetrabromobisphenol A diacrylate

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(glycidyl) ether Propane, 2,2-bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)phenyl ]- (7CI.8CI) 2,2-Bis(4-glycidyloxy-3,5-dibromophenyl)propane 2,2',6,6'-Tetrabromobisphenol A diglycidyl ether Glycidyl tetrabromodian ether

A 627.94 9.45 3.28E + 06 na 3.28E-09

A/R 631.98 8.51 1.01 E +06 13.76 2.89E-12

A/R 642 11.42 1.00E + 07 na 1.83E-08

R 651.97 9.37 2.99E + 06 na 3.84E-11

R 656 8.87 1.60E + 06 na 1.64E-10

(continued on next page)



Previously used CA name and structure abbreviations






Phenol, 4,4'- ( 1 -methylethylidene )bis[ 2,6-dibromo-, dipropanoate (9CI)

BTBPE Benzene, l,l'-[l,2-ethanediylbis(oxy)]

TBEHxBrPoxE bis[2,4,6-tribromo-



2-Propenoic acid, 1,1'-[(l-methylethylidene)bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,l-phenylene)oxy-2,l -ethanediyl] ] ester

1084889-51-9 OBTMPI 1025956-65-3 OBTrMePhln3 893843-07-7

21850-44-2 TBBPA-BDBPE




1H-Indene, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2,3-dihydro-l,l, 3-trimethyl-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)-


Benzene,l,l'-(1 -methylethylidene ) bis[3,5-dibromo-4- (2,3-dibromopropoxy)-

Common and trade names

Additive or MW reactive BFR

Log Koc Kow

Vapor pressure

Tetrabromobisphenol A diglycidyl ether

Tebrabromobisphenol A bispropanoate



656 10.47 1.00E + 07 na


1,2-Bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane

687.64 8.31 7.92E + 05 na

BTBPE FF 680 FI 680 FM 680

FireMaster 680 FireMaster FF 680

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ether R 740.07 10.76 1.00E + 07 na 1.96E-14


2-Propenoic acid, (l-methylethylidene)bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,l-phenylene)oxy-2,l-ethanediyl] ester (9CI) BABA 50

Octabromotrimethylphenyl indane A 867.52 15.11 1.00E + 07 na 1.75E-12



Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3- A 943.61 12.99 1.00E + 07 na 2.85E-15

dibromopropyl) ether

Propane, 2,2-bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2,3-

dibromopropoxy)phenyl]- (8CI)



2,2-Bis[ 3,5-dibromo-4- (2,3-

dibromopropoxy )phenyl ]propane





2,2-Bis[ [ 3,5-dibromo-4- (2,3-

dibromopropyloxy) ]pheny 1 ]propane

32588-76-4 EBTEBPI

N,N'-EtbTeBPhtIm BrPhtimi

1H-Isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione, 2,2'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-

42757-55-1 TBBPS-BDBPE


Benzene, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2,3-dibromopropoxy)-

84852-53-9 DBDPE




Benzene,1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis [2,3,4,5,6-pentabromo-

497107-13-8 DBDBE



Benzene, 1,1'-[oxybis(methylene)]bis [2,3,4,5,6-pentabromo- (9CI)

3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis[2,6-dibromo-1-(2,3-dibromopropoxy)benzene] Bis(2,3-dibromopropoxy)tetrabromobisphenol A Bromkal 66-8 D 5532 FG 3100 FR 720

Fire Guard 3100 Flame Cut 121K Flame Cut 121R GX 5532 HP 800A PE 68

PE 68 (fireproofing agent) Pyroguard SR 720 SR 720

Saytex HP 800A Saytex HP 800AG TBBPA-DBPE

Tetrabromobisphenol A 2,3-dibromopropyl ether

N,N'-Ethylenebis(tetrabromophthalimide) A

Phthalimide, N,N'-ethylenebis[tetrabromo-

(8CI); 1,2- Bis(tetrabromophthalimido)ethane


Citex BT 93

Saytex BT 93

Saytex BT 93W


Tetrabromobisphenol S bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) A


tetrabromodiphenyl sulfone


dibromopropoxy)phenyl] sulfone

Flame Cut 161R

Nonnen 52

Nonnen PR 2

Decabromodiphenyl ethane A

951.47 6.63 96,500

965.6 8.68 1.26E + 06 na

971.22 11.1 1.00E + 07 na

Decabromodibenzyl ether Bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzyl) ether

987.22 10.34 9.99E + 06 na


CAS PRABs Previously used CA name and structure

number STABs abbreviations

58965-66-5 4'-PeBPOBDE2<)8 DPeTeBrBz TeDB-DiPhOBzd

34571-16-9 HCTBPH Dec 604


Polybrominated biphenyls

Benzene, l,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenoxy)-

Bicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ene, 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-5-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)-Br

3322-93-8 DBE-DBCH DiBEt-DiBcH


3194-57-8 TBCO TBCO


51936-55-1 DBHCTD HCDBCO


25495-98-1 HBCYD HBCD


Cyclohexane, l,2-dibromo-4-(l,2-dibromoethyl)-Br

Cyclooctane, 1,2,5,6-tetrabromo-Br-^/ V-Br

1,4-Methanobenzocyclooctene, 7,8-dibromo-l,2,3,4,11,11-hexachloro-l,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,10adecahydro-Cl

Cyclodecane, hexabromo-

3194-55-6 HBCDD (HBCD)

HxBcDD1 b


Cyclododecane, 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromo-

Common and trade names Additive or MW Log Koc pKa Vapor

reactive BFR Kow pressure

Polybrominated biphenyls A

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers A

Polybrominated phenoxy benzenes Polybrominated diphenyl oxides

Tetradecabromo-l,4-diphenoxybenzene A 1366.85 12.67 1.00E + 07 9.17E-17

Bis(pentabromophenoxy)benzene l,4-Bis(pentabromophenoxy)tetrabromobenzene BT 120 Saytex 120

Pentabromophenoxy-nonabromodiphenyl ether

l,2,3.4,7,7-hexachloro-5-(2,3.4,5- A 692.5 10.24 8.86E + 06 na 1.61E-08

tetrabromophenyl)-Bicyclo[ 2.2.1 ]hept-2-ene

2-Norbornene, 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-

5-(tetrabromophenyl)- (8CI)



Dechlorane 604 Component A


tetrabromostyrene adduct

Dechlorane 604

4- (1,2-Dibromoethyl )-l ,2-dibromocyclohexane A 427.8 4.82 10,000 na 2.97E-03

1 - (1,2-Dibromoethyl )-3,4-dibromocy clohexane

1,2-Dibromo-4-(l ,2-dibromoethyl )cy clohexane Saytex BCL 462 Citex BCL 462

1,2,5,6-Tetrabromocyclooctane A 427.8 5.28 17,800 na 4.79E-03

NSC 167079

5,6-Dibromo-l,10,l 1,12,13,13-hexachloro- A 540.76 7.62 3.32E + 05 na 8.27E-07

ll-tricyclo[,9 ]tridecene


1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,l 0,1 Oa-decahydro-

1,4-methanobenzo[8 ]annulene*

Saytex BC 26

Citex BC 26

* Name as suggested by ChemDraw

Hexabromocyclodecane A 613.64 na na na na

1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane A 641.7 7.92 4.86E + 05 na 1.04E-07

Bromkal 73-6D FR 1206 FR 1206HT Pyroguard SR 104

57829-89-7 DBP-TAZTO


l,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-trione, l-(2,3-dibromopropyl)-3,5-di-2-propen-l-yl-

Vr° Br

N N ,br Ï Br

75795-16-3 BDBP-TAZTO


l,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-trione, l,3-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)-5-(2-propen-l-yl)-


52434-90-9 TDBP-TAZTO TBC

tDiBPr-Tazto BrTriaz

l,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-trione, 1,3.5-tris(2,3-dibromopropyl )-


Br, N N ,Br

25713-60-4 TTBP-TAZ


BrPhTriaz 1,3.5-Triazine, 2,4,6-tris(24.6-tribromophenoxy)-

.oyMyO Br' ^ ~BrNYN Br

Br' ^ "Br

SR 104 YM 88A

l-(2,3-Dibromopropyl)-3,5-diallyl-l,3,5- A/R 409.07 2.66 667 na 2.16E-06





l,3-Bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)-5-(2-propen-l-yl)-l,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-trione l-Allyl-3,5-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)-1,3,5-triazinane- 2,4,6-trione

568.88 3.55 2040



2.4.6- trione

l,3,5-Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate


AFR 1002 FC 140R FCP 660CN FR 930

Fire Cut P 660 Fire Cut P 660CN TAIC 6B TBC

TBC (fireproofing agent) Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate Tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-s-triazine s-Triazine, 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)- (8CI)

2.4.6-Tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-l,3,5-triazine FR 245

FR 368 GX 6145

Pyroguard SR 245 SR 245

728.67 4.45 6260

1067.43 12.97 1.00E + 07 na


Table 2 (continued)



Previously used CA name and structure abbreviations

Common and trade names

Additive or MW Log Koc pKa

reactive BFR Kow


19186-97-1 TTBNPP


TrisPhos TTBNP

1-Propanol, 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-, 1,1',1"-phosphate


1-Propanol, 2,3-dibromo-, 1,1',1"-phosphate


1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl) /-OH



1-Propanol, 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-i—OH

Tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate

Tris[3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)propyl] phosphate

1-Propanol, 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-, phosphate (3:1) CR 900 FR 370 FR 372

Flame Cut 175 Flame Cut 175R Kronitex PB 370 PB 370

Reoflam FR 370 TPB 3070

Tris[2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-3-bromopropyl] phosphate Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate Fyrol HB 32

1018.46 7.55 3.04E + 05 na


697.61 3.71 2485

Dibromoneopentyl glycol


1.3-Dibromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propane 1,3-Dibromo-2,2-dihydroxymethylpropane 1,3-Dibromo-2,2-dimethylolpropane 2,2-Dibromomethyl-1,3-propanediol

FR 1138 FR 522 NSC 9001

Pentaerythritol dibromide

Pentaerythritol dibromohydrin


Tribromoneopentyl alcohol




3-Bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)propyl alcohol

FR 1360

FR 513

NSC 20521

Pentaerythritol tribromide Pentaerythritol tribromohydrin

261.94 0.41 39.9

324.84 2.06 315


a It is possible to add the positions for the bromine substituents in front of the abbreviation. b Well established abbreviation. No change is proposed.

c TBBPA or TBBPS derivatives are constructed as a mix of the traditional abbreviations and the novel abbreviations are added for the functionalisation of the hydroxyl group. d PBPhO-PBDE stands for polybromophenoxy-PBDE, in analogy with e.g. MeO-PBDE.

Practical abbreviation (PRAB, in bold) for chlorine containing flame retardants, together with structured abbreviations (STAB; plain text) are presented.

The table also includes some basic physicochemical constants calculated using ACD/Labs Software V11.02. The STABs are constructed as described under "Methodology", incl. Table 1.



Previously used CA name abbreviations

Common and trade names

Additive or MW reactive BFR

Log Kow

pKa Vapor pressure



1,3-Isobenzofurandione, 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-

39569-21-6 TBCT





1,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4,5,5-hexachloro-




4,7-Methanoisobenzofuran-1,3-dione, 4,5,6,7,8 hexachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-

Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride

Phthalic anhydride, tetrachloro- (6CI,8CI)


3,4,5,6-Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride

NSC 1484


Tetrachlorophthalic acid anhydride 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-chloromethylbenzene 2,3,4,5-Tetrabromo-6-chlorotoluene Tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene

285.9 3.5

na 1.41E-03

442.17 6.29 62,800

na 1.72E-03

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Cyclopentadiene, hexachloro- (7CI) 1,2,3,4,5,5-Hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene 1,2,3,4,5,5-Hexachlorocyclopentadiene C 56

Graphlox HRS 1655

Hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene NSC 9235

Perchlorocyclopentadiene 8- 1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachlorobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride

5-Norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro- (6CI,8CI)

Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride,1, 4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro- (5CI) 1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachloro-5-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride

1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachloro-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride


dicarboxylic acid anhydride


hexachlorobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene anhydride


endomethylenephthalic anhydride

Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid,

1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-, anhydride

Chloran 542

Chlorendic anhydride

HET Anhydride

Hexachloro-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride Hexachloroendomethylene tetrahydrophthalic anhydride Kayahard CLA NSC 22229

endo-1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride

370.83 1.33

na 9.79E-07

CAS PRABs Previously used CA name

number STABs abbreviations

115-28-6 HCBCH-DCA HETacid Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic

HxCbcHte-DiCaA acid.l ,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-

51936-55-1 DBHCTD HCDBCO 1,4-Methanobenzocyclooctene, 7,8-dibromo-

DiBHxCTrcTrDenb 1,2,3,4,11,11 -hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,


2385-85-5 MIREX MIREX l,3,4-Metheno-lH-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene,l,

Per-CPecDe 1 a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-

31107^14-5 DDC-DBF Dec 602


1,4:6,9-Dimethanodibenzofuran,l ,2,3,4,6, 7,8,9,10,10,11,11 -dodecachloro-1,4,4a, 5a,6,9,9a,9b-octahydro-

Common and trade names

Additive or MW Log Koc pKa Vapor pressure

reactive BFR Kow (Pa)

l,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,l )hept-5-en- R

2,3-dicarboxylic acid

5-Norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-(6CI,8CI); 1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachloro-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

l,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachlorodicyclo-(2.2.1 )-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

2H,3H-Hexachlorobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Chlorendic acid HET acid

Hexachloroendomethylenetetrahydrophthalic acid NSC 22231 NSC 41876

5,6-Dibromo-l ,10,11,12,13,13-hexachloro-l 1 - A


7,8-Dibromo-l ,2,3,4,11,11 -hexachloro-1,4,



Saytex BC 26

Citex BC 26

Perchloropentacyclodecane Perchloropentacyclo[,6.03,9.05,8]decane l,3,4-Metheno-lH-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene, dodecachlorooctahydro- (7CI) 1,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4,5,5-hexachloro-, dimer Dechlorane Dechlorane 4070 Dodecachlor




ENT 25719

GC 1283

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene dimer Mirex

NSC 124102 NSC 26107 NSC 37656 Paramex



1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,10,11,11 -Dodecachloro-1, A



Dechlorane 602

388.84 4.6 pH-dep. 1.26 4.49E-08

540.76 7.62 3.32E + 05 na 8.27E-07

545.54 7.11 1.75E + 05 na 1.01 E-04

613.62 8.3 7.78E + 05 na 1.48E-09

13560-89-9 DDC-CO DP


l,4:7,10-Dimethanodibenzo[a,e]cyclooctene, 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,10,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,10,10a,l 1,12,12a-dodecahydro-

13560-92-4 DDC-Ant Dec 603


34571-16-9 HCTBPH Dec 604



1,4:5,8:9,10-Trimethanoanthracene,l ,2,3,4, 5,6,7,8,12,12,13,13-dodecachloro-l ,4,4a,5,8, 8a,9,9a,10,1 Oa-decahydro-

Bicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ene, 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-5- (2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl) -

Allanes, C10-13, chloro CxH(2x-y + 2)Cly

See* MCCPC MCCP Allanes, C14-17, chloro

CxH(2x-y + 2)Cly

See* LCCPC LCCP Alkanes, Cl 8-30, chloro

CxH(2x —y + 2)Cly

115-96-8 TCEP TCEP Ethanol, 2-chloro-, phosphate (3:1)

tCEtP Ck

Dodecachlorodimethanodibenzocyclooctane A 653.72 10.12 7.67E + 06 na 1.37E-11


1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,10,10a,l 1,12,12a-dodecahydro-


Bis (hexachlorocyclopentadieno) cyclooctane

Dechloran A

Dechlorane Plus

Dechlorane Plus 1000

Dechlorane Plus 25

Dechlorane Plus 2520

Dechlorane Plus 35

Dechlorane Plus 515

Dodecachlorododecahydrodimethanodibenzocyclooctane Dodecachlorododecahydrodimethanodibenzocyclooctene

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,12,12,13,13-Dodecachloro-l,4,4a,5,8,8a,9,9a, A 637.68 9.14 2.24E + 06 na 9.16E-10


l,2,3,4,7,7-Hexachloro-5-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)- A 692.5 10.24 8.86E + 06 na 1.61E-08

Bicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ene

2-Norbornene, 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-5-

(tetrabromophenyl) - (8CI)



Dechlorane 604 Component A Hexachlorocyclopentadiene-tetrabromostyrene adduct Dechlorane 604

Short-chained chlorinated paraffins A na na na na na

CI 0-13 chloro alkanes

Chloro alkanes


Hordalub 500

Witaclor 149

Witaclor 171P

sPCA 60

Medium-chained chlorinated paraffins A na na na na na

Long-chained chlorinated paraffins A na na na na na

Tris(chloroethyl) phosphate A 285.49 1.47 150 na 1.44E-02

Amgard TCEP

Celluflex CEF Disflamoll TCA Fyrol CEF

(continued on next page)



Previously used CA name abbreviations

Common and trade names

Additive or MW reactive BFR

Log Kow

pKa Vapor pressure (Pa)



1-Propanol, 2,3-dichloro-, 1,1',1 "-phosphate

13674-87-8 TDCIPP tDiCiPrP


2-Propanol, 1,3-dichloro-, phosphate (3:1)

38051-10-4 BCMP-BCEP


Phosphoric acid, P,P'-[2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediyl] P,P,P',P'-tetrakis (2-chloroethyl) ester

Fyrol CF Genomoll P NSC 3213 Niax 3CF

Niax Flame Retardant 3CF TCEP

Tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate Tri(chloroethyl) phosphate Tri(K-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(2-chloroethyl) orthophosphate Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(K-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate 1-Propanol, 2,3-dichloro-, phosphate (3:1) (8CI,9CI) Celluflex FR 2 Fyrol 32B

Tri(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate Tris(2,3-dichloro-n-propyl) phosphate

Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate 3PC-R

Antiblaze 195 CRP

CRP (fireproofing agent) FR10

FR10 (phosphate) Fyrol FR 2 PF 38 PF 38/3 TDCPP

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate Tris(1-chloromethyl-2-chloroethyl)phosphate Tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl)ethyl] phosphate 2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediol bis[bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphate]

Phosphoric acid, 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediyl tetrakis(2-chloroethyl) ester (9CI) Phosphoric acid, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester, diester with 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediol (7CI) 2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediol 2-chloroethanol phosphate (1:4:2)



Amgard V 6

Antiblaze 100

Antiblaze AB 100

Antiblaze V 6

Phosgard 2XC20

na 8.67E-07

430.9 3.27

na 5.43E-06

582.99 2.52

na 1.61E-12

a It is possible to add the positions for the chlorine substituents in front of the abbreviation. b Some structural element is left out in the proposed STAB to minimize the complexity thereof. c Well established abbreviation. No change is proposed.

# CAS numbers for SCCP, MCCP and LCCP: 61788-76-9, 63449-39-8, 68920-70-7, 71011-12-6, 84082-38-2, 84776-07-8, 84776-06-7, 85049-26-9, 85422-92-0, 85535-85-9, 85535-84-8, 85535-86-0, 85536-22-7, 85681-73-8, 97553-43-0,

97659-46-6,106232-86-4,106232-85-3, 108171-27-3,108171-26-2.

Practical abbreviation (PRAB, in bold) for phosphorus containing flame retardants, together with structured abbreviations (STAB; plain text) are presented, The table also includes some basic physicochemical constants calculated using ACD/ Labs Software V11.02. The STABs are constructed as described under "Methodology", incl. Table 1.

CAS number PRABs STABs

Previously used CA name abbreviations

Common and trade names

Log Kow Koc

Vapor pressure (Pa)










Phosphoric acid, trimethyl ester

Phosphoric acid, triethyl ester

Phosphoric acid, tripropyl ester

Phosphoric acid, tris(2-methylpropyl) ester

Phosphoric acid, tributyl ester

Ethanol, 2-butoxy-, 1,1',1 "-phosphate

Tris(methyl) phosphate Trimethyl phosphate CCRIS 610 NSC 58985

Phosphoric acid, trimethyl ester NCI-C03781

Trimethoxyphosphineoxide Methyl phosphate Tris(ethyl) phosphate Triethyl phosphate Ethyl phosphate Aurora KA-1638 Fyrol TEP

Phosphoric acid, triethyl ester

Tris(propyl) phosphate

Tri-n-propyl phosphate

TPP Propyl phosphate

Tripropyl phosphate

Phosphoric acid tri-n-propyl ester

Tris(n-propyl) phosphate

Tris(isobutyl) phosphate

Phosphoric acid, triisobutyl ester

Tris(2-methylpropyl) phosphate

Antifoam TIP

Daiguard 400

NSC 62222

Reomol TIBP

Tris(butyl) phosphate

Tri-n-butyl phosphate


Butyl phosphate

Celluphos 4

Disflamoll TB

Kronitex TBP

Phos-Ad 100

Antifoam T


Phosphoric acid, tri-n-butyl ester

Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate

Ethanol,2-butoxy-, phosphate (3:1)

Phosphoric acid, tris(2-butoxyethyl)ester

2-Butoxyethanol phosphate

Amgard TBEP

Hostaphat B310

Ethanol, 2-butoxy-,1,1',1 "-phosphate Phosflex T-BEP

Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate Tris(2-n-butoxyethyl) phosphate

140.08 -0.65 3.2-12

1.13E + 02

182.16 0.80

224.24 1.87

266.32 3.60

5.24E + 01


1.71E + 00

266.32 4.00


398.48 3.75


Table 4 (continued)

CAS number PRABs Previously used CA name

STABs abbreviations

78-42-2 TEHP TEHP Phosphoric acid, tris(2-ethylhexyl) ester


115-96-8 TCEP TCEP Ethanol, 2-chloro-, phosphate (3:1)

tCEtP 0


13674-84-5 TCIPP TCPP 2-Propanol, 1-chloro-, 2,2',2"-phosphate

78-43-3 TDCPP


1-Propanol, 2,3-dichloro-, 1,1',1 "-phosphate

Common and trade names

MW Log Kow Koc Vapor pressure

Tris(butoxyethyl) phosphate

Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

2-Ethylhexanol,phosphate (3:1)


Trioctyl phosphate

Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

Durad TOP

Flexol TOF

NSC 407921

Reomol TOF

Tris(chloroethyl) phosphate 3CF

Amgard TCEP

Celluflex CEF Disflamoll TCA Fyrol CEF Fyrol CF Genomoll P NSC 3213 Niax 3CF

Niax Flame Retardant 3CF Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(B-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(2-chloroethyl) orthophosphate Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris(B-chloroethyl) phosphate Tris ( 2 -chloroisopropyl ) phosphate 2-Propanol, 1-chloro-, phosphate (3:1) Fyrol PCF Antiblaze 80

l-Chloro-2-Propanol Phosphate (3:1) Amgard TMCP Hostaflam OP 820

Phosphoric acid, tris(2-chloro-l-methylethyl) ester Tri-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate Tris(l-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate Tris(2-chloro-1 -methylethyl) phosphate Tris(p.-chloropropyl) phosphate Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate Tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate 1-Propanol, 2,3-dichloro-, phosphate (3:1) (8CI.9CI) Celluflex FR 2

434.64 9.49 617,000 1.10E-05

285.49 1.47 150 1.44E-02

327.56 2.59 275 2.69E-03

430.9 2.98 998 8.67E-07

13674-87-8 TDCIPP tDiCiPP




2-Propanol, 1,3-dichloro-, phosphate (3:1)

ck „ ja

Phosphoric acid, P,P'-[2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-l, 3-propanediyl] P,P,P',P'-tetrakis(2-chloroethyl) ester

1047637-37-5 BCMP-BCMEP



Phosphoric acid, P.P '-[2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-l, 3-propanediyl] P,P,P',P '-tetrakis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ester

Fyrol 32B

Tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate Tris(2,3-dichloro-n-propyl) phosphate

Tris(l,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate 3PC-R

Antiblaze 195 CRP

CRP (fireproofing agent) FR 10

FRIO (phosphate) Fyrol FR 2 PF 38 PF 38/3 TDCPP

Tris ( 1,3 -dichloro-2 -propyl ) phosphate Tris(l-chloromethyl-2-chloroethyl)phosphate Tris[2-chloro-l-(chloromethyl)ethyl] phosphate 2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)-l,3-propanediol bis[bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate]

Phosphoric acid, 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-l,

3-propanediyl tetrakis(2-chloroethyl) ester (9CI)

Phosphoric acid, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester, diester with

2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-l,3-propanediol (7CI)


2-chloroethanol phosphate (1:4:2)


bis[bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate]

Amgard V 6

Antiblaze 100

Antiblaze AB 100

Antiblaze V 6

Phosgard 2XC20

2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)-l,3-propanediol bis[bis(2-chlorol-methylethyl) phosphate]

2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)propane-l ,3-diyl tetrakis ( 1 -chloropropan-2-yl) bis (phosphate)

430.9 3.27 1440 5.43E-06

582.99 2.52 557 1.61E-12

639.1 3.93 3280 1.96E-13

(continued on next page)

CAS number PRABs Previously used CA name

STABs abbreviations

126-72-7 TDBPP TDBPP 1-Propanol, 2,3-dibromo-, 1,1',1 "-phosphate


19186-97-1 TTBNPP CR 900 1-Propanol, 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-,

tBbBMe-PrP FR 370 1,1',1 "-phosphate

-Br ,Br

Br^Co.p'° _ /-Br


46355-07-1 IPPP Phosphoric acid, mono(l-methylethyl)

iPrPhP monophenyl ester

Common and trade names

MW Log Kow Koc Vapor pressure

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate 1-Propanol, 2,3-dibromo-, phosphate (3:1) (6CI,8CI,9CI) Phosphoric acid, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) ester (6CI) 3PBR

Anfram 3PB Apex 462-5 Bromkal P 67-6HP ES 685

FireMaster LV-T 23P FireMaster T 23 FireMaster T 23P Flammex AP Flammex LV-T 23P Flammex T 23P Fyrol HB 32 NSC 3240 Phoscon FR 150 Phoscon PE 60 Phoscon UF-S T23P TDBPP Tris

Tris (flame retardant) Zetofex ZN

Tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate

Tris [3-bromo-2,2 -bis ( bromomethyl ) propyl ] phosphate

1-Propanol, 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-, phosphate (3:1) CR 900 FR 370 FR 372

Flame Cut 175 Flame Cut 175R Kronitex PB 370 PB 370

Reoflam FR 370 TPB 3070

Tris[2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-3-bromopropyl] phosphate Isopropyl phenyl phosphate

697.61 3.71 2485 3.17E-09

1018.46 7.55 3.04E + 05 1.41E-17

216.17 1.71 na 5.49E-02

35948-25-5 DOPO


6H-Dibenz[ c,e ] [ 1,2 ] oxaphosphorin, 6-oxide 0

115-86-6 TPHP TPP Phosphoric acid, triphenyl ester


O-P-O .0

1330-78-5 TMPP TCP Phosphoric acid, tris(methylphenyl) ester

tMePhP TTP \

2502-15-0 TIPPP tiPrPhP

57583-54-7 PBDPP


Phenol, 4-(l-methylethyl)-, phosphate (3:1)

Phosphoric acid, P,P'-l,3-phenylene P,P,P', P'- tetraphenyl ester


6-Hydroxy-6H-dibenz[ c,e ] [ 1,2 ] oxaphosphorin

9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-l O-phosphaphenanthren-10-oxide

9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-l O-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide

9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-l O-phosphorylphenanthrene-10-oxide

HCA (heat stabilizer) Hiretar 101 Sanko HCA Ukanol DOPO Ukanol GKF

Tris (phenyl) phosphate

Triphenyl phosphate

Phosphoric acid, triphenyl ester

Phosflex TPP

Kronitex TPP

Celluflex TPP

Disflamoll TP

Tris(methylphenyl) phosphate

Tricresyl phosphate (mixture of ortho, meta, para)

TBT Cresyl phosphate

Tritolyl phosphate

Phosphoric acid, tricresyl ester

Phosphoric acid, tritolyl ester

Celluflexl 79c


Flexolplasticizer TCP






Phosflexl 79a

Tris(4-isopropylphenyl) phosphate Phenol, p-isopropyl-, phosphate (3:1) (8CI) p-Cumenyl phosphate ((C9H110)3P0) (7CI) Tris (p-isopropylphenyl) phosphate

Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate)

Phosphoric acid, 1,3-phenylene tetraphenyl ester (9CI)

1,3-Phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate)




CR 733S

Fyrolflex RDP

216.17 na na 4.15E-04

326.29 4.59 2630 8.37E-04

368.37 5.11 4680 8.00E-05

452.52 6.75 1.12E + 05 3.89E-07

574.46 7.08 1.69E + 05 5.01E-11

MW Log Kow Koc Vapor pressure

LDP 301 Mark PFK Nonnen R0111-10 PFR

Reofos RDP

Resorcinol tetraphenyl diphosphate Tetraphenyl m-phenylene bisphosphate Tetraphenyl m-phenylene diphosphate Tetraphenyl resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) Tetraphenyl resorcinol diphosphate WSFR-RDP

m-Phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate)

CAS number PRABs Previously used CA name Common and trade names

STABs abbreviations

139189-30-3 PBDMPP


Phosphoric acid, P,P'-1,3-phenylene P,P,P', P'-tetrakis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) ester




Phosphoric acid, P,P'-[(1-methylethylidene)di-4, 1-phenylene] P,P,P',P'-tetraphenyl ester

Resorcinol bis[di(2,6-dimethylphenyl) phosphate] Phosphoric acid, 1,3-phenylene tetrakis (2,6-dimethylphenyl) ester (9CI) 1,3-Phenylenebis(2,6-dimethylphenyl phosphate) ADK Stab FP 500 FP 500 PX 200

PX 200 (phosphate) Resorcinol bis(di-2,6-xylyl phosphate) Resorcinol bis[bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) phosphate] Tetrakis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) m-phenylene bisphosphate Tetrakis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) m-phenylene diphosphate Tetrakis(2,6-xylyl) m-phenylene diphosphate Bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) Phosphoric acid, (1-methylethylidene)di-4, 1-phenylene tetraphenyl ester (9CI) Phosphoric acid, diphenyl ester, diester with 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (7CI) Phosphoric acid, isopropylidenedi-p-phenylene tetraphenyl ester (8CI)


4,4'-(Isopropylidenediphenyl) bis(diphenyl phosphate)

ADK Stab FP 600

ADK Stab FP 700


Bisphenol A tetraphenyl diphosphate CG 963 CR 741S CR 742 E 890 FP 600 FP 700 FP 750

Fyrolflex BDP NcendX P 30 Ncendex P 30

Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate)-Bisphenol A Bis(diphenyl phosphate) copolymer Tetraphenyl bisphenol A bisphosphate WSFR-BDP

686.67 10.28 9.34E + 06 4.44E-13

692.63 8.29

7.70E + 05 1.97E-15

A. Bergman et al. / Environment International 49 (2012) 57-82

BFRs presented in Table 2 are structured as follows, with increasing molar masses for each subgroup:

1. Aromatic BFRs

One aromatic ring compounds

Benzenes, including alkyl substituted benzenes Phenols (simple) and one ring phenols being derivatized Benzoic acid esters and phthalate esters Two ring aromatic systems

Neutrals aromatics (PBB and PBDEs, polybrominated trimethylophenyl indanes, others) TBBPA TBBPS and derivatives Three ring aromatics

2. BFRs containing both aromatic and cycloaliphatic structures

3. Cycloaliphatic BFRs

4. Heterocyclic BFRs (triazine rings)

5. Brominated phosphate esters as BFRs

6. Aliphatic BFRs

The BFRs are characterized by moderate to very high log Kow, with very few exceptions. Four of the BFRs listed are phenolic chemicals, two are one-phenyl ring compounds and two are bisphenols, which leads to a pH-dependent water solubility for each of these chemicals.

CFRs are listed in Table 3. The table is organized in a similar manner as Table 2, starting with aromatic CFRs and ending with aliphatic CFRs. The CFRs are also characterized by intermediate to high log Kow constants.

PFRs are listed in Table 4. The PFRs are presented in two groups, those containing an aromatic part (substituent) and those with only aliphatic ester groups, potentially bearing halogen substituents. Some of the PFRs also contain chlorine substituents, which enhance their log Kow, and possibly their bioaccumulation potential (van der Veen and de Boer, 2012).

Finally, it is our hope that the proposed PRABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, in this document, will result in a general acceptance and use among scientists and stakeholders in the field. If used as proposed, it will result in less confusion when BFRs, CFRs or PFRs are being reported, even though the abbreviations may, in a few cases, be perceived as somewhat complicated.


NVDE and AC acknowledge PhD and post-doctoral fellowships from the Flanders Research Foundation (FWO). AR acknowledges faculty funding from Stockholm University and Stockholm University's Strategic Marine Environmental Research Funds through the Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management (BEAM). The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, or of NIEHS, NIH, or the U.S. Government.


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