Scholarly article on topic 'The Study of Concepts Understanding and Using Competence of Teachers in Educational Innovation and Technology for Teaching Management at Schools of the Unrest Areas of Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand'

The Study of Concepts Understanding and Using Competence of Teachers in Educational Innovation and Technology for Teaching Management at Schools of the Unrest Areas of Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Educational innovation and technology" / "using competence" / "concepts understanding" / "teaching management" / teachers / "the unrest areas"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Kanita Nitjarunkul

Abstract This research study aimed to determine the understanding of concepts and use of competence of teachers in using educational innovation and technology (EIT) for teaching management. And also, to investigate the internal and external factors effecting teachers for applying EIT to their instructions at schools in the areas of unrest in three southern border provinces (3SBP) of Thailand. Questionnaire and group interview protocols were used. With 87% return rate of completed surveys, it is shown that (1) the level of concepts understanding of teachers in EIT for teaching management was at high, (2) Teachers working in different affiliations have statistically significant in using computer software and computer-based learning for teaching management, and (3) Teachers teaching under the Basic Education Commission school have a higher level of using competence in computer software and computer-based learning than teachers who teach under Islamic private school. Key findings from focus group discussions revealed strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that effected teachers in applying EIT to their teaching.

Academic research paper on topic "The Study of Concepts Understanding and Using Competence of Teachers in Educational Innovation and Technology for Teaching Management at Schools of the Unrest Areas of Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2473 - 2480

INTE 2014

The study of concepts understanding and using competence of teachers in educational innovation and technology for teaching management at schools of the unrest areas of three southern border

provinces of Thailand

Kanita Nitjarunkul*

Faculty of Education, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani, 94000, Thailand

Abstract

This research study aimed to determine the understanding of concepts and use of competence of teachers in using educational innovation and technology (EIT) for teaching management. And also, to investigate the internal and external factors effecting teachers for applying EIT to their instructions at schools in the areas of unrest in three southern border provinces (3SBP) of Thailand. Questionnaire and group interview protocols were used. With 87 % return rate of completed surveys, it is shown that (1) the level of concepts understanding of teachers in EIT for teaching management was at high, (2) Teachers working in different affiliations have statistically significant in using computer software and computer-based learning for teaching management, and (3) Teachers teaching under the Basic Education Commission school have a higher level of using competence in computer software and computer-based learning than teachers who teach under Islamic private school. Key findings from focus group discussions revealed strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that effected teachers in applying EIT to their teaching.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof theSakarya University

Keywords: Educational innovation and technology, using competence, concepts understanding, teaching management, teachers, the unrest areas

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 73 331 301; fax: +66 73 348 322. E-mail address: nkanita52@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.919

1. Introduction and objectives

Education is an important mechanism for quality development of citizens. Any country with better quality citizens allows that country to move forward faster and more competitively with others. One of the major keys to improve the quality of citizen is education as Gregoire, C. (2014) said, "Education is the found ation upon which we build our future." In fact, education has been put to a great priority globally and Thailand is no exception. The Ministry of Education of Thailand plays an important role making education accessible anywhere and everywhere for all types of learners. The vision of a new educational framework in Thailand is reflected through the following; National Education Act 1999, the National Educational Standards, and Professional Standards, Information and Communication Technology Policy Framework Act period 2011-2020. In 1999, the Ministry of Education announced 4 main education reform policies under the national education act 1999: (1) schools and institutions reform, (2) teacher and educator reform, (3) curriculums and learning processes reform, and (4) educational administration system reform. The policies were given with the purpose of promoting the quality of the learners to an equivalent level with other countries in the developing world both academically and characteristically.

Even though the knowledge-based society has always been promoted among learners in Thailand, we are still facing difficulties in competing with other countries. The teaching systems in Thailand are mostly relying on face-to-face communication in classrooms, which is not effective for all types of learners. However, by applying EIT into a traditional classroom, teachers are able to create a new learning environment. The new learning environment helps attract learners to pay more attentions, allow them to be more engaged, and encourages them to have continuing motivation toward education. As a matter of fact, the applications of EIT in teaching are yet to be seen as common to classrooms in Thailand. Only 26 percent of schools, nationwide, are able to provide learners with high-speed internet. It is only 10 percent in unrest areas of 3SBP. In addition, overall, the application of technology to teaching management has been used in school as low as 33 percent. Only 30 percent of teachers have confidence for using modern information technology (Nakorntup, A., 2007).

Thus, the study of the concepts understanding and using competence of teachers in EIT for teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP is needed in order to get a better understanding towards EIT and teachers who work in these areas. Also, the assessment of the internal and external factors effecting teachers in applying EIT to their teaching is an essential step before the improvement of teaching management can be done.

In this manuscript, the objectives are (a) to determine the concepts understanding of teachers in educational innovation and technology in teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand, (b) to determine the use of competence of teachers in educational innovation and technology in teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand, and (c) to investigate the internal and external factors effecting teachers who work in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand, in using EIT.

2. Research methodology

This research is two main parts: (a) The study of understanding of concepts and the use of competence of teachers in EIT at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand, and (b) The study of internal and external factors effecting teachers in using EIT to their teaching.

2.1. The study of understanding of concepts and the use of competence of teachers in EIT at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand

The research study was conducted by using quantitative methods throughout the survey research. The analysis involved schoolteachers from 15 educational regions of 3SBP of Thailand. The sample was 2,800 teachers selected by simple random sampling methods from 24,371 teachers with different affiliations; Basic Educational Commission, Private Education Commission (private school and Islamic private school), and Municipal Education Commission, from 15 educational regions in Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat.

2.1.1. Research instrument

The questionnaire consisted of three parts:

Part I: Personal information of teacher including age, gender, work affiliation, education level, teaching experience, and training experience in EIT.

Part II: A questionnaire with 11 items aiming to investigate the understanding of concepts of teachers in EIT at the schools in the areas of unrest in the 3SBP of Thailand. It contained a 5-item rating scale questionnaire.

Part III: A questionnaire with 8 items for investigating the use of competence of teachers in EIT at schools in the areas of unrest in 3SBP of Thailand. It contained a 4-item rating scale questionnaire

2.1.2. Data collection

The researcher coordinated with the research coordinators to distribute questionnaire to teachers as respondents at schools in 3SBP of Thailand. The research coordinators collected and sent the questionnaire back to researcher both in person and via post mail.

2.1.3. Data analysis

To determine the concepts understanding of teachers in EIT: the descriptive statistics of arithmetic mean, frequencies, and standard deviation were used to describe age, gender, education level, teaching experience, and training experience in EIT. In addition, it was also used to measure the understanding of concept level of teachers in 11 element concepts of using EIT to their teaching.

To determine the use of competence of teachers in EIT: the descriptive statistics of arithmetic mean, frequencies, and standard deviation were used to describe the respondents related between different affiliations; Basic Educational Commission, Private Education Commission (private school and Islamic private school), and Municipal Education Commission. In addition, it was also used to measure the level of using competence of teachers in 8 instructional media, equipment, and educational technology facilities. Further, One-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used in order to compare the use of competence level of teachers in EIT at schools that subordinate to different affiliations.

2.2. The study of internal and external factors effecting teachers in using EIT to their teaching at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand

The research study was conducted by qualitative methods throughout the survey research or mixed method. The analysis involved educators, scholars, and schoolteachers who work in the areas of unrest in 3SBP of Thailand. The sample was 30 educators, scholars, and teachers who were selected by simple random sampling methods. The focus group discussion members were divided into 3 groups of 10 participants. In each group, the researchers provided one facilitator to lead the discussion topics.

2.2.1. Research instrument

The focus group discussion consisted of 2 sessions: (a) Morning session: discussed the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) effecting teachers in using EIT to their teaching. (b) Afternoon session: discussed the external factors (opportunities and threats) effecting teachers in using EIT to their teaching.

2.2.2. Data Collection

The researcher coordinated with the facilitators in each discussion group to ask for permission of the group participants to do voice records and notes taking from the discussions. So, the researcher gathered all information during and after each discussion.

2.2.3. Data analysis

A SWOT analysis, structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, was performed during each sessions of discussion.

3. Research findings and discussion

3.1. Research objective one: To determine the understanding of concepts of teachers in EIT in teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand

Overall (see Table 1), the level of concepts understanding of teachers in EIT for teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand was at moderate level (mean = 3.23, SD = 0.97). It is lower than the level of understanding of concepts of teachers in 14 provinces in southern Thailand. The level of concepts understanding of teachers in 14 provinces in south Thailand was at high (Chotikan, S. 2011). Comparing each of the 11 concepts in EIT, teachers understood the concept of educational innovation in education reform best and the level of

Table 1. Means and standard deviations for 11 element concepts of educational innovation and technology classify by age, gender, level of education, teaching experience

Overall

Concept of Educational Innovation and Technology

Age (years old)

Gender

Education Level

Teaching Experience (years)

n Mean SD

below 30- 4030 39 49

or Male Female older

U.grad Grad 1-5

6- 11- 20 or 10 19 more

1. Concept of educational technology in physical science: computer, television, camera, audio visual, etc.

2. Concept of educational technology in social science: software, paper, teaching method etc.

3. Educational innovation in education reform : learner-centered

4. Instructional media: instructional packages, program instruction

5. Active learning

6. Educational management innovation in school: Sattayasai School, Lumpaimaspattana School

7. Supervision of educational innovation and technology, and learning resources

8. Administration of educational innovation and technology in school

9. Educational technology integration in computer

10. Educational technology for learning in audio-visual: Microsoft office power point

11. Educational innovation and technology in new learning environment: CAI, WBI, virtual classroom, etc.

3.31 0.9 3.4 3.33 3.23 3.27 3.42 3.26

3.33 0.86 3.41 3.36 3.26 3.27 3.41 3.29

3.63 0.85 3.72 3.64 3.54 3.62 3.68 3.61

3.54 0.92 3.66 3.55 3.47 3.44 3.59 3.51

3.38 0.92 3.43 3.38 3.37 3.33 3.46 3.35

3.01 1.01 3.13 3.02 2.9 2.96 3.12 2.95

3.32 3.43 3.38 3.31 3.29 3.22

3.34 3.45 3.4 3.33 3.31 3.24

3.64 3.69 3.7 3.58 3.61 3.58

3.55 3.55 3.38 3.41

3.64 3.48 3.53 3.42 3.42 3.43 3.37 3.29

3.02 3.01 3.11 3.04 2.92 2.9

3.24 0.82 2.71 2.72 2.66 2.58 2.74 2.64 2.68 2.75 2.76 2.68 2.64 2.56

3.48 0.8 3.39 3.25 3.09 3.16 3.33

3.29 3.17 2.99 2.96 3.27 3.05

3.34 1.1 3.73 3.39 3.13 2.98 3.43

3.12 2.91 2.82 2.67 3.03

3.24 3.29 3.37 3.22 3.13 3.1

3.13 3.2 3.23 3.16 3.12 2.9

3.33 3.75 3.56 3.44 3.17 2.96

2.9 3.11 3.03 2.96 2.8 2.69

2449 3.23 0.97 3.36 3.25 3.13 3.11 3.32

3.23 3.33 3.33 3.24 3.17 3.0

understanding was at high (mean = 3.63, SD = 0.85). On the other hand, teachers understood the concept of EIT in new learning environment least (mean = 2.90, SD = 1.1) and the level of understanding was at a moderate level. Teachers with different age, gender, education level, and teaching experience have different level of concepts understanding toward EIT for teaching management. It conforms to the research results of Jittasiri, A. (1998) which reported that the factors of concepts understanding of EIT users are affected by age, level of education, number of years working with each innovation.

3.2. Research objective two: To determine the use of competence of teachers in EIT in teaching management at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand

Overall (see Figure 1 and Table 2), the level of using competence of teachers in instructional media, equipment, and educational technology facilities at schools in the areas of unrest in 3SBP of Thailand was low (mean = 2.0, SD = 0.66). One of the reasons is that many insurgent incidents took place in the areas of schools which destroyed the school infrastructure where teachers kept their small number of educational technology tools. Only the use of competence level of teachers in computer software was the highest, which was at moderate level (mean = 2.64). On the other hand, the use of competence level of teachers in computer hardware was the lowest, which was at low level (mean = 1.03). In comparing of the competence of teachers, who work under different affiliation, in instructional media, equipment, and educational technology facilities at schools in the unrest areas of 3SBP of Thailand, there was no statistically significant difference in audio-visual equipment, audio-visual material, multimedia, computer hardware, long distance learning, and learning facilities (Table 3). This may be caused by the same level of accessibility of teachers to each technology, since they are living in the same area of educational region. So they received the same level of school budget even the schools are not subordinate to same affiliation. However, there was statistically significant difference in computer software and computer-based learning. Table 4 and Table 5, the level of use of competence in computer software and computer-based learning of teachers who work under Basic Education Commission (BEC) was higher than teachers who work under Islamic Private Educational Commission. This may be happened because of the different policy enforcement of each affiliation. The schools under BEC received the policies from the Office of Basic Education Commission (Bangkok) while the schools under private education commission can have their own policies toward educational technology.

Fig. 1. Using competence level (means value) of teachers from different affiliations in 8 instructional media, equipment, and educational technology

Table 2. Using competence level (mean value and standard deviations) of teachers from different affiliations in 8 instructional media, equipment, and educational technology

Overall

Using competence

Basic Education Commission Teachers

Private School Teachers

Islamic Private School Teachers

Municipal Education Commission Teachers

n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD

1. Audio Visual Equipments 2180 1.98 0.54 1782 1.97 0.53 16 2.08 0.49 288 2.02 0.58 94 1.9 0.58

2. Audio Visual Materials 2135 1.85 0.56 1738 1.84 0.56 16 1.96 0.64 291 1.88 0.59 90 1.83 0.61

2001 1.9 0.65 1632 1.89 0.65 13 2.04 0.72 267 1.94 0.7 89 1.83 0.6

3. Multimedia

2075 1.03 0.13 1704 1.03 0.13 13 1.08 0.22 277 1.02 0.09 81 1.03 0.13

4. Computer Hardware

1755 2.64 0.56 1414 2.67 0.54 15 2.51 0.68 253 2.49 0.63 73 2.54 0.57

5. Computer Software

1930 2.42 0.59 1562 2.46 0.58 15 2.31 0.72 274 2.25 0.63 79 2.35 0.52

6. Computer-based learning

7. Long Distance Learning 1935 2.19 0.67 1596 2.18 0.66 15 2.11 0.66 251 2.17 0.7 73 2.34 0.74

2077 2.1 0.6 1703 2.11 0.61 15 1.96 0.63 273 2.03 0.58 86 2.07 0.61

8. Learning Facilities

2.00 0.66

2.00 0.65

Table 3.The result of comparing between affiliates of teachers for the use of competence

Using Competence Source of variance Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1. Audio Visual Equipments Between Groups 1.27 3 0.42 1.46 0.22

Within Groups 633.37 2176 0.29

Total 634.65 2179

2. Audio Visual Materials Between Groups 0.57 3 0.19 0.6 0.62

Within Groups 677.96 2131 0.32

Total 678.53 2134

3. Multimedia Between Groups 1.29 3 0.43 1.01 0.39

Within Groups 854.79 1997 0.43

Total 856.09 2000

4. Computer Hardware Between Groups 0.1 3 0.03 2.06 0.1

Within Groups 31.92 2071 0.02

Total 32.02 2074

5. Computer Software Between Groups 8.35 3 2.78 8.86 0

Within Groups 549.88 1751 0.31

Total 558.23 1754

6. Computer-Based Learning Between Groups 10.77 3 3.59 10.46 0

Within Groups 661.17 1926 0.34

Total 671.94 1929

7. Long Distance Learning Between Groups 1.96 3 0.65 1.44 0.23

Within Groups 872.88 1931 0.45

Total 874.83 1934

8. Learning Facilities Between Groups 1.89 3 0.63 1.74 0.16

Within Groups 750.65 2073 0.36

Total 752.53 2076

Table 4. The results of comparing between the using competences of teachers in EIT

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

Computer Software 9.74 3 1751 0.00*

Computer -Based Learning 2.95 3 1926 0.03*

Table 5.The result of comparing between affiliates of teachers in the using competences

Dunnett T3 Mean Difference Sig.

Basic education commission teachers - Islamic private school teachers 0.19 0

Basic education commission teachers - Islamic private school teachers 0.21 0.02

3.3. Research objective three: To investigate the internal and external factors effecting teachers, who work in the areas of unrest 3SBP of Thailand, in using EIT to their teaching.

SWOT analysis aims to identify the internal and external factors seen as important to develop the teaching management at schools in unrest areas of 3SBP. SWOT analysis was performed during the focus group discussion. SWOT analysis results are presented in Figure 2.

Favourable Unfavourable

Strengths (S) Weaknesses (W)

Internal Factoi 1) Excellent higher education academies located in the area 2) Outstanding staffs with strong knowledge of educational innovation and technology 3) Large number of projects aims to develop academics and scholars 1) Limited budget to spend on developing educational innovation and technology at schools 2) Small number of schoolteachers with good experiences in educational innovation and technology

in h Opportunities (O) Threats (T)

O -4-1 u ri fe rt a u o +J 1) Extra budget from central government supporting projects to associate the unrest situations in the area 1) Unrest situations in the area 2) Migration of teachers, academics, scholars, who have strong experiences toward educational innovation and technology

Fig. 2. SWOT analysis identifying the internal and external factors effecting teachers, who work in the areas of unrest in 3SBP of Thailand, in using EIT to their teaching

4. Conclusions

From the study, the level of concept understanding and the use of competence of teachers in EIT at schools in unrest area of 3SBP of Thailand were still lower than it should be. It is leading to poorer teaching quality for students. Thus, it is critical for all organizations related to education development to see the importance of improving teachers' ability to apply EIT to their teaching. In addition, teachers also need to give more effort to try to improve more practice in applying EIT in classroom.

It is a sorrow for all tragic loss of life caused by separatist insurgents on teachers, students, and other education personnel. However, there is a light at the end of every tunnel. The teaching management in the unrest areas can be improved by receiving enough human resource, learning resource, and budget. So, the students will develop their ability to use EIT to encourage the continuing motivation of students to learn online courses and improve their wellbeing glocally and globally in response to the Information and Communication Technology Framework Act period 2011-2020 of Thailand.

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